CN2571034Y - Semiconductive laser member arrangement - Google Patents

Semiconductive laser member arrangement Download PDF

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Publication number
CN2571034Y
CN2571034Y CN 02242715 CN02242715U CN2571034Y CN 2571034 Y CN2571034 Y CN 2571034Y CN 02242715 CN02242715 CN 02242715 CN 02242715 U CN02242715 U CN 02242715U CN 2571034 Y CN2571034 Y CN 2571034Y
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China
Prior art keywords
layer
structure
laser
described
dbr
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CN 02242715
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
杨英杰
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杨英杰
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Priority to DE20113207U priority Critical patent/DE20113207U1/en
Priority to DE20113207.9 priority
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Publication of CN2571034Y publication Critical patent/CN2571034Y/en

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Abstract

The utility model relates to a semiconductive laser member arrangement, particularly the arrangement of a surface emitting laser (vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser). The surface emitting laser relates to the arrangement which is provided with a base and a polycrystal layer which is overlapped on the base. The structure is provided with a lower distributed bragg reflector (Distributed Bragg Reflector (DBR)), a lower covering layer or space filling layer, a light-emitting active layer, an upper covering layer or space filling layer and an upper distributed bragg reflector (Distributed Bragg Reflector (DBR)). The semiconductive laser member arrangement is characterized in that a composite mixing absorption region (disordered absorber) which is provided with a central aperture is arranged on a partial region of the polycrystal layer of the laser. The light-emitting active layer is provided with an active region (active region), and the center of the light-emitting active layer is aligned to the central aperture of the composite mixing absorption region. A positive crystal layer and a negative crystal layer are respectively provided with a positive electrode and a negative electrode. The surface emitting laser of a single transverse mode (single transverse mode) which can work in a stable state can be provided by the structure, and the utility model can be provided with sufficient output power and can be suitable for mass production.

Description

The other semiconductor lasers component structure

Technical field

The invention relates to the other semiconductor lasers component structure, more clearly it is the wall emission laser that can be operated in single transverse mode (single transverse mode) of stable state about a kind of.

