CN1214633C - Method and apparatus for implementing seamless switching between two digital video signals - Google Patents

Method and apparatus for implementing seamless switching between two digital video signals Download PDF

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CN1214633C
CN1214633C CN 98811211 CN98811211A CN1214633C CN 1214633 C CN1214633 C CN 1214633C CN 98811211 CN98811211 CN 98811211 CN 98811211 A CN98811211 A CN 98811211A CN 1214633 C CN1214633 C CN 1214633C
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digital
video signal
signal
video
program
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CN 98811211
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CN1310919A (en
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迈克尔J·弗里曼
格雷戈里W·哈珀
弗兰克P·德奥
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Actv公司
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    • HELECTRICITY
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    • H04N21/20Servers specifically adapted for the distribution of content, e.g. VOD servers; Operations thereof
    • H04N21/23Processing of content or additional data; Elementary server operations; Server middleware
    • H04N21/233Processing of audio elementary streams
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    • H04N21/234Processing of video elementary streams, e.g. splicing of video streams, manipulating MPEG-4 scene graphs
    • H04N21/23424Processing of video elementary streams, e.g. splicing of video streams, manipulating MPEG-4 scene graphs involving splicing one content stream with another content stream, e.g. for inserting or substituting an advertisement
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    • H04N21/236Assembling of a multiplex stream, e.g. transport stream, by combining a video stream with other content or additional data, e.g. inserting a URL [Uniform Resource Locator] into a video stream, multiplexing software data into a video stream; Remultiplexing of multiplex streams; Insertion of stuffing bits into the multiplex stream, e.g. to obtain a constant bit-rate; Assembling of a packetised elementary stream
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Abstract

公开了一种交互式有线电视系统,其利用标准有线电视分配网络来同时向多个观众提供交互式的电视节目,这些节目包括多个在时间和内容上相关的信号。 Discloses an interactive cable television system which utilizes a standard cable television distribution network to provide an interactive television program simultaneously to a plurality of viewers, the program comprising a plurality of signals related in time and content. 视频信号以数字格式发送,在单个信道上将多个信号复用到一个数据流中。 Video signal transmission in a digital format, a plurality of single channel signals multiplexed into a single data stream. 该视频信号可以被压缩以提高效率。 The video signal may be compressed to improve efficiency. 与信号选择器相结合的接收机选择特定的NTSC频道以进行重放,然后从数据流中选择特定的视频信号,并将视频信号解压缩以进行重放。 And signal selector to select a combination of a receiver to a particular NTSC channel for playback, then selects a particular video signal from the data stream, the compressed video signal and for reproducing solution. 提供了不同频道上视频信号的无缝切换。 Providing seamless handover on the different channels of the video signal. 还公开了另一实施例,其中包括交互式节目的各信号在数据转发器而不是在接收机切换。 Also discloses another embodiment, wherein a signal including the interactive program is switched in the headend rather than at the receiver. 多项选择控制单元通过将用户的多项选择通过中继箱返回到位于远端的交换台,来选择一所要的信号。 Multiple choice control unit returns the number of options by the user through a relay box to the remotely located switching station, to select a desired signal. 该交换台将正确的视频信号下行择路到适当的有线频道中以提供给特定的用户。 The switching station to the correct video signal to the appropriate downlink path selection cable channels to be provided to a particular user.

Description

用于执行两个数字视频信号之间无缝切换的方法和装置 A method and apparatus for performing seamless switching between two digital video signal

技术领域 FIELD

本发明涉及在两个数字视频信号之间执行无缝切换的方法和装置。 The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for digital video signals between two perform seamless handover.

背景技术 Background technique

交互式系统是本领域人员所公知的。 Interactive systems are well known to those in the art. 例如,美国专利3,947,972公开了一种使用时间同步多磁道音带来储存教育会话的技术,用其中一个磁道向用户传递教育询问,其余的磁道可用切换机构选择,用于传送应答的消息。 For example, U.S. Patent No. 3,947,972 discloses a method of using the storage time synchronization technology to bring education tone multi-track sessions, a transfer track with a query to a user education wherein the remaining available track selection switching mechanism, for transmitting a response message.

在交互式电视系统中,多广播或有线频道根据用户的选择进行切换,以提供交互式操作。 In the interactive television system, the multiple broadcast or cable channels switched in accordance with user's selection, to provide interactive operation. 美国专利4,847,700公开了一种交互式电视系统,其中公共视频信号与多个音频频道同步,以提供与用户可选择的响应相关的内容。 U.S. Patent No. 4,847,700 discloses an interactive television system, wherein the common video sync signal and the plurality of audio channels, to provide a content of a user selectable response associated.

