CN1788155A - Wind turbine - Google Patents

Wind turbine Download PDF

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Publication number
CN1788155A
CN1788155A CNA2004800071849A CN200480007184A CN1788155A CN 1788155 A CN1788155 A CN 1788155A CN A2004800071849 A CNA2004800071849 A CN A2004800071849A CN 200480007184 A CN200480007184 A CN 200480007184A CN 1788155 A CN1788155 A CN 1788155A
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China
Prior art keywords
wind turbine
rotor
according
adapted
power output
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CNA2004800071849A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN1788155B (en
Inventor
戴维·尤尔特·安德森
查尔斯·劳伦斯·西尔弗通
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可换部件轻便涡轮有限公司
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Priority to GB0306075.3 priority Critical
Priority to GBGB0306075.3A priority patent/GB0306075D0/en
Application filed by 可换部件轻便涡轮有限公司 filed Critical 可换部件轻便涡轮有限公司
Priority to PCT/GB2004/001176 priority patent/WO2004083631A2/en
Publication of CN1788155A publication Critical patent/CN1788155A/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of CN1788155B publication Critical patent/CN1788155B/en

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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F03MACHINES OR ENGINES FOR LIQUIDS; WIND, SPRING, OR WEIGHT MOTORS; PRODUCING MECHANICAL POWER OR A REACTIVE PROPULSIVE THRUST, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F03DWIND MOTORS
    • F03D1/00Wind motors with rotation axis substantially parallel to the air flow entering the rotor 
    • F03D1/04Wind motors with rotation axis substantially parallel to the air flow entering the rotor  having stationary wind-guiding means, e.g. with shrouds or channels
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F03MACHINES OR ENGINES FOR LIQUIDS; WIND, SPRING, OR WEIGHT MOTORS; PRODUCING MECHANICAL POWER OR A REACTIVE PROPULSIVE THRUST, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F03DWIND MOTORS
    • F03D9/00Adaptations of wind motors for special use; Combinations of wind motors with apparatus driven thereby; Wind motors specially adapted for installation in particular locations
    • F03D9/10Combinations of wind motors with apparatus storing energy
    • F03D9/11Combinations of wind motors with apparatus storing energy storing electrical energy
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F03MACHINES OR ENGINES FOR LIQUIDS; WIND, SPRING, OR WEIGHT MOTORS; PRODUCING MECHANICAL POWER OR A REACTIVE PROPULSIVE THRUST, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F03DWIND MOTORS
    • F03D9/00Adaptations of wind motors for special use; Combinations of wind motors with apparatus driven thereby; Wind motors specially adapted for installation in particular locations
    • F03D9/10Combinations of wind motors with apparatus storing energy
    • F03D9/18Combinations of wind motors with apparatus storing energy storing heat
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F03MACHINES OR ENGINES FOR LIQUIDS; WIND, SPRING, OR WEIGHT MOTORS; PRODUCING MECHANICAL POWER OR A REACTIVE PROPULSIVE THRUST, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F03DWIND MOTORS
    • F03D9/00Adaptations of wind motors for special use; Combinations of wind motors with apparatus driven thereby; Wind motors specially adapted for installation in particular locations
    • F03D9/20Wind motors characterised by the driven apparatus
    • F03D9/22Wind motors characterised by the driven apparatus the apparatus producing heat
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F05INDEXING SCHEMES RELATING TO ENGINES OR PUMPS IN VARIOUS SUBCLASSES OF CLASSES F01-F04
    • F05BINDEXING SCHEME RELATING TO MACHINES OR ENGINES OTHER THAN NON-POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, TO WIND MOTORS, TO NON-POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS, AND TO GENERATING COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OF HIGH PRESSURE OR HIGH VELOCITY
    • F05B2240/00Components
    • F05B2240/20Rotors
    • F05B2240/33Shrouds which are part of or which are rotating with the rotor
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F05INDEXING SCHEMES RELATING TO ENGINES OR PUMPS IN VARIOUS SUBCLASSES OF CLASSES F01-F04
    • F05BINDEXING SCHEME RELATING TO MACHINES OR ENGINES OTHER THAN NON-POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, TO WIND MOTORS, TO NON-POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS, AND TO GENERATING COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OF HIGH PRESSURE OR HIGH VELOCITY
    • F05B2260/00Function
    • F05B2260/96Preventing, counteracting or reducing vibration or noise
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02BCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO BUILDINGS, e.g. HOUSING, HOUSE APPLIANCES OR RELATED END-USER APPLICATIONS
    • Y02B10/00Integration of renewable energy sources in buildings
    • Y02B10/30Wind power
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02BCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO BUILDINGS, e.g. HOUSING, HOUSE APPLIANCES OR RELATED END-USER APPLICATIONS
    • Y02B10/00Integration of renewable energy sources in buildings
    • Y02B10/70Hybrid systems
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/70Wind energy
    • Y02E10/72Wind turbines with rotation axis in wind direction
    • Y02E10/721Blades or rotors
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/70Wind energy
    • Y02E10/72Wind turbines with rotation axis in wind direction
    • Y02E10/725Generator or configuration
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/70Wind energy
    • Y02E10/72Wind turbines with rotation axis in wind direction
    • Y02E10/726Nacelles

Abstract

本发明公开用于风轮机的转子,包括多个径向叶片和一个连接叶片外端的环形导流板扩散器。 The present invention discloses a rotor for a wind turbine, comprising a plurality of radial blades and a ring connecting the outer ends of the blades of the diffuser baffle. 还公开包括该转子的风轮机,该风轮机包括适合于允许风轮机和转子绕垂直于旋转轴线的一个定向轴线旋转的机舱和安装装置,由此允许风轮机取决于风的情况而朝向最佳方向。 Also disclosed is a wind turbine comprising the rotor, the wind turbine comprising a wind turbine and adapted to allow the rotor about an axis perpendicular to the orientation of the nacelle and a mounting means for rotating the axis of rotation, thereby allowing the wind turbine depending on the wind toward the case where the best direction. 本发明还公开卷收装置用以取决于风速改变朝向;还公开了风轮机系统,其包括风轮机驱动的发电机和用于提供功率输出的装置,功率输出连接到加热元件、适合于供应电能至地方或电网电力设施的电网连接换流器或孤立换流器、或者储能系统。 The present invention also discloses a retractor means for changing the orientation depends on the wind speed; also discloses a wind turbine system, comprising a wind turbine driven generator and means for providing a power output, the power output is connected to the heating element, adapted to supply electric energy to the local power grid or grid power facilities connected inverter or isolated converter, or energy storage system. 还公开了控制从风轮机获得的能量水平的方法和一种风轮机,该风轮机包括用于降低由风轮机、塔和安装结构内的简谐共振引起的运行振动的装置。 Also disclosed is a control level of energy obtained from the wind turbine and a method of a wind turbine, the wind turbine includes means for reducing a wind turbine, the device operation due to harmonic vibration in resonance and the tower mounting structure.

Description

风轮机 Wind turbine

技术领域 FIELD

本发明涉及一种风轮机,更具体地说,涉及一种用于安装在屋顶并且用于加热系统(家用或商用)、储能系统、蓄电系统或者地方或全国电网的风轮机。 The present invention relates to a wind turbine, and more particularly, to wind turbine energy storage system, electrical storage system or a local or national grid for mounting on the roof and a heating system (home or business).

背景技术 Background technique

英国政府在京都议定书中做出了到2010年降低CO2排放量至1/10的承诺,并且苏格兰行政部门已经设立了甚至更紧迫的环境目标。 The British government made a commitment to reduce CO2 emissions by 2010 to 1/10 in the Kyoto Protocol, and the Scottish Executive has set up even more pressing environmental objectives. 因此,最近已经侧重于可再生能源。 So, it has recently been focusing on renewable energy. 能量需求分析显示英国每年能量需求的47%来自于建筑物,而它占英国CO2排放量的40%。 Energy demand analysis showed that 47% of the energy demand of the building from the UK each year, and it accounts for 40% of UK CO2 emissions. 本发明的技术将为超过33%的建筑物提供重大的经济效益并且差不多可以减少英国CO2排放量至13%。 Techniques of the invention will be more than 33% of the buildings and provide significant economic benefits can be reduced almost to the UK CO2 emissions by 13%.

尺寸适合于安装在屋顶以提供能量的现有风轮机仅仅设计用于平稳气流,随着建筑物上面和周围形成的压缩紊乱气流剧烈地振动,其产生噪声并且发电效率降低。 Conventional size adapted to be mounted in the roof of the wind turbine to provide energy is only designed for smooth airflow, vibration disturbance of the air compressed with vigorous formed over and around buildings, which generates noise and reduce power generation efficiency.

发明内容 SUMMARY

本发明的一个目的是克服一个或多个上述问题。 An object of the present invention to overcome one or more of the above problems.

根据本发明的第一方面,它提供了一种用于风轮机的转子,包括多个径向叶片和一个连接叶片外端的环形导流板扩散器。 According to a first aspect of the present invention, there is provided a rotor for a wind turbine, comprising a plurality of radial blades and a ring connecting the outer ends of the blades of the diffuser baffle.

优选的是,导流板扩散器从叶片的外端向下游延伸。 Preferably, the diffuser baffles extend from the outer end of the blade downstream. 叶片的外端可以在扩散器的前缘处或者靠近该处与扩散器相连。 The outer end of the blade may be at the leading edge of the diffuser or near the premises connected to the diffuser.

优选的是,导流板扩散器从叶片的外端向外形成锥度,以形成一个基本上为截头圆锥体的扩散器,该截头圆锥体扩散器的旋转轴线基本上对准叶片的旋转轴线。 Preferably, the diffuser baffles tapering outwardly from an outer end of the blade, to form a substantially frusto-conical diffuser the rotational axis of the frusto-conical diffuser is substantially aligned with the rotating blade axis.

作为选择,导流板扩散器的至少一部分从叶片的外端向上游延伸,当从上游端延伸至下游端时,导流板扩散器径向向外形成锥度。 Alternatively, the deflector portion of the diffuser extends upstream from the outer end of the blade at least, when extending from the upstream end to the downstream end of the diffuser baffle form a taper radially outwardly.

优选的是,导流板扩散器形成为阻止来自叶片的部分轴向和部分径向气流,当接触到导流板扩散器时所述气流变为周向。 Preferably, the deflector is formed to prevent the diffuser portion of the axial and radial gas flow from the blade portion, when exposed to the airflow diffuser baffle becomes circumferentially. 更优选的是,导流板扩散器的形状使得旋转时在叶片和扩散器组件的空气动力和声学特性方面存在综合的改进。 More preferably, the shape of the baffles of the diffuser such that there is an improved integrated aerodynamic blades and diffuser assembly rotates and acoustic characteristics.

优选的是,在正常工作中导流板扩散器适合于阻止来自叶片外端的部分周向和部分径向气流,并且将所述气流转变为周向气流。 Preferably, in normal operation, the deflector is adapted to prevent the diffuser portion and the circumferential portion of the gas flow from the radially outer end of the blade, and the gas flow into the gas flow circumferentially.

优选的是,叶片相对于一个垂直于转子旋转轴线的横向转子平面以某一角度倾斜。 Preferably, the blade relative to a transverse rotor plane perpendicular to the rotational axis of the rotor is inclined at an angle. 该倾斜角可以沿叶片的长度变化。 The angle of inclination may vary along the length of the blade.

