CN203788516U - Intelligent dimming efficient constant-current LED driving chip - Google Patents

Intelligent dimming efficient constant-current LED driving chip Download PDF

Info

Publication number
CN203788516U
CN203788516U CN201420119594.3U CN201420119594U CN203788516U CN 203788516 U CN203788516 U CN 203788516U CN 201420119594 U CN201420119594 U CN 201420119594U CN 203788516 U CN203788516 U CN 203788516U
Authority
CN
China
Prior art keywords
circuit
resistance
diode
led
chip
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Fee Related
Application number
CN201420119594.3U
Other languages
Chinese (zh)
Inventor
郑云华
韩基东
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
HEROCHIP MICROELECTRONICS CO Ltd
Original Assignee
HEROCHIP MICROELECTRONICS CO Ltd
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by HEROCHIP MICROELECTRONICS CO Ltd filed Critical HEROCHIP MICROELECTRONICS CO Ltd
Priority to CN201420119594.3U priority Critical patent/CN203788516U/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of CN203788516U publication Critical patent/CN203788516U/en
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical
Expired - Fee Related legal-status Critical Current

Links

Classifications

    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02BCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO BUILDINGS, e.g. HOUSING, HOUSE APPLIANCES OR RELATED END-USER APPLICATIONS
    • Y02B20/00Energy efficient lighting technologies, e.g. halogen lamps or gas discharge lamps
    • Y02B20/40Control techniques providing energy savings, e.g. smart controller or presence detection

Landscapes

  • Circuit Arrangement For Electric Light Sources In General (AREA)

Abstract

The utility model discloses an intelligent dimming efficient constant-current LED driving chip, which comprises an EMI filtering circuit, a control circuit, a chopping circuit, a flyback conversion circuit and an LED load, wherein the EMI filtering circuit, the chopping circuit, the flyback conversion circuit and the LED load are sequentially connected, and the control circuit is connected with the chopping circuit and the flyback conversion circuit. The intelligent dimming efficient constant-current LED driving chip detects the type and the phase of a dimmer by adopting advanced numerical control technologies so as to control the brightness of an LED automatically, can be compatible with various types of dimmers, is high in constant-current precision and power factor, and has overheating protection, overvoltage protection and overcurrent protection functions and an output current adjustable function. In addition, the intelligent dimming efficient constant-current LED driving chip is simple in circuit structure and high in performance to cost ratio.

