CN1837778A - Method for in-situ detection of aerosol particle concentration and detector thereof - Google Patents

Method for in-situ detection of aerosol particle concentration and detector thereof Download PDF

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CN1837778A
CN1837778A CN 200610200381 CN200610200381A CN1837778A CN 1837778 A CN1837778 A CN 1837778A CN 200610200381 CN200610200381 CN 200610200381 CN 200610200381 A CN200610200381 A CN 200610200381A CN 1837778 A CN1837778 A CN 1837778A
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voltage
electrode
positive
corona
aerosol particle
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CN100592070C (en
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何宗彦
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Tianjin Blue Technology Co. Ltd.
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何宗彦
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Abstract

This invention relates to a method for in-situ detection of aerosol particle concentration and detector thereof. <0}Wherein, putting the pipe-shaped probe with a positive/negative high voltage electrode metal wire for forming at least one corona field into the airflow with aerosol particle; forcing the gas flow the firmer field to let partial aerosol particles bring negative charge; in the corona field, depositing the charged particles on the positive electrode; detecting the current or voltage variation of the circuit connected with the positive electrode; comparing the detection data with standard or conventional result for scaling and the corresponding relation curve or empirical formula; finally, getting the particle concentration. This invention has wide application.

Description

The method of in-situ detection of aerosol particle concentration and detector thereof
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of detection method and pick-up unit thereof of particulate.
Background technology
Particulate is meant and is suspended in atmosphere or airborne diameter solid or the liquid particle from 1 micron to up to a hundred microns of less thaies.Generally be the result that nature produces (as volcanic explosion and sandstorm) or human activity.The latter's composition can roughly be divided three classes: sulfate aerosol, the black smoke that biomass combustion gasoloid and combustion of fossil fuel produce.Gasoloid is very big to human lives's influence.Most of air pollutions are all relevant with gasoloid.No matter be the flue dust of the one-tenth ton meter of cogeneration plant's generation, the oil smoke gasoloid that the cooking of the still smog of ten hundreds of vehicular emissions, and dining room produces all can cause damage to people's the breathing and the circulation system.With the latter is example, when cooking temp reaches 230-280 ℃, just may produce carcinogen in the oil smoke..Analyze according to Taiwan Department of Health, the ratio that the Taiwan housewife suffers from lung cancer remains high, and main cause promptly is to be in the environment that cooking fume pollutes for a long time.Nanjing investigation finds, the generation of 51.6% lung squamous cancer and 61.0% adenocarcinoma of lung is owing to family's fume pollution among the crowd.So aerocolloidal generation in the control human activity purifies that to contain harmful aerocolloidal air be the human effort that must pay for self is healthy.But in order to finish this systems engineering preferably, need find the ways and means that can detect or monitor aerosol concentration quickly and accurately earlier, develop simultaneously easy to use, the equipment that reliability is high.This is one of problem of the environmental protection field task of top priority.But up to the present, also can not be applicable to most of aerocolloidal universality detection techniques.People can only work out different detection methods at different gasoloids, and these methods are complicated mostly, and sense cycle is longer, and normally spot sampling is taken back the laboratory then and handled and analyze, and can not obtain the result at the scene immediately, and is very inconvenient.
With the aerocolloidal detection of cooking fume is example, because the difference of eating habit is little to correlative study interest abroad.Still untappedly go out the on-the-spot equipment that detects the oil smoke aerosol concentration.United States Patent (USP) (application number 5,849,596) a kind of method of measuring the edible oil oil smoke concentration has been proposed, i.e. heating earlier determines that the edible oil of amount is to uniform temperature, the oil smoke that produces with sulfuric acid absorption again, indicate the oil smoke coagulum concentration of dissolving in the definite acid solution of contrast by chromatogram-concentration of having formulated again, be converted into the oil smoke mistiness degree of surveying at last.The accuracy of this method can be very not high, and chromatogram-concentration sign manufacture difficulty is big, not too is applicable to field quick detection.
Domestic emission standard and measurement means to catering trade cooking fume issued the tentative rules of a cover (GB18483-2001, on January 1st, 2002 carried out).This method is the oil smoke mist to be sampled under defined terms with special Sampling Machine earlier, the collection head that allows the air communication of oily mist cross the stainless steel cloth filter core is housed is to hold back small oil smoke aerosol particle, the filter core that to collect oil smoke then takes out and is put in the container that fills carbon tetrachloride solvent, under the ultrasound wave effect, allow the oil smoke coagulum dissolve, to be dissolved with the coagulative solvent of oil smoke and move into constant volume in the color comparison tube, measure its oil smoke content with infrared spectrophotometer at last, the oil smoke concentration that Zai Huan Suan becomes to be surveyed.Whole process generally needs time a couple of days, and this situation (whether detect oil smoke discharge to the dining room as the personnel of Environmental Protection Agency satisfies the criteria) for the on-the-spot acquisition fast of need testing result is obviously not too suitable.In addition, because the inertia of the inertia ratio gas molecule of oil smoke aerosol particle is much bigger.Therefore, be the accuracy that guarantees to measure, this method requires the isokinetic sampling, and this makes the structure of Sampling Machine become very complicated, and cost rises, and functional reliability then reduces.The carcinogenicity of phenixin makes that also the analyst feels misgivings.
