CN1294842C - Former hot blast and latter vacuum microwave combining drying process of producing crisp fruit and vegetable grains - Google Patents

Former hot blast and latter vacuum microwave combining drying process of producing crisp fruit and vegetable grains Download PDF

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Publication number
CN1294842C
CN1294842C CNB2005100389186A CN200510038918A CN1294842C CN 1294842 C CN1294842 C CN 1294842C CN B2005100389186 A CNB2005100389186 A CN B2005100389186A CN 200510038918 A CN200510038918 A CN 200510038918A CN 1294842 C CN1294842 C CN 1294842C
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China
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drying
fruit
vegetable
vacuum microwave
vacuum
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CNB2005100389186A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN1672531A (en
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张慜
杜卫华
孙金才
胡庆国
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江南大学
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Abstract

The present invention relates to a method for preparing fruit-vegetable crisp grains by jointly drying of hot air frying in the prior stage and vacuum microwave drying in the later stage, which belongs to the technical field of preparing fruit-vegetable food. The present invention has the following main processes: fruit-vegetable raw materials are selected, such as vegetables, fruits, beans, etc.; firstly, the fruit-vegetable raw materials are treated with washing, finishing slicing, blanching for sterilization (90 to 100 DEG C), cooling by running water, draining, quick freezing or not (20 to 30 DEG C below zero), frozen storage for spare use (15 to 20 DEG C below zero), and unfreezing; then the fruit-vegetable raw materials are treated with soaking and seasoning (about 1 hour); after draining, hot air is pre-dewatered (60 to 70 DEG C, air speed of 1 to 3 m/s) to obtain a semi-product (water content of 40 to 60%); finally, the semi-product is treated with vacuum microwave drying (-90 to 96kPa, 2000 to 3500W) to obtain a finished product (water content of 2 to 5%). The present invention adopts a new technology that fruit-vegetable grains are soaked and seasoned to balance internal polarity solute, and then the fruit-vegetable grains are jointly dried by hot air drying and vacuum microwave drying. Thereby, the nutrient components and the color of the fruit-vegetable crisp grain products are preferable preserved, and the products are crisp. In addition, the problems of high oil content and greasy taste existing in fried food are solved, and the production cost is lower than that of vacuum freeze drying products. The present invention has the characteristics of short production period, low cost, good product quality, etc.

Description

Early stage, hot blast later stage vacuum microwave combining drying prepared the method for the crisp grain of granular garden stuff

Technical field

A kind of elder generation is by soaking the inner polar solute of seasoning balance to granular garden stuff, adopt again early stage heated-air drying with the method for crisp of the explained hereafter granular garden stuff of later stage vacuum microwave combining drying, belong to the fruit-vegetable food processing technique field, relate to the fruits and vegetables ' dehydration manufacture field.

Background technology

Fruits and vegetables ' dehydration is an important component part in garden stuff processing field.Fruits and vegetables will consume a large amount of heat energy when routine is dewatered, have pyroprocess again, and the nutritional labeling of fruits and vegetables is run off in a large number, so high energy consumption is two topmost problems that exist in the fruits and vegetables ' dehydration processing with having a strong impact on product quality.

Heated-air drying is a kind of traditional drying means, uses still very extensive so far.But have obvious defects: rate of drying is fast in earlier stage, the later stage is slow; High temperature; Heat time heating time is long; The nutritional labeling loss is big; The shrinkage degree is serious; Fragility is poor.

Vacuum freeze drying is considered to keep product nutritional labeling and the best a kind of drying means of color and luster at present, but exists one-time investment big; Occupation area of equipment is big; Energy consumption is big; Production cycle is long; Product is not had bactericidal action, has the microorganism defectives such as hidden danger that exceed standard.

Though there is certain advantage in vacuum oil-field food at aspects such as cost and color and luster, nutritional labeling storage rates, but but there is the oil of (20~40) % to remove, based on the scientific theory of " the edible oil deep-fried food is harmful to health ", vacuum oil-field food can not be widely accepted always.

Vacuum microwave drying is a kind of novel dry technology, it have rate of drying fast, food nutrient composition destroyed keep original color and luster and local flavor less, substantially, can produce comparatively ideal expansion effect, make advantages such as product palatable crisp, so academia was also a lot of about the research of vacuum microwave drying The Application of Technology in recent years.Adopt the bright razor clam series food of microwave drying among the patent publication No. CN1547951A, patent publication No. CN1530035A produces band filling crackling pimiento through microwave drying, more than two patents vacuum microwave drying has been carried out actual research, the look that has kept product preferably, fragrant, flavor and various nutritional labeling, but because microwave equipment is worked under vacuum condition, the dry place that belongs to sealing, ventilating capability is poor, the moisture that from material, evaporates can not in time be discharged from and regelation to equipment inwall and material surface, more strengthen drying load, can not satisfy the dehydration requirement of the higher material of moisture.

