A kind of intelligent agriculture row table
The utility model relates to automation control area, particularly electricity meter-reading and automatic control device in agricultural irrigation.
The location comparison of the on-the-spot motor-pumped well of agricultural irrigation disperses and most of motor-pumped well present position has inconvenient traffic profit, and agricultural drainage and irrigation equipment is usually at the regional installation and use of circumstance complication simultaneously, and this brings very large difficulty with management to the power information collection of power department.At present, mainly there is following problem:
1, communication issue.Along with the development of mobile communications network, the means using mobile public network to carry out information transmission are widely used.The on-the-spot hoistway position of agricultural irrigation is in backcountry a bit, public network does not cover, therefore these means are adopted can not to solve the communication issue of all on-the-spot motor-pumped wells, check meter can only adopt artificial hand-held collecting device to scene image data one by one, concentrate the mode of typing again, artificial collection promptly increases along with number of users and faces many difficulties, increase a large amount of costs of labor and handling cost, the construction object of " all standing, full collection, the full pre-payment " that State Grid Corporation of China proposes for power information acquisition system can not be met.Simultaneously chaotic on-the-spot electricity consumption situation and corresponding line loss analyzing labor intensive material resources huge, and real-time seriously delayed, accuracy wretched insufficiency.Further, even if the area that public network can cover, public network is used will inevitably to relate to communication cost problem.
The carrier communication of line of electric force is used also to be the technological means extensively adopted at present.Agriculture row mostly is phase three-wire three formula balanced load motor with electric line electricity consumption load, for reducing costs and reducing difficulty of construction, in backcountry, great majority power supply is 3*380V three-phase three-wire system, N line is not had in phase three-wire three, common carrier communication cannot carry out zero passage detection, can not realize carrier communication.
2, stealing problem.In society, stealing problem becomes more and more outstanding, and according to conservative estimation, the whole nation is every year because the stolen loss of electric energy reaches 20,000,000,000 yuan, and this does not singly perplex the development of power supply enterprise, has also had a strong impact on national economic construction and social stablizing.At present, electric energy meter is generally arranged in metering box special, and adopt cable through pipeline into and out of line mode, batch meter is with locking.A kind of strong magnet of recent appearance is adsorbed on the phenomenon of batch meter carrying out stealing near the position of electric energy meter, and method is hidden, is easy to remove, and has spreading trend.Its principle is: the on-load switch of ammeter inside adopts magnetic latching relay, because magnetic latching relay is magnetic-field-sensitive device, by externally-applied magnetic field, changes the folding condition of relay, can affect the opening and closing movement of relay, reach the object of stealing.In addition, electric energy meter is powered and mostly is Industrial Frequency Transformer, and high-intensity magnetic field can reduce the efficiency of Industrial Frequency Transformer, and make electric energy meter power consumption become large, transformer cannot provide enough power voltage supplies to show work, causes electric energy meter to start, can not measure.
At present, the means of anti-strong magnetic stealing mainly comprise:
Adopt shielding mode: install metal shielding additional in ammeter outside, and in batch meter inside, electric energy meter is raised, make electric energy meter have a segment distance apart from batch meter all directions.Adopt which, the stationary magnetic field can bearing 300mT is attacked, and Guarantee Status is unaffected.If continue to strengthen magnetic field intensity, after exceeding higher limit, shielding case effect was lost efficacy.
Adopting initiatively power-down mode: install magnetic contact switch additional, when sensing strong magnetic, cutting off current supply circuit.This technology all has description at Chinese patent " CN 103149429 A ", " CN 203385773 U ".
Adopt relay status detection mode: existing relay test mode is generally: relay is by inner synchronizing linkage, and output switch state node, is connected to processor port and detects.This detection mode, detection be not real connecting and disconnecting of the circuit state, if relay synchronizing linkage go wrong, correctly cannot detect relay status.
Above-mentioned protected mode function singleness, limited efficiency, reliability is poor, can not Timeliness coverage electricity filching behavior, can not meet anti-electricity-theft requirement.