Unedible oil (as coal tar, wood tar, mineral oil and rock asphalt etc.) is subjected to thermogenetic oil smoke mist can cause serious outdoor environment to pollute.With asphalt oil smog is example, and pitch is made and used in all processing, coal, oil and bitumeniferous material all can produce the asphalt oil flue gas colloidal sol of complicated component in the process of heating and burning, because the severe contamination air, country has stipulated strict emission control standards (GB16297-1996).Existing pollution source are 80mg/m 3, new pollution source are 40mg/m 3Detection to this class oil smoke mistiness degree at present still lacks complete means.Chinese patent (application number 02221112) proposes a kind of instrument of test sample medium pitch content, is that sample is burnt in the firing chamber of instrument, with calculating corresponding bitumen content behind the electronics balance measurement reactant.This equipment also is not suitable for detecting asphalt oil flue gas collosol concentration.
Detection with overall suspended pellet (TSP) or flue dust is an example again, conventional method is that the air that extracts certain volume passes through the filter membrane or the filter cylinder of constant weight, particulate in the air-flow be delayed on the film or tube in, by weight difference and the sampling volume before and after the sampling, can calculate TSP or dust concentration (, needing behind the heating, drying) in weighing if moisture is arranged.(floating dust IP), also can adopt aforementioned weight difference method for inhalable particulates.In addition, also have piezoelectric crystal oscillating method and β radiation absorption method.The latter is by measuring cleaning strainer (not adopting dirt) and adopting the dirt strainer dust quantity is adopted in the difference measurement of radiation absorption degree, because the volume of dust laden air is known, so can calculate the concentration of IP.From the disclosed patent of this respect in recent years, fast detecting or monitoring TSP, the technical development of IP or flue dust is very fast, but general trend still concentrates on both direction.The one, utilize the effect (stop, absorb diffuse reflection etc.) of particulate to various light (visible light, infrared light, laser etc.), obtain the information of aerosol concentration by the variation behind the measurement light pre-irradiation.As BrP (Chinese application number 02804173), Chinese patent (application number 02232672), Chinese patent (application number 01136683), United States Patent (USP) (Chinese application number 99103172), United States Patent (USP) (Chinese application number 97119085), Chinese patent (application number 93211786), Chinese patent (application number 91202747), Chinese patent (application number 01254195), Chinese patent (application number 96114134) and Chinese patent (application number 94202316).The limitation of these class methods is, when detecting or monitoring of environmental when abominable (strong as flue gas stream corrosivity, vapour quantity is big, and the viscous oil smoke density is big), detect error and increase, even instrument will soon lose efficacy or damage.Another developing direction is the optimization or the improvement of β radiation absorption method.As Chinese patent (application number 02200914), Chinese patent (application number 99205791) and Chinese patent (application number 02238238).Except the limitation by last class methods, the price of beta ray source and safety also can cause some problems.
Consider the difference of particulate, also need measure the distribution of particle size sometimes the human health damage degree.Particle diameter be distributed with two kinds of expression modes, the one, the number of different-grain diameter distributes, the one, the weight concentration of different-grain diameter distributes.The former measures by available light diffuse transmission type corpuscular counter.The latter can capture the particulate of different-grain diameter scope with catch sampling thief classification that principle makes according to bump, measures CONCENTRATION DISTRIBUTION with weight method again.In general, much more expensive these equipment are, and testing process complexity, sense cycle are also long.
Summary of the invention
The objective of the invention is to propose a kind of method and detector thereof of the in-situ detection of aerosol particle concentration that is suitable for most of aerosol particle concentrations newly, solve the method and the relevant device of a kind of field quick detection of development or long term monitoring aerosol particle concentration; And the technology thus of solving obtains the problem of particulate concentration distribution situation easily.
Technical scheme of the present invention:
The method of this in-situ detection of aerosol particle concentration is characterized in that key step comprises:
(1), tubular probe is placed the air-flow that contains particulate, a positive high voltage electrode and a negative high-voltage electrode tinsel are arranged in the tubular probe, form at least one corona field between two electrodes;
(2), the air communication that contains particulate crosses above-mentioned corona field, make to have part particulate to be measured negative charge on the corona field band in the air-flow at least;
(3), at corona field, electronegative particulate is deposited on the positive high voltage electrode;
(4), the delta data of electric current present or voltage in the circuit that is connected with the positive high voltage electrode of detection;
(5), will detect detection method data and standard or conventional and compare demarcation, obtain variation and the relation curve between the aerosol particle concentration or the experimental formula of curtage in the method; According to above-mentioned relation curve or experimental formula, obtain the concentration of particulate.
The detector of in-situ detection of aerosol particle concentration of the present invention is characterized in that: detector comprises tubular probe and the detector main frame that is connected with tubular probe;
Tubular probe comprises with lower member:
The tube-like envelope of an insulation;
Be enclosed within the tubular metal positive high voltage electrode in the tube-like envelope;
Fix and be located at two pillars at positive high voltage electrode two ends with the tube-like envelope inwall;
Directly between two pillars and place the negative high-voltage electrode tinsel and the metal spring of insulation crust axis,
Depositing electrode;
The detector main frame comprises:
Be connected transformer, rectification circuit, pressure regulator, Dc low voltage power supply in the loop between positive high voltage electrode connection and the negative high-voltage electrode wiring;
With the detection loop that the wiring of depositing electrode positive high voltage is connected, this loop comprise series connection resistance, connect the interface of amplifying circuit, the central die that is connected with amplifying circuit, display screen, the power circuit that is connected with central die and the output detection signal at resistance two ends.