美国专利4,264,925公开了一种交互式系统,其中带有时间同步内容的标准电视频道向多个用户广播。 U.S. Patent No. 4,264,925 discloses an interactive system, wherein the standard television channels with time synchronized content to be broadcast to multiple users. 每个用户对询问信号进行响应而在频道间切换,从而提供了交互性。 Each user of the interrogation signal in response to switching between the channels, thereby providing interactivity.

这些系统已经被改进为包括了存储功能,从而使系统可以更具交互性、独立响应,并且使定制的消息可以响应于对信息的询问而提供给各类用户。 These systems have been modified to include a storage function, so that the system can be more interactive, independent response, and the message can be customized in response to the inquiry of the information provided to various users. 美国专利4,602,279公开了使用存储器来储存电视观众的人口统计学图形。 U.S. Patent No. 4,602,279 discloses the use of a memory to store demographic pattern television viewers. 储存该信息以便在以后调用,从而提供针对目标的广告。 Store the information for later recall in order to provide targeted ads.

现有技术的交互电视系统通常与每个频道提供一个信号(即一个视频信号)有关,而不管该频道是在有线电视、广播电视或VCR上。 Prior art interactive television systems typically provide each channel with a signal (ie, a video signal) related to, regardless of whether the channel is in cable television, broadcast television or VCR. 随着越来越多的有线频道被用于常规的节目,有线电视和广播电视频道容量正越来越变得受到限制。 As more and more cable channels to be used for conventional programming, cable and broadcast television channel capacity are becoming increasingly limited. 现有技术的交互式系统要求多个频道。 Interactive system of the prior art requires a plurality of channels. 因此,希望减少这类系统所要求的频道容量,同时仍然提供至少相同的交互性水平。 Accordingly, it is desirable to reduce the channel capacity required for such systems while still providing at least the same level of interactivity.

美国专利5,724,091公开了一种在观看第一视频信号时在视频信号之间进行的无缝切换,即使被切换到的视频信号可能在不同的广播频道上、或是与当前看到的视频信号相同的复用频道上。 U.S. Patent No. 5,724,091 A discloses a seamless handover while viewing a first video signal among the video signal, the video signal is the same even when the video signal is switched to may be on a different broadcast channel, or to see the current multiplexed on the channel.

发明内容 SUMMARY

本发明寻求提供一种在两个数字视频信号之间执行无缝切换的新方法和装置。 The present invention seeks to provide a novel method and apparatus for performing seamless handover between two digital video signals.

根据本发明的第一个方面,提供了一种无缝切换单元,用于接收节目和从第一数字视频信号无缝地切换到第二数字视频信号,该无缝切换单元在被设置以从远程发射机接收所述第一和第二数字视频信号的接收单元中实现,该无缝切换单元包括:微处理器,该微处理器选择信号以进行显示;解码器,其与微处理器连接,用于将第一数字视频信号送到视频缓冲器;其中,在根据微处理器命令切换到第二数字视频信号时,所述解码器搜索第一数字视频信号的拼接点,并且一旦识别出所述拼接点,就利用第一数字视频信号中所述拼接点之后的时隙切换到第二数字视频信号,并且随着第一视频信号连续地从缓冲器中重放,将第二数字视频信号装入缓冲器中,并且其中从第一视频信号切换到第二视频信号流是无缝地进行的。 According to a first aspect of the present invention, there is provided a seamless switching unit for receiving the program and seamlessly switching from the first digital video signal to a second digital video signals, which seamlessly switch unit is arranged to from the transmitter remote receiving unit receives the first and second digital video signals to achieve the seamless switching unit comprises: a microprocessor selection signal for display; a decoder, which is connected to the microprocessor for the first digital video signal is supplied to the video buffer; wherein, when switching to the second digital video signal in accordance with a microprocessor command, said splice point the decoder searches the first digital video signal, and once identified the splice point, on the use of a first slot after the digital video signal is switched to the second splice point digital video signal, and continuously reproduced from a buffer with the first video signal, second digital video signal is loaded into the buffer, and wherein the switching from the first video signal to the second video signal stream is seamlessly performed.