Background technology

Known wall emission laser (VCSEL) [Koyama et al " Room-temperature continuouswave lasing characteristics of a GaAs vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser; " Appl.Phya.Lett.Vol.55,221-222,1989] because it has the characteristic of many uniquenesses, the thunder laser beam of for example very low laser critical current, single longitudinal mode and very low dispersion has become the very important laser light source of various optical fiber communications and optical memory system.Particularly can move simultaneously and then more be paid attention at the stable single mode wall emission laser of single longitudinal mode and single transverse mode, because for the Fiber Optical Communication System of at a high speed long distance, it can reduce the light wave conduction and go up the problem of chromatic dispersion, for the wavelength multiplex system, it can avoid the phase mutual interference of different channel, store and print system for light, it can provide system required single round dot.Our definition " stablizing the single mode laser moves " is meant that laser just maintains stable single mode action always after electric current surpasses critical current at this.General wall emission laser major part can only be operated in single longitudinal mode, it is comparatively difficult obtaining single transverse mode, because must form an electric current restricted area at the active region of element usually less than 5 microns (μ m) diameters, forming a single transverse mode active region, or in the resonant cavity of element, form the optical texture that to select single transverse mode action.In the technical development in the past, go out, have only a few component structure can present the single transverse mode action of stable state though various wall emission laser structure is all manufactured.For example the wall emission laser of the high bench-type of etching [Jewell et al " Low threshold electrically pumpedvertical-cavity surface-emitting microlasers; " Electron.Lett.vol.25, PP.1123-1125,1989] have electric current and the light field scope that a high structure limits injection, because the refractive index guide properties of this structure is too strong, so all be the action that presents multimode.The wall emission laser of implanting ions type [Geel et al " Low threshold planarizedvertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers; " IEEE Photo.Technol.Lett., vol.2, pp.234-236,1990] be to form active region with implanting ions restriction current range, it presents single mode action usually when low current, but electric current just presents the multimode action when increasing.Though have passive anti-waveguiding structure the wall emission laser [Wu et al " High-yieldprocessing and single-mode operation of passive antiguide regionvertical-cavity lasers; " IEEEJ.Select.Topics Quantum Electron.Vol.3, pp-429-434,1997] can be operated in and stablize single mode laser action, but the manufacturing of element needs of heap of stone brilliant again, is complicated many compared with general wall emission laser on processing procedure.And oxidation restricted type wall emission laser (Grab her et al " Efficient single-mode oxide-confined GaAs VCSEL ' Semitting in the 850 nm wavelength regime; " IEEE Photon.Technol.Lett.Vol.9.pp1304-1306,1997] need an oxidation process that aluminium arsenide (AlAs) layer is changed into aluminium oxide (AlOx) layer to form an active area less than 3 microns (μ m) diameters, can reach the action of laser single mode.This laser structure must be controlled at the node of light field standing wave when building crystalline substance for the position of alumina layer, and the lateral length that aluminium arsenide (AlAs) layer is changed into during oxidation process aluminium oxide (AlOx) is controlled in 1 micron the accurate scope, these crystalline substances of heap of stone all are to be difficult to control with process technique, make fine ratio of product on the low side.It is to do on the surface of laser light output to be etched with the mode that suppresses high-order that a kind of wall emission laser is arranged.[Unold?et?al“Increased-area?oxidised?single-fundamental?mode?VCSEL?with?self-aligned?shallow?etched?surfacerelief,”Electron.Let?t.,vol.35,pp.1340-1341,1999]。This laser also can only be kept single mode and move five times critical current, will control etch depth simultaneously at 50 rice (0.05 micron) how on making, neither an easy processing procedure.The inventor had before also produced a kind of wall emission laser and had had the speculum that a upper strata is mixed by selectivity, this structure is the distributed bragg reflector mirror [Dziura that zinc was spread whole (100%) upper strata, T.G., Yang, Y.J., et al " Single mode surface emitting laser using partial mirrordisordering; " Electron.Lett., vol.29, pp.1236-1237,1993], this kind laser can be kept a stable single mode laser action, but owing to too thick (>3 microns of zinc diffusion layer,>100% last distributing Bragg mirror thickness) it is very big to result in caused light loss, the high platform structure active region that this laser of while has is not good to the restriction effect of electric current, and the result is that the critical current of element is very high, and the power of output very low (<0.25 milliwatt) does not meet the demand of actual use.The various wall emission lasers of being carried more than all present dissatisfactory functional characteristic, for example unsettled single mode action, or higher critical current, or not enough power output, or suitable difficulty is arranged in the volume production manufacturing.So application for major part, all wish to develop a kind of wall emission laser, can maintain the single mode action of stable state and enough power outputs (>1 milliwatt) are arranged, processing procedure is simple simultaneously, yield is high, and enough conventional semiconductor of energy and volume production technology are made.

Summary of the invention

The objective of the invention is to provide a kind of wall emission laser, can be operated in single transverse mode (single transverse mode) of stable state, and there are enough power outputs to be fit to most application, so, a kind of other semiconductor lasers component structure is suggested, and this kind other semiconductor lasers component structure has following crystal layer structure:

One substrate;

One is stacked in suprabasil polycrystal layer structure, and this structure has distributing Bragg mirror (Distributed Bragg Reflector (DBR));

The once coating layer or the layer of filling a vacancy, the coating layer or the layer of filling a vacancy on the luminous active layers;

Distributing Bragg mirror on one (Distributed Bragg Reflector (DBR)).

And the other semiconductor lasers component structure comprises:

In a part of zone of laser polycrystal layer, has the composition blended absorbent district of a center bore; In luminous active layers, an active region is arranged, its center is to be aligned with the center bore of forming the blended absorbent district; In eurymeric and minus crystal layer one positive electrode and negative electrode are arranged respectively.