Description

A kind of intelligent dimming high-efficiency constant-flow LED drives chip
Technical field
The utility model relates to a kind of LED illumination and drives chip, and especially a kind of intelligent dimming high-efficiency constant-flow LED drives chip, belongs to lighting field.
Background technology
At present, LED lamp has started to replace various traditional lighting lamps, but LED self character restricted period driving power can not adopt same power supply with ordinary incandescent lamp.Because voltage fluctuation makes electric current increase can cause LED to damage, so must design new power supply, can fully meet the LED required driving requirement of working, thereby bring into play to greatest extent the performance of LED, the generation of minimizing fault.Yet the driveability of existing various LED driving powers is unsatisfactory, as output current is subject to external voltage influence of fluctuations, easily cause LED to damage, reduction of service life; The curent change that flows through LED causing for reasons such as temperature can not well be adjusted, and the same phasic property of voltage and current is poor, and power factor is lower; And regulation output current precision is not high, poor stability, causes LED lamp to occur scintillation.General lighting is all the inverse excitation type converter circuit topology based on PWM controller with the general employing of LED driving power.Although this solution is simple in structure, but generally can not utilize three terminal bidirectional thyristor for conventional incandescent (TRIAC) dimmer to carry out light modulation to LED, this is because incandescent lamp is a kind of pure resistive loads, and AC/DC power-supply system is completely different from the situation of incandescent lamp.Existing power supply driver can not with all types of dimmer compatible operations, and power factor is low, dimming scope is little, often has scintillation.
Therefore be necessary to develop a kind of novel intelligent dimming high-efficiency constant-flow LED and drive chip; make its type and phase place of adopting advanced Numeric Control Technology to detect dimmer automatically control LED brightness; the compatible various types of dimmers of energy; constant current accuracy is high; power factor is high; have overtemperature protection, overvoltage protection, overcurrent protection function and output current adjustable function, and circuit structure is simple, cost performance is very high.
Summary of the invention
The utility model is for the problem of prior art; a kind of chip design that adopts advanced Numeric Control Technology to detect dimmer type and phase place is provided; can be according to the type of dimmer and the automatic regulation output electric current of phase place; the compatible various types of dimmers of energy; constant current accuracy is high, and power factor is high, has overtemperature protection, overvoltage protection, overcurrent protection function and output current adjustable function; and circuit structure is simple, the intelligent dimming high-efficiency constant-flow LED that cost performance is very high drives chip.
In order to solve the problems of the technologies described above, the utility model is achieved through the following technical solutions:
Described a kind of intelligent dimming high-efficiency constant-flow LED drives chip, comprise EMI filter circuit, control circuit, chopper circuit, inverse-excitation converting circuit and LED load, load is connected successively in turn with LED for described EMI filter circuit, chopper circuit, inverse-excitation converting circuit, and described control circuit is connected with inverse-excitation converting circuit with described chopper circuit.
Further, described control circuit comprises the constant-current driving LED chip U1 of high integration High Power Factor, and chip model is HC3210, and chip pin comprises OUTPUT_TR, Vsense, VIN, VT, GND, Isense, OUTPUT and VCC; Described control circuit also comprises resistance R 7, R8, R16, R17, R5, R12, thermistor NTC and MOSFET pipe Q1, resistance R 7, R8 form bleeder circuit and are connected to Vsense pin, VIN pin is connected to described EMI filter circuit by resistance R 16, R17, VT pin is by thermistor NTC ground connection, Isense pin is by resistance R 12 ground connection, the grid of MOSFET pipe Q1 is connected with OUTPUT pin by resistance R 5, and source electrode is connected with Isense pin, and drain electrode is connected with described inverse-excitation converting circuit.
Further, described chopper circuit is comprised of inductance L 2, diode D1, D2, D5, MOSFET pipe Q2 and resistance R 4, R3, the MOSFET pipe grid of Q2 and the OUTPUT_TR pin of described LED chip U1 are connected, source electrode is by resistance R 3 ground connection, drain electrode is connected with the positive pole of inductance L 2 and two utmost point D2 by resistance R 4, the other end of inductance L 2 is connected with diode D5 negative pole, the positive pole of diode D5 is connected with the positive pole of diode D1, and be connected to described EMI filter circuit, the negative pole of diode D1 is connected with the negative pole of diode D2, and is connected to described inverse-excitation converting circuit.
