CN1980046B - Control device of electric motor - Google Patents

Control device of electric motor Download PDF

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Publication number
CN1980046B
CN1980046B CN2006101645856A CN200610164585A CN1980046B CN 1980046 B CN1980046 B CN 1980046B CN 2006101645856 A CN2006101645856 A CN 2006101645856A CN 200610164585 A CN200610164585 A CN 200610164585A CN 1980046 B CN1980046 B CN 1980046B
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
phase
motor
inverter
control
magnetic pole
Prior art date
Application number
CN2006101645856A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN1980046A (en
Inventor
上田贵郎
船山裕治
奥山敦
田村正博
寺内英树
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日立空调·家用电器株式会社
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Priority to JP2005356361A priority Critical patent/JP5193421B2/en
Priority to JP2005-356361 priority
Priority to JP2005356361 priority
Application filed by 日立空调·家用电器株式会社 filed Critical 日立空调·家用电器株式会社
Publication of CN1980046A publication Critical patent/CN1980046A/en
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Publication of CN1980046B publication Critical patent/CN1980046B/en

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Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02PCONTROL OR REGULATION OF ELECTRIC MOTORS, ELECTRIC GENERATORS OR DYNAMO-ELECTRIC CONVERTERS; CONTROLLING TRANSFORMERS, REACTORS OR CHOKE COILS
    • H02P6/00Arrangements for controlling synchronous motors or other dynamo-electric motors using electronic commutation dependent on the rotor position; Electronic commutators therefor
    • H02P6/14Electronic commutators
    • H02P6/16Circuit arrangements for detecting position
    • H02P6/18Circuit arrangements for detecting position without separate position detecting elements
    • H02P6/185Circuit arrangements for detecting position without separate position detecting elements using inductance sensing, e.g. pulse excitation
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02PCONTROL OR REGULATION OF ELECTRIC MOTORS, ELECTRIC GENERATORS OR DYNAMO-ELECTRIC CONVERTERS; CONTROLLING TRANSFORMERS, REACTORS OR CHOKE COILS
    • H02P27/00Arrangements or methods for the control of AC motors characterised by the kind of supply voltage
    • H02P27/04Arrangements or methods for the control of AC motors characterised by the kind of supply voltage using variable-frequency supply voltage, e.g. inverter or converter supply voltage
    • H02P27/06Arrangements or methods for the control of AC motors characterised by the kind of supply voltage using variable-frequency supply voltage, e.g. inverter or converter supply voltage using dc to ac converters or inverters
    • H02P27/08Arrangements or methods for the control of AC motors characterised by the kind of supply voltage using variable-frequency supply voltage, e.g. inverter or converter supply voltage using dc to ac converters or inverters with pulse width modulation

Abstract

An electromotor which is optionally rotated due to interference and the like is controlled in a 180 degree power-on manner, thereby all objects of low cost, space saving, low libration, high efficiency can be realized simultaneously. In an inverter circuit composed of a plurality of switch elements, synthetical current information flowed in three-phase (U phase, V phase, W phase) is detected by a diffluent resistor for overcurrent detection to reproduce an outputted current of an inverter synchronous with a PWM signal, thereby, the 180 degree power-on control of performing driving when usually concluding a magnetic pole position of a rotor is achieved. On the other hand, under a condition that the (wind) electromotor generates racing due to interference, the magnetic pole position, a rotation speed, a rotation direction of the electromotor can be directly detected and the electromotor can be started before the inverter performs switching operation on an inductive voltage generated by the rotation of the electromotor.

Description

Control device of electric motor

Technical field

The present invention relates to a kind of control device of motor, it is in inverter circuit, by three-phase (U phase, V phase, W phase) resultant current being detected by an overcurrent detection resistance, infer position of magnetic pole by the inner calculation of microcomputer, and when driving usually, carry out 180 degree energising controls (sine wave modulation) with the position-sensor-free type of drive.

Background technology

The permanent magnet synchronous motor that possesses p-m rotor and stator winding is because it efficiently thereby be used in household appliances such as air regulator more.The drive controlling of this permanent magnet synchronous motor must connect the phase place of the position of magnetic pole of rotor and motor current nearly and carry out.In recent years, the high efficiency of Motor Control is in continuous progress, the rotor position detecting sensor that does not re-use Hall element etc. carries out rotor magnetic pole position and detects, carry out current detecting, infer position of magnetic pole by the A/D conversion with shunt resistance but adopt, and carry out electric motor driven position-sensor-free type of drive by 180 degree step modes in microcomputer inside by an overcurrent detection.