本发明的无缝切换单元可以在用户接收单元中实现,它可以从例如标准有线电视或直播广播卫星电视分配网接收节目。 Seamless switching unit according to the present invention may be implemented in a user receiving unit which can be a standard cable television broadcast or satellite broadcast program received from the distribution network, for example.

视频信号被转换为用于发送的数字格式。 Video signal is converted to a digital format for transmission. 在该数字格式中,可以在每个有线电视频道上发送多于一个的视频信号。 In this digital format can be transmitted more than one video signal on each cable channel. 而且,可以通过常规的电话线来发送视频信号。 Further, the video signal can be transmitted via a conventional telephone line. 如果需要,各种数字视频信号可以在发送之前被压缩。 If desired, the various digital video signals may be compressed before transmission. 压缩可使甚至更大数量的视频信号通过发送媒体的频道发送。 Compression can make even larger number of video signals sent by sending a media channel. 优选地,所使用的压缩方案是MPEG标准压缩方案,包括MPEG2,MPEG4和MPEG7。 Preferably, the compression scheme used is MPEG standard compression scheme, including MPEG2, MPEG4 and MPEG7. 视频信号被做成数字数据和视频格式,最好是MPEG格式。 The video signal is made into digital video data and formats, preferably MPEG format.

作为数字信号发送的一部分,一些信号是交互式的和个别性的节目。 Part, some signals are transmitted as a digital signal and individual of interactive programs. 这种增强型的内容通过利用常规的视频制作技术并提供视频、音频、图形和数据的任何组合来提供多样性而制作出来。 This enhanced to provide a variety of content produced out by using conventional technology and provides video production video, any combination of audio, graphics and data. 多个视频和音频信息是时间同步的,而且在多数情况下,最好在内容上是相关的。 A plurality of video and audio information is time-synchronized, and in most cases, preferably the content is relevant. 在远程站的连续交互作用是通过终端用户和制造者通过插入表示标记(scription)语言的数据代码而控制的。 In a continuous interaction by an end user of the remote station by inserting data indicative of the manufacturer and the code mark (scription) and control language. 这些代码优选是集成的并用交互式视频和音频信号发送,而且其还可以在节目控制中心或有线数据转发器(headend)插入。 These codes are preferably integrated and transmitting interactive video and audio signals, but it may also be inserted in the program control center or cable headend (headend).

一个复用器将各数字信号合成为一个数目减少的发送数据流以进行发送。 A multiplexer each digital signals into a reduced number of transmission data streams for transmission. 各NTSC电视频道可以按预定的形式分配,以使同时可发送的信号的数目最大。 NTSC television channels may be allocated for each predetermined form, so that the number of signals can be transmitted while the maximum. 与电视发送系统结合的复用器将所要的数据流复用到所要的频道上,并将这些信号通过NTSC频道发送。 Data in conjunction with the television transmission system, the multiplexer will be the flow channel to be multiplexed, and the signals transmitted through the NTSC channels. 可以被复用到单个发送频道上的数据流中的视频信号数目将根据要被发送的视频信号变化。 May be the number of multiplexed video data stream on a single transmission channel will change the video signal to be transmitted according. 包含复用视频信号的数据流的电视频道可以通过标准有线电视分配网络或直播卫星发送系统发送。 A video signal comprising multiplexed data stream TV channel broadcast satellite distribution network or cable television transmission may be transmitted via a standard system.

在编码、压缩、复用和调制后,节目信号和交互式节目信号被发送装置所分配,该发送装置包括但并不限于:卫星,有线电视,光纤、公众交换电话网,陆上广播,闭路等,其中调制技术根据传输手段来确定。 Encoding, compression, and after the multiplexed modulation signals and program signals are allocated interactive program transmission means, the transmission means, including but not limited to: satellite, cable, fiber optics, public switched telephone network, land broadcasting, closed and the like, wherein the modulation technique determined according to the transmission means. 另外,分配的内容可包括在由终端用户接收之前进行信号转换或再发送。 Further, content distribution may comprise signal conversion before being received by an end user or retransmission.

