CN1963878A - Intelligence inspection prewarning forecasting apparatus for fire of high-rise building - Google Patents

Intelligence inspection prewarning forecasting apparatus for fire of high-rise building Download PDF

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Publication number
CN1963878A
CN1963878A CN 200610123788 CN200610123788A CN1963878A CN 1963878 A CN1963878 A CN 1963878A CN 200610123788 CN200610123788 CN 200610123788 CN 200610123788 A CN200610123788 A CN 200610123788A CN 1963878 A CN1963878 A CN 1963878A
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China
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fire
rise building
intelligence inspection
forecasting
control unit
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CN 200610123788
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Chinese (zh)
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张小英
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South China University of Technology SCUT
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South China University of Technology SCUT
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Priority to CN 200610123788 priority Critical patent/CN1963878A/en
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Abstract

This invention discloses one high architecture fire intelligent monitor pre-alarm device, which comprises fire signal detector, signal transmission device, data manager, first alarm and controller, wherein, the said data manager one end is connected to fire signal detector through A/D converter with other end connected to fire alarm controller through signal transmission device; the fire alarm controller is connected to alarm device through A/D converter.

Description

Intelligence inspection prewarning forecasting apparatus for fire of high-rise building
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of fire monitoring early-warning and predicting device, specifically be meant a kind of intelligence inspection prewarning forecasting apparatus for fire of high-rise building with self-learning function.
Background technology
Along with developing rapidly of urban economy construction, improving constantly and all other causes flourishing of living standards of the people, the urban land growing tension, promote that buildings just develops towards high stratification, densification direction, the finishing materials and the mode of buildings also become more diverse, along with the increasing of power load and coal gas consumption, design has proposed higher, stricter requirement to automatic fire alarm system.The fire of skyscraper has: therefore the characteristics that fire spreading is fast, evacuating personnel is difficult, the difficulty of putting out a fire to save life and property big, fire hidden danger is many have harmfulness.For guaranteeing the safety of people's lives and properties, the automatic fire alarm system design just becomes one of important contents in the high-rise building design.Use high-quality advanced person's fire monitoring early-warning and predicting device, accurately judge fire location, and predict accurately whether burning things which may cause a fire disaster can develop into fire, and fire rank and development degree are predicted, be convenient to put out a fire to save life and property timely, be even more important guaranteeing the skyscraper operation security.
Fire is a kind of combustion phenomena out of control on space-time, the current accuracy and the promptness that will improve the fire of high-rise building early warning, what lack most is to the mechanism research of this complex object phenomenon of fire with to fire the method for making accurately, in time judging to take place, develops.For the form of expression of ordinary combustible matter burning, at first be to produce burning gases, be to discharge smog then, under the sufficient condition of oxygen supply, just can reach burning, produce flame, and give out a large amount of heat, environment temperature is raise.Therefore condition of a fire development as a rule, always from the beginning of long with shared time in the stage of glowing, this moment, the destructiveness of fire did not reach maximum, if can carry out early warning and control to fire early, just can avoid the generation of serious the condition of a disaster effectively.
In present fire of high-rise building inspection prewarning forecasting apparatus, usually adopt single sense cigarette type sensor, temperature-sensitive optical cable or CCD (computer control demonstration video camera), its shortcoming is: not strong to high building structure and fire characteristics specific aim, monitoring means is single, poor reliability, as feel cigarette type sensor and can't survey the flame that the alcohol burning produces, the temperature-sensitive sensor then is difficult for finding smoldering fire, ccd video camera can't be distinguished the difference of mobile high temp objects and fire, fails to report the police thereby may produce; Simultaneously, existing sensitization, sense cigarette, temperature sensitive type Detection Techniques can only be surveyed flame or fire and occur in some search coverage, and can't determine the definite position that fire takes place, and in addition owing to the interference of environment, the situation of omission, wrong report also usually occurs.
Summary of the invention
The objective of the invention is to overcome the shortcomings and deficiencies that existing fire of high-rise building inspection prewarning forecasting apparatus exists, provide a kind of based on artificial intelligence and fuzzy control technology, have self-learning function, intelligence inspection prewarning forecasting apparatus for fire of high-rise building accurately and efficiently.
A kind of intelligence inspection prewarning forecasting apparatus for fire of high-rise building, comprise fire signal detector, apparatus for transmitting signal, data management system, fire alarm control unit and panalarm, one end of described data management system is connected with fire signal detector by analog to digital converter, the other end is connected with fire alarm control unit by apparatus for transmitting signal, and described fire alarm control unit is connected with panalarm by digital to analog converter.
Described data management system is a computing machine, comprises database, data processor two parts; Described data management system is connected with skyscraper system ventilation heat exchange measurement mechanism; Described fire signal detector is ionic smoke sensor, gas sensor and/or temperature sensor; Described fire alarm control unit also comprises manual pull station; Described panalarm comprises fire-fighting link, fire broadcast, Fire telephone, emergency lighting and alarm logging equipment.
The present invention compares with the early warning technology of existing building fire, has following advantage and effect:
(1) data transfer adopts multiple priority networks to lead to the speech technology, new fire alarm signal under any one node machine always has highest priority, guarantee that it is sent to the fire-fighting control system prior to other event signals, in conjunction with the computing machine parallel processing technique, the reaction time of assurance system is short, and travelling speed is fast;
(2) the fire alarm rank that takes place of utilization fuzzy neural network technology prediction fire of high-rise building, the retrieval system that will predict the outcome is utilized the self-learning capability of neural network, constantly revises sample set and decision rule, realizes the high fault tolerance and the intellectuality of system;
(3) introduce nonlinear kinetics fire of high-rise building mechanism is carried out basic theory, set up the fire of high-rise building model in the different structure characteristics, according to signals such as on-the-spot detecting temperature, gas flow rate, flue gas concentration, pressure the complicacy and the uncertainty of fire are carried out quantitative Analysis, analyze the current condition of a fire and fire development trend, for the rescue and fire-fighting work strong theoretical foundation is provided, strengthen the reliability and the science of early warning system greatly.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is a structural representation of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is the schematic diagram that data processor shown in Figure 1 is judged the fire the condition of a disaster;
Fig. 3 the present invention judges whether fire takes place and Positioning Principle figure;
Fig. 4 the present invention predicts the Nonlinear Processing process synoptic diagram of the condition of a disaster development.
Embodiment
The present invention is described in further detail below in conjunction with embodiment and accompanying drawing.
As shown in Figure 1, intelligence inspection prewarning forecasting apparatus for fire of high-rise building of the present invention comprises fire signal detector 1, fire signal detector 2, analog to digital converter 3, data management system 4, monitor 5, apparatus for transmitting signal 6, fire alarm control unit 7, digital to analog converter 8, panalarm 9.
Data management system 4 realizes that by computing machine it is interconnected and formed by data processor 4-1, database 4-2 two parts; Fire signal detector 1,2 can be ionic smoke sensor, gas sensor, temperature sensor or flame photo-detector, also can be the combination of ionic smoke sensor, gas sensor or temperature sensor and flame photo-detector; Data processor 4-1 is connected with fire signal detector 1,2 by analog to digital converter 3, and data processor 4-1 is connected respectively with monitor 5, skyscraper system ventilation heat exchange measurement mechanism 10; Data processor 4-1 also is connected with fire alarm control unit 7 by apparatus for transmitting signal 6, fire alarm control unit 7 is connected with panalarm 9 by digital to analog converter 8, fire alarm control unit 7 is provided with manual pull station 11, and panalarm 9 comprises equipment such as the fire-fighting link 9-1, the fire broadcast 9-2 that have equipped in the skyscraper building, Fire telephone 9-3, emergency lighting 9-4, alarm logging 9-5.Fire signal detector can adopt HST8110 intelligent opto-electrical smoke detector, HST8120 intelligence temperature-sensitive detection device, the smoke and temperature inductive combined detection device of HST8130 intelligence, the compound detection device of HST8140 intelligence smoke-temperature sensing CO.
The present invention adopts fuzzy neural network, the fire signal that utilizes detector, investigation, experiment, Theoretical Calculation to obtain is formed training sample set, train with fuzzy neural network technology, form the fire disaster intelligently prior-warning device that has high fault tolerance, complicated mode classification and debate knowledge.As shown in Figure 2, the detection neural network of the present invention's design, its formation comprises three input neurons, five hidden neurons and three output neurons.Three IN1, the IN2 on the left side, IN3 are input layer, and smog, temperature and three signals of gas of sending of fire detector are transformed normalizing to [0,1] in actual applications, pass to input layer again; Three OT1 in the right, OT2, OT3 are output layer, represent fire probability respectively, fire probability, smoldering fire probability, the output valve scope also is [0,1]; IM1~IM5 between the input and output layer is for hiding layer, and input signal is delivered to output layer again after hiding layer.Respectively have 15 to be connected arc between IN (I) and IM (J) and OT (K), its weights are respectively Wij, Vjk.Summation from the input layer to the middle layer is defined as NET1 (j):
NET 1 ( j ) = Σ M ( INi · W ij )
NET1 (j) duration is that the output of hidden layer is transformed into [0,1] with the Sigmoid function;
IMj = 1 1 + exp [ - NET 1 ( j ) · r 1 ] Similar have the middle layer to be defined as NET2 (k) to the summation of output layer:
NET 2 ( k ) = Σ j = 1 N ( IMj · V jk )
Equally, NET2 (k) also is switched to [0,1]:
OTK = 1 1 + exp [ - NRT 2 ( k ) · r 2 ]
The effect of r1 and r2 is a coefficient of revising Sigmoid function curve degree of tilt, is taken as 1.0 and 1.2 usually respectively.In this fire detecting system, use the study definition list of 12 kinds of patterns, as shown in the table.
Table self study definition
Numbering Input Output
Smoke detector Heat detector Gas detector Fire probability The fire probability The smoldering fire probability
D R D R D R
1 0.1 0 1 0.7 0.661 0.6 0.702 0.9 0.802
2 0.3 0.5 1 0.9 0.885 0.9 0.889 0.1 0.037
3 0.1 0 0.2 0.3 0.254 0.2 0.187 0.4 0.289
4 0.5 0.1 0.8 0.8 0.829 0.8 0.786 0.7 0.722
5 0 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.094 0.1 0.098 0.1 0
6 0 0 1 0.4 0.453 0.7 0.588 0.3 0.376
7 0 1 0 0.2 0.190 0.3 0.307 0.05 0
8 0.3 0.2 0.5 0.7 0.781 0.6 0.701 0.3 0.247
9 0.6 0.8 0.8 0.95 0.902 0.95 0.904 0.05 0.073
10 0.2 0 0.3 0.6 0.542 0.4 0.431 0.75 0.756
11 0.1 0 0.1 0.1 0.189 0.05 0.119 0.1 0.205
12 0.4 0.2 0 0.7 0.714 0.65 0.529 0.2 0.260
Like this, the square error E of m input pattern mCan be expressed as with the square error summation E of 12 kinds of patterns:
E m = Σ k = 1 3 1 2 ( O T k - T k ) 2
With E = Σ m = 1 12 ( E m )
Regulate weights Wij, Vjk makes E reach minimum, has promptly finished the neural network learning process.After determining weights, the neural network input layer begins the potential value of pick-up probe, according to the method described above output valve being calculated, is that the smoldering fire probability compares with fire probability, fire probability respectively with the numerical value that calculates, and makes the judgement of whether breaking out of fire at last.As shown in Figure 3, fire signal (as cigarette, temperature etc.) is surveyed numerical value through digital to analog converter 3 conversions, enter the fuzzy neural network computing module 4-1-1 of data processor 4-1, carry out the fuzzy diagnosis of condition of a fire size, the judgement signal B (0 or 1) whether recognition result output can breaking out of fire.