优选的是,各叶片的倾斜角在叶片的中间部分比叶片的外端大。 Preferably, the inclination angle of each blade is large in the middle portion of the blade than the outer end of the blade. 优选的是,叶片在叶片的外端处基本上平行于横向转子平面。 Preferably, the blade is substantially parallel to the transverse rotor plane at the outer end of the blade.

根据本发明的第二方面,它提供了一种包括根据第一方面转子的风轮机。 According to a second aspect of the present invention, there is provided a wind turbine comprising a rotor according to the first aspect. 优选的是,该风轮机还包括一个适合于允许风轮机和转子绕垂直于旋转轴线的一个定向轴线旋转的机舱和安装装置。 Preferably, the wind turbine further comprises a wind turbine adapted to allow the rotor about an axis perpendicular to the orientation of the nacelle and a mounting means for rotating the axis of the rotation axis. 这允许风轮机取决于风的情况而朝向最佳方向。 This allows the wind turbine depending on the wind conditions toward the preferred direction.

优选的是,该风轮机还包括一个适合于在气流速度大于预定的气流速度时使转子绕定向轴线旋转以至于旋转轴线不平行于气流方向的卷收装置(furling means)。 Preferably, the wind turbine further comprises a rotor adapted to about the orientation axis when the airflow speed is greater than a predetermined rotational speed such that air retractor means (furling means) is not parallel to the axis of rotation of the direction of airflow.

优选的是,该卷收装置包括一个适合于在气流速度的第一低范围内不提供卷收并且在气流速度的第二高范围内提供不同程度卷收的非线性卷收装置。 Preferably, the retractor comprises a retractor adapted not provided within a first range of low flow velocity and to provide different degrees of nonlinear retractor retractor in a second range of high air velocity. 优选的是,该卷收装置包括至少两个向扩散器的下游延伸的尾鳍。 Preferably, the retractor means comprises at least two tail fins extending downstream of the diffuser. 优选的是,该卷收装置包括两个彼此相对直径设置的尾鳍,但是,倘若尾鳍的位置是平衡的,如果需要也可以设置更多尾鳍。 Preferably, the retractor means comprises two tail fins diametrically positioned opposite each other, however, if the position of the tail fin are balanced, more may be provided if desired caudal fin.

优选的是,一个尾鳍为铰链安装用于绕一个切向铰链线旋转的活动尾鳍。 Preferably, a caudal hinge mounted for rotation about a tangential hinge line activities to the caudal fin. 该活动尾鳍可以安装在一个安装悬臂上,并且铰链线可以设置在安装悬臂和机舱的连接点处以至于安装悬臂也旋转,或者设置在安装悬臂和活动尾鳍之间的连接处以至于仅仅活动尾鳍旋转,或者设置在沿安装悬臂长度的任何点处。 The activity tail fin may be mounted on a mounting boom and the hinge line may be provided such that mounting boom also rotates at the connection point mounting boom and the nacelle, or provided at the connection between the mounting boom and activities tail fin so that only activities caudal rotation, or disposed at any point along the length of the mounting boom.

另外或作为选择,尾鳍可以在高风速下绕一个水平轴线旋转,导致一个尾鳍绕水平轴线折叠。 Additionally or alternatively, the tail fin may rotate about a horizontal axis under high winds resulting in a tail fin is folded about a horizontal axis.

优选的是,该活动尾鳍通过偏压装置旋转偏压至一个静止位置,在该位置活动尾鳍的前缘比活动尾鳍的后缘更靠近转子的旋转轴线,以至于活动尾鳍与转子的旋转轴线形成一个静止攻角。 Preferably, the biasing means by the active rotational bias tail fin to a rest position closer to the rotational axis of the rotor than the trailing edge of the tail fin active position of the movable front edge of the tail fin, so that the active form of the axis of rotation of the rotor tail fin a static angle of attack. 偏压装置可以为非线性的。 Biasing means may be non-linear. 优选的是,偏压装置适合于保持活动尾鳍在静止位置直到气流速度达到预定的速度。 Preferably, the biasing means is adapted to remain active in the rest position until the airflow caudal speed reaches a predetermined speed. 优选的是,当气流速度增加超过预定速度时,该活动尾鳍旋转并且攻角减小。 Preferably, when the airflow speed increases beyond the predetermined speed, the activity and caudal rotation angle of attack decreases. 这在风轮机上产生非平衡气动负载,以至于风轮机绕其安装轴线旋转至一个卷收位置。 This results in unbalanced aerodynamic loading on the wind turbine, which is mounted such that the axis of rotation to a position of the wind turbine around the retractor.

优选的是,根据本发明的第三方面,它提供了一种风轮机系统,该系统包括一个风轮机驱动的发电机和用于提供功率输出的装置。 Preferably, according to a third aspect of the present invention, there is provided a wind turbine system includes a wind turbine drive means for providing a generator power output.

优选的是,该系统还包括一个电子控制系统。 Preferably, the system further comprises an electronic control system.

优选的是,该系统包括一个具有一个或多个能量消耗装置的倾卸元件(dump element)。 Preferably, the system includes a member having a dump (dump element) one or more energy consuming devices. 该能量消耗装置可以为电阻元件的形式。 The energy consuming device may be an electrically resistive element.

优选的是,倾卸元件为液体存储容器的形式,其中具有适合于加热所述存储容器中液体的电加热元件。 Preferably, the tipping element in the form of a liquid storage container, having a storage container adapted to heat the liquid in an electric heating element.

优选的是,控制装置可以用于当来自风轮机的能量超过预定能量时供应电能至所述一个或多个电加热元件。 Preferably, the control means may be used for supplying electric power to the one or more electrical heating elements when the energy from the wind turbine exceeds a predetermined power. 在一个实施例中,液体存储容器为一个冷水罐并且液体为水。 In one embodiment, the liquid storage container is a cold water tank and the liquid is water. 在另一个实施例中加热元件为散热器。 In another embodiment embodiment the heating element is a radiator.

优选的是,当因为切断、减小或分隔所述电负载而导致的电负载丧失或减小使得可以从风获得的能量超过功率输出时,该倾卸元件由电子控制系统触发。 Preferably, when the electric load is cut off because reducing or separating the electrical load caused by the loss or decrease such that the energy available from the wind exceeds the power output, the dump element is activated by an electronic control system.

优选的是,当转子速度增加至由风轮机转子扭矩和风轮机发电机扭矩的不平衡所产生的某一规定的“倾卸开始”转子速度之上时,所述倾卸元件被触发。 Preferably, when the rotor speed is increased to a predetermined torque from the wind turbine rotor and wind turbine generator torque imbalance generated during "start dumping" on rotor speed, the dump element is activated. 所述风轮机转子扭矩取决于风速并且所述风轮机发电机扭矩取决于电负载。 The wind turbine rotor torque is dependent on wind speed and the wind turbine generator torque is dependent on the electrical load.

此外,所述倾卸元件适合于增加风轮机发电机扭矩超过风轮机转子扭矩,从而减小风轮机转子速度直到它接近或达到气动失速。 Furthermore, the dump element is adapted to increase the wind turbine generator torque exceeds the wind turbine rotor torque, thereby reducing the wind turbine rotor speed until it approaches or reaches aerodynamic stall. 当风轮机转子速度低于某一规定的“倾卸停止”转子速度时,倾卸负载得到释放。 When the "stop dumping" rotor speed wind turbine rotor speed is below a predetermined load dump released. 所述“倾卸开始”和“倾卸停止”转子速度被确定与功率输出成比例,从而降低发电机扭矩。 The "dump start" and "stop dumping" rotor speed is determined to be proportional to the output power, thereby reducing the generator torque.

优选的是,为了控制从风轮机获取的能量水平,根据本发明的风轮机系统设置有一个控制装置。 Preferably, in order to control the level of energy obtained from the wind turbine, a control means is provided with a wind turbine system in accordance with the present invention. 因为效率的原因,风轮机的最大功率输出大约为60W,由Betz极限给出。 For reasons of efficiency, maximum power output of the wind turbine is about 60W, is given by the Betz limit. 该控制系统适合于少量增加或减小风轮机的功率输出并且临时将功率输出设定于该水平上。 The control system is adapted to a small increase or decrease the power output of the wind turbine output power and temporarily set on the level. 在一段时间以后,控制系统将再次测量风轮机的转子速度,并因此计算转子的加速度。 After a period of time, the control system will measure the rotor speed of the wind turbine again and thus calculate the acceleration of the rotor. 在另外的时间段之后对转子速度进行另外的测量。 For additional measurement of the rotor speed after a further period of time. 这些值被用于对功率输出的所述增加或减小计算第一、第二和第三阶值,即速度、加速度/减速度和加速度/减速度的变化率。 These values ​​are used for the increase or decrease output power computing a first, second, and third order values, i.e. the rate of change of velocity, acceleration / deceleration and the acceleration / deceleration. 所述第一、第二和第三阶值的组合确定了当前功率输出的改变并且来自风轮机的能量数量再次被调节。 The first, second, and third order combination is determined to change the current value of the power output and amount of energy from the wind turbine is again adjusted. 上述步骤连续重复。 Repeat the above steps continuously.

优选的是,系统包括一个根据本发明第一或第二方面的风轮机。 Preferably, the system includes a wind turbine according to the first or second aspect of the present invention.

功率输出可以与一个加热系统连接,该加热系统还包括另一个液体存储容器、一个或多个适合于加热所述另一容器中液体的电加热元件和适合于控制所述发电机对所述一个或多个电加热元件的发电供应的控制装置。 Power output may be connected to a heating system, said heating system further comprising a further liquid storage vessel, one or more suitable electric heating element to heat the liquid in another container and adapted to control the generator to the one power supply control means or a plurality of electrical heating elements.

优选的是,另一液体存储容器为热水罐并且液体为水。 Preferably, further liquid storage container is a hot water tank and the liquid is water.

另外或作为选择,加热系统包括多个电加热元件,并且控制装置适合于供应电能至一部分电加热元件,该部分取决于发电机产生的瞬时电能。 Additionally or alternatively, the heating system comprising a plurality of electrical heating elements, and the control means is adapted to supply electric energy to the portion of the electrical heating element, the portion dependent on the instantaneous electrical power generated by the generator.

优选的是,在另一液体容器中的加热元件由一个管环绕。 Preferably, the heating element in another liquid container is surrounded by a tube. 为了允许水从管下面流向加热元件,该管在其下端敞开。 In order to allow water to flow from the heating element below the tube, the tube is open at its lower end. 该管将基本上环绕并延伸越过加热元件的总长度。 The tube surrounding and extending substantially over the total length of the heating element. 靠近加热元件的水将被加热,并且因为自然对流而向上流动。 Close to the heating elements water to be heated, and because natural convection flows upwards. 管的存在将引导热水流向靠近或位于容器顶部的一个区域。 The presence of the guide tube a flow of hot zone near or at the top of the container. 管的存在将能够在该另一液体存储容器中形成不同并且独立的热层叠热区。 The presence of the tube different and are independently capable of forming a hot zone of the hot lamination another liquid storage container.

另外或作为选择,功率输出可以连接到一个电网连接的或孤立的换流器。 Additionally or alternatively, the power output may be connected to a grid-connected inverter or isolated. 优选的是,该换流器适合于供应电能至地方或电网电力设施。 Preferably, the inverter is adapted to supply power to local or grid power facilities.

