CN206843937U - A kind of combined anti-seismic system and combined anti-seismic bridge - Google Patents

A kind of combined anti-seismic system and combined anti-seismic bridge Download PDF

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Publication number
CN206843937U
CN206843937U CN201720345030.5U CN201720345030U CN206843937U CN 206843937 U CN206843937 U CN 206843937U CN 201720345030 U CN201720345030 U CN 201720345030U CN 206843937 U CN206843937 U CN 206843937U
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
girder
block
shock mount
bent cap
combined anti
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Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Withdrawn - After Issue
Application number
CN201720345030.5U
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
石少华
黄伟
樊启武
史海峰
曾应祝
陈旖平
张佳
王鹏
胡馨
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Southwest Geotechniscl & Design Institute Of China Nuclear Industry
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Southwest Geotechniscl & Design Institute Of China Nuclear Industry
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Priority to CN201720345030.5U priority Critical patent/CN206843937U/en
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Publication of CN206843937U publication Critical patent/CN206843937U/en
Withdrawn - After Issue legal-status Critical Current
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Abstract

The utility model provides a kind of combined anti-seismic system and combined anti-seismic bridge, it is related to bridge earthquake resistance technical field, the combined anti-seismic bridge includes bridge pier, transport pipeline and combined anti-seismic system, and combined anti-seismic system includes the first antidetonation component and the second antidetonation component.First antidetonation component includes anticollision block, positive stop and the first shock mount, and anticollision block is arranged on bent cap;Positive stop is fixedly connected on the bottom of girder;One end of first shock mount is fixedly connected on bent cap, and the other end is connected to the bottom of girder.Second antidetonation component includes the second shock mount and tension and compression type damper, the second shock mount are fixedly installed on bent cap at block, and tension and compression type damper is fixedly installed on the second shock mount.Compared to prior art, a kind of combined anti-seismic system provided by the utility model can be effectively absorbed because bridge shakes or swings the energy brought, prevented bridge from falling beam or impact wreckage, be effectively protected bridge.