The differentiation result of the variation meeting interference monitoring instrument of environmental factors such as skyscraper mesoclimate, heat flux, natural light, wherein because difference between the differentiation output signal A that causes of the neural network error of calculation and the B, the study that the present invention adopts neural network that the result is differentiated in artificial supervision is improved, and realizes self study and adaptation function.
Fire of high-rise building is one on the one hand and is subjected to multiple factor affecting, complicated nonlinear characteristic, pyrolysis in the fire, on the other hand, although be subjected to the influence of numerous hot disaster factors, embody complicacy, but under similar environment and condition, but the generation of fire can embody similar rule with evolution.The skyscraper building can be divided into Zhongting, room, staircase, these several space-likes of elevator usually, building materials, structure, space characteristics, heat exchange air exchange system all design according to its standard-required in each space-like, thereby have similar burning situation with the space-like.Based on the understanding to skyscraper architectural feature and combustion process, the method that the present invention adopts nonlinear model and pattern-recognition to combine is predicted the development of fire in the skyscraper.According to the dissimilar spaces of skyscraper architectural feature, set up volatile matter pyrolysis and combustion model, combustible Hong combustion model, flame propagation model, fire spread model, the chaotic model of flue gas plume and the coupling map grid pattern that flue gas spreads, thereby construct the fire prediction model of considering various correlative factors.At dissimilar spaces,, accumulated relevant feature respectively, constituted the fire development set of patterns, be stored in the basic data of fire, sorted out, be stored among the fire data base 4-2 fundamental research, laboratory experiment, Field Research and numerical simulation.
As shown in Figure 4, the simulating signal that fire signal detector obtains is transferred to the fire development prediction module 4-1-3 of data processor 4-1 by analog to digital converter 3, the ventilation heat exchange parameter that skyscraper system ventilation heat exchange measurement mechanism 10 records also is transferred to fire development prediction module 4-1-3 by data-interface.When data processor 4-1 detects the fire generation, by addressing, obtain the particular location that fire takes place, and positioning signal is transferred to fire development prediction module 4-1-3 monitor signal.Fire development prediction module 4-1-3 is by this positioning signal, characterize the detectable signal of current fire development degree: temperature, pressure, flue gas concentration, gas ingredients and ventilation condition, inquiry the type skyscraper space fire reference pattern collection in database 4-2, carry out pattern relatively, analyze current fire and be belong to glow, fire initial stage or belong to the big fire category.Then these detectable signals are imported into corresponding nonlinear prediction computation model, by volatile matter pyrolysis and combustion model, combustible Hong combustion model, flame propagation model, fire spread model, the chaotic model of flue gas plume and the coupling map grid pattern that flue gas spreads, real-time estimate is carried out in the development of fire.Predicting the outcome of pattern comparison and fire development, and the database 4-2 respective handling decision-making of storage in advance all is presented on the monitor 5.Simultaneously, the development degree of current fire characteristic signal and fire feeds back to database 4-2, replenishes the reference pattern collection.
Because fire phenomena has polytrope, some physical quantity is subjected to the influence of other factors of environment, instantaneous value shows certain randomness, thereby make actual detection to signal be difficult to and the pattern that provides fits like a glove, therefore, pattern has relatively adopted the method for fuzzy diagnosis among the present invention, judges by the approach degree size of object to be monitored and known mode.
In sum, the present invention designs and uses advanced detection algorithm and fire mode identification method to judge fire information, is the intelligent fire detection alarm system with " higher intelligence ", and its principle of work is:
With the temperature that the detector scene is surveyed and investigation obtains, pressure, flue gas, data such as gas ingredients are imported fire of high-rise building data management system 4 to signal through analog to digital converter, send the physical quantity signal change procedure to fire alarm control unit 7 through apparatus for transmitting signal 6 again, the fire of high-rise building reference pattern that physical quantity signal change procedure and native system are set up compares, obtain prediction case after the contrast to the fire of high-rise building the condition of a disaster, make the judgement whether fire takes place, whether provide fire alarm signal according to this judgement decision again, judging has after the fire alarm, fire alarm is passed to panalarm 9 through digital to analog converter, and fire department is carried out the work of putting out a fire to save life and property after receiving fire alarm.Artificially fire alarm control unit 7 is made a response by manual fire alarm call point 11 alarm is implemented effectively, judgement of fire the condition of a disaster and fire alarm accuracy rate that device is made each time feed back to fire of high-rise building data management system 4 through analog to digital converter, artificial neural network technology carries out self study with feedback data, constantly revise sample set and decision rule, and then improve the forest fire reference pattern; The deposit data that feeds back at last is in fire data base 4-2, as the basic data of later fire of high-rise building differentiation.The fire of high-rise building database that the design uses the non-linear mechanism of fire, fuzzy theory and artificial neural network technology to combine and set up, have the ability of self study and the process of Knowledge Discovery, obtain high training sample set of reliable fault-tolerance and decision rule, constantly the oneself replenishes and is perfect, help the mechanism research of fire of high-rise building and improve the intelligentized degree of fire alarm, improve accuracy, promptness and the reliability of fire of high-rise building fire alarm greatly.