另外或作为选择,功率输出可以连接到一个储能系统。 Additionally or alternatively, the power output may be connected to an energy storage system.

根据本发明的第四方面,它提供了一种控制从风轮机获得的能量水平的方法,包括由控制装置采取的如下步骤:(a)少量增加或减小风轮机的功率输出;(b)临时设置功率输出的水平;(c)在预定的时间段之后,对转子速度进行多个测量;(d)对功率输出的所述增加或减小计算第一、第二和第三阶值,即分别为速度、加速度/减速度和加速度/减速度的变化率;(e)相应于计算结果调节从风轮机获得的能量。 According to a fourth aspect of the present invention, there is provided a method of controlling the energy levels obtained from a wind turbine, comprising the steps taken by a control means: (a) a small increase or decrease the power output of the wind turbine; (b) temporary power output level setting; (c) after a predetermined period of time, a plurality of measurements of the rotor speed; (d) the output power increase or decrease computing first, second, and third order values, i.e. the speed, acceleration / deceleration and rate of change of acceleration / deceleration; (e) adjusting the calculated results corresponding to the energy obtained from the wind turbine.

优选的是,步骤(b)至(e)连续重复。 Preferably, the step (b) to (e) continuously repeated.

优选的是,控制装置使用下面的逻辑确定调节:(a)如果:存在正的二阶转子速度响应(加速度)和转子速度的所述加速度的增加率(正的三阶响应);那么:控制装置导致功率输出增加;或者(b)如果:存在正的二阶转子速度响应(加速度)和转子速度的所述加速度的降低率(负的三阶响应);那么:控制装置导致功率输出增加或者作为选择不改变;或者(c)如果:存在负的二阶转子速度响应(减速度)和转子速度的所述加速度的增加率(正的三阶响应);那么:控制装置导致功率输出降低;或者(d)如果:存在负的二阶转子速度响应(减速度)和转子速度的所述减速度的降低率(负的三阶响应);那么:控制装置导致功率输出增加或作为选择不改变。 Preferably, the control means uses the following logic to determine the adjustment: (a) if: there is a positive second order rotor speed response (acceleration) and the acceleration of the rate of increase of rotor speed (positive third order response); then: Control means leads to increase in power output; or (b) if: there is a positive second order rotor speed response (acceleration) and the acceleration of the rotor speed decreasing rate (negative third order response); then: cause the power output control means increases or Alternatively does not change; or (c) if: there is a negative rate of increase of second order rotor speed response (deceleration) and the rotor speed of the acceleration (positive third order response); then: cause the power output reduction control means; or (d) if: there is a negative second order rotor speed response (deceleration) and decreasing rate of the rotor speed deceleration (negative third order response); then: cause the power output control means an increase or alternatively no change .

优选的是,控制装置重复上述步骤以连续调节功率输出,以确保功率输出总是最大至风轮机的可用能量,这取决于转子平面处的局部风速。 Preferably, the control means repeats the above steps to continuously adjust the power output to ensure that the maximum power output is always energy available to the wind turbine, which depend on the local wind speed at the rotor plane.

根据本发明的第五方面,它提供了一个根据第二方面的风轮机,包括用于降低由风轮机、塔和安装结构内的简谐振引起的运行振动的装置。 According to a fifth aspect of the present invention, there is provided a wind turbine according to a second aspect, the device operates in the degenerate vibration by the wind turbine, tower and mounting structure includes means for reducing resonance caused.

优选的是,风轮机设置有一个机舱阻尼系统。 Preferably, the wind turbine is provided with a nacelle damping system. 根据本发明的机舱阻尼系统将有助于使发电机和风轮机中的振动与塔隔开。 The nacelle damping system according to the present invention will contribute to the vibration generator of the wind turbine tower spaced.

优选的是,风轮机设置有用于在表面上安装风轮机的安装支架,该支架具有一种阻尼弹性材料和结构材料的夹层结构。 Preferably, the wind turbine is provided for mounting a wind turbine mounting bracket on the surface of the stent and the elastic material to have a damping sandwich structural material.

安装装置可以为任何横截面形状,但是通常为管形。 Mounting means may be of any cross-sectional shape, but is typically tubular. 优选的是,塔包括一个或多个柔性材料如橡胶的芯部,该芯部具有一些带有缩小直径并且不接触塔的内部径向表面的部分。 Preferably, tower comprises one or more flexible material such as a rubber core, the core having a portion with a reduced diameter and number of the column does not contact the inner radial surface. 这些具有缩小直径的部分与具有正常尺寸并且接触塔内部表面的部分交替。 The portion having a reduced diameter portion having a normal size and alternately and in contact with the interior surface of the tower.

这用于通过在能量到达安装支架之前消散在柔性芯部而吸收塔中的振动。 This is used prior to reaching the energy dissipated in the flexible core mounting bracket portion through the vibration absorber. 该橡胶芯部因此通过吸收一定范围的振动频率而起作用控制系统的振频率在风轮机驱动频率之外。 The rubber core thereby acts to control the system by absorption of a range of vibration frequency of the drive resonance frequency than the frequency of the wind turbine. 通过改变各缩小直径部分的横截面形状和长度,系统可以转为从安装结构中去除一定范围的振动频率。 Removed can be converted to a range of vibration frequencies from the mounting structure by varying the reduced diameter portion of each cross-sectional shape and length of the system.

该夹层安装支架得益于安装装置芯部的设计并且抑制来自机舱的振动。 The sandwich mounting bracket apparatus core design and suppress vibrations due to the installation from the cabin. 机舱自身通过设计为消除剩余频率的衬套支撑发电机。 By nacelle itself supports the generator designed to eliminate the remaining frequencies of the liner. 这三个系统充当高/低通滤波器,此时唯一没有被减弱的频率是那些超过风轮机运行范围的频率。 This system serves three high / low pass filter, and the only without being attenuated frequencies are those over the operating range of the wind turbine.

附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

现在将参考附图说明本发明的实施例,其中:图1a和1b显示了根据本发明的风轮机的两个实施例的示意图;图2a和2b分别显示了根据图1a和1b的风轮机的转子和卷收装置的两个实施例的俯视图;图3详细显示了根据本发明的卷收装置的一个悬臂的实施例;图4显示了根据图3的悬臂与机舱的连接;图5a和5b显示了悬臂末端和尾鳍的连接;图6显示了适合与根据本发明的风轮机相连、用于加热水的加热装置的一个示意图;图7示意性地显示了根据图6的加热装置的控制系统的工作; It will now be described with reference to the accompanying drawings of embodiments of the present invention, wherein: Figures 1a and 1b show a schematic view of two embodiments of the wind turbine of the present invention; Figures 2a and 2b shows a wind turbine of Figures 1a and 1b of a plan view of two embodiments of the rotor and the take-up device; FIG. 3 shows in detail according to embodiments of a cantilevered retractor device according to the present invention; Figure 4 shows a connection according to the cantilever and the nacelle of Fig. 3; Figs. 5a and 5b It shows the connection of the boom end and a tail fin; Figure 6 shows a wind turbine connected for the present invention, a schematic view of a heating means for heating the water; FIG. 7 schematically shows the control system of the heating apparatus in accordance with FIG. 6 work;

图8A、8B和9A、9B显示了适合与根据本发明的风轮机相连、用于加热水的加热装置的另一个实施例;图10显示了用于根据本发明风轮机的安装装置的一个横截面视图,其中内部设置有一个振动阻尼芯部;图11和12显示了根据图10的安装装置的一个横截面视图,作为振动阻尼芯部的可选实施例;图13显示了根据本发明第四方面的一种风轮机系统的示意方块图;和图14显示了根据本发明第五方面的一种风轮机系统的示意方块图。 FIGS. 8A, 8B and 9A, 9B show another suit in accordance with the present invention, the wind turbine is connected to the heating means for heating the water of the embodiment; FIG. 10 shows a cross-mounting means for the wind turbine according to the present invention sectional view, wherein the inner core is provided with a vibration damping unit; Figures 11 and 12 shows a cross-sectional view of a mounting device of FIG. 10, as an alternative embodiment of the vibration damping core portion embodiment; FIG. 13 shows a section according to the present invention a wind turbine system is a schematic block diagram of four areas; and Figure 14 shows a schematic block diagram of a wind turbine system according to a fifth aspect of the present invention.

具体实施方式 Detailed ways

在图1a和1b中显示了根据本发明的风轮机10、110的可能实施例。 It shows a possible embodiment of the wind turbine 10,110 according to the invention in FIGS. 1a and 1b. 风轮机10、110包括一个具有芯部25、125的转子20、120和多个径向叶片30、130,径向叶片30、130从芯部25、125向叶片30、130的外端31延伸。 The wind turbine 10,110 comprises a rotor core 25, 125 20, 120 30, 130 and having a plurality of radial vanes, radial blades 30, 130 from the core 25,125 towards the outer end 31 of the blade 30, 130 extending . 转子包括一个连接到并且环绕转子叶片30、130的径向导流板21、121。 The rotor includes a rotor blade connected to and surrounding the radial baffles 30, 130 21, 121. 转子20、120通过芯部25、125可旋转地固定到一个机舱41、141上。 By the rotor core 20, 120 25, 125 may be rotationally fixed to a nacelle 41, 141. 转子20、120可以绕旋转轴线26旋转。 The rotor 20, 120 can rotate about an axis of rotation 26. 机舱41、141可旋转地安装在安装装置40的顶部。 41 and 141 of the nacelle is rotatably mounted on the top 40 of the mounting device. 安装装置40允许风轮机10、110固定在一个支撑物(未示出)上面。 Mounting means 40 allow the wind turbine 10,110 fixed (not shown) described above in a support. 而且,机舱41、141设置有一个卷收装置50、150。 Further, a cabin 41, 141 is provided with a retractor means 50, 150. 该卷收装置50、150包括第一悬臂51、151和第二悬臂52、152。 The retractor means 50, 150 51, 151 comprises a first boom and a second boom 52,152. 悬臂51、151、52、152及其各自的端部设置有尾鳍53、153、54、154。 51,151,52,152 their respective cantilever end portion is provided with a tail fin 53,153,54,154.

卷收装置50、150具有两个功能。 Retractor means 50, 150 has two functions. 第一个功能是保持转子20、120的旋转轴线26基本上平行于气流的瞬时方向。 The first function is to keep the instantaneous gas flow direction substantially parallel to the rotational axis of the rotor 20, 120 26. 在图1中,气流通过箭头15示意性表示。 In Figure 1, stream 15 is schematically represented by an arrow. 卷收装置50、150的第二个功能是在风速超过风轮机的输出功率需要或者危及系统完整性时使转子20、120旋转离开风,从而保护风轮机10、110使其免受不可接受的高负载。 Retractor means 50, 150 is a second function of the rotor when the wind speed exceeds the output power requirements of the wind turbine or compromise the integrity of the system 20, 120 is rotated away from the wind, so as to protect the wind turbine 10,110 against unacceptably high load. 卷收装置的结构和工作将在下面参考图2a、2b、3、4、5a和5b进行说明。 The structure and operation of the retractor will be described below with reference to FIG. 2a, 2b, 3,4,5a, and 5b will be described.

可以理解,虽然余下的说明涉及图1a的实施例,但是该说明同样适用于图1b的实施例。 It will be appreciated that although the remaining description relates to the embodiment of Figure 1a, the description is equally applicable to the embodiment of FIG. 1b.