Described composition blended absorbent district (disordered absorber) with aperture is that the ring bodies (torus) by the high concentration admixture forms, and its dopant concentration is greater than 5 * 10 8/ cubic centimeter.

The aperture (aperture) of described combined hybrid uptake zone (disorders absorber) has a diameter or long-diagonal between 1 to 8 micron, or an area is between 1 to 60 square micron.

Described admixture can be formed by following column element: zinc (Zn), magnesium (Mg), beryllium (Be), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), tin (Sb), selenium (Se), sulphur (S), tellurium (Te).

Described active region has a diameter or long-diagonal between 5 to 50 microns, or an area is between 20 to 2000 square microns.

Described down distributing Bragg mirror (DBR) and following coating layer (cladding layer) or the layer (spacer) of filling a vacancy be eurymeric (p-type) material or be minus (n-type) material, and upward distributing Bragg mirror (DBR) and last coating layer (cladding layer) or fill a vacancy layer (spacer) are minus (n-type) material or eurymeric (p-type) material.

It is described that to be stacked in suprabasil polycrystal layer structure be to be formed by semiconductor or dielectric material.

Description of drawings

Fig. 1 is the cross-sectional view of the concrete wall emission laser of the present invention.

Fig. 2 is the performance diagram of the optical output power corresponding current of laser of the present invention.

Fig. 3 is the emission spectrum figure of laser of the present invention under different levels of current.

Fig. 4 is the cross-sectional view of another concrete wall emission laser of the present invention.

The component symbol explanation:

10, wall emission laser 11, substrate

12, following distributing Bragg mirror 13, following coating layer or the layer of filling a vacancy

14, luminous active layers 15, last coating layer or the layer of filling a vacancy

16, go up distributing Bragg mirror 17, crystal layer alternately

18, aperture 19, composition blended absorbent district

20, current confinement structure 21, active region

22, positive electrode 23, negative electrode

Embodiment

In this invention, used noun " wall emission laser ", " distributing Bragg mirror " and " single transverse mode " with general in semiconductor applications employed culvert meaning be identical.

In this invention, noun " stablize single mode action " means the action that the laser element is kept single mode in can the whole drive current range on critical current.

In this invention, noun " form blended absorbent district " means the polycrystal layer in this district to be formed some or all mixes (disordering), and has loss coefficient greater than the IO/ centimetre for the light that the element active region sends.

See also shown in Figure 1, it is the cross-sectional view of the concrete wall emission laser of the present invention, form the blended absorbent district at the distributing Bragg mirror by one, and active region is to form with implanting ions, show the cross section of this wall emission laser 10 among the figure, it has a substrate 11 and a polycrystal layer is stacked in this substrate 11; This polycrystal layer has distributing Bragg mirror 12, once coating layer or fill a vacancy the layer 13, the luminous active layers 14 of single crystal layer or quantum well structures, distributing Bragg mirror 16 on the coating layer or the layer 15 and of filling a vacancy on one, and distributing Bragg mirror 16 up and down, 12 mainly are made up of many alternately crystal layers 17 to heterogeneity, GaAs/aluminium arsenide for example, fluorine InGaAsP/indium, each replaces crystal layer 17 is 1/4th laser wavelength thicknesses, and alternately the logarithm of crystal layer 17 must design abundant, can produce one greater than 99% reflectivity, these replace crystal layer 17 and have the composition transition region at interface usually.