In washing machine, when regulation unusual taken place, temporarily stop driving based on the motor of inverter in control system, but under the situation of restarting control after this, synchronous motor is because inertia is rotating, and becoming can not regulation motor magnetic pole position.In order to solve such problem, in patent documentation 1, record: come the detection position by setting the motor magnetic pole position transducer, thereby can carry out method of driving based on inverter.

On the other hand, in this patent documentation 1, also on the books for the no sensor drive mode that magnetic pole position sensor is not set.Record: when being absorbed in described state, the fact that the inertia velocity of rotation that utilization has owing to rotor can not descend hastily, the rotational frequency before pseudomemory takes place in advance uses this position to restart running.

Patent documentation 1: the spy opens the 2005-6453 communique

Summary of the invention

Yet, drive under the situation of the synchronous motor of set outdoor fan in the off-premises station of air regulator.Sometimes exist in the situation of optionally rotating owing to the wind-force fan based on before the motor start-up of inverter.In this case, when inferring that in order to a shunt resistance driving of motor is carried out in the no sensor vector control of position of magnetic pole, the deduction of this position of magnetic pole, owing to be that logically to derive the electric current that carries out flowing in the current shunt resistance of the moment of switch at inverter be the control of which type of electric current, so the switch element of inverter not by the state of switch under, can not determine which type of electric current the fixed electric current that is caused by the induced voltage of motor is.In addition, according to prior art, owing to the Motor Control of not carrying out before starting based on inverter, the rotational frequency that can not read before starting is inferred.

Use Hall element in order to improve motor efficiency, carry out position probing and control or with at (U phase, V phase, W phase) three-phase each mode that shunt resistance is set on mutually carry out under the situation of 180 degree step modes, because essential three shunt resistances and three current detection circuits, therefore the number of packages of part increases considerably, the motor control system price becomes costliness, in addition must very big installing space.

The objective of the invention is, a kind of control device of electric motor is provided, it is promptly for being used in the motor there is the possibility that motor optionally rotates owing to disturbing, also can detect the resultant current of (U phase, V phase, W phase) each phase of three-phase with shunt resistance, thereby can be suitable for 180 degree step modes by detecting with an overcurrent.

Described purpose, realize by following method: the control device that a kind of motor is provided, the control device of this motor, the inverter that is used for being made of a plurality of switch element, the motor that drives by this inverter, the variation that is arranged on the resistance of described inverter direct-flow side and is applied to the voltage of this resistance detect the rotor magnetic pole position of described motor, and it is provided with the unit of the line voltage that detects described motor.

In addition, described purpose, realize by following method: the control device that a kind of motor is provided, the control device of this motor, be used for the inverter that constitutes by a plurality of switch element, motor by this inverter driving, the variation that is arranged on the resistance of described inverter direct-flow side and is applied to the voltage of this resistance detects the rotor magnetic pole position of described motor, it is provided with the unit of the line voltage that detects described motor, detects the rotation direction of the rotor of described motor before the driving based on the described motor of the switch of described inverter, velocity of rotation and position of magnetic pole.

By the present invention, a kind of control device of motor can be provided, even it is for being used in the motor there is the possibility that motor optionally rotates owing to disturbing, also can be by detecting the resultant current that detects (U phase, V phase, W phase) each phase of three-phase with shunt resistance with overcurrent, thus applicable 180 degree step modes.

Description of drawings

Fig. 1 is the current detecting of a shunt resistance and the block diagram of the control device of electric motor that induced voltage detects.

Fig. 2 is the outdoor location figure of air conditioner.

Fig. 3 is the schematic diagram of the difference of 180 degree step modes and 120 degree step modes.

Fig. 4 carries out the circuit diagram that induced voltage detects with AD port one port.

Fig. 5 is the flow chart of a shunt+position probing Motor Control.

Fig. 6 is the figure of the principle of explanation induced voltage detection.

Fig. 7 is the schematic diagram of the detection waveform of induced voltage.