如图1中所示,径向导流板21连接并且环绕风轮机叶片30。 As shown in FIG. 1, the radial baffles 21 and the connection 30 around the wind turbine blade. 径向导流板21将在叶片末端附近形成微小的文丘里效应(venturieffect),在这里所产生的气流速度增加对风轮机的功率输出具有最大的影响。 Radial baffles 21 formed slight venturi effect (venturieffect) in the vicinity of the blade tip, the air flow velocity increase produced herein have the greatest effect on the power output of the wind turbine. 这提高了风轮机10的整体效率,这一点将抵消重量上的微小增加和由导流板21的增加所引起的气动阻力。 This increases the overall efficiency of the wind turbine 10, as will be offset by the slight increase in weight and aerodynamic drag by the baffles 21 increase caused. 导流板也将沿转子叶片形成更好的层流。 The baffle is also formed a better laminar flow along the rotor blades. 这非常重要,因为屋顶上的气流通常很紊乱。 This is important, because the airflow is usually very disorder on the roof. 另一个优势在于如下事实:径向导流板21的存在将增加转子20的机械强度,允许各叶片30具有更有效的导流板截面。 Another advantage lies in the fact: there is a radial baffles 21 will increase the mechanical strength of the rotor 20, allowing each blade 30 has a more efficient cross section of the baffle. 另一个优势在于:由于存在径向导流板21,包括气动涡流脱落的噪声得到消除或减小,从而使来自旋转风轮机转子叶片30的声音发射(噪声)减小。 Another advantage lies in: the presence of the radial baffles 21, comprising a pneumatic vortex shedding noise is eliminated or reduced, so that the sound from the wind turbine rotor blade 30 is rotated emission (noise) is reduced. 径向导流板21的存在还有助于减小紊乱气流通过转子平面的影响,并且这样也有助于减小声发射。 There is a radial baffles 21 also helps to reduce the effects of turbulence of air flow through the rotor plane, and this also helps to reduce acoustic emission.

在图1中可以看到,叶片30的设计使得叶片30的外端31大体上垂直于旋转轴线26。 Can be seen in FIG. 1, the design of blade 30 such that the outer end 30 of the blade 31 is generally perpendicular to the rotational axis 26.

叶片的外端31连接在导流板21的前缘22附近。 Connecting the outer end of the blade 31 near the leading edge 21 of the guide plate 22. 叶片30的数量可以变化。 The number of blades 30 can vary. 导流板21可以定位为相对于叶片30沿上游或下游方向延伸。 Baffles 21 may be positioned with respect to the blade 30 extends along the upstream or downstream direction.

在图2中显示了根据图1的风轮机10的转子20和卷收装置50的俯视图。 20 shows a top view and a retractor device of the wind turbine rotor 10 of FIG. 50 in FIG. 2. 卷收装置50包括悬臂51、52,在它们的端部各设置有一个尾鳍53、54。 Retractor means 50 includes a cantilever 51, 52 are each provided with a tail fin 53,54 at their ends. 气流15将在尾鳍53、54上施加一定压力。 15 will exert a certain pressure air stream on the caudal fin 53. 尾鳍将相对于气流15的方向平衡和稳定转子20的位置。 The tail fin 15 with respect to the direction of air flow balance and stability of the rotor 20 position. 当气流15的方向变化时,在尾鳍53、54上产生的压力也将变化。 When a change of direction of the airflow 15, the pressure generated in the tail fin 53 and 54 will also vary. 所产生的力将导致转子20旋转,以便保持气流15的方向与转子20的旋转轴线26大体上一致。 Forces generated will cause rotation of the rotor 20 to align the gas flow direction of the rotor rotational axis 15 is substantially 20 to 26. 在正常卷收过程中,导流板21的存在将减小由不平衡的叶片末端涡流脱落引起的振动。 In the normal course of the retractor, the presence of the baffles 21 will reduce vibrations caused by imbalanced blade tip vortex shedding induced. 因为在卷收过程中导流板将用于使气流从叶片末端转移,因此这一点得以实现。 Because the take-up process for the airflow guide plate is transferred from the tip of the blade, so it can be achieved.

根据本发明的卷收装置50不仅维持转子20和气流15之间的最佳角度,另外还在超高风载过程中起保护风轮机20的作用。 The volume of the receiving apparatus 50 of the present invention not only to maintain the optimal angle between the rotor 20 and the airflow 15, is also being ultrahigh wind load during the protective role of the wind turbine 20. 卷收装置50设计为当风速超过风轮机的输出功率需要或者风载危及转子20或其它风轮机部件的整体性时绕轴线42旋转风轮机(转子)20离开气流。 Retractor means 50 is designed as a wind turbine when the wind speed exceeds the output power requirements of the wind load or compromise about the axis 42 of rotation of the wind turbine (rotor) 20 when the gas stream leaving the integrity of the wind turbine 20 or other components of the rotor. 如图2中所示,尾鳍53、54形成一基本上平行于风的方向指向风或背离风的楔。 As shown in FIG, 53 and 54 form a tail fin 2 substantially parallel to the wind direction is directed away from the wind or wind wedge. 过大的风载将使尾鳍53、54相对于机舱41移动和/或旋转。 Excessive wind load will cause the nacelle 41 relative to the tail fins 53,54 move and / or rotate. 优选的是,一个尾鳍不能移动或者只能受限制地移动,导致转子20绕轴线42卷收(或旋转),而第二个尾鳍在高气流速度下继续旋转。 Preferably, a tail fin can not move or only to a limited movement, cause the rotor 20 about the axis of the retractor 42 (or rotation), while the second tail fin continues to rotate under high airflow speeds. 这意味着,根据本发明的卷收装置50在中等风速下将保持转子20在稳定状态下并且相对于气流15成一个优选角度。 This means that, according to the present invention, the volume of the receiving means 50 will remain in a stable state of the rotor 20 with respect to the gas flow 15 to a preferred angle at moderate wind speeds. 为了保护其整体性,仅仅在超过某一预定风速之后,上述卷收装置50才会使转子20旋转离开风。 In order to protect its integrity, only after a certain predetermined wind speed exceeds the retractor 50 will cause the rotor 20 to rotate out of the wind.

根据本发明的卷收装置50的结构导致卷收装置相对于风速非线性地作用。 The winding structure 50 of the present invention results in the receiving device non-linearly acting wind speed with respect to the retractor means. 卷收装置50限制风轮机受阵风和湍流的影响程度。 Wind turbine 50 limits the influence of the retractor means by gusts and turbulence.

微小的阵风不能使转子移动离开风。 Tiny gust of wind can not move away from the rotor. 卷收装置50的安全功能将仅仅在高风速的环境下起作用以保护风轮机和各自的发电机。 Security features retractor 50 will only function at high wind speed environments in order to protect the wind turbine and a respective generator.

如图2中所示,悬臂51和52沿转子20的下游方向从机舱延伸至尾鳍。 As shown in FIG. 2, a downstream direction 52 along the boom 51 and the rotor 20 extends from the nacelle to the tail fin. 各尾鳍53和54与转子20的外部尺寸基本上一致。 And respective tail fin 53 is substantially uniform outer dimension 54 of the rotor 20. 根据本发明的卷收装置50的结构使得有可能获得紧凑的结构,并且并非必须在机舱41后面有自由空间。 The winding structure of the receiving apparatus 50 of the present invention makes it possible to obtain a compact structure, and not necessarily have a free space behind the nacelle 41. 那意味着与现有风轮机相比该卷收系统的设计允许风轮机的总长度显著减小。 That means that compared to the conventional wind turbine designs of the retractor system allows the overall length of the wind turbine is significantly reduced.

在图3和4中显示了悬臂51和各尾鳍53的第一实施例。 Shows a first boom 51 and respective tail fin 53 of the embodiment in FIGS. 3 and 4. 箭头表示悬臂51相对于机舱41的运动。 Arrows indicate the movement of the boom 51 with respect to the nacelle 41. 转子(未示出)旋转轴线26和尾鳍53之间的角度通过使用位于悬臂51根部的铰链60改变。 The rotor (not shown) the angle between the rotation axis 26 of the hinge 53 and the tail fin 60 is changed by using the root of the cantilever 51. 如图4中所示,悬臂51通过一个盘簧61保持在关于轴线26的固定角度上。 As shown in FIG. 4, the boom 51 is maintained at a fixed angle with respect to axis 26 by a coil spring 61. 当尾鳍53上的风载足够大时,悬臂51和尾鳍53抵抗盘簧61的保持力而旋转,使得转子20上产生非平衡空气动力负载。 When the wind load on the tail fin 53 is sufficiently large, the boom 51 and the tail fin 53 against the holding force of the coil spring 61 rotates the rotor so that the generated unbalanced aerodynamic loading on 20. 该非平衡力将导致机舱绕其安装轴线42旋转(见图1)。 The imbalance force will cause the nacelle rotation about its mounting axis 42 (see FIG. 1). 应该注意到,图4中所示的盘簧61仅仅是出于举例的目的,任何类型的弹簧都可以用于铰链60中。 It should be noted that the coil spring 61 shown in FIG. 4 for purposes of example only, any type of spring may be used in the hinge 60.

在图5a中显示了一个可选实施例,其中卷收鳍的旋转绕一个位于悬臂外端的铰链70发生。 It shows an alternative embodiment in Figure 5a, wherein the retractor is rotatable about a fin located on the outer cantilevered end of the hinge 70 occurs. 在另一个优选实施例中,铰链为一种弹簧铰链170,如图5b中所示。 In another preferred embodiment, the hinge as a hinge spring 170, as shown in FIG. 5b. 如图5中所示,尾鳍53在铰链70处的顺时针方向旋转受到一个端部挡块71限制。 As shown, the tail fin 53 is rotated by a limiting end stop 71 in the clockwise direction at the hinge 705. 尾鳍53的逆时针方向旋转受到一个盘簧(未示出)或弹簧铰链170的作用限制。 Caudal rotation is a counterclockwise direction 53 of the coil spring (not shown) or spring action of the hinge 170 is limited. 当气流15的速度增加到需要卷收的水平时,铰链70或弹簧铰链17中弹簧的保持力被克服,并且尾鳍53(或者在可选的优选实施例中的尾鳍154)将旋转。 When the speed of the airflow 15 increases to a level required retractor, the hinge 70 or the force of a spring hinge holding the spring 17 is overcome, and the caudal fin 53 (or in the embodiment In an alternative preferred embodiment of the caudal fin 154) will rotate. 这使得转子上产生非平衡空气动力负载。 This causes the rotor to generate aerodynamic unbalanced load. 该非平衡力将再次导致机舱绕其安装轴线42旋转,直到风轮机上的空气动力达到平衡。 The imbalance force will cause the nacelle about its mounting axis 42 to rotate again, until the aerodynamic forces on the wind turbine reaches equilibrium. 根据本发明的非线性卷收装置50将保持风轮机为迎风方向并且稳定,直到风速危及系统安全并且风轮机日益偏离风。 According to the present invention the receiving coil of nonlinear device 50 to maintain the direction of the wind turbine windward and stable until the wind speed and the wind turbine system compromise increasingly deviate from the wind. 因此,卷收装置50减小风轮机在阵风中的恒定偏离,否则将产生不希望的振动和风轮机叶片噪声。 Thus, the retractor apparatus 50 is reduced in the wind turbine departing constant gusts and will cause undesirable vibrations and wind turbine blade noise.