Claims (6)

1, a kind of intelligence inspection prewarning forecasting apparatus for fire of high-rise building, it is characterized in that comprising fire signal detector, apparatus for transmitting signal, data management system, fire alarm control unit and panalarm, one end of described data management system is connected with fire signal detector by analog to digital converter, the other end is connected with fire alarm control unit by apparatus for transmitting signal, and described fire alarm control unit is connected with panalarm by digital to analog converter.
2, a kind of intelligence inspection prewarning forecasting apparatus for fire of high-rise building according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: described data management system is a computing machine, comprises database, data processor two parts.
3, a kind of intelligence inspection prewarning forecasting apparatus for fire of high-rise building according to claim 1 and 2 is characterized in that: described data management system is connected with skyscraper system ventilation heat exchange measurement mechanism.
4, a kind of intelligence inspection prewarning forecasting apparatus for fire of high-rise building according to claim 3 is characterized in that: described fire signal detector is ionic smoke sensor, gas sensor and/or temperature sensor.
5, a kind of intelligence inspection prewarning forecasting apparatus for fire of high-rise building according to claim 4, it is characterized in that: described fire alarm control unit also comprises manual pull station.
6, a kind of intelligence inspection prewarning forecasting apparatus for fire of high-rise building according to claim 5 is characterized in that: described panalarm comprises fire-fighting link, fire broadcast, Fire telephone, emergency lighting and alarm logging equipment.
CN 200610123788 2006-11-27 2006-11-27 Intelligence inspection prewarning forecasting apparatus for fire of high-rise building Pending CN1963878A (en)