Further, described EMI filter circuit is comprised of inductance L 1, resistance R 1 and capacitor C 2, after inductance L 1 is in parallel with resistance R 1, by capacitor C 2 ground connection.
Further, described inverse-excitation converting circuit is comprised of transformer T1, capacitor C 3, resistance R 6, diode D3, diode D6 and capacitor C 6, capacitor C 3, resistance R 6, diode D3, be connected on the armature winding of transformer T1, form RCD pincers companion circuit, the positive pole of diode D6 is connected with the secondary winding of transformer T1, negative pole, by capacitor C 6 ground connection, forms output rectification circuit.
Further, described LED load is comprised of resistance R 18 and a plurality of LED lamp, in parallel with resistance R 18 after each LED lamp serial connection.
A kind of intelligent dimming high-efficiency constant-flow LED described in the utility model drives chip operation principle to be: after system powers on, 220V alternating current, after described EMI filter circuit rectifying and wave-filtering, is given described chopper circuit and control circuit power supply.Described control circuit chip OUTPUT_TR output high level, makes the MOSFET pipe Q2 conducting in described chopper circuit; Chip detects type and the phase place that whether has dimmer and dimmer by VIN pin, control the waveform of OUTPUT_TR pin output, thereby adjust the ON time of MOSFET pipe Q2, and then control the secondary power output of described inverse-excitation converting circuit, reach the effect that regulates the required brightness of LED load.The thermistor NTC that chip VT pin connects can sensing LED load temperature and change the voltage on chip VT pin, chip, according to this voltage control power output, reaches the effect of overtemperature protection.Chip I sense pin, by the electric current of the described inverse-excitation converting circuit secondary of resistance R 12 sampling, is controlled power output, reaches the effect of overcurrent protection.
The utility model has the advantage of: provide a kind of intelligent dimming high-efficiency constant-flow LED to drive chip; adopt advanced Numeric Control Technology to detect the chip design of dimmer type and phase place; can be according to the type of dimmer and the automatic regulation output electric current of phase place; the compatible various types of dimmers of energy; constant current accuracy is high; power factor is high; there is overtemperature protection, overvoltage protection, overcurrent protection function and output current adjustable function; adopt inverse-excitation converting circuit to realize feedback isolation; without using optocoupler; circuit structure is simple, and cost is low.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is the principle block diagram that a kind of intelligent dimming high-efficiency constant-flow LED described in the utility model drives chip.
Fig. 2 is the circuit design principle figure that a kind of intelligent dimming high-efficiency constant-flow LED described in the utility model drives chip.
In accompanying drawing, division mark is as follows: 1, EMI filter circuit; 2, control circuit; 3, chopper circuit; 4, inverse-excitation converting circuit; 5, LED load.
Embodiment
As shown in Figure 1, a kind of intelligent dimming high-efficiency constant-flow LED drives the principle block diagram of chip, EMI filter circuit 1, control circuit 2, chopper circuit 3, inverse-excitation converting circuit 4 and LED load 5, described EMI filter circuit 1, chopper circuit 3, inverse-excitation converting circuit 4 and LED load 5 are connected successively in turn, and described control circuit 2 is connected with inverse-excitation converting circuit 4 with described chopper circuit 3.
As shown in Figure 2, a kind of intelligent dimming high-efficiency constant-flow LED drives the circuit design principle figure of chip.Described control circuit 2 comprises the constant-current driving LED chip U1 of high integration High Power Factor, and chip model is iW3610, and chip pin comprises OUTPUT_TR, Vsense, VIN, VT, GND, Isense, OUTPUT and VCC; Described control circuit 2 also comprises resistance R 7, R8, R16, R17, R5, R12, thermistor NTC and MOSFET pipe Q1, resistance R 7, R8 form bleeder circuit and are connected to Vsense pin, VIN pin is connected to described EMI filter circuit 1 by resistance R 16, R17, VT pin is by thermistor NTC ground connection, Isense pin is by resistance R 12 ground connection, the grid of MOSFET pipe Q1 is connected with OUTPUT pin by resistance R 5, and source electrode is connected with Isense pin, and drain electrode is connected with described inverse-excitation converting circuit 4.Described chopper circuit 3 is comprised of inductance L 2, diode D1, D2, D5, MOSFET pipe Q2 and resistance R 4, R3, the MOSFET pipe grid of Q2 and the OUTPUT_TR pin of described LED chip U1 are connected, source electrode is by resistance R 3 ground connection, drain electrode is connected with the positive pole of inductance L 2 and two utmost point D2 by resistance R 4, the other end of inductance L 2 is connected with diode D5 negative pole, the positive pole of diode D5 is connected with the positive pole of diode D1, and be connected to described EMI filter circuit 1, the