3, electric energy meter electric source fault detection problem.Electric energy meter is powered and mostly is Industrial Frequency Transformer, and high-intensity magnetic field can reduce the efficiency of Industrial Frequency Transformer, and make electric energy meter power consumption become large, transformer cannot provide enough power voltage supplies to show work, causes electric energy meter to start, can not measure.If electric energy meter can not detect this type of fault in time, huge electricity charge loss will be caused.Existing electric energy meter electric source fault detection approach is generally: after system power failure, by reserve battery to system power supply, computation chip switch opened by processor, initialization computation chip, from storer, read measuring parameter and be issued in computation chip, after normally running Deng computation chip, then read the ac voltage in computation chip, judge that whether externally fed is normal.This process need computation chip and storer work on power, and power consumption is comparatively large and need the time longer, bring very large consumption to battery electric quantity.
4, battery passivation problem.Clock of power meter battery adopts the sub-battery of lithium, although the sub-battery capacity of lithium is large, there is problem of passivation when using.After battery passivation, the short time cannot export enough voltage, causes electric energy meter work abnormal, especially can cause clock of power meter misalignment, have a strong impact on the function of electric energy meter.
The technology of the anti-passivation of existing battery mainly contains following several:
One, electric energy energy storage method:
Battery is in parallel with super capacitor, at standing stage battery, super capacitor is slowly charged, directly powered by super capacitor when needs heavy current pulse.The problem of the drawback of this method mainly cost and self discharge, the close prices of super capacitor even exceedes the price of battery itself, substantially increases cost, and super capacitor exists larger leakage current in addition, and add self-discharge rate, the serviceable life of battery shortens.10 years electric energy meter life-spans can not be met, the powered battery requirement of 5 years.
Two, balanced balanced current method
Allow battery remain a comparatively reasonably discharge current, the size of this electric current just can eliminate the passivation layer of production in time uniformly.Battery passivation speed is by the impact of temperature, and the temperature range of operation of electric energy meter is-40 to 70 degree, adopts fixing balanced balanced current cannot regulate according to the temperature at scene, if too small being not enough to of electric current eliminates passivation, if electric current crosses conference reduce battery life.
Three, timed activation method
Battery is carried out once the pulsed discharge of larger battery by timing, is punctured by the passivating film just generated.Owing to cannot determine the degree of battery passivation, same exist activation deficiency or activate excessive problem.
Although current techniques can play the effect preventing battery passivation to a certain extent, but for electric energy meter, life time is long, and temperature range is large, and in outdoor operation, above feature determines electric energy meter and is not suitable for adopting above-mentioned open loop approach to prevent battery passivation.
5, the protection problem of motor.In backcountry, great majority power supply is 3*380V three-phase three-wire system, if relay is because fault own or other reason cause the threephase switch state of relay inconsistent, can cause open-phase fault.The topmost equipment of agricultural drainage and irrigation electricity consumption is threephase motor, and open-phase fault will be arranged consumer to agriculture and cause and have a strong impact on, and even directly burns motor.
Summary of the invention
The purpose of this utility model is to provide a kind of intelligent agriculture row table with the problems referred to above solving prior art.
For achieving the above object, the technical solution adopted in the utility model is: a kind of intelligent agriculture row table, structure comprises CPU, the data acquisition unit be connected with CPU, telecommunication unit, display unit, storage unit, magnetic field detection unit, battery, key is: arrange mobile public network communication module or power line carrier, PLC module in described telecommunication unit, described magnetic field detection unit arranges three groups, also comprises relay test unit in structure.
Preferred version: B phase, at forceful electric power interface, is connected to N and connects terminal by described power line carrier, PLC module, the former B terminal that connects is unsettled.
Preferred version: described relay test unit arranges three groups, connects ABC three-phase respectively; Relay test unit comprises bleeder circuit, gauge tap circuit, strong and weak electricity buffer circuit, pull-up resistor and pulse-detecting circuit.
Further, the anti-passivation unit of battery is also comprised.