在终端用户处接收节目并连接到合适的接收设备。 Receives the program at the end user and connected to suitable receiver apparatus. 接收设备可以包括例如但不限于:有线电视接收机/转换器,卫星接收机,陆上广播接收机,个人计算机等。 The receiving device may comprise, for example, but not limited to: Cable TV receiver / converters, satellite receivers, land-based broadcast receiver, a personal computer or the like. 接收机接收一个或多个电视频道的一些或者所有包含复用的视频信号数据流或未复用的数字视频信号,并与信号选择器结合,选择一特定的数据频道/数据流用于重放,然后从数据流的被复用的信号中选择特定的视频信号,最后,如果需要的话,将视频信号扩展以在电视机上重放。 The receiver receives the one or some or all containing a multiplexed data stream of video signals or digital video signals multiplexed by a plurality of television channels, and in conjunction with a signal selector, selects a particular data channel / data stream for playback, select signal from the data stream multiplexed in particular video signals, and finally, if desired, to expand the video signal reproduced on the television.

信号选择器可在例如数字机顶盒中包括控制器和软件。 The signal selector may include a controller and a software such as a digital set-top box. 在数字机顶盒中的控制器和软件工作以控制接收机和信号选择器以选择特定的数字视频信号。 Controllers and software working in the digital set-top box to control the receiver and signal selector to select a particular digital video signal.

用户优选地通过标准遥控装置输入响应。 Preferably, in response to user input through a standard remote control device. 用户可以简单地从一个数字频道换到另一个,或向交互式节目作出响应。 The user can simply switch from a digital channel to another, or to respond to the interactive program. 在交互式节目的实施例中,用户有选择地对信息显示或询问消息作出响应,而信号选择器选择特定的复用视频信号,并对所选择的视频信号进行分离、扩展和显示。 In an embodiment of the interactive program, the user to selectively respond to the inquiry message or information display, and the signal selector selects a particular multiplexed video signal, a video signal is selected and isolated, expanded and displayed. 另外,信号选择器可以根据储存在存储器中的个人情况选择视频信号。 Further, the signal selector may select a video signal based on individual circumstances stored in a memory.

如果交互式节目需要的信号比可映射到单个频道上的数据流中的信号更多,与接收机相结合的信号选择器被编程以在复用的数据流中的各视频信号间以及在各广播频道中的数据流之间切换,从而提供所需水平的交互性。 If the interactive program signal can be mapped to a desired ratio of signal data stream on a single channel in more combined signal receiver is programmed to select among the video signals in the multiplexed data stream, and in the switching between data streams of the broadcast channels to provide the desired level of interactivity.

在各视频信号中的各信息段优选地在实时和内容上相关,从而交互式会话可以在视频信号重放并且用户响应视频信号上的各种询问时发生。 It occurs when the respective pieces of information in the video signal in real time and preferably on content related to the interactive session and the video signal can be reproduced in response to a user query on a variety of video signals. 在每个频道上使用多个信号可以用于多种类型的交互式节目,包括在前面提到的美国专利中所公开的内容,例如,体育节目中的现场同步的多个摄像机角度或交互式电视知识竞赛。 Using a plurality of signals on each channel can be used for many types of interactive programs, including the content in the aforementioned U.S. Patent disclosed, e.g., in sports field synchronized multiple camera angles or interactive TV game show. 但是,本发明还覆盖了使用实时地和在内容上不相关的各种视频信号。 However, the present invention also covers the use of various video signals not related in real time and in content.

一旦信号被解调,数字数据流就被分离为其构成要素,如视频、音频、图形和数据。 Once the signal is demodulated, the digital data stream was separated into its components, such as video, audio, graphics and data. 分离的数字数据流流向合适的解码装置,即视频流向视频解码器、音频流向音频解码器、图形流向显示驱动器,以及控制数据流向应用程序软件。 Separate digital data flow to the appropriate decoding means, i.e., video stream to the video decoder, the audio stream is an audio decoder, the graphics display driver to flow, data flow control and application software.

本发明一个实施例的无缝切换单元可改进切换过程中的特性,使频道切换透明。 The present invention is a seamless switching unit of the embodiment may improve the switching characteristics of the process of the transparent channel switching. 用于改善节目和可寻址的广告的虚拟频道应用程序将需要能够频繁地被用户在多个MPEG视频流之间频繁地切换。 Virtual channel ads for improving the application program and addressable user would need to be frequently switched between a plurality of frequently MPEG video stream. 当用户根据交互的间隔时间而要求更换频道时,设计使得有一个轻微的不易察觉的延迟,从而使可扩展算法能够有调节以快速地从一个视频信号切换到另一个的机会。 When the user interaction according to the time interval required to change channels, designed such that there is a slight imperceptible delay may be extended so that the algorithm is capable of adjusting to rapidly switch from one video signal to another chance.