Symbol description

1 ... DC power supply, 2 ... inverter circuit, 3 ... synchronous motor, 4 ... control circuit 4a ... microcomputer, 5 ... shunt resistance, 6 ... fan motor support, 7 ... fan, 8 fan motors, 9 ... electric product

Embodiment

Below, use Fig. 1~Fig. 5, the embodiment of the control device that uses permanent magnet synchronous motor of the present invention is described.

In the middle of Fig. 2 of the off-premises station of representing air conditioner, off-premises station is owing to be arranged on outdoor and wind and weather.Therefore, though drive fan motor 8 not, fan 7 box hauls and just changeing or reverse, according to wind speed with various rotational speed.

On the other hand, must make miniaturization of off-premises station device own and realization low-cost.Therefore, the electric product of lift-launch also must be made cheapness and electric product efficiently in limited little space.Therefore use such method: promptly the control mode of outdoor fan motor 8 detects by an overcurrent as shown in Figure 1 and use shunt resistance, the method that the resultant current that inverter module (U phase, V phase, W phase) 3 is respectively flow through in mutually mutually detects.Thus, do not need to be provided with magnetic pole position sensor or current detecting resistance is set in mutually in each of motor.Amplify electric current after synthetic by the differential amplifier that constitutes by operational amplifier and several resistance, and this value is input to the A/D port of microcomputer, like this, carry out the A/D conversion in microcomputer inside, reappear motor current by this value.

The details of control is, the phase place that does not flow through direct current in microcomputer inside is also carried out the A/D conversion, this result is made up with the A/D transformation result that flows through in the phase place of direct current, remove the offset voltage that comprises in the output of dc detection circuit, for the pulse amplitude that enlarges the pulse amplitude that can detect pwm signal makes carrier frequency variation, combine with motor current in addition from the direct current information playback that before obtained, infer current time inverter output current and control.Shown in the no sensor operation portion as shown in Figure 5, in (S13), detect the resultant current that detects three-phase with shunt resistance at microcomputer A/D conversion port from an overcurrent, in (S14), carry out the A/D conversion, in (S9), reappear motor current in microcomputer inside.In (S11), will be input to driver according to the pwm signal that the electric electromechanics stream information after this reproduction takes place in (S10), control inverter module in (S12).In this method, when driving usually,, control so just can spend step modes (Fig. 3) by 180 owing to needn't carry out position probing.In 180 degree step modes, carry out method of driving sinusoidal voltage is applied to the motor winding, motor current is changed smoothly, thereby can realize high efficiency so power of electric motor is improved significantly, the pulsation of the motor output torque of the change of current generation of switching on does not take place to spend along with 150 degree or 120.Thus, realized the reduction of noise and vibration.

Usually can only carry out motor driven, but under the situation of the outdoor fan motor 8 of air conditioner with this control mode, exist in start before because the situation of the state that the interference fan of wind etc. arbitrarily rotates.Under this situation,, therefore can not only carry out motor driven with this control owing to do not judge the phase place and the rotational frequency of the rotor when starting.

Therefore, the circuit by the induced voltage that appends before inverter circuit 2 carries out switch synchronous motor 3 detects comes rotor magnetic pole position, velocity of rotation, rotation direction are detected.Thus, even when starting, disturbed the velocity of rotation that also can control to expectation.

Method for detecting magnetic pole position, at present, adopt several method, for example in the public clear 59-36519 communique of spy, by being converted to for induced voltage by No. 1 filter and having three triangular signals of the phase relations of 90 degree haply owing to motor rotates the induced voltage that takes place, make this three triangular signal conductings in the resistance of Y-connection, with comparator the neutral point voltage of Y-connection and these triangular signals are carried out size relatively, carry out motor driven control according to the pulse signal that obtains from comparator.

Here, under the lower situation of the revolution of motor, there is the big problem of phase difference variable utilizing a filtering to detect under the situation of induced voltage, open in the 2000-14187 communique the spy, for making the voltage that compares by comparator stable, with 1/2 voltage ratio of DC power supply voltage, form the rotor magnetic pole position detection signal of each phase, carry out motor driven control.

But under any circumstance, all be to adopt 120 degree step modes or 150 degree step modes, at the position detecting circuit that does not have on the energising interval by shown in above induced voltage between line is detected, the position of magnetic pole that when starting and usually carries out rotor during running detects and controls.In 120 degree energisings or 150 degree step modes, do not have the energising interval be present in each quite in.During startup, therefore inverter module is not opened can detect induced voltage.In driving usually, can detect the induced voltage that rotation produced of the motor that takes place in the phase (not having the phase in the energising interval) that does not flow through by electric current.The position of magnetic pole detection of detection rotor, velocity of rotation, rotation direction and carry out Motor Control like this.