negative pole of diode D1 is connected with the negative pole of diode D2, and is connected to described inverse-excitation converting circuit 4.Described EMI filter circuit 1 is comprised of inductance L 1, resistance R 1 and capacitor C 2, after inductance L 1 is in parallel with resistance R 1, by capacitor C 2 ground connection.Inverse-excitation converting circuit 4 is comprised of transformer T1, capacitor C 3, resistance R 6, diode D3, diode D6 and capacitor C 6, capacitor C 3, resistance R 6, diode D3, be connected on the armature winding of transformer T1, form RCD pincers companion circuit, the positive pole of diode D6 is connected with the secondary winding of transformer T1, negative pole, by capacitor C 6 ground connection, forms output rectification circuit.Described LED load 5 is comprised of resistance R 18 and a plurality of LED lamp, in parallel with resistance R 18 after each LED lamp serial connection.
After system powers on, 220V alternating current, after EMI filter circuit 1 rectifying and wave-filtering, is given chopper circuit 3 and control circuit 2 power supplies.High direct voltage after rectification is given the VIN pin power supply of chip U1 after resistance R 7, R8 dividing potential drop, gives and 7 chargings of the capacitor C on VCC pin through diode D4 simultaneously.Voltage on the VCC of chip U1 pin surpasses the threshold values of 12V, and the control logic in chip U1 enables, and chip enters normal manipulation mode.During front 3 AC half periods when starting, the OUTPUT_TR pin of chip U1 keeps output high level, makes MOSFET pipe Q2 conducting.After dimmer type and phase place are detected, chip constant-current circuit enables, and output voltage starts to rise.When output voltage is during higher than total forward voltage on LED load string, chip U1 starts to operate at constant current mode.After chip U1 starts, VCC pin is powered by bias supply.
Dimmer detects with phase measurement and realizes by the VIN pin internal circuit of resistance R 16, R17 and chip U1.Dimmer detects the 3rd cycle after the system that occurs in starts.The time that voltage on the VIN of chip U1 pin is less than 0.1V, while being no more than 600us, chip U1 determined that dimmer does not access, without dimmer state; If the time that on VIN pin, voltage is less than 0.1V surpasses 600us, chip U1 determines that dimmer accesses, and chip U1 will survey dimmer type, definite be forward position dimmer or after along dimmer.Between dimmer detection period, OUTPUT_TR pin output high level, the MOSFET pipe Q2 conducting in chopper circuit, thus be a pure resistive loads of dimmer generation.In finding the second period that dimmer occurs, detect the VIN pin cycle and lock standby.When VIN pin voltage surpasses 0.1V and count input voltage sampling, start to measure dimmer phase place.The ON time of adjusting MOSFET pipe Q2 according to phase place, ON time is longer, and output power of power supply is also just larger, and LED load is brighter; Otherwise the ON time of MOSFET pipe Q2 is shorter, LED brightness is also just darker.
The effect of chopper circuit 3 is for dimmer provides motional impedance, and is inverse-excitation converting circuit 4 energy.The voltage of diode D2 in capacitor C 1 for charging C1 provides path, can reduce surge current during lower than input voltage when MOSFET pipe Q2 conducting triggers.During chopping cycle, when MOSFET pipe Q2 conducting, inductance L 2 stored energys; When MOSFET pipe Q2 turn-offs, inductance L 2 releases energy, and makes diode D2 conducting.Circuit and conventional power factor correction (PFC) booster converter that inductance L 2, MOSFET pipe Q2, diode D2 and capacitor C 1 etc. form are similar.When not accessing dimmer, average current and input AC voltage same-phase by inductance L 2, therefore produce the power factor higher than 0.9.
The Isense pin of chip U1, by the electric current of resistance R 12 sampling inverse-excitation converting circuit 4 secondary, is controlled power output, reaches the effect of overcurrent protection; MOSFET pipe Q1 resonance trough place when electric current is minimum in resistance R 12 simultaneously, utilizes the OUTPUT foot control MOSFET pipe processed Q1 conducting of chip U1, makes system loss reach minimum.The thermistor NTC that the VT pin of chip U1 connects can sensing LED load temperature and change the voltage on the VT pin of chip U1, chip, according to this voltage control power output, reaches the effect of overtemperature protection.When temperature is higher, the lower voltage on the VT pin of chip U1, chip U1 controls output current and reduces, and makes LED load dimmed; If LED temperature reaches restriction threshold values, chip U1 will turn-off, and cut off output, thus protection LED load and circuit.
Obviously above-described embodiment is not to restriction of the present utility model, and above-mentioned a kind of intelligent dimming high-efficiency constant-flow LED drives chip can also have other many variations.Although in conjunction with above-mentioned example, discussed the utility model in detail, should be understood that professional person in the industry can expect apparently some are identical, alternative scheme, within all falling into the protection range that the utility model claim limits.