In a part of zone of laser polycrystal layer, a ring-type (torus) is arranged) central authorities form blended absorbent district 19 by the high-rder mode in aperture 18, this forms blended absorbent district 19 can mix the eurymeric admixture, zinc (Zn) for example, magnesium (Mg), beryllium (Be), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba) or a minus admixture, silicon (Si) for example, germanium (Ge), selenium (Se), sulphur (S), or tellurium (Te), form a purpose of forming blended absorbent district 19 by central aperture 18, it is the high-rder mode that will suppress except basic mould, for reaching this target, the long-diagonal length of the diameter in its aperture 18 or its is chosen between 1 to 8 micron, and the thickness of forming blended absorbent district 19 will determine the loss of the light that passes through and the inhibition degree of high-rder mode.Because the light of the basic mode of part (<10%) also can be coupled to composition blended absorbent district 19 and cause damage, form the thickness in blended absorbent district 19 and must get optimum value, must there be enough thickness to suppress high-rder mode so form blended absorbent district 19, but can not cause the tangible light loss of basic mould, this thickness preferably form distributing Bragg mirror 16 thickness on 19 places, blended absorbent district 3% to 95% between, and be better between 10% to 50%, desire then is between 15% to 40% best.For reducing the loss of basic mould, this forms blended absorbent district 19 preferably at the another side of last distributing Bragg mirror 16 away from luminous active layers 14.Near luminous active layers 14, a current confinement structure 20 is arranged, scope with the restriction injection current, and form an active region 21, the aperture 18 of simultaneously centrally aligned of active region 21 being formed blended absorbent district 19, and the diameter of active region 21 is preferably between 1 to 50 micron, then is better between 5 to 15 microns.

For the p-n that forms element connects face, must each have the semiconductor crystal layer of a p type and n type or n type and p type at the crystal layer of luminous active layers about in the of 14, and positive electrode 22 and negative electrode 23 also form in the p type of this laser structure and the crystal layer of n type respectively, on the electrode 22,23 of this plus or minus, an opening must be arranged, its center is the aperture 18 that aligns active region 21 and form blended absorbent district 19, allows luminous energy launch the external world well.

In this invention, wall emission laser 10 can be made of the material of semiconductor and dielectric medium, for example aluminum gallium arsenide (Al xGa 1-xAs), aluminium arsenide gallium indium (Al xGa yIn 1-x-yAs), fluorine InGaAsP (In xGa 1-xAs yP 1-y), aluminum fluoride gallium indium (Al xGa yIn 1-x-yP)/aluminum gallium arsenide (Al xGa 1-xAs), arsenic InGaN (In xGa 1-xN yAs 1-y), aluminum gallium nitride indium (Ga xAl yIn 1-x-yN), antimony GaAs (GaAs xSb 1-x), selenium zinc-cadmium sulfide (Zn xCd 1-xS ySe 1-y), oxidation silicon (SiO 2)/silicon nitride (Si 3N 4), oxidation silicon (SiO 2)/titanium oxide (TiO 2) or silicon (Si)/oxidation silicon, the wavelength of wall emission laser 10 then is to be decided by used material and structure.

This invention will be illustrated by following example:

First embodiment

Single mode 850 how wafer (wafer) of the long wall emission laser 10 of metric wave is to have typical wall emission laser structure; The multiple quantum trap (MQW) that three GaAs (GaAs)/aluminum gallium arsenide (AlGaAs) is arranged usually is by a p type and a n type coating layer (cladding layer), and 20 pairs of p types and one 30 couples n type aluminum gallium arsenide (Al 0.12Ga 0.88As)/aluminum gallium arsenide (Al 0.9Ga 0.1As) double team is lived about the crystal layer.

See also shown in Figure 1, it is the cross-sectional view of the concrete wall emission laser of the present invention, form blended absorbent district 19 at last distributing Bragg mirror 16 by one 0.5 micron thickness, its thickness approximates 15% of distributing Bragg mirror 16 thickness on the P type greatly, and the current confinement structure 20 around active region 21 is to belong to the implanting ions insulating barrier.Each have the p type of a chromium (Cr)/gold (Au) and the n type electrode of germanium (Ge)/gold (Au) on the upper and lower surface of component structure.