Description

A kind of combined anti-seismic system and combined anti-seismic bridge
Technical field
Bridge earthquake resistance technical field is the utility model is related to, in particular to a kind of combined anti-seismic system and group Box-like antidetonation bridge.
Background technology
Piping lane bridge is that the facilities such as delivery combustion gas, sewage, feedwater, electric power, communication cross over cheuch river, needs to leave peace on bridge The passages such as dress, maintenance, visit, while the dynamic loads such as vehicle and crowd are born, it is the key project of lifeline.Positioned at seismic region On piping lane bridge provide fortification against earthquakes particularly important, not only ensure lifeline engineering self structure safety, moreover it is possible to avoid seismic The secondary disaster, have great importance to earthquake relief work.
Long span transport formula truss is typically mounted on bridge pier, and the bridge pier can be located at the high-intensity earthquake in China sometimes Area, simultaneously because bridge pier height is higher, therefore shock resistance is on the weak side, it is difficult to ensures the quake-resistant safety of lifeline engineering.Piping lane bridge is transported What is carried is gases at high pressure and liquid, to rigidity under malformation and structural earthquake, it is desirable to it is very high, and require pipeline enclosure under earthquake It can not collide and extrude.In existing bridge earthquake resistance technology, generally use vibration absorption and isolation support and anti-fall girder apparatus are carried out Bridge earthquake resistance, investigate and find through inventor, using traditional vibration absorption and isolation support superstructure displacement can be caused excessive, used simultaneously Existing anti-fall girder apparatus is difficult to play a role for the collision between bridge.Traditional antidetonation facility obviously can not as can be seen here Meet the antidetonation demand of piping lane bridge.
In view of this, design and manufacture a kind of combined anti-seismic system with good anti seismic efficiency and seem particularly heavy Will.
Utility model content
The purpose of this utility model is to provide a kind of combined anti-seismic system, and the combined anti-seismic system has good Anti seismic efficiency, good protective action can be played to bridge.
Another object of the present utility model is to provide a kind of combined anti-seismic bridge, and the combined anti-seismic bridge has good Good anti seismic efficiency, the ability for resisting the vibrations such as earthquake greatly improve.
The utility model is realized using following technical scheme.
A kind of combined anti-seismic system, for simultaneously support girder, bridge pier to include bent cap and be arranged at lid on bridge pier The block at beam both ends, combined anti-seismic system include the first antidetonation component and the second antidetonation component, and the first antidetonation component is arranged at On bent cap, the second antidetonation component is arranged on block.First antidetonation component includes anticollision block, positive stop and the first damping branch Seat, anticollision block is arranged on bent cap, to separate adjacent girder;Positive stop is fixedly connected on the bottom of girder, to prevent Girder comes off;One end of first shock mount is fixedly connected on bent cap, and the other end of the first shock mount is connected to the bottom of girder Portion, with support girder.Second antidetonation component includes the second shock mount and tension and compression type damper, the fixed setting of the second shock mount In bent cap at block, tension and compression type damper is fixedly installed on the second shock mount, for connecting girder, avoid girder with Block directly contacts.
Further, the first shock mount includes the first bearing pad stone and the first support body, and the first bearing pad stone is fixed It is arranged on bent cap, the first support body is fixedly installed on the first bearing pad stone, and the first support body is away from first seat cushion The side of stone is connected to the bottom of girder.
Further, the first support body is high-damping rubber.
Further, positive stop includes power consumption block and bolster, and power consumption block is fixedly installed on the bottom of girder, bolster The power consumption side of block and relative with bearing pad stone is arranged at, with the impact between the side wall of cushioning support-saddle pinner and power consumption block.
Further, the block that consumes energy is in X-type, can effectively absorb vibration energy, and block welding of consuming energy is in the bottom of girder.
Further, tension and compression type damper includes piston cylinder and piston, and one end of piston is slideably positioned in piston cylinder, living The other end of plug is fixedly connected with girder, and piston cylinder is fixedly installed on the second shock mount, and the bearing of trend of piston cylinder with The bearing of trend of girder is perpendicular.
Further, elastic fluid is filled with piston cylinder, to absorb energy caused by piston slip.
Further, the second shock mount includes the second bearing pad stone and the second support body, and the second bearing pad stone is fixed It is arranged at bent cap to be fixedly installed on the second bearing pad stone close to the position of block, the second support body, the second support body is remote Side from the second bearing pad stone is fixedly connected on tension and compression type damper.