可以理解,虽然在所述实施例中铰链特征位于悬臂51、52的末端,然而该铰链可以沿悬臂51、52设置在任何点。 It will be appreciated that although in the embodiment wherein the hinge at the end of the boom 51 and 52 embodiment, however, the hinge 51 may be disposed at any point along the boom.

另外,或作为选择,尾鳍53、54可以设置为沿它们的水平轴线折叠,由此导致不平衡。 Additionally, or alternatively, the tail fin 53, 54 may be provided to fold along their horizontal axis, thereby causing imbalance.

因为导流板21的存在,保护风轮机所需的实际卷收角可以被限制。 Because of the presence of the baffles 21, the actual take-up protection desired angle of the wind turbine can be restricted. 转子20的某一卷收将导致沿导流板21和/或叶片30的气动失速。 Receiving a volume of the rotor 20 will result in the guide plate 21 or the pneumatic and / blade stall 30. 失速一开始,气流15在转子20上的能量将降低。 Beginning a stall, the energy in the gas stream 15 of the rotor 20 will be reduced.

在图6中,显示了风轮机加热系统的一个示意图。 In Figure 6, a schematic diagram shows a wind turbine heating system. 该风轮机加热系统包括第一贮水池118。 The wind turbine heating system comprises a first storage tank 118. 在该贮水池中设置有一个或多个电加热元件114。 The water reservoir is provided with one or more electric heating elements 114. 电加热元件114通过一个控制单元116与风轮机10相连。 Electrical heating element 114 by a control unit 116 is connected to the wind turbine 10. 由风轮机10产生的电流将传到电加热元件114从而加热贮水池118中容纳的水。 Current generated by the wind turbine 10 passes the electric heating element 114 to heat the water contained in the reservoir tank 118. 当电加热元件的热传递效率可以认为接近100%时,按低于设计值的能量输入操作元件将导致更低的元件温度。 When the heat transfer efficiency of the electric heating element can be considered that close to 100%, according to the design value of input energy below the operating member would result in a lower element temperature. 风能的本质在于功率输出通常将显著低于加热系统的总额定功率。 That the nature of wind power output is typically significantly less than the total power rating of the heating system. 如此,有必要使用具有合适的功率额定值的加热系统114。 Thus, it is necessary to use a heating system having an appropriate power ratings of 114.

贮水池118设计为在使用之前存储温水。 Water reservoir 118 is designed to store warm water before using. 贮水池118可以是一个由铜合金制成的罐,但是任何形状或任何材料的罐都可以使用,例如搪瓷钢和塑料。 A water reservoir tank 118 may be made of a copper alloy, but can be any shape or any material may be used, for example, of enamelled steel and plastic. 钢罐更适合于高压仪器,而铜因为其固有的抗腐蚀性和相关的长使用寿命而引人注意。 More suitable for high pressure steel cans instrument, and the copper because of its inherent corrosion resistance and the associated long service life interesting. 铜罐非常适合通风系统及其相关的低罐压。 Copper is very suitable tank ventilation system and the associated low pressure tank.

使用根据图6的系统,当贮水池118中的所有水都已经加热到最高允许温度之后,控制单元116将不再允许加热元件114释放能量到贮水池118中。 Using the system of Figure 6, when the storage tank 118 are all of the water has been heated to a maximum allowable temperature, the control unit 116 will no longer allow the release of energy to the heating element 114 in the storage tank 118. 那意味着由风轮机产生的能量必须被“倾卸”到别处(倾卸元件)。 That means the energy generated by the wind turbine must be "dumping" elsewhere (dump element). 只要风轮机10正在发电,有必要一直都有释放电能的装置。 As long as the wind turbine 10 is generating power, it is necessary to electrical energy has been released.

当因为切断、减小或分隔所述电负载而导致的电负载丧失或减小使得可以从风获得的能量超过功率输出时,电子控制系统“打开”该倾卸元件而触发该倾卸元件。 When the electrical load because the cut, or reducing the electrical load caused by the partition loss or decrease in such energy available from the wind exceeds the power output of the electronic control system "on" the dump element triggers the dump element. 当增加的转子速度至由风轮机转子扭矩和风轮机发电机扭矩的不平衡所产生的某一规定的“倾卸开始”转子速度之上时,所述元件被触发。 When a predetermined torque to the rotor speed increases by the wind turbine rotor and wind turbine generator torque generated when the unbalanced "dump Start" on rotor speed, said element is triggered. 所述风轮机转子扭矩取决于风速并且所述风轮机发电机扭矩取决于电负载。 The wind turbine rotor torque is dependent on wind speed and the wind turbine generator torque is dependent on the electrical load. 所述倾卸元件用于增加风轮机发电机扭矩超过风轮机转子扭矩,减小风轮机转子速度直到它接近或达到失速。 Said tipping member for increasing the wind turbine generator torque exceeds the wind turbine rotor torque reducing the wind turbine rotor speed until it approaches or reaches a stall. 当风轮机转子速度低于某一规定的“倾卸停止”转子速度时,然后发电机扭矩通过释放倾卸负载而减小。 When the "stop dumping" the wind turbine rotor speed is below a certain predetermined rotor speed, and generator torque is reduced by releasing the dump load. 所述“倾卸开始”和“倾卸停止”转子速度确定为与功率输出和电负载成比例。 The "dump start" and "stop dump" power and rotor speed is determined to be proportional to the load and the electrical output.

在热水贮水池118中通过元件114加热的水趋向于形成层叠的层。 Stacked layer tends element 114 by heating the water in the hot water storage tank is formed in 118. 因为热量将通过传导和对流传播,各层中的温度将不会有很大差异。 Since heat propagation by conduction and convection, the temperature of each layer will not vary greatly. 在各层之间存在高的温度梯度。 High temperature gradient exists between layers. 该现象在使用几个加热元件的情况下将很有用,顶层可以被加热,然后当更低的层顺序被加热时通过对流保持它下面的层不受干扰。 This phenomenon in the case where several heating elements is useful, the top layer may be heated, then when the lower layer sequence is heated below its holding layer undisturbed by convection.

应该注意到,这里所述的加热元件设计可以带有或不带有串联的电源接头使用。 It should be noted that the heating element design described herein may be with or without the use of the power supply connector in series. 当不能从风轮机获得能量时,该电源接头将允许浸没式加热元件(或专用的电源元件)以提供能量。 When not available energy from the wind turbine, the power connector allows immersion heating element (or a dedicated mains element) to provide energy.

关于风轮机的效率,由转子从风中提取的能量应该限制在大约60%(59.6%)。 On the efficiency of the wind turbine, extracted from the wind energy by the rotor should be limited to about 60% (59.6%). 因为根据本发明的风轮机可以在湍急气流中工作的事实,通过增加一个新的控制系统,可提高根据本发明的风轮机的效率。 Because the fact that the wind turbine according to the present invention can operate in the turbulent gas stream, by adding a new control system, can improve the efficiency of the wind turbine according to the present invention.

图7示意性地显示了根据本发明的控制系统的工作。 FIG 7 schematically shows the control system operates according to the present invention. 首先,风轮机上的负载接近一个预定的启动水平(LO)。 First, the load on the wind turbine closer to a predetermined start level (LO). 在规定的时间段之后对转子速度进行多个测量。 A plurality of measurements of the rotor speed after a predetermined period of time. 这些测量值被用于对功率输出的所述增加或减小计算第一、第二和第三阶值。 These measurements are used for the increase or decrease output power computing a first, second, and third order values. 决定当前功率输出变化和从风轮机所获得能量数量的所述第一、第二和第三阶值再次被调节。 It determines the current change in the power output and the amount of energy obtained from the wind turbine of the first, second, and third order values ​​are readjusted.

控制从风轮机获得的能量水平的方法包括由控制装置采取的下面步骤:(a)少量增加或减小风轮机的功率输出;(b)临时设置功率输出的水平;(c)在预定的时间段之后,对转子速度进行多个测量;(d)对功率输出的所述增加或减小计算第一、第二和第三阶值,即分别为速度、加速度/减速度和加速度/减速度的变化率;(e)相应于计算结果调节从风轮机获得的能量。 Controlling the energy level obtained from a wind turbine comprising the following steps taken by a control means: (a) a small increase or decrease the power output of the wind turbine; level (b) temporarily set power output; (c) at a predetermined time after the segment, a plurality of measurements of the rotor speed; (d) the output power increase or decrease computing first, second, and third order values, respectively, i.e., speed, acceleration / deceleration and the acceleration / deceleration rate of change; (e) adjusting the calculated results corresponding to the energy obtained from the wind turbine.

然后步骤(b)至(e)连续重复。 Then in step (b) to (e) continuously repeated.

该控制装置使用下面的逻辑确定调节:(a)如果:存在正的二阶转子速度响应(加速度)和转子速度的所述加速度的增加率(正的三阶响应);那么:控制装置导致功率输出增加;或者(b)如果:存在正的二阶转子速度响应(加速度)和转子速度的所述加速度的降低率(负的三阶响应);那么:控制装置导致功率输出增加或者作为选择不改变;或者(c)如果:存在负的二阶转子速度响应(减速度)和转子速度的所述加速度的增加率(正的三阶响应);那么:控制装置导致功率输出降低;或者(d)如果:存在负的二阶转子速度响应(减速度)和转子速度的所述减速度的降低率(负的三阶响应);那么:控制装置导致功率输出增加或作为选择不改变。 The control means uses the following logic to determine the adjustment: (a) if: there is a positive second order rotor speed response (acceleration) and the rate of increase of rotor speed acceleration (positive third order response); then: cause the power control means output increases; or (b) if: there is a positive second order rotor speed response (acceleration) and the acceleration of the rotor speed decreasing rate (negative third order response); then: cause the power output control means increases or alternatively no change; or (c) if: there is a negative second order rotor speed response rate (deceleration) and the rotor speed acceleration (positive third order response); then: cause the power output reduction control means; or (d ) if: there is a negative second order rotor speed response (deceleration) and decreasing rate (negative third order response) of the rotor speed deceleration; then: cause the power output control means increases or alternatively does not change.

控制装置重复上述步骤以连续调节功率输出,以确保功率输出总是最大至风轮机的可用能量,或者产量,这取决于转子平面处的局部风速。 Control means repeats the above steps to continuously adjust the power output to ensure that the maximum power output is always energy available to the wind turbine, or yield, depending on the local wind speed at the rotor plane.

因为转子上的风速将连续变化的事实,用于增加和降低风轮机上负载量的时间间隔通常将在毫秒至数十秒的范围内。 Because the fact that the wind speed on the rotor is continuously changed, for increasing and decreasing the load on the wind turbine will typically be within a time interval in the range of milliseconds to tens of seconds.