Adopt the technical scheme that the application proposes:
1, public network communication module or power line carrier, PLC module can be used to carry out the communication with far-end according to field condition, solve telecommunication and the single problem of means of communication, particularly adopt the power line carrier, PLC mode based on phase three-wire three, overcome backcountry field condition severe, the problem communicated cannot be carried out.
2, by detecting the actual switch state of relay on three-phase line, can when there is stealing Timeliness coverage reporting, reduce the loss, also can judge power fail accordingly simultaneously, ensure that ammeter normally runs.
3, by the anti-passivation unit of battery, can accurately detect battery passivation degree, and take no discharge mode according to degree of passivation, eliminate battery passivation film in time, effectively prevent battery discharge deficiency or excessive situation of discharging in the process eliminating passivation.
4, agriculture row shows relay test circuit and also can monitor each phase voltage, and as detected, open-phase fault appears in supply line, and relay disconnects protection motor.Agriculture row table passes through computation chip; the parameters such as real-time detection electric current and voltage power power factor; when Voltage unbalance, current imbalance, power transfinite, the situation such as power factor surge time; timely disconnection relay; protection user motor, and report to the police to main website, main website sends notice to agriculture row user; can normally run after fixing a breakdown, the capital assets of protection agriculture row user are from loss.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is that agriculture row shows principle of work and composition schematic diagram,
Fig. 2 is relay test Elementary Function block diagram,
Fig. 3 is relay test unit schematic diagram,
Fig. 4 is battery anti-passivation Elementary Function block diagram,
Fig. 5 is battery anti-passivation unit schematic diagram,
The installation site schematic diagram of Fig. 6 magnetic field detection unit in agriculture row table,
Fig. 7 is the voltage selecting circuit schematic diagram of magnetic field detection unit,
Fig. 8 is linear hall sensor mounting arrangement schematic diagram.
In Fig. 7,1 is agriculture row table, and 2 is the signals of magnetic field detection cellular installation position.
Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing, the utility model is described in further detail.
Referring to Fig. 1, a kind of intelligent agriculture row list structure comprises CPU, the data acquisition unit be connected, telecommunication unit, display unit, storage unit, magnetic field detection unit, takes and controls unit, the anti-passivation unit of battery, battery, relay test unit and power supply and administration module etc. with CPU.
The rig-site utilization circumstance complication of agricultural drainage and irrigation table, power line carrier, PLC module affects by distance and high frequency interference, and wireless public network module affects by base station signal power.In the utility model, arrange mobile public network communication module or power line carrier, PLC module in telecommunication unit, in practical application, staff selects the communication mode be more suitable for according to field condition.
Traditional carrier communication module is all apply on the basis of three-phase four-wire system, to there being four binding posts, connects A phase, B phase, C phase and N phase respectively.Agriculture row mostly is phase three-wire three formula balanced load motor with electric line electricity consumption load, for reducing costs and reducing difficulty of construction, great majority power supply is 3*380V three-phase three-wire system, does not have N line in phase three-wire three, common carrier communication mode cannot carry out zero passage detection, can not carry out carrier communication.
The utility model devises the transmission circuit of phase three-wire three for the zero cross detection circuit of carrier communication, can realize carrier communication in the circuit not having zero line.With B phase for reference, the waveform frequency of A, C phase is still 50Hz, at the forceful electric power interface of carrier module, B phase is connected to the position of N phase, former B phase position is unsettled, carries out zero passage detection, realize the communication of phase three-wire three power line carrier with the waveform change between AB and between CB.In the present embodiment, adopt ancient cooking vessel letter carrier module.
Referring to Fig. 2, relay test unit comprises bleeder circuit, gauge tap circuit, strong and weak electricity buffer circuit, pull-up resistor and pulse-detecting circuit.This unit arranges three, connects the relay of ABC three-phase respectively.
Be connected by two control signals with each relay test unit referring to Fig. 2 and Fig. 3, CPU: CTRL and TEST.Circuit is input as alternating voltage, and during circuit working, CPU is by CTRL port, and open circuit, after electric resistance partial pressure, voltage is down in optocoupler and diode operation voltage range, and make optocoupler periodically conducting, during optocoupler conducting, TEST port is low level; During optocoupler cut-off, TEST port is high level by resistance pull-up, so CPU can detect pulse signal at TEST port, if ac input end no-voltage signal, then TEST port is permanent High level.