在延迟过程中,先前得到的视频信息被显示,而交互式系统对新视频信号进行定位、接收、分离、解压缩、解码和处理。 During the delay, previously obtained video information is displayed while the interactive system to locate the new video signals, receiving, separating, decompress, decode and process. 这使得交互式系统切换到新视频信号时不会在电视屏幕上有抖动或失真,这就是无缝切换。 This allows the interactive system will not have jitter or distortion on the TV screen when switching to a new video signal which is seamless handover.

本发明还涉及一种在数字接收单元中在两个数字视频信号间进行无缝切换的方法,所述数字接收单元被设置以从远程发射机接收所述数字视频信号并且其包括微处理器和解码器,该方法包括如下步骤:从所述远程发射机接收第一和第二数字视频信号,各数字视频信号包括视频拼接点和时隙;在视频缓冲器中缓存第一数字视频信号;接收来自微处理器的指令,切换至第二数字视频信号;搜索第一数字视频信号的拼接点;利用所述第一数字视频信号中所述拼接点之后的时隙切换至第二数字视频信号;在所述第一数字视频信号从所述缓冲器连续重放和显示时,将第二数字视频信号装入所述视频缓冲器中;其中从第一数字视频信号切换至第二数字视频信号是无缝的,以使得所述视频信号的切换不产生视觉上的人为效应。 The present invention further relates to a method for seamless handover between the two digital signals in a digital video receiving unit, the digital receiving unit is arranged to receive the digital video signal from the remote transmitter and comprising a microprocessor and a decoder, the method comprising the steps of: receiving first and second digital video signal from said remote transmitter, each of the digital video signal includes a video splice point and a time slot; cache of the first digital video signal in the video buffer; receiving an instruction from a microprocessor, a digital video signal to the second switch; splice point searching the first digital video signal; slot after using the first digital video signal in the splice point switch to the second digital video signal; when the first digital video signal is continuously reproduced and displayed from the buffer, the second digital video signal into said video buffer; wherein switching from the first to the second digital video signal is a digital video signal seamless handover such that said video signal does not produce visual artifacts.

本发明的一个实施例的方法使得能够在数字机顶、HDTV或个人计算机环境中的MPEG压缩数字信号之间进行无缝切换。 A method of embodiments of the present invention enables the digital set top, HDTV or personal computer environment is compressed between the switch seamlessly MPEG digital signals. 当MPEG标准讨论拼接点的使用时,这类点难以插入来自不同源的视频流中,其是典型的有线电视环境。 When the MPEG standard discusses the use of splice points, such points is difficult to insert a video stream from a different source, which is a typical cable television environment. 这是因为在不同时间被压缩的流可能具有不同的时钟并因此具有不同的定时信息。 This is because it may have different clocks at different times of the compressed stream and therefore different timing information.

根据本发明的再一个方面,提供了一种在中央位置制备多个数字信号,以在远程接收站进行无缝切换的方法,该方法包括如下步骤:在中央位置接收多个视频信号;将多个视频信号进行同步锁定(genlocking),其中该同步锁定产生时间同步的视频信号;控制多个视频信号至一个或多个视频编码器;将拼接点插入多个视频信号中;使多个视频编码器在时间上同步,从而保证在视频中插入的拼接点在正确的帧数上出现;对视频编码器中的多个数字视频信号进行数字压缩,形成数字节目流,其中数字视频信号以比频道容量低的比特率编码,从而在各视频信号中产生一定的时隙;其中在远程接收站从一个视频信号切换至另一个视频信号的节目切换通过时隙的产生而成为无缝的,在所述拼接点之后的所述时隙由此容许有从一个视频信号切换至另一个视频信号的无 According to a further aspect of the invention, there is provided a process for preparing a plurality of digital signals in a central location, to a method for seamless handover in the remote station, the method comprising the steps of: receiving a plurality of video signals at a central location; multiple genlock video signal (genlocking), wherein the sync lock time synchronization generating a video signal; a plurality of video signals to control one or more video encoders; splice points inserted into the plurality of video signals; a plurality of video coding is synchronized in time, in order to ensure the insertion of the video splice point appears in the right frame; a plurality of digital video signals of the video encoder digitally compressed, forming a digital program stream, wherein the ratio of channel digital video signal low bit rate coding capacity, resulting in a certain time slot in each of the video signal; wherein the remote station to switch from one video signal to another video program generated by the switching signal becomes seamless slots, in the said slot after said splice point thereby susceptible to switch from one video signal to another video signal without 切换时间。 Switching time.