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Cited By (14)

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CN101251942B (en) * 2008-03-14 2010-04-21 华南理工大学 Underground space fire intelligent detection early alarming and forecasting method and apparatus
CN101972535A (en) * 2010-02-09 2011-02-16 丁增辉 Comprehensive fire control system and method for simulative neural network
CN101719299B (en) * 2009-11-10 2012-03-28 天津市浦海新技术有限公司 Alarm system and method for fire and combustible gas
CN103369004A (en) * 2012-03-30 2013-10-23 罗宁 Method for carrying out security monitoring and resource management on building by using human sensors
CN102033001B (en) * 2009-09-24 2015-04-15 北京化工大学 Automatic gas sampling process and device thereof at site of accident
CN105809874A (en) * 2016-04-27 2016-07-27 武汉理工大学 Stage fire monitoring system and work method thereof
CN106251562A (en) * 2016-08-29 2016-12-21 无锡卓信信息科技股份有限公司 A kind of intelligent building firefighting monitoring system
CN106355815A (en) * 2016-08-29 2017-01-25 无锡卓信信息科技股份有限公司 Intelligent building fire protection monitoring system based on sensor network
CN106837421A (en) * 2017-01-06 2017-06-13 辽宁科技学院 A kind of mine air prediction and high-temperature mine method
WO2017181316A1 (en) * 2016-04-18 2017-10-26 汤美 Campus dormitory monitoring and fire protection system
CN107767613A (en) * 2017-09-30 2018-03-06 吉林建筑大学 A kind of universal fire-fighting control device and method
CN108022386A (en) * 2017-12-14 2018-05-11 大连理创科技有限公司 A kind of building safety-protection system with escape instruction
CN108062839A (en) * 2017-12-14 2018-05-22 大连理创科技有限公司 A kind of building safety protection method with escape instruction
CN110188115A (en) * 2019-04-19 2019-08-30 特斯联(北京)科技有限公司 A kind of fire-fighting method for early warning, apparatus and system based on fuzzy matching

Cited By (16)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN101251942B (en) * 2008-03-14 2010-04-21 华南理工大学 Underground space fire intelligent detection early alarming and forecasting method and apparatus
CN102033001B (en) * 2009-09-24 2015-04-15 北京化工大学 Automatic gas sampling process and device thereof at site of accident
CN101719299B (en) * 2009-11-10 2012-03-28 天津市浦海新技术有限公司 Alarm system and method for fire and combustible gas
CN101972535A (en) * 2010-02-09 2011-02-16 丁增辉 Comprehensive fire control system and method for simulative neural network
CN103369004A (en) * 2012-03-30 2013-10-23 罗宁 Method for carrying out security monitoring and resource management on building by using human sensors
WO2017181316A1 (en) * 2016-04-18 2017-10-26 汤美 Campus dormitory monitoring and fire protection system
CN105809874B (en) * 2016-04-27 2018-05-04 武汉理工大学 A kind of stage fire hazard monitoring system and its method of work
CN105809874A (en) * 2016-04-27 2016-07-27 武汉理工大学 Stage fire monitoring system and work method thereof
CN106251562A (en) * 2016-08-29 2016-12-21 无锡卓信信息科技股份有限公司 A kind of intelligent building firefighting monitoring system
CN106355815A (en) * 2016-08-29 2017-01-25 无锡卓信信息科技股份有限公司 Intelligent building fire protection monitoring system based on sensor network
CN106837421A (en) * 2017-01-06 2017-06-13 辽宁科技学院 A kind of mine air prediction and high-temperature mine method
CN107767613A (en) * 2017-09-30 2018-03-06 吉林建筑大学 A kind of universal fire-fighting control device and method
CN108022386A (en) * 2017-12-14 2018-05-11 大连理创科技有限公司 A kind of building safety-protection system with escape instruction
CN108062839A (en) * 2017-12-14 2018-05-22 大连理创科技有限公司 A kind of building safety protection method with escape instruction
CN110188115A (en) * 2019-04-19 2019-08-30 特斯联(北京)科技有限公司 A kind of fire-fighting method for early warning, apparatus and system based on fuzzy matching
CN110188115B (en) * 2019-04-19 2020-05-12 特斯联(北京)科技有限公司 Fire-fighting early warning method, device and system based on fuzzy matching

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