See also shown in Figure 2, it is the performance diagram of the optical output power corresponding current of laser of the present invention, its laser critical current is 3 milliamperes (mA), peak power output is greater than 3 milliwatts (mw), such characteristic, with past wall emission laser adopt very dark zinc diffusion (>3 microns,>100% last distributing Bragg mirror thickness) present 8 milliamperes critical current and the characteristic of 0.25 milliwatt power output is come comparison, very large improvement is arranged.

See also shown in Figure 3, be the emission spectrum figure of laser of the present invention under different levels of current, its element can maintain stablizes the single mode action, until maximum drive current or maximum power output, and the rejection ratio of high-rder mode has surpassed 40dB, in a collection of 12,000 laser elements that produce, there is element more than 95% to present the single mode mould action of stable state; According to these results, can confirm that this invention provides a wall emission laser with stable single mode action and enough power outputs (>1 milliwatt), provides the manufacture method that can produce high-quality and high yield element simultaneously.

Second embodiment

Seeing also shown in Figure 4ly, is the single mode 850 long wall emission laser of metric wave how of a high platform structure.It has all same crystal layer structures (epilayer structure) in first embodiment.Last distributing Bragg mirror by one 0.8 micron thickness form the blended absorbent district, thickness quite equals the thickness of distributing Bragg mirror 16 on 25% the p type.At active region (active reion) current confinement structure 20 on every side are oxide layer (oxide layer).Each have the p type of a chromium (Cr)/gold (Au) and the n type electrode of germanium (Ge)/gold (Au) on the upper and lower surface of component structure.The wall emission laser 10 that more than produces is substantially identical with the element of first embodiment on function and yield.

Single mode 1.3 micron wave length wall emission lasers, its structure have typical wall emission crystal layer (epilayer) structure also as shown in Figure 1; A fluorine InGaAsP (InGaAsP)/indium (InP) multiple quantum trap (MQW) is by upper and lower coating layer (cladding layer) 15,13, and 50 pairs of p type and one 55 pairs n type fluorine InGaAsPs (InGaAsP)/indium (InP) crystal layer up and down double team live.This element has the composition blended absorbent district 19 of one 1.5 micron thickness, approximately is 15% thickness of upper strata p type distributing Bragg mirror 16, can effectively suppress high-rder mode, forms stablize single mode and to move.Current confinement structure 20 around active region 21 is ion arranged type insulating barriers.Each have the p type of a titanium (Ti)/platinum (Pt)/gold (Au) and the n type electrode of a nickel (Ni)/golden germanium (AuGe)/nickel (Ni)/gold (Au) on the upper and lower surface of component structure.

In sum, other semiconductor lasers component structure of the present utility model is when using, for reaching its effect and purpose really.

Claims (8)