当使用如图8中所示的可选贮水池128时,风轮机加热系统的效率可以进一步提高。 When the optional storage tank 8 is used as shown in FIG. 128, the efficiency of the wind turbine heating system can be further improved. 贮水池128设置有一个电加热元件124。 A storage tank 128 is provided with an electrical heating element 124. 该加热元件124在其大致长度方向上被一个环绕管125覆盖。 The heating element 124 in its longitudinal direction is substantially surrounded by a cover tube 125. 管125的底端126是敞开的。 The bottom end 126 of the tube 125 is open. 这使水可以流入加热装置124外部和管125内部之间。 This allows water to flow into the heating means 124 between the inner tube 125 and the external. 电流一通过元件124,电能就将转为热能,并且该热能然后传递到水中。 A current through the element 124, will be converted to heat energy, and this energy is then transferred to the water. 直接环绕加热元件124的水膜将被加热,并且因为自然对流将流向贮水池128的顶部并且防止其径向扩散到贮水池128中。 Heating element 124 immediately surrounding the water film will be heated, and because natural convection flows to the top of the water reservoir 128 and prevent it from diffusing radially into the reservoir tank 128. 因为管125的存在,加热的水被引向贮水池128顶部的一个温水区130。 Since the presence of water tubes 125, the heating zone is directed to a heated storage tank at the top of 130,128. 由加热元件124产生的热量因此集中在贮水池128的顶部并且防止其径向扩散到贮水池128中。 The heat generated by the heating element 124 is thus concentrated at the top of the storage tank 128 and prevent it from diffusing radially into the reservoir tank 128. 这将限制加热水至预定温度所需的时间,因此减小其能量消耗。 This will limit the time required for heating the water to a predetermined temperature, thus reducing its power consumption.

当由风轮机产生的能量增加时,传递到贮水池128的水中的热量也就增加。 When the energy generated by the wind turbine increases, the heat transferred to the water storage tank 128 is also increased. 这意味着热水向贮水池128顶部的流动将增加,从而产生热层叠层的混合,并且产生增大的温水区130。 This means that the flow of hot water increases toward the top of the water reservoir 128, thereby producing a mixed hot lamination layer, and generate increased heated area 130. 该效应示于图9中。 This effect is shown in Figure 9. 因为贮水池128的结构,能量不再必须被“倾卸”。 Because the water reservoir structure 128, the energy is no longer to be "dump." 因为下面事实:风能的本质是使得功率输出经常波动而且低于加热系统的总额定功率,因此贮水池128的使用特别适合于风轮机。 The fact that because of the following: the nature of wind power is such that the fluctuating power output below the heating and total power system, therefore the use of storage tank 128 is particularly suitable for the wind turbine.

在根据本发明的风轮机的正常运行中,由风轮机、塔架和安装结构内的简谐振引起振动。 In the normal operation of the wind turbine of the present invention, the wind turbine tower and within the harmonic oscillator mounting structure caused by the vibration. 这些来自于因为转子、发动机或其它风轮机部件在运行过程中的变形、空气动力引起的振动或机械引起的振动而产生的叶片不平衡。 These come from blade imbalances because of deformation, vibration of the rotor, engine, or other wind turbine components during operation due to aerodynamic or mechanical vibrations caused generated. 消除微型风轮机中的振特别困难,因为它们在风轮机末端速度的很宽范围内运行。 Elimination of micro-wind turbines is especially difficult vibration, because they run over a wide range of tip speed of the wind turbine. 下述设计通过控制风轮机末端速度以至于它们保持外部固有振频率并且通过新颖的吸振措施来减小运行振动。 By following the design tip speed control of the wind turbine so that they remain outside natural vibration frequencies and reduced vibration run by a novel vibration absorption measures.

在建筑结构上安装一个水平轴线的风轮机需要临界频率的阻尼和移动谐波超过系统运行频率。 Installation of a horizontal axis wind turbine on a building structure requires the damping of critical frequencies and the moving over the system operating frequency harmonics. 屋顶风轮机上的阻尼系统被集成到风轮机的安装装置和机舱的设计中。 Damping system on the rooftop wind turbine is integrated into the design of the mounting means and nacelle of the wind turbine. 这些吸振系统一起工作以形成无噪运行的屋顶风轮机。 These vibration absorbing systems work together to form a noise-free running of the roof of the wind turbine.

新颖的风轮机安装支架使用一种阻尼弹性材料和结构材料的夹层结构。 The novel wind turbine mounting bracket uses a sandwich construction of an elastic material and the damping material.

该安装装置塔包括一个创新性的芯部,通常为橡胶,该芯部具有一些带有缩小横截面积并且不接触安装装置内表面的部分和一些接触安装装置内表面的部分。 The mounting means comprises a column innovative core, typically of rubber, the inner core portion having a reduced cross-sectional area and some parts are not in contact with the inner surface of the device mounting means and some of the contact mounting surface. 这用于通过在能量到达安装支架之前消散在橡胶芯部而吸收安装装置中的振动。 This is used by the energy dissipated before reaching the core portion of the mounting bracket and the rubber vibration absorbing mounting means. 该橡胶芯部也起到使系统的振频率超过风轮机驱动频率的作用。 The rubber core also acts to vibration frequency of the system than the drive frequency of the wind turbine effect.

在图10中以横截面显示了安装装置内部的一个可能的实施例。 In Figure 10 shows a possible embodiment of the mounting device to the internal cross-section. 在该实施例中,安装装置横截面为管形。 In this embodiment, the mounting means is a tubular cross-section. 安装装置40包括一个中空芯部,其中存在一个圆柱形芯部元件90。 Mounting means 40 comprises a hollow core wherein a cylindrical core element is present 90. 该芯部元件90在其中间设置有一个中空部分91以允许元件,如电源线经由芯部元件90的内部通过。 The core member 90 at an intermediate portion provided with a hollow portion to allow member 91, such as via a power supply line through the inner core portion 90 of the element. 芯部元件90具有部分92,部分92的外径基本上与安装装置40的内径对应。 Core element 90 has a portion 92, 92 of the outer diameter portion 40 substantially corresponds to the inner diameter of the mounting device. 这些部分与具有缩小直径并且不接触安装装置40内部径向表面的部分93交替。 The reduced diameter portion and having a mounting means does not contact the inner radial surface part 9340 alternately. 该夹层安装支架连同安装装置芯部的设计抑制系统中的振动。 The sandwich mounting bracket together with the core design of the device mounted vibration suppression system. 这些转动的主要来源是从风轮机传到建筑物的振动和障碍物周围的气动湍流,它们减小了功率输出但更重要的是缩短了风轮机的工作寿命。 The main source of rotational vibration is transmitted to the pneumatic turbulence and obstacles around the building from the wind turbine, they reduce the power output but more importantly shortens the working life of the wind turbine.

在图11中以横截面显示了安装装置内部的一个可选实施例。 In FIG 11 shows an alternative embodiment the interior of the mounting means embodiment in cross-section.

安装装置40的中空芯部设置有一个芯部元件94。 Hollow core mounting device 40 is provided with a core portion of the element 94. 该芯部元件94在其中间设置有一个中空部分91。 The core member 94 at an intermediate portion provided with a hollow portion 91. 芯部元件94设置有外径基本上对应于安装装置40内径的部分92。 A core member 94 is provided with an outer diameter substantially corresponding to the inner diameter of the mounting portion 92 of the device 40. 这些部分与具有缩小直径并且不接触安装装置40内部径向表面的部分93交替。 The reduced diameter portion and having a mounting means does not contact the inner radial surface part 9340 alternately. 当对比图10和11时,很清楚,各芯部元件90和94中的凹槽的形状不同。 When the comparison 11 and FIG. 10, it is clear that a different shape of the groove portions of each of the core elements 90 and 94. 应该注意到,图10和11仅仅出于举例说明的目的。 It should be noted that FIGS. 10 and 11 merely for purposes of illustration. 也可以采用芯部元件的可选实施例。 Core element may be used in alternative embodiments.

图12显示了安装装置40内部的另一个实施例。 Figure 12 shows the apparatus 40 installed inside another embodiment. 如图12中所示,安装装置40的内部包括多个插入安装装置中的芯部元件95,其中第一元件95紧靠相邻的元件95。 As shown, the interior 40 of the mounting device 12 comprises a plurality of insert core component mounting apparatus 95, 95 wherein a first element 95 abuts an adjacent element. 在图12的实例中,各元件95中凹槽的形状又不同于根据图10和11的实施例。 In the example of FIG. 12, each of the elements in the shape of the groove 95 is different from the embodiment according to FIGS. 10 and 11.

在风轮机中,噪声来自于两个领域:空气动力源和机械源。 In a wind turbine noise comes from two areas: the aerodynamic sources and mechanical sources. 气动噪声从叶片发出,因为带有湍流的叶片表面与叶片周围边界层中的自然空气或粘性流的相互作用而产生。 Aerodynamic noise emitted from the blade, because the interaction with the surrounding surface of the blade with the blade boundary layer turbulence in the viscous flow of air or natural generated. 机械噪声是因为机械部件的相对运动以及它们之间的动力响应。 Mechanical noise because of the relatively moving mechanical parts and the dynamic response among them. 如果机舱、转子和塔传播机械噪声并进行扩散,充当一个扩音器,该效应可以被放大。 If the nacelle, rotor and tower mechanical noise propagation and diffusion, to act as a loudspeaker, this effect can be amplified. 存在两种噪声问题:直接从部件表面或内部传播到空气中的空气噪声和在由另一个部件发出之前通过结构传播的结构噪声。 There are two noise problem: propagating directly from the surface of the inner member into the air or air noise and structural noise propagation through the structure before it is issued by another member.

风轮机安装和安装装置被设计为将整体结构的振频率推至由叶片不平衡、空气动力引起的振动、机械引起的振动与变形所产生的运行振动频率之外。 The wind turbine mounting and mounting means are designed to push the oscillation frequency of the overall configuration to vibrations caused by imbalance of the blade, aerodynamic, and to running vibration frequency caused by mechanical deformation produced. 该安装包括一个消除振动的阻尼系统。 The installation includes a vibration damping system to eliminate.

如图13中所示,风轮机10可以形成风轮机系统200的一部分,该系统可以与一个孤立的或电网连接的换流器201相连,用于连接到地方电力设施或者地方或嵌入式的电网连接器202。 As shown, the wind turbine 10 can form part of a wind turbine system 13 in 200, the system 201 may be coupled to an isolated or a grid-connected inverter, for connection to the local power grid facility or place or embedded connector 202. 系统200也可以设置有一个整流器203,该整流器对来自风轮机10的功率输出进行整流并且将整流后的电能输送至一个电子控制器204(如前面实施例所述),该控制器可以“倾卸”过量负载205(可以通过一个外部阻抗负载如其它实施例所述进行)或者供应电能至换流器201。 The system 200 may also be provided with a rectifier 203 which rectifies the output power from the wind turbine 10 is rectified and the rectified electrical power delivered to an electronic controller 204 (as described in the foregoing embodiment), the controller may be "poured unloading "excessive load 205 (such as the other embodiments may be via an external impedance load) or supply power to the inverter 201. 这样,风轮机系统200可以被用于供应电能至电力设施,如地方电网或全国电网。 In this way, the wind turbine system 200 may be used to supply electrical energy to power facilities, such as local or national power grid.

如图14所示,风轮机10可以形成与储能系统301相连的风轮机系统300的一部分。 14, wind turbine 10 may form part of a wind turbine system 301 is connected with the energy storage system 300. 该存储装置可以为电池堆的形式,或储能装置的任何其它合适的形式。 The stack may be in the form of the memory device, or any other suitable form of energy storage device. 系统300也可以设置有一个整流器303,该整流器对来自风轮机10的功率输出进行整流并且将整流后的电能输送至一个电子控制器304(可以通过一个外部阻抗负载如其它实施例所述进行),该控制器可以“倾卸”过量负载305(可以如其它实施例所述进行)或者供应电能至存储装置301。 The system 300 may also be provided with a rectifier 303 which rectifies the output power from the wind turbine 10 is rectified and the rectified electrical power delivered to an electronic controller 304 (as other embodiments may be via an external impedance load Proceeding) the controller may "dump" the excess load 305 (e.g., other embodiments may be said) or supplying electric power to the storage device 301. 这样,风轮机系统200可以被用于输送电能至存储装置用于以后使用。 Thus, wind turbine system 200 may be used to deliver electrical energy to the storage means for later use.