Further, anticollision block is provided with anti-collision rubber pad close to the both sides of girder, to prevent that it is anti-that girder from directly hitting Hit block.
A kind of combined anti-seismic bridge, including bridge pier, girder, the first antidetonation component and the second antidetonation component, girder are set In on bridge pier, bridge pier includes bent cap and is arranged at the block at bent cap both ends, and the first antidetonation component includes anticollision block, positive stop With the first shock mount, anticollision block is arranged on bent cap, to separate adjacent girder.Positive stop is fixedly connected on girder Bottom, to prevent girder from coming off.One end of first shock mount is fixedly connected on bent cap, and the other end of the first shock mount abuts In the bottom of girder, with support girder.Second antidetonation component includes the second shock mount and tension and compression type damper, the second damping branch Seat is fixedly installed on bent cap at block, and tension and compression type damper is fixedly installed on the second shock mount, and tension and compression type damps Device is fixedly connected with girder.
The utility model has the advantages that:
A kind of combined anti-seismic system provided by the utility model, anticollision block is arranged on bent cap, adjacent to separate Two girders.Positive stop is fixedly connected on to the bottom of girder, to prevent girder from coming off.Utilize the first shock mount simultaneously Carry out support girder.Tension and compression type damper is set between the block and girder at bent cap both ends.When an earthquake occurs, the longitudinal direction of bridge Anticollision block and positive stop are swung by enter row buffering, the horizontal swing of bridge is delayed by tension and compression type damper Punching, in combination with the detrusion of the first shock mount and the second shock mount, by energy dissipation caused by bridge swing.Compare In prior art, a kind of combined anti-seismic system provided by the utility model, can effectively absorb because bridge shakes or puts The dynamic energy brought, prevents bridge from falling beam or impact wreckage, is effectively protected bridge.
A kind of combined anti-seismic bridge provided by the utility model, above-mentioned group is provided with the junction of bridge pier and girder Box-like vibration prevention system, when an earthquake occurs, longitudinal oscillation and the horizontal swing of girder are entered by the combined anti-seismic system Row buffering, effectively dissipated energy caused by earthquake.Compared to prior art, a kind of combined type provided by the utility model resists Bridge is shaken, there is good anti seismic efficiency, can effectively ensure the smooth transport of goods and materials.
Brief description of the drawings
, below will be to required use in embodiment in order to illustrate more clearly of the technical scheme of the utility model embodiment Accompanying drawing be briefly described, it will be appreciated that the following drawings illustrate only some embodiments of the present utility model, therefore should not be by Regard the restriction to scope as, for those of ordinary skill in the art, on the premise of not paying creative work, may be used also To obtain other related accompanying drawings according to these accompanying drawings.
Fig. 1 is the combined anti-seismic bridge structure schematic diagram that the utility model specific embodiment provides;
Fig. 2 is the first dampening assembly attachment structure schematic diagram in Fig. 1;
Fig. 3 is in Fig. 2 III partial enlarged drawing;
Fig. 4 is in Fig. 1 IV partial enlarged drawing.
Icon:10- combined anti-seismic bridges;100- combined anti-seismic systems;110- the first antidetonation components;111- anticollisions are kept off Block;1111- anti-collision rubber pads;113- positive stops;1131- power consumption blocks;1133- bolsters;The shock mounts of 115- first; The support bodies of 1151- first;The bearing pad stones of 1153- first;130- the second antidetonation components;131- tension and compression type dampers;1311- lives Plug tube;1313- pistons;1315- elastic fluids;200- girders;300- bridge piers;310- bent caps;330- blocks.
Embodiment
It is new below in conjunction with this practicality to make the purpose, technical scheme and advantage of the utility model embodiment clearer Accompanying drawing in type embodiment, the technical scheme in the embodiment of the utility model is clearly and completely described, it is clear that is retouched The embodiment stated is the utility model part of the embodiment, rather than whole embodiments.Generally here described in accompanying drawing and The component of the utility model embodiment shown can be configured to arrange and design with a variety of.
Therefore, the detailed description of the embodiment of the present utility model to providing in the accompanying drawings is not intended to limit requirement below The scope of the utility model of protection, but it is merely representative of selected embodiment of the present utility model.Based in the utility model Embodiment, the every other embodiment that those of ordinary skill in the art are obtained under the premise of creative work is not made, all Belong to the scope of the utility model protection.