Cooling fan, gauge tap and supply socket.
Above-mentioned particulate comprises the cooking fume mist, mineral oil smog, flue dust and smog that commercial production produces, the sand and dust in the atmosphere, floating dust and pellet.
The above-mentioned air-flow that contains particulate is in static state or when substantially flowing, adopts air extractor or heating arrangement rough air.
The above-mentioned air-flow that contains particulate was heated before entering corona field, made wherein steam or water smoke become water vapour molecule.
Above-mentioned negative high-voltage electrode has at least one tip, by adjusting most advanced and sophisticated and positive high voltage distance between electrodes and voltage, produces the corona field of desirable strength and zone of action size.
The above-mentioned positive high voltage electrode that is used for the deposition gas sol particles is to produce the used positive high voltage electrode of corona field, or the depositing electrode of another positively charged.
The method of the variation of electric current present or voltage comprises in the circuit that above-mentioned detection is connected with the positive high voltage electrode of deposition gas sol particles: serial connection one resistance in the continuous loop of the electrode of deposition gas sol particles.
The above-mentioned real-time detection data storage that obtains is in the detector main frame; Or pass in the computing machine in a distant place by the data line that links to each other with the detector main frame; Or in the detector main frame, add the long-distance radio communication parts, directly the real time data that obtains is passed in the computing machine in a distant place.
Above-mentioned depositing electrode is parallel or perpendicular to the netted depositing electrode of airflow direction, tabular depositing electrode or tubulose depositing electrode.
The present invention proposes a kind of detection principle of aerosol particle concentration of universality, broke through in the past the detecting pattern of " gathering Calyx Cheekbone analyzes ".According to above-mentioned principle, the present invention proposes the relevant detection technology, can make things convenient for by it, sensitive and detect the concentration of most of particulates in air or the chimneying or the situation of change of long term monitoring aerosol particle concentration apace.According to above-mentioned principle and technology, the present invention has designed on-the-spot tubular probe and the detector of detecting of concrete aerosol concentration.
The detection or the monitoring principle of the aerosol particle concentration that the present invention proposes are as follows:
When the bigger most advanced and sophisticated or surface of curvature being arranged on the conductive electrode and during away from other conductors,, making the gas ionization in the electric field because the electric field of tip or higher curvature near surface is stronger, generate a large amount of electronics and negative ion, cause gaseous conduction (and following luminous).If have particulate in the gas this moment, they will be by colliding with trapped electrons and anionic gas particle by charged., under the effect of electric field force and/or air flow, can be pushed to and have and the charged opposite electrical conductive electrode of particle with the particulate of going up negative charge, lose charged and deposit, cause simultaneously with circuit that this electrode is connected in the variation of curtage appears.The concentration of this variation and particulate is positive relation.Detect or monitor this variation by suitable means, and data are carried out necessary processing and analysis, the data that obtain with standard or conventional detection method compare demarcation simultaneously, can obtain the concentration information of particulate.
This method is fit to air-flow or the air that great majority contain particulate.Suitable particle diameter scope can from less than 0.1 micron to hundreds of micron.Suitable particulate than resistance from 10 4-5 * 10 11Ω cm.So to the cooking fume particulate, the flue dust of most of commercial production dischargings, the artificial and spontaneous particulate in smog and the atmosphere is all effective.On the contrary, for water mist particle, because it is too littler than resistance, more insensitive.For in the dry gas stream than the king-sized powder dust particle of resistance, also responsive inadequately, but big slightly as airflow humidity, these particle surfaces are wetted, then susceptibility will obviously improve.Above-mentioned these characteristics extremely help the field quick detection or the long-term monitoring of aerosol particle concentration in actual production and the life.The present invention can be used for detecting various oil smoke mists, industrial fumes and smog, sand and dust, floating dust and pellet.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is a kind of structural representation that is suitable for the on-the-spot a kind of tubular probe that detects of oil smoke concentration of embodiment one;
Fig. 2 is a kind of structural representation that is suitable for the on-the-spot a kind of tubular probe that detects of dust concentration of embodiment two;
Fig. 3 is a kind of structural representation that is suitable for the on-the-spot a kind of tubular probe that detects of air floating dust of embodiment three;
Fig. 4 is the structural representation of a kind of direct employing corona positive high voltage utmost point of embodiment four as the tubular probe of depositing electrode;
Fig. 5 is the synoptic diagram of a kind of in-situ detection of aerosol particle concentration detector of the present invention.
Fig. 6 is the circuit theory diagrams that depositing electrode links to each other with the detection loop.
1-shell, 2-negative high-voltage electrode tinsel, 3-tubulose positive high voltage electrode, 4-pillar, 5-metal spring, the netted depositing electrode of 61-, the tabular depositing electrode of 62-, 63-tubulose depositing electrode, 7-electrical heating silk screen, 8-positive high voltage electrode connection, 9-negative high-voltage electrode wiring, 10 and 11 are wiring, the circuit connection of 12-depositing electrode, 13-extraction fan, 14-fan electromotor, 15-blower tray, 16, the power lead of 17-fan electromotor, 18-insulated wires of electrical heating wire.R0-resistance, 19-amplifying circuit, F-protective tube, R1-protective resistance.
