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Assignment 5Due: 12:00pm on Tuesday, April 28, 2009Note: To understand how points are awarded, read your instructor's Grading Policy.

Potential Energy of a BatteryDescription: The electric potential and potential energy associated with a battery. Learning Goal: To understand electrical potential, electrical potential energy, and the relationship between them. Electric potential and electric potential energy are related but different concepts. Be careful not to confuse the terms. Electrical potential energy position is a measure of the amount of potential energy per unit charge a particle of net charge is the potential energy that a charge has an electric potential energy has due to its position relative to other charges. The electric potential , the electric potential at the location of is at a specific

would have at that position. In other words, if a charge

.

Recall that the gravitational potential energy (

) of an object of mass

depends on where you define

. The difference

in gravitational potential energy between two points is the physically relevant quantity. Similarly, for electric potential energy, the . When we say that the potential of a car battery is 12 , we mean that the potential difference between the positive and negative

important quantity is the change in electric potential energy: terminals of the battery is 12 .

. This is why we often just measure the potential difference

Consider dropping a ball from rest. This ball moves from a state of high gravitational potential energy to one of low gravitational potential energy as it falls to the ground. Similarly, charges move from a state of high electric potential energy to one of low electric potential energy.

Part A Mustang Sally just finished restoring her 1965 Ford Mustang car. To save money, she did not get a new battery. When she tries to start the car, she discovers that the battery is dead and she needs a jump start. While unhooking the jumper cables, the positive and negative cables almost touch and a spark jumps between the ends of the cables. This spark is caused by the movement of electrons through the air between the battery terminals. In what direction are the electrons traveling? Hint A.1 Another way to think about the movement of charge

You can think of the movement of charges in terms of Coulomb's force. A positive (high) potential is created by positive charges and a low (negative) potential is created by negative charges. To understand which way electrons will flow across a potential difference, think about the forces on an electron. An electron will be repelled by a negative charge and attracted to a positive charge. The negative terminal of a battery can be viewed as having a negative charge. ANSWER: The electrons are traveling from the negative to the positive terminal.

The positive terminal is at a higher potential than the negative terminal. Unless provided with energy, positive charges will flow from a high to a low potential, and negatively charged electrons will flow from a low to a high potential. The table below summarizes this movement. Direction of motion high to low potential low to high potential

Since potential difference is the energy per unit charge, it is measured in units of energy divided by charge. Specifically, potential difference is generally measured in volts (whose symbol is

). One volt is equal to one joule per coulomb:

.

Part B There is a 12 potential difference between the positive and negative ends of the jumper cables, which are a short distance apart. An electron at the negative end ready to jump to the positive end has a certain amount of potential energy. On what quantities does this electrical potential energy depend? Hint B.1 The expression for electric potential energy .

The electric potential energy difference is given by the potential difference times the charge:

ANSWER:

the distance between the ends of the cables the potential difference between the ends of the cables the charge on the electron the distance and the potential difference the distance and the charge the potential difference and the charge the potential difference, charge, and distance

Part C Assume that two of the electrons at the negative terminal have attached themselves to a nearby neutral atom. There is now a negative ion with a charge electron? ANSWER: The electric potential and the electric potential energy are both twice as much. The electric potential is twice as much and the electric potential energy is the same. The electric potential is the same and the electric potential energy is twice as much. The electric potential and the electric potential energy are both the same. The electric potential is the same and the electric potential energy is increased by the mass ratio of the oxygen ion to the electron. The electric potential is twice as much and the electric potential energy is increased by the mass ratio of the oxygen ion to the electron. at this terminal. What are the electric potential and electric potential energy of the negative ion relative to the

Part D What is the electric potential energy of an electron at the negative end of the cable, relative to the positive end of the cable? In other words, assume that the electric potential of the positive terminal is 0 . Enter your answer numerically in joules. ANSWER: = and that of the negative terminal is . Recall that

Part E At the negative terminal of the battery the electron has electric potential energy. What happens to this energy as the electron jumps from the negative to the positive terminal? ANSWER: It disappears. It is converted to kinetic energy. It heats the battery. It increases the potential of the battery. Just as gravitational potential energy is converted to kinetic energy when something falls, electrical potential energy is converted to kinetic energy when a charge goes from a high potential energy state to a low potential energy state. Part F If you wanted to move an electron from the positive to the negative terminal of the battery, how much work Hint F.1 The work done on a charge Formula for work is equal to the product . would you need to do on the electron?

Enter your answer numerically in joules. ANSWER: =

Because moving a negative charge from the positive to the negative terminal of the battery would increase its electric potential energy, it would take positive work to move the charge. This is simliar to lifting a ball upward. You do positive work on the ball to increase its gravitational potential energy.

Electric Potential and Potential Energy

Description: Short quantitative problem on the motion of a charged particle along a line of varying potential and a line of constant potential. Based on Young/Geller Quantitative Analysis 18.2. A particle with charge 4.801019 Part A The particle, initially at rest, is acted upon only by the electric force and moves from point a to point b along the x axis, increasing its kinetic energy by 1.441018 . In what direction and through what potential difference Hint A.1 How to approach the problem does the particle move? is placed on the x axis in a region where the electric potential due to other charges increases in the +x direction but does not change in the y or z direction.

Because no forces other than the electric force act on the particle, the positively charged particle must move in the direction parallel to the electric field, and the field must do positive work on the particle. Recall that when the electric field does positive work on a charged particle, the potential energy of the particle decreases. Thus, the particle must move in the direction in which its potential energy decreases (which is consistent with the fact that the particle's kinetic energy increases as it moves from a to b). Moreover, from the definition of potential and the energy conservation equation, you can directly calculate the potential difference . Hint A.2 The electric potential Electric potential at any point in an electric field is the electric potential energy per unit charge associated with a test charge at that point:

.

Hint A.3

Find the change in potential energy of the particle , as it moves from a to b?

What is the change in potential energy of the particle, Hint A.3.1 Energy conservation

Recall that the total mechanical energy (kinetic plus potential) is conserved. That is, , where the subscripts refer to points a and b, and Hint A.3.2 and are the corresponding kinetic and potential energies.

Find the change in kinetic energy of the particle , as it moves from a to b? Recall that particle is initially at rest, and its kinetic energy at b is 1.441018 .

What is the change in kinetic energy of the particle, Express your answer in joules. ANSWER: =

Express your answer in joules. ANSWER: =

ANSWER:

The particle moves to the left through a potential difference of The particle moves to the left through a potential difference of The particle moves to the right through a potential difference of The particle moves to the right through a potential difference of The particle moves to the left through a potential difference of The particle moves to the right through a potential difference of

3.00 3.00 .

.

3.00 3.00 30.0 30.0 . . .

.

Thus, if no forces other than the electric force act on a positively charged particle, the particle always moves toward a point at lower potential. Part B If the particle moves from point b to point c in the y direction, what is the change in its potential energy, Hint B.1 How to approach the problem ?

Recall that the electric potential increases in the +x direction but does not cha