Relay status Cleaning Principle: CTRL holds and exports high level, during relay closes, and optocoupler periodically conducting, TEST holds output pulse signal to CPU, and frequency is 50Hz; When relay disconnects, optocoupler not conducting, TEST end is permanent High level.CPU can judge the on off operating mode of relay by the level state detecting TEST end.Use thyristor to control the break-make of primary circuit in circuit, only opening thyristor when detecting, reducing the power consumption of circuit.Electric energy meter passes through voltage detecting circuit, the folding condition of real-time detection relay, when discovery relay virtual condition and coomand mode inconsistent, electric energy meter resends order, if state is still inconsistent after three times, then judge that relay misoperation occurs to be done, ammeter recording events, and be transferred to backstage main website by communication module.
Power fail can also be detected: after electric energy meter generation power down by relay test unit, under ammeter operates in low power consumpting state, pass through reserve battery, opening power testing circuit, CTRL end exports high level, CPU detects the state that TEST holds level, judge whether feeder ear has voltage, if feeder ear has voltage, but electric energy meter cannot normally start, then judge power fail to occur, ammeter recording events, and communication module by backup battery by event transmission to backstage main website, remind background work personnel to process in time.Under the state that relay disconnects, because agriculture row table cannot output voltage, even if there is strong magnetic interference ammeter power events, also can not cause the consequence of stealing.
Agriculture row table is outdoor installation product, agriculture irrigation and drainage power utilization environment is complicated, stealing electricity phenomenon happens occasionally, this circuit can monitor on-the-spot attack agriculture row being shown to relay and power supply of electricity consumption effectively, detection failure rapidly and accurately, and real-time report is to management of power use department, managerial personnel are facilitated to process in time, specification agricultural drainage and irrigation electricity consumption order.
Referring to Fig. 4 and Fig. 5, the pulse discharge circuit that the battery passivation testing circuit that the equivalent load resistance that battery anti-passivation unit comprises connection battery forms with the detector switch being connected to CPU, the pulsed discharge resistance being connected battery and the pulsed discharge switch being connected to CPU form and two resistant series being connected battery form micro-current balance circuit.
Battery passivation testing circuit comprises the equivalent load resistance and detector switch K1 that are made up of resistance R3 and R4, and connect between R3, R4, K1, K1 is connected to CPU, and R3 is connected to battery, and the A/D test side of CPU is connected between two resistance R3, R4;
In pulse discharge circuit, pulsed discharge resistance R5 connects battery, and is connected with pulsed discharge K switch 2, and K2 is connected to CPU;
Micro-current balance circuit is composed in series by resistance R1 and R2 connecting battery, and for reaching trickle discharge object, R1 and R2 adopts large resistance,
Each circuit working process is as follows:
Battery passivation testing circuit: when outside power work, K1 closes, and it is battery open circuit voltage that A/D detects voltage, and open-circuit voltage does not affect by passivation, if open-circuit voltage is less than 3.0V, illustrates that battery is under-voltage, ammeter record battery undervoltage event.If open-circuit voltage is at more than 3.0V, processor is per hour opens K1 switch 1000ms, by equivalent resistance to battery discharge, the voltage that now A/D ALT-CH alternate channel detects is the voltage of battery band when carrying, if band live is pressed in more than 3.0V, then close K1, wait for next hour and detect; If voltage is greater than 2.8V and be less than 3.0V, then keeps K1 to open, battery is discharged, kept for 10 seconds, and read A/D detection voltage continuously, if voltage is constant or diminish, then close K1.If voltage rise, then judge battery generation passivation, maintenance K1 is open mode, until cell voltage no longer rises, passivation is eliminated, and closes K1.