101-tubular probe, 102-plug, 103-cable, 104-detector main frame, 105-detect loop, 106-central die, 107-LCDs, 108-Dc low voltage power supply, 109-d-c transformer, 110-pressure regulator, 111-transformer, 112-rectification circuit, 113-gauge tap, 114-cooling fan, 115-AC Power supply socket, 116-external direct current power supply socket, 117-interface.
Embodiment
The key step of this detection or monitoring is as follows:
(1), tubular probe is placed the air-flow that contains particulate, a positive high voltage electrode and a negative high-voltage electrode tinsel are arranged in the tubular probe, form at least one corona field between two electrodes.
(2), the air communication that contains particulate crosses above-mentioned corona field, make to have part particulate to be measured negative charge on the corona field band in the air-flow at least.
(3), at corona field, electronegative particulate is deposited on the positive high voltage electrode.
(4), the delta data of electric current present or voltage in the circuit that is connected with the positive high voltage electrode of detection.
(5), will detect detection method data and standard or conventional and compare demarcation, obtain variation and the relation curve between the aerosol particle concentration or the experimental formula of curtage in the method; According to above-mentioned relation curve or experimental formula, obtain the concentration of particulate.
According to above-mentioned detection principle and technology, can design concrete on-the-spot detecting element and equipment.
What tubular probe embodiment one: Fig. 1 showed is the synoptic diagram that a kind of cooking fume detects tubular probe.Number in the figure 1 is the tube-like envelope of tubular probe, is made by insulating material.Label 2 is the negative high-voltage electrode tinsels that produce corona.Label 3 is the tubulose positive high voltage electrodes that produce corona, is made by metal material, and label 8 is the positive high voltage wiring that link to each other with the positive high voltage electrode, answers ground connection usually, to guarantee safety.Label 4 is the pillars that are connected with shell, and its effect is to support negative high-voltage electrode tinsel 2, makes it remain on the central axis position of tubulose positive high voltage electrode 3.Label 5 is metal springs, and its effect is that negative high-voltage electrode tinsel 2 is tightened, and remains a linear state, thereby prevents because the discharge of 3 at crooked that cause and tubulose positive high voltage electrode.Label 9 is the negative high voltage wiring that are connected with the negative high-voltage electrode tinsel.Label 61 is netted depositing electrodes, and its network plane is made by conductive material perpendicular to airflow direction, and label 12 is the circuit connections that are connected with depositing electrode.Label 7 is electrical heating silk screens, and its effect is the netted depositing electrode of heating, and the lampblack dirty cup that adheres on it is decomposed, and peels off or eliminates.Label 10 and 11 is wiring of electrical heating wire, can connect interchange, also can connect direct supply.Heating wire net 7 and netted depositing electrode 61 can be bought the part self-control, also can ask specialized factory to customize on request.
The principle of work of this tubular probe is as follows: after the air-flow of oil-containing flue gas sol particles enters tubular probe from right-hand member, by the corona field of negative high-voltage electrode tinsel 2 with 3 formation of tubulose positive high voltage electrode, discharge from corona field behind the negative charge on the oil smoke aerosol particle subband, when passing netted depositing electrode 61, lose electric charge and deposit, cause that voltage or the electric current in the loop that links to each other with netted depositing electrode 61 changes.The lampblack dirty that is deposited on the netted depositing electrode 61 can be removed because of the energising of electrical heating silk screen 7.
What tubular probe embodiment two: Fig. 2 showed is the on-the-spot design diagram that detects tubular probe of a kind of dust concentration.Different with embodiment one is the airflow inlet place that electrical heating silk screen 7 is arranged at tube-like envelope 1, and its effect is the air-flow that heating enters tubular probe, makes wherein steam or water smoke become water vapour molecule.After the air-flow that contains flue dust and steam enters tubular probe from right-hand member, by 7 heating of electrical heating silk screen, make steam become water vapour molecule in advance.The flue dust that is deposited on the netted depositing electrode 61 can be poured out by the shake tubular probe after detection is finished.Another layer electrical heating silk screen can certainly be set near depositing electrode, be used to heat netted depositing electrode, the lampblack dirty cup that adheres on it is decomposed, peel off or eliminate.
What tubular probe embodiment three: Fig. 3 showed is the on-the-spot design diagram that detects tubular probe of floating dust in a kind of air.Different with embodiment one is that depositing electrode is tabular depositing electrode 62, and tabular depositing electrode plane parallel is made by conductive material in airflow direction, the 12nd, and the circuit connection of depositing electrode.High-voltage value is controllable, distributes with the weight concentration of obtaining the floating dust particle diameter.Extraction fan 13 is set near the tubular probe import, and its function is to contain in the air suction tubular probe pipe of floating dust.Drive the motor 14 of extraction fan, its power and rotating speed are adjustable, to be fit to different technical requirements.Extraction fan is supported by the support 15 of supports fan rotating shaft.The power lead 16,17 of fan electromotor is connected with the detector main frame.
The principle of work of this tubular probe is as follows: contain the air of floating dust because the unlatching of extraction fan 13 enters tubular probe from right-hand member, after passing through corona field, discharge from corona field with the floating dust particle of going up negative charge, when passing tabular depositing electrode 62, lose electric charge and deposit, cause that voltage or the electric current in the loop that links to each other with tabular depositing electrode 62 changes.The floating dust that is deposited on the tabular depositing electrode 62 can be poured out by the shake tubular probe after detection is finished.