Cause the vacuum microwave drying machine utilization excessive in order to solve material original water content height, be unfavorable for the problem promoted, Guixing (2000), Medeni Maskan (2001), Ana Andres (2004) study the technology of utilizing microwave and hot blast combination drying American Ginseng, Kiwi berry, apple, have solved this problem preferably.But above research is that hot blast and microwave dryer are combined on the same equipment, is used for very difficulty of actual production.

Xu Yanyang (2004) etc. has carried out the test of hot blast and vacuum microwave combining drying wild cabbage, successfully blast heater is separated with vacuum microwave equipment, reached significantly and shortened drying time, improve the purpose of product drying quality, but because wild cabbage (blade class vegetables) is through producing more fold behind the AD, the polar solute skewness, it is inhomogeneous to cause the material different parts to absorb microwave intensity, therefore material easily produces the coking phenomenon in follow-up vacuum microwave drying, the difficult control of quality.

Summary of the invention

The purpose of this invention is to provide a kind of elder generation by granular garden stuff being soaked the inner polar solute of seasoning balance, adopt again early stage heated-air drying with the method for crisp of the explained hereafter granular garden stuff of later stage vacuum microwave combining drying, relate to fruits and vegetables ' dehydration processing, can be used for the processing of all kinds of granular garden stuffs.

Technical solution: the main process that crisp fruit and vegetable grains is made is: get a certain amount of fruit and vegetable materials such as vegetables earlier, fruit, beans etc., again through cleaning, arrangement is diced, the blanching enzyme (90~100 ℃) that goes out, drain after the circulating water cooling, through or without quick-frozen (20~-30 ℃), cold storage standby (15~-20 ℃), course of defrosting, soak seasoning again (according to taste preparation baste, baste: the fruit-vegetable granules mass ratio is 1: 1, soak time is about 1 hour) handle the inside polar solute of balance fruit-vegetable granules, drain the back hot blast and dewater (60~70 ℃ in advance, wind speed 1-3m/s) obtains semi-finished product (moisture is 40~60%), carry out at last vacuum microwave drying (90~-96kPa, 2000~3500W) obtain finished product (moisture is 2~5%).

The present invention adopts and soaks the inner polar solute of seasoning processing balance fruit-vegetable granules, makes the balanced microwave energy that absorbs of material each several part in the vacuum microwave drying process, and drying has solved the problem that follow-up vacuum microwave drying easily produces the coking phenomenon synchronously.

The present invention handles by in convection oven the particle fruits and vegetables being carried out heated-air drying early stage, remove in the fruits and vegetables about 50% moisture, greatly reduce the drying load of later stage vacuum microwave dehydrating equipment, thereby further reduce the requirement to the production equipment ventilating capability, reduction equipment is introduced cost.

The present invention adopts the technology of later stage vacuum microwave drying that dehydration temperaturre is descended; reduced destruction to food nutrient composition; original color and luster and local flavor have been kept; the distinctive mass transfer of vacuum microwave drying, heat transfer type make granular garden stuff produce comparatively ideal expansion effect; remedied the shrinkage that early stage, heated-air drying produced; make fruit-vegetable granules recover original shape and palatable crisp substantially, overcome the problem of conventional heated-air drying product quality difference.Microwave has bactericidal action, has solved the exceed standard problem of hidden danger of microorganism.

Beneficial effect of the present invention: the material that the present invention is directed to is the relative smaller particles shape of surface area fruits and vegetables, by the particle fruits and vegetables being soaked the inner polar solute of seasoning balance, carry out (60~70 ℃ of heated-air dryings again, wind speed dehydration in 1~3m/s) early stage, when moisture reaches 40~60%, change over to vacuum microwave drying equipment carry out the later stage vacuum microwave dehydrating (90~-96kPa, 2000~3500W), the moisture that reaches final products is 2~5%.