1, a kind of other semiconductor lasers component structure, finger can be operated in the wall emission laser of single transverse mode (singletransverse mode) of stable state especially; It is characterized in that this structure comprises:
One substrate;
One is stacked in suprabasil polycrystalline structure, this structure have distributing Bragg mirror (DBR), once on coating layer or the floor of filling a vacancy, the luminous active layers, on coating layer or the floor of filling a vacancy, distributing Bragg mirror (DSR), in described polycrystal layer structure, form the composition blended absorbent district (disordered absorber) that has the aperture, this composition blended absorbent district has described going up or the thickness of distributing Bragg mirror (DBR) 3% to 95% down;
One active region forms the aperture in the described composition blended absorbent of its centrally aligned district in described luminous active layers;
An one eurymeric electrode and a minus electrode form in a p type and a n type crystal layer respectively.
2, other semiconductor lasers component structure as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that: described composition blended absorbent district (disordered absorber) with aperture is that the ring bodies (torus) by the high concentration admixture forms, and its dopant concentration is greater than 5 * 10 8/ cubic centimeter.
3, other semiconductor lasers component structure as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that: the aperture (aperture) of described combined hybrid uptake zone (disorders absorber) has a diameter or long-diagonal between 1 to 8 micron, or an area is between 1 to 60 square micron.
4, other semiconductor lasers component structure as claimed in claim 2 is characterized in that: described admixture can be formed by following column element: zinc (Zn), magnesium (Mg), beryllium (Be), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), tin (Sb), selenium (Se), sulphur (S), tellurium (Te).
5, other semiconductor lasers component structure as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that: described active region has a diameter or long-diagonal between 5 to 50 microns, or an area is between 20 to 2000 square microns.
6, other semiconductor lasers component structure as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that: described following distributing Bragg mirror (DBR) and following coating layer (cladding layer) or the layer (spacer) of filling a vacancy are eurymeric (p-type) materials, and last distributing Bragg mirror (DBR) and last coating layer (cladding layer) or the layer (spacer) of filling a vacancy are minus (n-type) materials.
7, other semiconductor lasers component structure as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that: described down distributing Bragg mirror (DBR) and following coating layer (cladding layer) or the layer (spacer) of filling a vacancy are minus (n-type) material, and upward distributing Bragg mirror (DBR) and last coating layer (cladding layer) or fill a vacancy layer (spacer) also can be eurymeric (p-type) material.
8, other semiconductor lasers component structure as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that: described to be stacked in suprabasil polycrystal layer structure be to be formed by semiconductor or dielectric material.
CN 02242715 2001-03-07 2002-08-02 Semiconductive laser member arrangement CN2571034Y (en)

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DE20113207U DE20113207U1 (en) 2001-03-07 2001-08-09 Semiconductor laser
DE20113207.9 2001-08-09

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Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN102714395A (en) * 2010-01-29 2012-10-03 惠普发展公司,有限责任合伙企业 vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with non-periodic gratings
CN102738703A (en) * 2011-04-01 2012-10-17 光环科技股份有限公司 Vertical resonant cavity surface emitting laser and manufacturing method thereof
CN105610047A (en) * 2016-01-01 2016-05-25 西安电子科技大学 GeSn multi-quantum well metal cavity laser and fabrication method thereof
US9991676B2 (en) 2010-10-29 2018-06-05 Hewlett Packard Enterprise Development Lp Small-mode-volume, vertical-cavity, surface-emitting laser
US10061139B2 (en) 2010-01-29 2018-08-28 Hewlett Packard Enterprise Development Lp Optical devices based on non-periodic sub-wavelength gratings
US10436956B2 (en) 2009-07-17 2019-10-08 Hewlett Packard Enterprise Development Lp Grating apparatus for target phase changes

Cited By (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US10436956B2 (en) 2009-07-17 2019-10-08 Hewlett Packard Enterprise Development Lp Grating apparatus for target phase changes
CN102714395A (en) * 2010-01-29 2012-10-03 惠普发展公司,有限责任合伙企业 vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with non-periodic gratings
CN102714395B (en) * 2010-01-29 2015-06-10 惠普发展公司,有限责任合伙企业 vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with non-periodic gratings
US10061139B2 (en) 2010-01-29 2018-08-28 Hewlett Packard Enterprise Development Lp Optical devices based on non-periodic sub-wavelength gratings
US9991676B2 (en) 2010-10-29 2018-06-05 Hewlett Packard Enterprise Development Lp Small-mode-volume, vertical-cavity, surface-emitting laser
CN102738703B (en) * 2011-04-01 2014-04-16 光环科技股份有限公司 Vertical resonant cavity surface emitting laser and manufacturing method thereof
CN102738703A (en) * 2011-04-01 2012-10-17 光环科技股份有限公司 Vertical resonant cavity surface emitting laser and manufacturing method thereof
CN105610047A (en) * 2016-01-01 2016-05-25 西安电子科技大学 GeSn multi-quantum well metal cavity laser and fabrication method thereof

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