It should be noted that:Similar label and letter represents similar terms in following accompanying drawing, therefore, once a certain Xiang Yi It is defined, then it further need not be defined and explained in subsequent accompanying drawing in individual accompanying drawing.
, it is necessary to explanation, the side of the instruction such as term " " center ", " on ", " interior ", " outer " in description of the present utility model Position or position relationship be based on orientation shown in the drawings or position relationship, or the utility model product using when usually put Orientation or position relationship, be for only for ease of description the utility model and simplify and describe, rather than instruction or imply signified Device or element must have specific orientation, with specific azimuth configuration and operation, therefore it is not intended that new to this practicality The limitation of type.In addition, term " first ", " second " etc. are only used for distinguishing description, and it is not intended that indicating or implying relatively heavy The property wanted.
In description of the present utility model, it is also necessary to which explanation, unless otherwise clearly defined and limited, term " are set Put ", " connected ", " installation ", " connection " should be interpreted broadly, for example, it may be fixedly connected or be detachably connected, Or it is integrally connected;Can be mechanical connection or electrical connection;Can be joined directly together, intermediary can also be passed through It is indirectly connected, can is the connection of two element internals.For the ordinary skill in the art, can be managed with concrete condition Solve concrete meaning of the above-mentioned term in the utility model.
Below in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, some embodiments of the present utility model are elaborated.In the case where not conflicting, under Feature in the embodiment stated can be mutually combined.
Reference picture 1, the present embodiment provide a kind of combined anti-seismic bridge 10, including combined anti-seismic system 100, girder 200 and bridge pier 300, girder 200 be arranged on bridge pier 300, bridge pier 300 includes bent cap 310 and is arranged at the gear at the both ends of bent cap 310 Block 330.
Combined anti-seismic system 100 includes the first antidetonation component 110 and the second antidetonation component 130, the first antidetonation component 110 It is arranged at the bottom of girder 200 and is fixedly connected with bent cap 310, the second antidetonation component 130 is arranged at girder 200 and block 330 Between and be fixedly connected with bent cap 310.
Referring to Fig. 2, the first antidetonation component 110 includes anticollision block 111, the shock mount 115 of positive stop 113 and first, Anticollision block 111 is arranged on bent cap 310, to separate adjacent girder 200.Positive stop 113 is fixedly connected on girder 200 Bottom, to prevent girder 200 from coming off.One end of first shock mount 115 is fixedly connected on bent cap 310, the first shock mount 115 The other end be connected to the bottom of girder 200, with support girder 200.
In the present embodiment, anticollision block 111 is provided with anti-collision rubber pad 1111 close to the both sides of girder 200, to prevent Girder 200 directly hits anticollision block 111.Preferably, anticollision block 111 is built-up using concrete, and is arranged at bent cap 310 center, prevent the pier High Defferential of bridge pier 300 greatly and so that the adjacent earthquake response of two girder 200 is asynchronous and causes Collision, so as to protect the transport pipeline of truss body interior.
First shock mount 115 includes the first support body 1151 and the first bearing pad stone 1153, the first bearing pad stone 1153 are fixedly installed on bent cap 310, and the first support body 1151 is fixedly installed on the first bearing pad stone 1153, the first bearing Side of the body 1151 away from the first bearing pad stone 1153 is connected to the bottom of girder 200.
In the present embodiment, the first support body 1151 is high-damping rubber.It is worth noting that, the first bearing sheet herein Body 1151 is not restricted to high-damping rubber or periphery adds board-like rubber or synthetic resin of position-limitting pin etc., In every case it is flexible, and the material of detrusion can be carried out within the scope of protection of the utility model.
Referring to Fig. 3, positive stop 113 includes power consumption block 1131 and bolster 1133, and power consumption block 1131 is fixedly installed on master The bottom of beam 200, bolster 1133 is arranged at the power consumption side of block 1131 and relative with bearing pad stone, with cushioning support-saddle pinner Impact between side wall and power consumption block 1131.
In the present embodiment, power consumption block 1131 is in X-type, and bearing capacity is high, and member stress is uniform, and deformation ductility is good, can Effectively absorb vibration energy.Power consumption block 1131 is welded on the bottom of girder 200, and the base for the block 1131 that consumes energy is less than branch seat cushion The top margin of stone, when vertical slide in and out occurs for girder 200, power consumption is connected on bearing pad stone soon, prevents girder 200 from falling beam Phenomenon, while the block 1131 that consumes energy can effectively dissipate the effect of seismic energy.