Compare with the background technology of traditional heated air drying product quality difference, the present invention adopts the technology of later stage vacuum microwave drying, and high vacuum reduces the boiling point of water, and dehydration temperaturre descends, and food nutrient composition is destroyed lack, and keeps original color and luster and local flavor; The distinctive mass transfer of vacuum microwave drying, heat transfer type make granular garden stuff produce comparatively ideal expansion effect, have remedied the shrinkage that early stage, heated-air drying produced, and make fruit-vegetable granules recover original shape and palatable crisp substantially; It is big to have overcome conventional heated-air drying product nutrient substances loss, the phenomenon that qualities such as contraction distortion is big, surperficial incrustation worsen.

Compare with the background technology of vacuum freeze drying, device therefor floor space of the present invention is little, running costs such as one-time investment is few, energy consumption are low, microwave has bactericidal action, has solved vacuum freeze drying pre-treatment hygienic requirements height, has the exceed standard problem of hidden danger of microorganism.

Compare with the background technology of vacuum frying, there is not the high shortcoming of fat content in the present invention.

Compare with the vacuum microwave dehydrating background technology of forefathers' research, the present invention is raw material with the granular garden stuff, because the microwave contact-making surface of particle fruits and vegetables is less, the polar solute distributional difference at each position is little, the present invention simultaneously adopts the particle fruits and vegetables is soaked the method that seasoning is handled, make the further balanced distribution of polar solute at each position of material, solved the problem that easily produces the coking phenomenon in the follow-up vacuum microwave drying; The present invention adopts in convection oven the particle fruits and vegetables are carried out heated-air drying early stage and handles, remove the method for 50% left and right sides moisture in the fruits and vegetables, greatly reduce the drying load of later stage vacuum microwave dehydrating equipment, thereby further reduce the requirement to the production equipment ventilating capability, reduction equipment is introduced cost.

In a word, compare with background technology, the present invention is by soaking the inner polar solute of seasoning balance to the particle fruits and vegetables, hot blast dehydration in early stage, the technology of later stage vacuum microwave drying has reduced cost of investment effectively, has shortened dewatering time, improve product nutrition and exterior quality, increased added value of product.Product has unique matter structure and local flavor, is other drying means resultant effect that is beyond one's reach, and has significant application prospect.

The specific embodiment

Embodiment 1: the production of crisp green soybean grains

Fresh green soy bean folder, select, shell, clean, go out (95 ℃ of enzymes of blanching, 2 minutes), the circulating water cooling, drain, quick-frozen (30 ℃ of freeze tunnels, reach central temperature in 5 minutes less than-18 ℃), (18~-20 ℃) cold storage, thaw, soak seasoning (3% salt solution, monosodium glutamate, aniseed etc. are considered according to taste, baste: green soy bean mass ratio=1: 1,1 hour), drain, hot blast dewaters (60~70 ℃ in advance, wind speed 1~3m/s) is to moisture about 45%, vacuum microwave drying (90~-96kPa, 2000~3500W) to final moisture content be 2~5%, packing, finished product.

Embodiment 2: (95 ℃ of the production fresh carrots of crisp carrot grain, select, clean, dice (10*10*10mm), blanching, 2 minutes), circulating water cooling, soak seasoning (2% trehalose, 3% white granulated sugar, baste: carrot grain mass ratio=1: 1,1 hour), drain, hot blast dewaters (60~70 ℃ in advance, wind speed 1~3m/s) to moisture about 50%, vacuum microwave drying (90~-96kPa, 2000~3500W) to final moisture content be 2~5%, packing, finished product.

Embodiment 3: the production of the crisp grain of corn

Fresh corn, threshing, select, (90 ℃ of enzymes are gone out in cleaning, blanching, 1.5 minute), circulating water cooling, soak seasoning (1% salt, 2% white granulated sugar, 5% maltodextrin, baste: sweet corn kernel mass ratio=1: 1,1 hour), drain, hot blast dewaters (60~70 ℃ in advance, wind speed 1~3m/s) to moisture about 50%, vacuum microwave drying (90~-96kPa, 2000~3500W) to final moisture content be 2~5%, packing, finished product.