What tubular probe embodiment four: Fig. 4 showed is the tubular probe design diagram of a kind of direct employing corona positive high voltage utmost point as depositing electrode.Different with embodiment one is: the elongated metal tube that is with of the inwall of tube-like envelope 1, as tubulose positive high voltage electrode 3, metal tube back segment (left side is half section among the figure) uses as tubulose depositing electrode 63 metal tube leading portion (among the figure right half section).Two pillars 4 are arranged at the front-end and back-end of tube-like envelope, connect negative high-voltage electrode tinsel 2, insulated wire 6, metal spring 5 from A-P straight line successively between the pillar 4.
The principle of work of this tubular probe is as follows: the air-flow that contains particulate passes through corona field after right-hand member enters tubular probe, particulate is with negative charge in the leading portion tubulose positive high voltage electrode 3 of metal tube, lose electric charge and be deposited on the tubulose depositing electrode 63 at the back segment of metal tube, cause that voltage or the electric current in the loop that links to each other with tubulose positive high voltage electrode 3 changes.The particulate that is deposited on the inside pipe wall can be poured out or remove by the shake tubular probe after detection be finished.
What detector embodiment: Fig. 5 showed is a kind of design diagram of aerosol particle concentration in-situs tester.Tubular probe 101 is connected with cable 103 by plug 102 with detector main frame 104.Cable 103 comprises positive high voltage electrode connection that conductively-closed gets up, negative high-voltage electrode wiring, the wiring of electrical heating wire, the circuit connection of depositing electrode, the power lead of fan electromotor, and shielding line should adopt the shielding of wire gauze parcel.
Two required class high pressure of tubular probe provide by pressure regulator 110, and required high-voltage value is determined by central die 106.Measure under the situation that the weight concentration of particulate particle diameter distributes at need, high-voltage value should be adjusted by device operator oneself.Can in chip, set in advance under other situations.Have dual mode that the input high voltage of pressure regulator is provided: the one, 220 volts of common alternating voltages are become sufficiently high alternating voltage by transformer 111 after, become high direct voltage by rectifier 112 again.Another selection is to adopt Dc low voltage power supply 108 to be converted to high direct voltage by d-c transformer 109.Dc low voltage power supply 108 is generally 24 volts lead-acid battery, and its power preferably is not less than 10 watts.By external 220 volts of AC Power supply socket 115 or external direct current power supply socket 116 is Dc low voltage power supply 108 chargings.The advantage of this mode is without external AC power supply, and is very easy to use at the scene.Transformer 111 and pressure regulator 110 can customize or buy.Such as d-c transformer 109, existing products can be adjusted zero DC voltage on the market between tens thousand of volts.
The detection loop 105 that links to each other with depositing electrode, its function are to take out the change in voltage that causes because of the particulate deposition.This variation is admitted to central die 106 amplifies, and handles and analyzes, and according to relation curve that obtains in advance or experimental formula, and changing value is scaled the concentration value of particulate, shows by LCDs 107 at last.Also can link to each other with computing machine simultaneously, the data input computing machine that is temporary in the chip can be done further analyzing and processing and printing by interface 117.Also can in the detector main frame, add the long-distance radio communication parts, directly the real time data that obtains be passed in the computing machine in a distant place.
Most of parts in the above-mentioned detector can directly be bought and needn't oneself make.Such as, most important central die 106 can adopt single-chip microcomputer to realize, is that the single-chip microcomputer of 89S52 just can be competent at as adopting model, and its dominant frequency is 24,000,000, can import the control program of 8K, and carries A-D and change, and need add a simple amplifying circuit again to get final product.Display screen can adopt 128 * 128 graphic dot matrix LCD MODULE, is with Chinese and English character library,, can show 8 row Chinese character or English, built-in T6963C controller is arranged, carry negative pressure and LED-backlit.The programming that can be provided by single-chip microcomputer allows LCDs show required interface automatically, as aerosol particle concentration and detection time.
In order to give transformer and the central die heat radiation in the detector, cooling fan 114 and gauge tap 113 can be set in cabinet, the order that the fan automatic switch is set in advance by chip is controlled, and the required electric current of fan electromotor is provided by pressure regulator 110.Cooling fan 114 can adopt common small-sized conventional products, and it starts and shut-in time back able to programme is controlled by central die (being single-chip microcomputer).
Referring to Fig. 6, the embodiment that tubular probe is connected with detection loop 105: serial connection one resistance R 0 in the continuous loop of the electrode of deposition gas sol particles.The effect of resistance R 0 is to be series in the depositing electrode loop, in case the particulate deposition is arranged, just has electric current to flow through wherein, just can learn the information of aerosol particle concentration by the change in voltage on the detection resistance R 0.Because this change in voltage is fainter, so magnitude of voltage will be amplified by amplifying circuit 19, the central die 106 of delivering to detector by output terminal is for further processing and analyzes then.
Number in the figure 9 is protective tubes, and its effect is when between the corona discharge electrode discharge taking place for a certain reason, and protective tube will be owing to blowing by excessive electric current automatically, thereby has protected the commutation diode and the transformer of back.