In the present embodiment, block 1131 is consumed energy using power consumption structural section, with certain while with certain rigidity Ductility, superior performance.It is worth noting that, power consumption block 1131 can also use other materials herein, for example, copper alloy or Aluminium alloy etc., specific material are not specifically limited.
Referring to Fig. 4, the second antidetonation component 130 includes the second shock mount (not shown) and tension and compression type damper 131, and second Shock mount is fixedly installed on bent cap 310 at block 330, and tension and compression type damper 131 is fixedly installed on the second shock mount On, and tension and compression type damper 131 is fixedly connected with girder 200, avoids girder 200 from directly being contacted with block 330.
Tension and compression type damper 131 includes piston cylinder 1311 and piston 1313, and one end of piston 1313 is slideably positioned in piston In cylinder 1311, the other end of piston 1313 is fixedly connected with girder 200, and piston cylinder 1311 is fixedly installed on the second shock mount On, and the bearing of trend of the bearing of trend of piston cylinder 1311 and girder 200 is perpendicular.Elastic fluid is filled with piston cylinder 1311 1315, slide caused energy to absorb piston 1313.
Piston 1313 includes piston head and piston rod, and the bar of piston 1 is fixedly connected with piston head, and piston head is arranged on piston cylinder In 1311, piston rod stretches out piston cylinder 1311 and is fixedly connected with girder 200.When girder 200 is swung laterally, girder 200 drive piston rod driving piston head motion, and due to being filled with elastic fluid 1315, the motion of piston head in piston cylinder 1311 Blocked, and then girder 200 is swung into caused energy and dissipated by elastic fluid 1315, so as to avoid girder 200 The direct collision of block 330 with being arranged at the both ends of bent cap 310.
In the present embodiment, piston cylinder 1311 is steel bushing, and the elastic fluid 1315 filled in piston cylinder 1311 is rubber. It is worth noting that, elastic fluid 1315 is not restricted to rubber or elastoplast or flexible herein High polymer material etc., as long as being the flexible material that can be filled into piston cylinder 1311 in protection of the present utility model Within the scope of.
In the present embodiment, the both ends of bent cap 310 are respectively arranged with two tension and compression type dampers 131, on each bridge pier 300 Four tension and compression type dampers 131 are provided with, sufficiently the energy of Seismic input is reduced simultaneously using piston head activity extruding rubber Play cushioning effect.
It is understood that the quantity of tension and compression type damper 131 is not restricted to four herein, and similarly, the one of bent cap 310 End is also not restricted to be provided with two tension and compression type dampers 131, such as can be only provided only with respectively at the both ends of bent cap 310 One tension and compression type damper 131, or three tension and compression type dampers 131 are respectively arranged with the both ends of bent cap 310, can basis Actual conditions suitably increase or decrease the quantity of tension and compression type damper 131.
Second shock mount includes the second bearing pad stone and the second support body, and the second bearing pad stone is fixedly installed on bent cap 310 are fixedly installed on the second bearing pad stone close to the position of block 330, the second support body, and the second support body is away from The side of two bearing pad stones is fixedly connected on tension and compression type damper 131.
In the present embodiment, the second support body is a steel member, is fixedly installed on the second bearing pad stone, while second Welded with piston cylinder 1311 one end of support body away from the second bearing pad stone.Certainly, the material of the second support body is simultaneously herein Steel or other materials are not limited only to, is not specifically limited herein.
In the present embodiment, the adjacent block 330 of the second shock mount is set, and the second support body abuts with block 330.
A kind of combined anti-seismic bridge 10 that the present embodiment provides, is provided with the junction of girder 200 in bridge pier 300 and combines Formula vibration prevention system 100, its operation principle are as follows:When shaking generation, the longitudinal direction vibrations of girder 200 pass through anticollision block 111, limit Position block 113, the linear deformation of the first shock mount 115 and the detrusion of rubber in tension and compression type damper 131 are inhaled Receive and dissipate, extruding, stretcher strain and the first damping that the transverse vibration of girder 200 passes through rubber in tension and compression type damper 131 The transversely deforming of bearing 115 is absorbed and dissipated.Compared to prior art, a kind of combined anti-seismic of the present embodiment offer Bridge 10, there is good shock resistance, the transport pipeline of truss body interior can be effectively protected, ensure that the combined type resists Shake the transport capacity of bridge 10.
Preferred embodiment of the present utility model is the foregoing is only, is not limited to the utility model, for this For the technical staff in field, the utility model can have various modifications and variations.It is all in the spirit and principles of the utility model Within, any modification, equivalent substitution and improvements made etc., it should be included within the scope of protection of the utility model.