可以对前述进行修改和改进而不脱离本发明的范围。 Modifications and improvements may be made without departing from the scope of the present invention.

Claims (57)

1.一种用于风轮机的转子,包括多个径向叶片和一个连接所述叶片外端的环形导流板扩散器。 1. A rotor for a wind turbine, comprising a plurality of radial vanes and outer annular baffle blade end connected to the diffuser.
2.根据权利要求1所述的转子,其特征在于,所述导流板扩散器从所述叶片的外端向下游延伸。 2. The rotor according to claim 1, wherein said diffuser baffle extending from an outer end of the blade downstream.
3.根据前面权利要求中任一所述的转子,其特征在于,所述叶片的外端在扩散器的前缘处或者靠近该前缘处与所述扩散器相连。 3. The rotor according to any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the outer end of the blade at the leading edge of the diffuser is connected to or near the leading edge of the diffuser.
4.根据前面权利要求中任一所述的转子,其特征在于,所述导流板扩散器从叶片的外端向外形成锥度,以形成一个基本上为截头圆锥体的扩散器,该截头圆锥体扩散器的旋转轴线基本上对准叶片的旋转轴线。 The rotor according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein said diffuser baffle tapering outwardly from an outer end of the blade, to form a substantially frusto-conical diffuser, which the rotational axis of the frusto-conical diffuser is substantially aligned with the axis of rotation of the blade.
5.根据权利要求1所述的转子,其特征在于,所述导流板扩散器的至少一部分从叶片的外端向上游延伸。 5. The rotor according to claim 1, wherein a portion of said diffuser baffle extending from an outer end of the blade at least upstream.
6.根据前面权利要求中任一所述的转子,其特征在于,当导流板扩散器从上游端延伸至下游端时,径向向外形成锥度。 6. The rotor according to any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that when the baffles of the diffuser extends from the upstream end to the downstream end, tapering radially outwardly.
7.根据前面权利要求中任一所述的转子,其特征在于,导流板扩散器形成为阻止来自叶片的部分轴向和部分径向气流,所述气流在接触到导流板扩散器时变为周向。 7. The rotor according to any preceding claim a, characterized in that the deflector is formed to prevent the diffuser portion of the axial and radial gas flow from the blade portion, contacting the gas stream in the diffuser when the baffle week to become.
8.根据前面权利要求中任一所述的转子,其特征在于,在正常工作中导流板扩散器适合于阻止来自叶片外端的部分周向和部分径向气流,并且将所述气流转变为基本上为周向的气流。 The rotor according to any of the preceding claims one, wherein, in normal operation the baffle adapted to prevent the diffuser portion and the circumferential portion of the gas flow from the radially outer end of the blade and the air flow into substantially circumferential airflow.
9.根据前面权利要求中任一所述的转子,其特征在于,叶片相对于一个垂直于转子旋转轴线的横向转子平面以某一角度倾斜。 The rotor according to one of the preceding claims in claim 1, characterized in that the blade with respect to a transverse rotor plane perpendicular to the rotational axis of the rotor is inclined at an angle.
10.根据权利要求9所述的转子,其特征在于,倾斜角可以沿叶片的长度变化。 10. The rotor according to claim 9, characterized in that the angle of inclination may vary along the length of the blade.
11.根据权利要求9或10所述的转子,其特征在于,各叶片的倾斜角在叶片的中间部分处比叶片的外端处大。 The rotor according to claim 9 or claim 10, characterized in that the angle of inclination of each blade is large at the intermediate portion of the blade than at the outer end of the blade.
12.根据前面权利要求中任一所述的转子,其特征在于,叶片在叶片的外端处基本上平行于横向转子平面。 12. The rotor according to any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the blade substantially parallel to the transverse rotor plane at the outer end of the blade.
13.一种包括根据权利要求1至12中任一所述的转子的风轮机,还包括机舱和安装装置,它们适于允许风轮机和转子绕垂直于旋转轴线的一个定向轴线旋转,从而允许风轮机根据风的情况而朝向最佳方向。 13. A method comprising 1 to 12 of a wind turbine rotor according to, further comprising a nacelle and mounting arrangement of claim which is adapted to allow the wind turbine and rotor about a directional axis perpendicular to the rotational axis, allowing a wind turbine according to the situation of the wind toward the optimum direction.
14.根据权利要求13所述的风轮机,还包括卷收装置,所述卷收装置适于在气流速度大于预定的气流速度时使转子绕定向轴线旋转从而使所述旋转轴线不平行于气流方向。 14. The wind turbine according to claim 13, further comprising a retractor, said retractor means adapted to cause rotation of the rotor about an axis oriented when the airflow speed is greater than a predetermined flow rate such that the rotational axis is not parallel to the gas flow direction.
15.根据权利要求14所述的风轮机,其特征在于,所述卷收装置包括一非线性卷收装置,其适于在气流速度的第一低范围内不提供卷收并且在气流速度的第二高范围内提供不同程度卷收。 15. The wind turbine according to claim 14, wherein said retractor means comprises a nonlinear reeling device, which is not available within the retractor is adapted in a first gas flow velocity in the low range and the gas flow velocity provide varying degrees a second retractor within the high range.
16.根据权利要求14和15所述的风轮机,其特征在于,所述卷收装置包括至少两个向所述扩散器的下游延伸的尾鳍。 16. The wind turbine of claim 14 and 15, wherein said receiving means comprises a volume of at least two tail fins extending downstream of the diffuser.
17.根据权利要求16所述的风轮机,其特征在于,两个尾鳍彼此径向相反设置。 17. The wind turbine according to claim 16, wherein the two tail fins provided diametrically opposed to each other.
18.根据权利要求16或17所述的风轮机,其特征在于,其中一个尾鳍为铰链安装的活动尾鳍,其绕一个切向铰链线旋转。 18. The wind turbine of claim 16 or claim 17, wherein an active caudal tail fin hingedly mounted, which rotates about a tangential hinge line.
19.根据权利要求18所述的风轮机,其特征在于,所述活动尾鳍可以安装在一个安装悬臂上,并且铰链线可以设置在安装悬臂和机舱的连接点处从而使安装悬臂也旋转,或者设置在安装悬臂和活动尾鳍之间的连接处从而使仅仅活动尾鳍旋转,或者设置在沿安装悬臂长度的任何点处。 19. A wind turbine according to claim 18, wherein the movable tail fin may be mounted on a mounting boom and the hinge line may be provided at the connection point of the mounting boom and the nacelle so that the mounting boom also rotates, or provided in the mounting connection between the boom and tail fin so that only activities activities caudal rotation or disposed at any point along the length of the mounting boom.
20.根据权利要求18或19所述的风轮机,其特征在于,尾鳍在高风速下绕水平轴线旋转,导致一个尾鳍绕水平轴线折叠。 20. The wind turbine of claim 18 or claim 19, wherein the tail fin rotates about a horizontal axis under high winds resulting in a tail fin is folded about a horizontal axis.
21.根据权利要求18至20中任一所述的风轮机,其特征在于,活动尾鳍通过偏压装置旋转偏压至一个静止位置,在该位置活动尾鳍的前缘比活动尾鳍的后缘更靠近转子的旋转轴线,以至于活动尾鳍与转子的旋转轴线形成一静止攻角。 21. A wind turbine according to any of claims 18 to 20, characterized in that the tail fin to a rest position activity by the biasing means biasing the rotation, but the position of the movable trailing edge than the leading edge of the tail fin tail fin activity near the axis of rotation of the rotor, so that the activities of the rotor axis of rotation of the tail fin to form a static angle of attack.
22.根据权利要求21所述的风轮机,其特征在于,所述偏压装置为非线性的。 22. The wind turbine according to claim 21, wherein said biasing means is non-linear.
23.根据权利要求21或22所述的风轮机,其特征在于,所述偏压装置适于保持活动尾鳍在静止位置直到气流速度达到一预定速度,并且当气流速度增加超过预定速度时,该活动尾鳍旋转并且攻角减小,从而风轮机上产生非平衡气动负载,使风轮机绕其安装轴线旋转至一个卷收位置。 23. The wind turbine of claim 21 or claim 22, wherein said biasing means is adapted to remain active in the rest position until the airflow caudal speed reaches a predetermined speed, and when the air flow rate increases beyond a predetermined speed, the activity and caudal rotation angle of attack decreases, resulting in unbalanced aerodynamic loading on the wind turbine the wind turbine is mounted about its axis of rotation to a position of the retractor.
24.一种风轮机系统,包括:一个风轮机驱动的发电机和用于提供功率输出的装置。 24. A wind turbine system, comprising: means for providing a power output of a wind turbine driven generator and means for.
25.根据权利要求24所述的风轮机系统,其特征在于,该系统还包括一个电子控制系统。 25. A wind turbine system according to claim 24, characterized in that the system further comprises an electronic control system.
26.根据权利要求24或25所述的风轮机系统,其特征在于,该系统包括倾卸元件,所述倾卸元件具有一个或多个能量消耗装置。 26. The wind turbine system of claim 24 or claim 25, characterized in that the system comprises a dump element, the tipping element having one or more energy consuming devices.
27.根据权利要求26所述的风轮机系统,其特征在于,所述能量消耗装置可以为电阻元件的形式。 27. A wind turbine system according to claim 26, wherein the resistance element may be in the form of the energy consuming device.
28.根据权利要求26或27所述的风轮机系统,其特征在于,倾卸元件为液体存储容器的形式,其中具有适合于加热所述存储容器中液体的电加热元件。 28. The wind turbine system of claim 26 or claim 27, wherein the dump element is in the form of a liquid storage container, having a storage container adapted to heat the liquid in an electric heating element.
29.根据权利要求28所述的风轮机系统,其特征在于,所述控制装置可以用于当来自风轮机的能量超过预定能量时供应电能至所述一个或多个电加热元件。 29. A wind turbine system according to claim 28, wherein said control means for supplying electrical energy to be the one or more electrical heating elements when the energy from the wind turbine exceeds a predetermined power.
30.根据权利要求28或29所述的风轮机系统,其特征在于,所述液体存储容器为冷水罐并且液体为水。 30. The wind turbine system of claim 28 or claim 29, characterized in that the liquid storage vessel is a cold water tank and the liquid is water.
31.根据权利要求28或29所述的风轮机系统,其特征在于,所述加热元件为散热器。 31. A wind turbine system according to claim 28 or claim 29, wherein said heating element is a radiator.
32.根据权利要求26所述的风轮机系统,其特征在于,当因为切断、减小或分隔所述电负载而导致的电负载丧失或减小使得可以从风获得的能量超过功率输出时,倾卸元件由电子控制系统触发。 32. The wind turbine system according to claim 26, wherein, when the power cut off because reducing or separating the electrical load caused by the loss or decrease of the load such that energy available from the wind exceeds the power output, tipping element is triggered by an electronic control system.
33.根据权利要求32所述的风轮机系统,其特征在于,当转子速度增加至由风轮机转子扭矩和风轮机发电机扭矩的不平衡所产生的某一规定的“倾卸开始”转子速度之上时,倾卸元件被触发,所述风轮机转子扭矩取决于风速,而所述风轮机发电机扭矩取决于电负载。 33. The wind turbine system according to claim 32, wherein "Start dump" a predetermined speed of the rotor when the rotor speed to increase torque generated by the wind turbine rotor and wind turbine generator torque generated by the imbalance of when on, the dump element is activated, said wind turbine rotor torque is dependent on wind speed, and wind turbine generator torque is dependent on the electrical load.