Claims (5)

1. an intelligent dimming high-efficiency constant-flow LED drives chip, comprise EMI filter circuit (1), control circuit (2), chopper circuit (3), inverse-excitation converting circuit (4) and LED load (5), it is characterized in that, described EMI filter circuit (1), chopper circuit (3), inverse-excitation converting circuit (4) and LED load (5) are connected successively in turn, and described control circuit (2) is connected with inverse-excitation converting circuit (4) with described chopper circuit (3); Described control circuit (2) comprises the constant-current driving LED chip U1 of high integration High Power Factor, and chip model is HC3210, and chip pin comprises OUTPUT_TR, Vsense, VIN, VT, GND, Isense, OUTPUT and VCC; Described control circuit (2) also comprises resistance R 7, R8, R16, R17, R5, R12, thermistor NTC and MOSFET pipe Q1, resistance R 7, R8 form bleeder circuit and are connected to Vsense pin, VIN pin is connected to described EMI filter circuit (1) by resistance R 16, R17, VT pin is by thermistor NTC ground connection, Isense pin is by resistance R 12 ground connection, the grid of MOSFET pipe Q1 is connected with OUTPUT pin by resistance R 5, source electrode is connected with Isense pin, and drain electrode is connected with described inverse-excitation converting circuit (4).
2. intelligent dimming high-efficiency constant-flow LED according to claim 1 drives chip, it is characterized in that, described chopper circuit (3) is by inductance L 2, diode D1, D2, D5, MOSFET pipe Q2 and resistance R 4, R3 forms, the MOSFET pipe grid of Q2 and the OUTPUT_TR pin of described LED chip U1 are connected, source electrode is by resistance R 3 ground connection, drain electrode is connected with the positive pole of inductance L 2 and two utmost point D2 by resistance R 4, the other end of inductance L 2 is connected with diode D5 negative pole, the positive pole of diode D5 is connected with the positive pole of diode D1, and be connected to described EMI filter circuit (1), the negative pole of diode D1 is connected with the negative pole of diode D2, and be connected to described inverse-excitation converting circuit (4).
3. intelligent dimming high-efficiency constant-flow LED according to claim 2 drives chip, it is characterized in that, described EMI filter circuit (1) is comprised of inductance L 1, resistance R 1 and capacitor C 2, after inductance L 1 is in parallel with resistance R 1, by capacitor C 2 ground connection.
4. intelligent dimming high-efficiency constant-flow LED according to claim 3 drives chip, it is characterized in that, described inverse-excitation converting circuit (4) is comprised of transformer T1, capacitor C 3, resistance R 6, diode D3, diode D6 and capacitor C 6, capacitor C 3, resistance R 6, diode D3, be connected on the armature winding of transformer T1, form RCD pincers companion circuit, the positive pole of diode D6 is connected with the secondary winding of transformer T1, and negative pole, by capacitor C 6 ground connection, forms output rectification circuit.
5. intelligent dimming high-efficiency constant-flow LED according to claim 4 drives chip, it is characterized in that, described LED load (5) is comprised of resistance R 18 and a plurality of LED lamp, in parallel with resistance R 18 after each LED lamp serial connection.
CN201420119594.3U 2014-03-17 2014-03-17 Intelligent dimming efficient constant-current LED driving chip Expired - Fee Related CN203788516U (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CN201420119594.3U CN203788516U (en) 2014-03-17 2014-03-17 Intelligent dimming efficient constant-current LED driving chip

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CN201420119594.3U CN203788516U (en) 2014-03-17 2014-03-17 Intelligent dimming efficient constant-current LED driving chip

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
CN203788516U true CN203788516U (en) 2014-08-20