Pulse discharge circuit: when detecting that battery is likely in degree of depth passivation (battery band live pressure is less than 2.8V), open K2 switch, by R5, pulsed discharge is carried out to battery, discharge current is about 50mA, electric discharge p.s. once, continues 100ms at every turn, and detects cell voltage, until voltage no longer rises, close K1, K2.If cell voltage does not rise, illustrate that battery does not have passivation, battery electric quantity is not enough, now, closes K1, K2, and records the battery undervoltage time.
In micro-current balance circuit, R1, R2 adopt large valued resistor, when electric energy meter does not need powered battery, battery is made to keep the discharge current of about 1uA, both the serviceable life of battery can not have been affected, battery can be allowed again not produce passivating film at normal temperatures, reduce the number of times of passivation testing circuit and pulse discharge circuit unlatching, reduce the number of times of battery discharge.
Adopt battery passivation testing circuit, take no discharge mode according to degree of passivation, eliminate battery passivation film in time, effectively prevent battery discharge deficiency or excessive situation of discharging in the process eliminating passivation.
The direction that field erected electric energy meter is subject to magnetic interference is on the upside of the left and right sides and front, downside for electrical wire wiring position cannot be close with strong magnetic, referring to Fig. 6, in novel intelligent agriculture row table 1, three groups of magnetic field detection unit are set, be arranged on the left and right sides and the upside in the inner front of agriculture row table 1 respectively, indicated by 2.Often organize magnetic field detection unit and use three linear hall-effect devices, the surface of three linear hall-effect devices is mutually vertical, the magnetic field intensity of X, Y, Z tri-axis can be detected, as shown in Figure 8, the sensing range of three groups of detecting units can cover the magnetic interference scope that whole electric energy meter may be subject in its setting on circuit boards.
Magnetic field sensor is linear hall-effect device, and field intensity is vector, and single hall device can only gather the signal of an axis, often organizes magnetic field detection unit and adopts three discrete linear hall sensor composition magnetic sensors.Linear hall sensor exports as analog quantity, needs the intensity being obtained magnetic field by AD conversion.If be each sensor assignment AD passage, every electric energy meter uses 3 detecting units, needs 9 AD conversion passages, takies huge system resource.The utility model devises voltage selecting circuit, and each detecting unit only needs a passage, the magnetic field intensity of sensor present position can be detected.
Referring to Fig. 7, voltage selecting circuit comprises comparison amplifier, NOR gate circuit and analog switch, and the Automatic level control of CPU exports the input end connecting XOR gate, the output control simulation switch of NOR gate circuit.
During circuit working, X-axis sensor signal and Y-axis sensor signal compare and enlarge, the level controling signal of the signal processing device exported does XOR, the output of operation result control simulation switch, when level controling signal is high, circuit is selected voltage in XY axis signal higher one and is compared with Z axis signal, just can select the signal that on 3 directions, voltage is the highest; When level controling signal is low, the signal that on 3 directions, voltage is minimum can be selected.Hall device supply voltage is 5V, and without under magnetic field environment, output voltage is 2.5V, when detect N S pole field respectively near time, voltage is respectively to 0V and 5V change, and processor timesharing changes Automatic level control port, can select the strongest field signal.
After the signal selected is carried out filtering, enter processor A D change-over circuit, the size of field intensity can be calculated, and can determine it is the magnetic interference which unit produces.
Agriculture irrigation and drainage power utilization environment is complicated, and stealing electricity phenomenon happens occasionally.This circuit according to on-the-spot actual installation environment, can arrange detection threshold, and CPU is according to testing result, and the value after being changed by A/D compares with detection threshold, exceeds threshold range, namely creates the magnetic field being greater than a certain intensity.By change threshold value, the intensity reported to the police in magnetic field just can be changed.The data detected are carried out storing and reporting to backstage, facilitate management of power use unit to process in time, specification agricultural drainage and irrigation electricity consumption order.
The utility model is regional installation and operation in Shijiazhuang, Qinhuangdao etc., achieves and automatically far copies function, forward purchasing Electricity Functional, drastically increase power office's work efficiency, achieve the real-time purpose monitoring function of line loss, there is perfect function and good performance, obtain the consistent favorable comment of user.