34.根据权利要求33所述的风轮机系统,其特征在于,所述倾卸元件适合于增加风轮机发电机扭矩超过风轮机转子扭矩,从而减小风轮机转子速度直到它接近或达到气动失速,并且当风轮机转子速度低于某一规定的“倾卸停止”转子速度时,发电机扭矩被释放,所述“倾卸开始”和“倾卸停止”转子速度被确定为与功率输出成比例。 34. The wind turbine system according to claim 33, wherein said tipping element adapted to increase the wind turbine generator to the wind turbine rotor torque exceeds the torque, thereby reducing the wind turbine rotor speed until it approaches or reaches a stall pneumatic , and when the "stop dumping" the wind turbine rotor speed is below a certain predetermined rotor speed, the generator torque is released, the "dump start" and "stop dumping" is determined as the rotor speed and power output to proportion.
35.根据权利要求24至34中任一所述的风轮机系统,其特征在于,风轮机系统设置有控制装置,适合于控制从风轮机获取的能量水平。 35.24 to 34 in any of a wind turbine system as claimed in claim, wherein the wind turbine system is provided with control means adapted to control the energy level obtained from the wind turbine.
36.根据权利要求35所述的风轮机系统,其特征在于,所述控制系统适合于相对于总体功率输出少量地增加或减小风轮机的功率输出。 36. A wind turbine system according to claim 35, wherein said system is adapted to control the power output of a small amount of overall power output increases or decreases with respect to the wind turbine.
37.根据权利要求24至36中任一所述的风轮机系统,其特征在于,所述系统包括根据权利要求1至23中任一所述的风轮机。 37.24 to 36 in any of a wind turbine system as claimed in claim, wherein said system comprises 1 to 23 a wind turbine as claimed in claim.
38.根据权利要求24至37中任一所述的风轮机系统,其特征在于,功率输出连接到一个加热系统,该加热系统还包括另一液体存储容器、一个或多个适合于加热所述另一容器中液体的电加热元件以及适合于控制所述发电机对所述一个或多个电加热元件的电力供应的控制装置。 38. A wind turbine system according to any one of claims 24 to 37, wherein the power output is connected to a heating system, said heating system further comprising a further liquid storage container adapted to heat the one or more of the another liquid container an electric heating element and a control device for a power supply to said one or more electrical heating elements adapted to control the generator.
38.根据权利要求37所述的风轮机系统,其特征在于,所述另一液体存储容器为热水罐并且液体为水。 38. A wind turbine system according to claim 37, wherein said further liquid storage vessel is a hot water tank and the liquid is water.
39.根据权利要求38所述的风轮机系统,其特征在于,所述加热系统包括多个电加热元件,并且所述控制装置适合于供应电能至一定比例的电加热元件,该比例取决于发电机产生的瞬时电能。 39. The wind turbine system according to claim 38, wherein said heating system comprises a plurality of electrical heating elements, and said control means is adapted to supply electric energy to a certain proportion of the electrical heating element, the power ratio depends on the the instantaneous energy locally generated.
40.根据权利要求39所述的风轮机系统,其特征在于,在所述另一液体容器中的加热元件被一个管环绕,所述管的下端敞开并且适合于允许水从所述管下面流向加热元件。 40. A wind turbine system according to claim 39, characterized in that the heating element in the further liquid vessel is surrounded by a tube, the lower end of the tube and adapted to open to allow water to flow from beneath the tube Heating element.
41.根据权利要求40所述的风轮机系统,其特征在于,所述管环绕并延伸越过加热元件的总长度,从而使靠近加热元件的水将被加热并且因为自然对流而向上流动,所述管适合于可在所述另一液体存储容器中形成不同并且独立的热区。 41. A wind turbine system according to claim 40, characterized in that the tube surrounding and extending beyond the overall length of the heating element, so that the water near the heating element will be heated and because natural convection flows upwards, the tube may be adapted to form different and independently of the other hot zone in the liquid storage container.
42.根据权利要求24至41中任一所述的风轮机系统,其特征在于,功率输出连接到一个电网连接的换流器或孤立的换流器。 42.24 to 41 in any of a wind turbine system as claimed in claim, wherein the power output is connected to a grid-connected inverter or isolated inverter.
43.根据权利要求42所述的风轮机系统,其特征在于,所述换流器适合于供应电能至地方或电网电力设施。 43. A wind turbine system according to claim 42, wherein said converter is adapted to supply power to local or grid power facilities.
44.根据权利要求24至43中任一所述的风轮机系统,其特征在于,功率输出连接到一个储能系统。 44. A wind turbine system according to any one of claims 24 to 43, wherein the power output is connected to an energy storage system.
45.一种控制从风轮机获得的能量水平的方法,包括由控制装置采取的如下步骤:(a)少量增加或减小风轮机的功率输出;(b)临时设置功率输出的水平;(c)在预定的时间段之后,对转子速度进行多个测量;(d)对功率输出的所述增加或减小计算第一、第二和第三阶值,即分别为速度、加速度/减速度和加速度/减速度的变化率;(e)相应于计算结果调节从风轮机获得的能量。 45. A method of controlling the level of energy obtained from the wind turbine, comprising the steps taken by a control means: (a) a small increase or decrease the power output of the wind turbine; level (b) temporarily set power output; (c ) after a predetermined period of time, a plurality of measurements of the rotor speed; (d) the output power increase or decrease computing first, second, and third order values, namely the speed, acceleration / deceleration and acceleration / deceleration of the rate of change; (e) adjusting the calculated results corresponding to the energy obtained from the wind turbine.
46.根据权利要求45所述的方法,其特征在于,所述控制装置使用下面的逻辑确定调节:(a)如果:存在正的二阶转子速度响应(加速度)和转子速度的所述加速度的增加率(正的三阶响应);那么:控制装置导致功率输出增加;或者(b)如果:存在正的二阶转子速度响应(加速度)和转子速度的所述加速度的降低率(负的三阶响应);那么:控制装置导致功率输出增加或者作为选择不改变;或者(c)如果:存在负的二阶转子速度响应(减速度)和转子速度的所述加速度的增加率(正的三阶响应);那么:控制装置导致功率输出降低;或者(d)如果:存在负的二阶转子速度响应(减速度)和转子速度的所述减速度的降低率(负的三阶响应);那么:控制装置导致功率输出增加或作为选择不改变。 46. ​​The method according to claim 45, wherein said control means uses the following logic to determine the adjustment: (a) if: there is a positive second order rotor speed response (acceleration) and the acceleration of the rotor speed rate (positive third order response); then: cause the power output increase control means; or (b) if: the rate of decrease of the acceleration a positive second order rotor speed response (acceleration) and rotor speed (three negative order response); then: cause the power output control means increases or alternatively does not change; or (c) if: the rate of increase of the acceleration of a negative second order rotor speed response (deceleration) and rotor speed (three positive order response); then: cause the power output reduction control means; or (d) if: there is a negative second order rotor speed response (deceleration) and decreasing rate of the rotor speed deceleration (negative third order response); then: cause the power output control means increases or alternatively does not change.
47.根据权利要求45或46所述的方法,其特征在于,所述控制装置重复上述所有步骤以连续调节功率输出,以确保功率输出总是最大至风轮机的可用能量,这取决于转子平面处的局部风速。 47. The method of claim 45 or claim 46, wherein said control means repeats all the above steps to continuously adjust the power output to ensure that the maximum power output is always energy available to the wind turbine, depending on the rotor plane local wind speed at.
48.根据权利要求13至23中任一所述的风轮机,包括用于降低由风轮机、塔和安装结构内的简谐共振引起的运行振动的装置。 48. The wind turbine of claim 13 to 23 said pair comprising a means for reducing the wind turbine, operating vibrations caused by harmonic resonance within the tower and mounting structure.
49.根据权利要求48所述的风轮机,其特征在于,风轮机设置有机舱阻尼系统,适合于使发电机和风轮机中的振动与塔至少部分隔开。 49. The wind turbine according to claim 48, wherein the wind turbine is provided with a nacelle damping system, adapted to cause the vibration generator of the wind turbine tower at least partially separated.
50.根据权利要求48或49所述的风轮机,其特征在于,风轮机设置有用于在表面上安装风轮机的安装支架,所述支架具有由粘弹性材料和结构材料形成的夹层结构。 50. The wind turbine of claim 48 or 49, wherein the wind turbine is provided for mounting a wind turbine on a surface of the mounting bracket, the stent sandwich structure formed from a viscoelastic material and a material having a structure.
51.根据权利要求48至50中任一所述的风轮机,其特征在于,所述安装装置为管形。 51. The wind turbine of claim 48 to 1 in any of the 50, wherein the mounting means is tubular.
52.根据权利要求50所述的风轮机,其特征在于,所述塔包括一个或多个由柔性材料,如橡胶制成的芯部,所述芯部具有一些带有缩小直径并且不接触塔的内部径向表面的部分,使得这些具有缩小直径的部分与具有正常尺寸并且接触塔内部表面的部分交替,由此用于通过在能量到达安装支架之前消散在柔性芯部而吸收塔中的振动。 52. The wind turbine according to claim 50, characterized in that the column comprises one or more of a flexible material, such as a rubber core, the core having a portion with a reduced diameter and number of the column does not contact the a radially inner portion of the surface, such that the reduced diameter portion having a normal size and having a contact portion of the inner surface of the tower alternately, whereby by a vibration absorber mounting bracket prior to reaching the energy dissipated in the flexible core .
53.根据权利要求52所述的风轮机,其特征在于,所述橡胶芯部适合于通过吸收一定范围的振动频率而控制系统的共振频率在风轮机驱动频率之外。 53. The wind turbine according to claim 52, characterized in that the outside of the rubber core is adapted to control the resonant frequency by absorption of a range of vibration frequency of the drive frequency of the wind turbine.
54.根据权利要求53所述的风轮机,其特征在于,每个所述缩小直径部分的横截面形状和长度改变,由此调整系统以便从安装结构中去除一定范围的振动频率。 54. The wind turbine according to claim 53, wherein each of said cross-sectional shape and length of the reduced diameter portion of the change, thereby adjusting the system to remove a range of vibration frequencies from the mounting structure.
55.根据权利要求48至54中任一所述的风轮机,其特征在于,所述夹层安装支架得益于安装装置芯部的设计并且抑制来自机舱的振动。 55. The claims 48 to 54 in one of the wind turbine, characterized in that, thanks to the sandwich mounting bracket mounting means core design and suppress vibrations from the cabin.
56.根据权利要求55所述的风轮机,其特征在于,机舱通过设计为消除振动频率的衬套来支撑发电机。 56. The wind turbine according to claim 55, characterized in that the cabin through the liner designed to eliminate vibration frequency of the generator is supported.
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