Claims (1)

  1. One kind early stage hot blast and later stage vacuum microwave combining drying prepare the method for crisp of granular garden stuff, its main process is: get earlier a certain amount of can the arrangement fruit and vegetable materials of dicing through cleaning, arrangement is diced, enzyme is gone out in blanching, circulating water drains after cooling off, through or without quick-frozen, cold storage is standby and course of defrosting, soaking seasoning again handles, drain the back heated-air drying, carry out vacuum microwave drying at last and obtain finished product; It is characterized in that adopting granular garden stuff is soaked seasoning, again the technology of employing heated-air drying in early stage and later stage vacuum microwave combining drying;
    Soak seasoning: baste: the fruit-vegetable granules mass ratio is 1: 1, and soak time is 1 hour;
    Early stage heated-air drying: adopt 60~70 ℃ of the wind-warm syndrome of hot blast, wind speed 1~3m/s, fruit and vegetable dryness mode transfer point wet basis moisture is 40~60%;
    The later stage vacuum microwave drying: vacuum is-90~-96kPa, microwave power is 2000~3500W, the moisture of final products is 2~5%.
CNB2005100389186A 2005-04-15 2005-04-15 Former hot blast and latter vacuum microwave combining drying process of producing crisp fruit and vegetable grains CN1294842C (en)

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CN100403913C (en) * 2006-07-10 2008-07-23 江南大学 Method for improving fruit and vegetable powder microwave sterilizing effect using steam pre-treatment
CN101228896B (en) * 2007-10-23 2010-08-25 江南大学 Method of combining freeze-dry and vacuum microwave drying to preparing fruits, vegetables and aquatic leisure food
CN101176540B (en) * 2007-11-29 2011-07-20 广东省农业科学院农业生物技术研究所 Method for preparing dewatered bitter gourd piece
CN101228941B (en) * 2007-12-17 2011-08-10 龙岩学院 Method of processing spicy and crispy lima bean
CN101214068B (en) * 2008-01-11 2011-01-26 江苏晶隆海洋产业发展有限公司 Vacuum microwave processing method of low saline salinity sea water vegetable product
US8192784B2 (en) * 2008-10-17 2012-06-05 Frito-Lay North America, Inc. Fruit and vegetable snacks
CN101564189B (en) * 2009-04-29 2012-03-28 东北农业大学 Foam drying method of blackcurrant mashed fruit
CN101926463B (en) * 2010-09-16 2013-01-02 江南大学 Preparation method of cold soluble instant health food of grains, vegetables and fruits
CN101999609B (en) * 2010-10-28 2012-09-05 江南大学 Method for making potato-fruit recombinant mixed crispy chips
CN101999706B (en) * 2010-12-10 2012-06-20 江南大学 Vacuum microwave and low-frequency microwave combined uniform puffing method for crisp fish tablets
CN102125229B (en) * 2010-12-23 2013-01-23 江苏省农业科学院 Process for producing budding broad bean crispy granules
CN102342452B (en) * 2011-08-30 2012-10-10 江南大学 Method for preparing composite recombined leisure crisp by using salt tolerance vegetables and seed oil thereof
CN102405954B (en) * 2011-11-24 2013-06-12 江苏省山水食品有限公司 Combined drying method for making uniformly dehydrated fish balls capable of being quickly reconstituted
CN102445055A (en) * 2011-12-07 2012-05-09 河南科技大学 Method for drying traditional Chinese medicine materials in mixing mode through microwave vacuum and hot air
CN102754783A (en) * 2012-07-19 2012-10-31 福建农林大学 Processing method for performing combined drying on papaya slices
CN104286755A (en) * 2014-11-04 2015-01-21 吉林大学 Method for preparing dewatered ginger slices
CN105767138B (en) * 2014-12-24 2019-06-11 深圳职业技术学院 Drying means rich in starch fruit and vegetable tablet
CN104770465B (en) * 2015-02-16 2018-09-21 江苏太湖地区农业科学研究所 A kind of dry-making method of dried of shepherd's purse
CN104719781B (en) * 2015-03-17 2018-02-16 吉林农业大学 It is a kind of to be boiled altogether with ripe kidney bean processing method with rice
CN104738453A (en) * 2015-04-07 2015-07-01 中华全国供销合作总社南京野生植物综合利用研究所 Method for producing fruit and vegetable crisps by combination of vacuum low-temperature frying and vacuum microwave drying
CN105685874A (en) * 2016-02-03 2016-06-22 河北东方绿树食品有限公司 Dehydrated apples and production method thereof

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CN1554292A (en) * 2003-12-22 2004-12-15 浙江海通食品集团股份有限公司 Method for processing leisure seasoning dewatered fruit and vegetable

Patent Citations (2)

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CN1262883A (en) * 2000-02-01 2000-08-16 张文贵 Processing method of fresh wheat
CN1554292A (en) * 2003-12-22 2004-12-15 浙江海通食品集团股份有限公司 Method for processing leisure seasoning dewatered fruit and vegetable

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