Rectification circuit 112 is bridge rectifier diodes, and its function is that the ac high-voltage that transformer 111 is sent is become direct current, offers the required negative direct current high voltage of tubulose positive high voltage electrode 2.The input end of transformer 111 can directly connect the 220V AC power, and by a gauge tap, this AC power also can provide electrical heating silk screen 7 required electric current.Protective resistance R1 is connected in and detects in the loop, can certain protective role be arranged to excessive corona discharge current.
Of the present invention specify as follows:
1, sets up intensity and sizeable stable electrical is had stage fright, prevent the spark discharge between the positive and negative electrode.
Condition analysis by aforementioned electric is had stage fright and produced has multiple producing method, and a kind of is to allow the electrode of band negative high voltage have at least one tip, by adjusting distance and the voltage between tip and the positive electrode, produces the corona field of desirable strength and zone of action size.This method especially needs to prevent most advanced and sophisticated spark discharge.In case the discharge, will make the very fast oxidation ablation of eletrode tip, make corona from shakiness to final disappearance.Simultaneously because the influence of discharge makes voltage or electric current variation on the positive high voltage circuit can not reflect correct aerosol particle concentration.Another kind of corona field producing method is to adopt thinner tinsel as negative high-voltage electrode (corona discharge electrode), adopts metal circular tube as the positive high voltage utmost point.Allow negative high-voltage electrode and positive high voltage electrode metal inside pipe wall keep equidistant, so just can prevent the discharge between the both positive and negative polarity effectively.The internal diameter of metal tube has determined that corona produces required voltage, and internal diameter is big more, and required voltage is high more.General required DC voltage should not be lower than 1 kilovolt, otherwise is difficult for producing stable corona field.Diameter wiry also determines the condition that corona produces, and silk is thick more, and required voltage is big more.Be difficult to produce corona but cross thick tinsel, because its surface curvature is too big.Generally speaking, wire diameter should be greater than 0.5 centimetre.
2, the measuring method that changes of the voltage that causes of charged aerosol particle or electric current.
Have at least dual mode that positive high voltage electrode (being called depositing electrode) is set, allow charged particulate lose electric charge and deposit on it.The simplest practice is directly to utilize the positive high voltage electrode (negative high voltage is corona discharge electrode very) that produces corona as depositing electrode.And resistance of serial connection in the loop between depositing electrode and corona discharge electrode, resistance value can be from tens of ohms to hundreds thousand of ohms.Measure on this resistance and lose voltage or the electric current variation that electric charge causes because of the charged aerosol particle.Under the general aerosol particle concentration, this variation is very small, mostly is microvolt or microampere rank.Though so this method is simple, require corona field very stable, as discharge in a single day, the voltage of generation or electric current change and will make the complete distortion of the measurement data that obtains much larger than microvolt or microampere rank.Second method then is to adopt another positive high voltage electrode as depositing electrode, owing to directly be not connected with the corona circuit, so be subjected to the influence of corona field stability less, thereby sensitivity is higher.The shape of while depositing electrode, size, material and mounting means are not subjected to the constraint of former corona field electrode, and be comparatively flexible during design.Still can measure this moment and be serially connected with in the depositing electrode loop a certain ohmically voltage or electric current changes the information of obtaining aerosol particle concentration.The positive high voltage of depositing electrode generally should not be lower than 300 volts, otherwise is difficult to the electric sol particles of adsorption band.
3, suitable corona field and the relation between the gas channel are determined.
The shape and size of corona field, and the relation between they and the gas channel is all very important for the reliability and the sensitivity that detect data.With aforementioned tubular type corona field is example (metal circular tube is the positive high voltage utmost point, and the central metal filament is the negative high voltage utmost point), and bore is more little.It is low more that the corona required voltage is stablized in generation, and volume of transformer is just more little, and price is just low more, also easy to control more.But the geometric position accuracy requirement between positive and negative electrode is just high more, and the smoothness of inside pipe wall and wire surface requires also high more.Installation requirement is also strict more.Otherwise just cause discharge easily, influence detects.On the other hand, feasible to enter the obstruction that air-flow is subjected to bigger than the young pathbreaker for caliber, can not make in the pipe and the outer identical speed (being so-called isokinetic sampling's requirement) of air-flow maintenance that flows through of pipe.Generally speaking, the inside diameter of pipe should be greater than 5 millimeters.Metal tube length as the positive high voltage electrode is also very important, manages too shortly, because the port effect, the center length that produces corona is shorter, can not make by most particulates wherein chargedly, makes the error of measuring data bigger.Generally speaking, length of tube should be less than 10 millimeters.If but manage oversize, part charged aerosol particle may be directly on inside pipe wall deposition and can not reach the depositing electrode of back, make that also detecting data error occurs.Generally speaking, length of tube should be greater than 500 millimeters.Certainly, with the positive high voltage anode that the produces corona situation as depositing electrode, the back segment of pipe just needs long enough, with the electric sol particles of abundant adsorption band for directly.
4, the design of depositing electrode is installed and cleaning problems.