Claims (10)

  1. A kind of 1. combined anti-seismic system, for simultaneously support girder, the bridge pier to include bent cap and be arranged on bridge pier The block at the bent cap both ends, it is characterised in that the combined anti-seismic system includes the first antidetonation component and the second antidetonation group Part, the first antidetonation component are arranged on the bent cap, and the second antidetonation component is arranged on the block;
    The first antidetonation component includes anticollision block, positive stop and the first shock mount, and the anticollision block is arranged at institute State on bent cap, to separate the adjacent girder;The positive stop is fixedly connected on the bottom of the girder, described to prevent Girder comes off;One end of first shock mount is fixedly connected on the bent cap, and the other end of first shock mount supports The bottom of the girder is connected to, to support the girder;
    The second antidetonation component includes the second shock mount and tension and compression type damper, and second shock mount is fixedly installed on The bent cap is at the block, and the tension and compression type damper is fixedly installed on second shock mount, for connecting The girder.
  2. 2. combined anti-seismic system according to claim 1, it is characterised in that first shock mount includes first Seat cushion stone and the first support body, first bearing pad stone are fixedly installed on the bent cap, and first support body is consolidated Surely it is arranged on first bearing pad stone, side of first support body away from first bearing pad stone is connected to institute State the bottom of girder.
  3. 3. combined anti-seismic system according to claim 2, it is characterised in that first support body is high-damping rubber Glue.
  4. 4. combined anti-seismic system according to claim 2, it is characterised in that the positive stop includes power consumption block with delaying Stamping, the power consumption block are fixedly installed on the bottom of the girder, the bolster be arranged at the side of the power consumption block and with The bearing pad stone is relative, to buffer the impact between the side wall of the bearing pad stone and the power consumption block.
  5. 5. combined anti-seismic system according to claim 4, it is characterised in that the power consumption block is in X-type, and the power consumption Block welding is in the bottom of the girder.
  6. 6. combined anti-seismic system according to claim 1, it is characterised in that the tension and compression type damper includes piston cylinder And piston, one end of the piston are slideably positioned in the piston cylinder, the other end of the piston is fixed with the girder to be connected Connect, the piston cylinder is fixedly installed on second shock mount, and the bearing of trend of the piston cylinder and the girder Bearing of trend is perpendicular.
  7. 7. combined anti-seismic system according to claim 6, it is characterised in that flexible Jie of filling in the piston cylinder Matter, to absorb energy caused by the piston slip.
  8. 8. combined anti-seismic system according to claim 1, it is characterised in that second shock mount includes second Seat cushion stone and the second support body, second bearing pad stone are fixedly installed on the bent cap close to the position of the block, institute State the second support body to be fixedly installed on second bearing pad stone, second support body is away from second seat cushion The side of stone is fixedly connected on the tension and compression type damper.
  9. 9. combined anti-seismic system according to claim 1, it is characterised in that the anticollision block is close to the girder Both sides are provided with anti-collision rubber pad.
  10. 10. a kind of combined anti-seismic bridge, it is characterised in that including bridge pier, girder, the first antidetonation component and the second antidetonation group Part, the girder are arranged on the bridge pier, and the bridge pier includes bent cap and is arranged at the block at the bent cap both ends, and described the One antidetonation component includes anticollision block, positive stop and the first shock mount, and the anticollision block is arranged on the bent cap, with Separate the adjacent girder;The positive stop is fixedly connected on the bottom of the girder, to prevent the girder from coming off;Institute The one end for stating the first shock mount is fixedly connected on the bent cap, and the other end of first shock mount is connected to the girder Bottom, to support the girder;The second antidetonation component includes the second shock mount and tension and compression type damper, and described second Shock mount is fixedly installed on the bent cap at the block, and the tension and compression type damper is fixedly installed on described second and subtracted Shake on bearing, and the tension and compression type damper is fixedly connected with the girder.
CN201720345030.5U 2017-04-01 2017-04-01 A kind of combined anti-seismic system and combined anti-seismic bridge Withdrawn - After Issue CN206843937U (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CN201720345030.5U CN206843937U (en) 2017-04-01 2017-04-01 A kind of combined anti-seismic system and combined anti-seismic bridge

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CN201720345030.5U CN206843937U (en) 2017-04-01 2017-04-01 A kind of combined anti-seismic system and combined anti-seismic bridge

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Publication Number Publication Date
CN206843937U true CN206843937U (en) 2018-01-05

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Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN106835952A (en) * 2017-04-01 2017-06-13 核工业西南勘察设计研究院有限公司 A kind of combined anti-seismic system and combined anti-seismic bridge
CN108425318A (en) * 2018-05-04 2018-08-21 西南交通大学 A kind of Precast Concrete Segmental Bridges bridge pier bridge

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN106835952A (en) * 2017-04-01 2017-06-13 核工业西南勘察设计研究院有限公司 A kind of combined anti-seismic system and combined anti-seismic bridge
CN106835952B (en) * 2017-04-01 2018-10-26 核工业西南勘察设计研究院有限公司 A kind of combined anti-seismic system and combined anti-seismic bridge
CN108425318A (en) * 2018-05-04 2018-08-21 西南交通大学 A kind of Precast Concrete Segmental Bridges bridge pier bridge

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Granted publication date: 20180105

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