In the present embodiment, the testing circuit of induced voltage, make such mode: behind the A/D of the microcomputer port induced voltage that directly input takes place in (U phase, V phase, W phase) three-phase, carry out the A/D conversion in microcomputer inside, thus, according to the motor current that reappears, the rotor magnetic pole position of calculating motor, velocity of rotation, rotation direction.

But, under the situation of the number deficiency of the A/D of microcomputer 4a port, can detect with an A/D port by using triode and diode by circuit as shown in Figure 4.

Using Fig. 6 to come that it is detected principle describes.Even make owing to wind-force that fan rotates, synchronous motor 3 optionally rotationally under the situation, produces induced voltage because the magnet of rotor crosses stator winding, because this voltage is mobile by inverter circuit 2 electric currents.For example, producing under the voltage condition as shown, from the electric current of U phase winding backflow diode, power supply, the shunt resistance by the U phase of inverter, the backflow diode of the W phase of flowing through underarm arrives the W phase winding.Equally, from the electric current of V phase winding, the backflow diode of the backflow diode of the V phase by inverter, power supply, shunt resistance, W phase underarm arrives the W phase winding.

At this moment, triode Tr1, Tr2, Tr3 are only made a shutoff with the order of regulation.That is to say that two other is in conducting state.Carry out this operation with the frequency also enough bigger than the rotational frequency of synchronous motor 3.Therefore, turn-off in turn under the situation of action, can detect induced voltage haply in this moment with the order of Tr1, Tr2, Tr3.

In the middle of Fig. 4, Fig. 6, can detect by the diode of D1 and with the A/D port if Tr1 is carried out the induced voltage Vun of the U phase that detects by R1 under the situation of OFF operation by the I/O port.At this moment, the W of synchronous motor 3 become mutually reference voltage () the synthetic induced voltage of W phase winding and U phase winding is detected.When then Tr1 conducting Tr2 being turn-offed, the terminal of W phase is become the W phase winding of reference voltage and the synthetic induced voltage of V phase winding detects.Next, when Tr2 conducting Tr3 was turn-offed, not flow through current detecting in detecting resistance R 1 be 0 voltage to this current potential owing to the backflow diode current flow of the W phase underarm of inverter circuit 2 becomes earth potential.Under this state, in Fig. 7 (a), be 270 spend to 30 the degree during.The reason that has two crests in the voltage waveform of each phase is, in Fig. 7 (b), spend to 30 degree from 270 and to be negative pole, for example, be anodal U mutually in the voltage of appearance, be the resultant voltage of W phase winding and U phase winding, so can detection line voltage.The terminal of W phase is an earthing potential, is benchmaring line voltage with this ground connection, so reference potential changed with time of the W phase terminal voltage of synchronous motor 3.That is,, so shown in Fig. 7 (a), change as U phase, the V phase terminal voltage of resultant voltage because the W phase terminal voltage that will change with sine wave is as 0 current potential.

By the ON of triode, the action of OFF are switched at a high speed, just can detect the instantaneous induced voltage of three-phase like this,, depict the such curve chart of Fig. 7 (a) by the induced voltage of this three-phase is followed the tracks of with an A/D port.Thus, can detect rotation direction, velocity of rotation, the position of magnetic pole of rotor.

Rotation direction can be differentiated by the appearance order of UVW, and velocity of rotation can be differentiated by the frequency of these waveforms, and position of magnetic pole can be differentiated by phase place separately.

This flow process is described according to Fig. 5.At position detection part detection line induced voltage in (S1), in (S2), noise filter is set and removes noise by reinforced concrete structure.Though be the testing circuit that can reduce noise fully, limited with the noise that filter can be removed, so residual in the induced voltage that detects have the detected data of noise may have certain deviation.Therefore the detected value below the certain value is judged to be noise, so that do not judge by accident disconnected.