Depositing electrode should adopt conductive material to make, need to be connected with positive high voltage, can be designed as tabular (collecting plate in the similar electrostatic precipitator) or the tubulose that are parallel to airflow direction, also can adopt one or more layers wire netting to install perpendicular to airflow direction, most of charged aerosol particle is struck on the grid under the effect of electric field force, lose electric charge and also deposit.The not charged particle of small part then may pass from mesh or be tackled by net.This design can reduce the required voltage of depositing electrode, and charged particulate can both be deposited basically, has improved the accuracy rate that detects data.But the size of mesh need think over, the excessive then effective electric sol particles of adsorption band, and the too small particle that then is easier to be deposited is blocked, can not continuous firing.So should be according to the concrete density degree that the particulate air-flow is determined strainer net that contains.Such as for the bigger air-flow of humidity, mesh should be big slightly.For the dry air-flow that contains granule particle (as airborne floating dust), mesh can be less.Generally speaking, the mesh diameter or the length of side should be less than 0.01 millimeters, should be greater than 20 millimeters.For the situation that contains the bigger liquid aerosol particle of viscosity (as oil smoke, glance coal etc.), no matter how depositing electrode is settled, mesh size has much, and the surface of electrode is all may be very fast contaminated or cover, and makes to lose the function that attracts charged particle.So clean its surface after using certain hour, this can bring some inconvenience.Simple way is to the depositing electrode heating, makes the sediment decomposes or peels off, and is blown away by air-flow then.If depositing electrode itself just has thermo electric material to make, then only need to reach the purpose that makes cleaning surfaces to its energising.
5, the eliminating of influence of moisture.
In general, even gas molecule charged, also minimum because of inertia, also is difficult to deposit or lose electric charge because volume and quality are far smaller than particulate on depositing electrode under the aerodynamic force effect.So do not exert an influence substantially to detecting data.Steam or water smoke are then different, and it also is a kind of particulate.Though it is it is littler than resistance, insensitive to corona field.If but vapour concentration too high (humidity is excessive) in the air-flow can influence the accuracy that detects data unavoidably.In addition, just owing to littler, just cause corona field easily because of the too big short circuit dischange of humidity than resistance.Influence data accuracy, even bring safety problem.The way that solves is before entering corona field, and heated air stream makes wherein steam or water smoke become water vapour molecule, thereby can not influence the accuracy of detection, also can not produce unnecessary discharge.This heating-up temperature only need near or a little higher than 100 ℃ get final product, can not produce any tangible influence to the state of particulate.The mode of heating is to adopt electric heating unit comparatively convenient.
6, the solution of isokinetic sampling's problem.
Because the volume of particulate, quality and inertia are higher than gas molecule far away.So when adopting air pump to extract in the pipeline (flue, chimney etc.) air-flow, must consider so-called isokinetic sampling's problem.Otherwise detect the data that obtain and bigger error to occur.For this reason, a gas flow rate tubular probe need be installed outside air intake opening,, reach the speed and the consistent purpose of outside pipeline speed that enter the corona field air-flow with detected chimneying speed control aspiration pump.Certainly,, allow ducted air-flow directly enter in the corona field,, just can make by the gas velocity of corona field consistent with the ducted flow velocity in outside as long as resistance is not too big if bleed without air pump.
7, the variation of voltage or electric current and the relation curve between the aerosol particle concentration or Determination of experience formula method in the depositing electrode loop.
Can be determined by experiment respectively according to different aerosol particle subtype.With the cooking fume is example.Select for use same oil smoke that source (experiment uses oil smoke generator or oil smoke to produce dining room smokejack uniformly) takes place, oil smoke checkout equipment with method and apparatus provided by the invention and national standard (GB18483-2001) regulation detects the oil smoke concentration value simultaneously, and the data that obtain are separately compared.Compare once more after changing oil smoke concentration.Through repeatedly obtaining required relation curve or experimental formula after the experiment.Detection also can be carried out in this way to flue dust, under the situation that does not have the flue dust generator, can directly compare to the scene, and the standard method of reference has weight difference method and β radiation absorption method.
8, the weight concentration distribution measurement method of particulate particle diameter.
The motion of the charged aerosol particle that ejects from corona field is subjected to the effect of two kinds of power, and the one, electric field force, it makes particle move to depositing electrode, and the 2nd, the reasoning power of gas molecule in the air-flow, it makes particle travel forward with air-flow.If depositing electrode moral surface is parallel with airflow direction, then the action direction of these two kinds of power is just vertical mutually.So when electric field force was big, the charged particle of certain mass just can be deposited electrode and no longer travel forward with air-flow.Otherwise, preponderate as thrust gas, then can not be deposited electrode absorption.So, when gas velocity one timing, only need the voltage of control depositing electrode, just can control the quality that is adsorbed onto the particle on the depositing electrode.Voltage hour, electric field force is less, has only the charged particle of little quality just can be adsorbed.At this moment the detected value that obtains just includes only the concentration of this quality and the particle littler than this quality.With the increase of voltage, electric field force also increases, and the particle of big quality also can be adsorbed.Just can obtain big quality this moment and reach concentration less than the particle of this quality.The rest may be inferred, and when voltage was enough big, it is adsorbed that all charged particles can both be deposited electrode.What at this moment obtain is exactly the concentration of whole particulates in the air-flow.According to the adjustment of voltage, just can calculate the CONCENTRATION DISTRIBUTION situation of the particulate of different-grain diameter in the air-flow (quality) easily.Such as, can suck the particulate (TP) in thoracic cavity greatly to the human injury, it when arresting efficiency 50%, be 10 microns (D by particle diameter 50=10+/-1 μ m), last cut off is 30 microns, PM commonly used 10Expression is the important monitoring objective of air quality.PM 10Measurement usually adopt special sampling thief with inlet cutter, weighing after the dynamics equivalent particle size is held back less than 30 microns particulate obtains.Process complexity and time cycle are long, can not obtain the result in the scene.As adopt the inventive method, only need by the mass particle (can be scaled equivalent diameter) that can be deposited electrode absorption that obtains of contrast and the relation curve between the depositing electrode voltage by experiment in advance, value when falling the adjustment of depositing electrode voltage corresponding to 30 microns, start detector, just can conveniently obtain PM 10, even PM 2.5Etc. data, and need not make special cutter and sampling thief.