Family

ID=51324664

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
CN201420119594.3U Expired - Fee Related CN203788516U (en) 2014-03-17 2014-03-17 Intelligent dimming efficient constant-current LED driving chip

Country Status (1)

Country Link
CN (1) CN203788516U (en)

Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN103889117A (en) * 2014-03-17 2014-06-25 无锡汉咏微电子股份有限公司 Intelligent dimming high-efficiency and constant-current LED drive chip
CN104853508A (en) * 2014-11-26 2015-08-19 成都冠深科技有限公司 LED driving system based on capacitance feedback three-point type oscillation circuit
CN107752629A (en) * 2017-11-23 2018-03-06 深圳佳莱知家科技有限公司 A kind of cervical vertebra massage pillow
CN108696972A (en) * 2017-04-10 2018-10-23 赤多尼科两合股份有限公司 A kind of light modulating device and system
CN110881232A (en) * 2019-12-17 2020-03-13 深圳市太美亚电子科技有限公司 Flyback switching power supply circuit

Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN103889117A (en) * 2014-03-17 2014-06-25 无锡汉咏微电子股份有限公司 Intelligent dimming high-efficiency and constant-current LED drive chip
CN104853508A (en) * 2014-11-26 2015-08-19 成都冠深科技有限公司 LED driving system based on capacitance feedback three-point type oscillation circuit
CN108696972A (en) * 2017-04-10 2018-10-23 赤多尼科两合股份有限公司 A kind of light modulating device and system
CN108696972B (en) * 2017-04-10 2019-12-03 赤多尼科两合股份有限公司 A kind of dimming device and system
CN107752629A (en) * 2017-11-23 2018-03-06 深圳佳莱知家科技有限公司 A kind of cervical vertebra massage pillow
CN110881232A (en) * 2019-12-17 2020-03-13 深圳市太美亚电子科技有限公司 Flyback switching power supply circuit

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US10616966B2 (en) Apparatus, method and system for providing AC line power to lighting devices
KR101436703B1 (en) Apparatus, method and system for providing ac line power to lighting devices
US8324840B2 (en) Apparatus, method and system for providing AC line power to lighting devices
CA2891796A1 (en) Driving circuit, lighting device and method of reducing power dissipation
CN203788516U (en) Intelligent dimming efficient constant-current LED driving chip
TWI517753B (en) Light-emitting diode driver with single-ended single-ended main inductor conversion architecture with power correction
TW201315105A (en) Bias voltage generation using a load in series with a switch
WO2022007696A1 (en) Lighting circuit with low standby power consumption, and lighting fixture
CN203632933U (en) LED lamp driving power supply using numerical control chip
CN103582258A (en) LED driving device and method
CN103582257A (en) LED driving device and method
CN104703358A (en) Wide-voltage-range LED (light emitting diode) lamp switching and dimming driving circuit and LED lamp dimming control system
GB2502992A (en) A constant current switched mode power supply controller
CN109379806B (en) Dimming drive circuit, dimming controller and LED lamp
CN203504823U (en) LED drive
CN203504839U (en) LED lamp driving power supply adopting primary detection and regulation
CN203120259U (en) Numerically-controlled dimmable LED lamp driving power
CN204539556U (en) The switch dimming drive circuit of Width funtion LED and LED dimming control system
CN103889117A (en) Intelligent dimming high-efficiency and constant-current LED drive chip
CN203340372U (en) LED lamp driving power supply employing analog dimming
CN203301791U (en) High-efficiency light-emitting diode (LED) lamp driving power supply
CN203399367U (en) LED driving power capable of automatically adjusting output voltage
CN203537600U (en) Simple high-performance LED lamp driving power supply of circuit
CN204206523U (en) Indoor LED illumination light modulating device
CN203467004U (en) Light-adjustable LED drive power supply

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
C14 Grant of patent or utility model
GR01 Patent grant
CF01 Termination of patent right due to non-payment of annual fee

Granted publication date: 20140820

Termination date: 20180317

CF01 Termination of patent right due to non-payment of annual fee