In addition, (S6) carry out α, the β transformation calculations voltage-phase of voltage at (S5).From these data, calculate (S7) phase difference, and direction of rotation is judged as (S3) this phase place total value Δ φ sum be under the positive situation just change state, be in halted state under 0 the situation, for being in inverted status under the negative situation.From the decision content of (S3) and calculated value (S6), determine rotor phase at (S8).Decision content according to (S3) carries out periodic transformation at (S4) in addition, detects revolution.Here the revolution of Ji Suaning be judged as stop or the situation of some rotation under, carry out the location of rotor, the position of rotor is carried out once starting after fixing.The rotation direction of Ji Suaning is judged as under the situation of counter-rotating in addition, brakes by control, move to just change and with the expectation revolution drive.

The rotation direction of Ji Suaning is judged as under the situation of just changeing in addition, once all need not stop in this wise in conjunction with the position of rotor and begins the PWM energising, and drive with the revolution of expectation.

Adopt this overcurrent to detect current detecting mode and the induced voltage mode of using shunt resistance by combination, just can realize such motor drive circuit: promptly the outdoor fan motor that might dally owing to disturb of air conditioner can be controlled at the velocity of rotation of expectation with less real dress space, cheapness and high efficiency, the mode of low vibration.

As the explanation in the above present embodiment, in this control mode when common running, carry out 180 degree energising controls by the resultant current that detects (U phase, V phase, W phase) each phase of three-phase with a shunt resistance, owing to disturb fan optionally rotationally in the state, only carry out induced voltage and detect when starting before inverter carries out switch, calculating rotor magnetic pole position, slewing circle circular velocity, rotation direction are also carried out 180 in conjunction with its phase place and are spent energising control.

For being used in the motor that has the purposes of idle running possibility owing to rotors such as described interference, by to (U phase, the V phase, the W phase) mode that the electric current after each electric current that flows through in mutually of three-phase synthesize detects with shunt resistance by an overcurrent detection, with only when starting, before inverter carries out switch, carry out induced voltage and detect, calculate rotor magnetic pole position, the slewing circle circular velocity, the method of motor control that the dual mode of rotation direction makes up has to be controlled to and can be installed in less space, cheapness and high efficiency, the effect of the velocity of rotation of low vibration-stable setting in motion and expectation.

In addition, in Fig. 1, the reason that detects induced voltage and be converted into electric current is that the vector control with 180 degree energisings generate motor current originally, utilize it to grasp the motion of the rotor of induced voltage.

In addition, above under owing to the situation of rotors such as interference idle running, detecting in order to carry out rotor magnetic pole position, the induced voltage of the three-phase (U phase, V phase, W phase) that produces is illustrated in the mode that 1 port of the A/D port of microcomputer detects, even if but the induced voltage of three-phase (U phase, V phase, W phase) is directly inputted to the A/D port, carry out the A/D conversion in microcomputer inside and also have same effect.

Claims (1)

1. the control device of a motor is used for inverter institute drive electric motor, and described inverter is made of a plurality of switch elements, at described inverter direct-flow side one resistance is set, the variation of the voltage by being applied to this resistance detects the rotor magnetic pole position of described motor, it is characterized in that
Be provided with the unit of the line voltage that detects described motor, before the driving of the described motor that carries out switch by described inverter, detect rotation direction, velocity of rotation and the position of magnetic pole of the rotor of described motor, thereby can be suitable for 180 degree step modes.
CN2006101645856A 2005-12-09 2006-12-07 Control device of electric motor CN1980046B (en)

Priority Applications (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
JP2005356361A JP5193421B2 (en) 2005-12-09 2005-12-09 Electric motor control device
JP2005-356361 2005-12-09
JP2005356361 2005-12-09

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CN1980046B true CN1980046B (en) 2010-05-19

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JP5193421B2 (en) 2013-05-08
TWI333321B (en) 2010-11-11
TW200735518A (en) 2007-09-16
KR100796116B1 (en) 2008-01-21
JP2007166695A (en) 2007-06-28
CN1980046A (en) 2007-06-13

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Effective date of registration: 20160818

Address after: Hongkong, China

Patentee after: Johnson Controls Hitachi air conditioning technology (Hongkong) Co., Ltd.

Address before: Tokyo, Japan, Japan

Patentee before: Hitachi Appliances Inc.

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TR01 Transfer of patent right

Effective date of registration: 20180615

Address after: Tokyo, Japan, Japan

Patentee after: Hitachi Johnson Controls Air Conditioning Co., Ltd.

Address before: Hongkong, China

Patentee before: Johnson Controls Hitachi air conditioning technology (Hongkong) Co., Ltd.