9, the long term monitoring methods of aerosol particle concentration.
See that technically long term monitoring and field quick detection do not have the difference of essence.In fact only need set the detection tubular probe, and connect lead and link to each other, make that tubular probe is in running order always to get final product with main frame at the monitoring scene.The real-time Monitoring Data that obtains can be stored up at host memory, also can pass to by the data line that links to each other with main frame in the computing machine in the operating room, a distant place.Further, can in main frame, add the long-distance radio communication parts, directly the real time data that obtains be passed in the computing machine in a distant place by it.

Claims (10)

1. the method for an in-situ detection of aerosol particle concentration is characterized in that key step comprises:
(1), tubular probe is placed the air-flow that contains particulate, a positive high voltage electrode and a negative high-voltage electrode tinsel are arranged in the tubular probe, form at least one corona field between two electrodes;
(2), the air communication that contains particulate crosses above-mentioned corona field, make to have part particulate to be measured negative charge on the corona field band in the air-flow at least;
(3), at corona field, electronegative particulate is deposited on the positive high voltage electrode;
(4), the delta data of electric current present or voltage in the circuit that is connected with the positive high voltage electrode of detection;
(5), will detect detection method data and standard or conventional and compare demarcation, obtain variation and the relation curve between the aerosol particle concentration or the experimental formula of curtage in the method; According to above-mentioned relation curve or experimental formula, obtain the concentration of particulate.
2. the detector used according to the method for the described in-situ detection of aerosol particle concentration of claim 1 is characterized in that: detector comprises tubular probe and the detector main frame that is connected with tubular probe;
Tubular probe comprises with lower member:
The tube-like envelope of an insulation;
Be enclosed within the tubular metal positive high voltage electrode in the tube-like envelope;
Fix and be located at two pillars at positive high voltage electrode two ends with the tube-like envelope inwall;
Directly between two pillars and place the negative high-voltage electrode tinsel and the metal spring of insulation crust axis,
Depositing electrode;
The detector main frame comprises:
Be connected transformer, rectification circuit, pressure regulator, Dc low voltage power supply in the loop between positive high voltage electrode connection and the negative high-voltage electrode wiring;
With the detection loop that the wiring of depositing electrode positive high voltage is connected, this loop comprise series connection resistance, connect the interface of amplifying circuit, the central die that is connected with amplifying circuit, display screen, the power circuit that is connected with central die and the output detection signal at resistance two ends.
Cooling fan, gauge tap and supply socket.
3. the method for in-situ detection of aerosol particle concentration according to claim 1 and 2, it is characterized in that: above-mentioned particulate comprises the cooking fume mist, mineral oil smog, flue dust and smog that commercial production produces, sand and dust in the atmosphere, floating dust and pellet.
4. the method for in-situ detection of aerosol particle concentration according to claim 1 and 2 is characterized in that: the above-mentioned air-flow that contains particulate is in static state or when substantially flowing, adopts air extractor or heating arrangement rough air.
5. the method for in-situ detection of aerosol particle concentration according to claim 1 and 2, it is characterized in that: the above-mentioned air-flow that contains particulate was heated before entering corona field, made wherein steam or water smoke become water vapour molecule.
6. the method for in-situ detection of aerosol particle concentration according to claim 1 and 2, it is characterized in that: above-mentioned negative high-voltage electrode has at least one tip, by adjusting most advanced and sophisticated and positive high voltage distance between electrodes and voltage, produce the corona field of desirable strength and zone of action size.
7. the method for in-situ detection of aerosol particle concentration according to claim 1 and 2 is characterized in that: the above-mentioned positive high voltage electrode that is used for the deposition gas sol particles is to produce the used positive high voltage electrode of corona field, or the depositing electrode of another positively charged.
8. the method for in-situ detection of aerosol particle concentration according to claim 1 and 2 is characterized in that: the method for the variation of electric current present or voltage comprises in the circuit that above-mentioned detection is connected with the positive high voltage electrode of deposition gas sol particles: serial connection one resistance in the loop that the electrode of deposition gas sol particles links to each other.
9. the method for in-situ detection of aerosol particle concentration according to claim 1 and 2, it is characterized in that: the above-mentioned real-time detection data storage that obtains is in the detector main frame; Or pass in the computing machine in a distant place by the data line that links to each other with the detector main frame; Or in the detector main frame, add the long-distance radio communication parts, directly the real time data that obtains is passed in the computing machine in a distant place.
10. the detector of in-situ detection of aerosol particle concentration according to claim 1 and 2 is characterized in that: above-mentioned depositing electrode is parallel or perpendicular to the netted depositing electrode of airflow direction, tabular depositing electrode or tubulose depositing electrode.
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