在本发明的一个实施例中,可以对虚拟频道应用程序的编码过程中进行一些修改,并对拼接进行改进。 In one embodiment of the present invention, we can make some modifications to the virtual channel encoding process application, improvements and splicing. 本发明的这种改进包括将多个频道编码器的时基锁定,使视频源同步锁定,使编码处理的开始时间同步,以及在GOP的合适位置插入拼接点。 This improvement of the present invention comprises a plurality of channel encoder time base locking the video genlock source, so that the start time of the synchronization coding process, and inserting splice points at the appropriate position of the GOP. 以此方式,基本上不需要对大多数常规的数字机顶转换器作出硬件方面的变更。 In this way, basically you do not need to change the hardware for most conventional digital set-top converter.

根据本发明的再一个方面,提供了一种数字编码系统,用于在中央位置制备多个数字信号,以在远程接收站进行无缝地切换,包括:至少一个视频同步锁定装置,用于接收多个视频信号,并产生时间同步的视频信号;至少一个视频编码器,其与视频同步锁定装置连接,用于将拼接点插入多个视频信号中,并对多个视频信号进行编码和压缩,以形成数字节目流,其中视频编码器是时间同步的;其中数字视频信号以比频道容量低的比特率编码,从而在各视频信号中产生一定的时隙,在所述拼接点之后的所述时隙由此容许有从一个视频信号切换至另一个视频信号的无缝切换时间;所述数字编码系统还包括发射机,用于向所述远程接收站发射所述的多个数字视频信号,在所述远程接收站从一个视频信号切换至另一个视频信号通过所述时隙的产生而成为无缝 According to a further aspect of the invention, there is provided a digital encoding system for preparing a plurality of the center position of the digital signal to a remote receiving station for seamless switching, comprising: at least one video genlock device, for receiving the a plurality of video signals, time synchronization and generating a video signal; at least one video encoder, which is connected to the video genlock device, for inserting splice points in the plurality of video signals, and a plurality of encoded and compressed video signals, to form a digital program stream, wherein the video encoders are time synchronized; wherein the digital video signal is lower than the channel capacity of the bit rate encoding, resulting in a certain time slot in each of the video signals, after said splice point a switching from the slot thereby allowing a video signal to a seamless switch to another video signal; a digital encoding system further comprises a transmitter for transmitting said plurality of digital video signals to the remote station, switching from one video signal to another video signal at the remote station to become the time slot generated by seamlessly .

根据本发明的再一个方面,提供了一种接收单元,用于从远程发射机接收节目和从在第一RF频道上接收的第一节目信号中复用的第一数字视频信号无缝地切换到在第二RF频道上接收的第二节目信号中复用的第二数字视频信号,所述第二数字视频信号包含以画中画格式同时显示的两个视频节目,该接收单元包括:微处理器,该微处理器选择信号来进行显示;第一调谐器,其与微处理器连接,用于调谐到第一RF频道,其中第一调谐器根据微处理器的指令选择第一RF频道;第一数字解调器,其与第一调谐器连接,用于对第一节目信号进行解调;数字分离器/解码器,其与第一数字解调器和微处理器连接,用于对第一节目信号进行分离,以获得第一数字视频信号,所述数字分离器/解码器包括一缓冲器,用于将第一数字视频信号缓存,并将第一数字视频信号进行 According to a further aspect of the present invention, there is provided a receiving unit for seamlessly switching from a remote transmitter receives the program signal and a first digital video signal received from a first program on a first channel in the multiplexed RF a second signal to a second digital video program signal received on the second RF channel multiplexing, the second digital video signal comprises two video programs simultaneously displayed in PIP format, the receiver unit comprising: a micro processor, a microprocessor for display selection signal; a first tuner connected to the microprocessor, for tuning to a first RF channel, the first tuner wherein a first RF channel selected in accordance with instructions of a microprocessor ; a first digital demodulator, which is connected with the first tuner, a first program for demodulating the signal; a digital splitter / decoder, connected to the first digital demodulator and a microprocessor for separating the first program signal to obtain a first digital video signal, said digital splitter / decoder comprises a buffer for caching a first digital video signal and a first digital video signal 解压缩;第二调谐器,其与微处理器连接,该第二调谐器预先调谐到第二RF频道,其中第二调谐器根据微处理器的指令选择第二RF频道;第二数字解调器,其与第二调谐器连接,用于对第二节目信号进行解调;其中,在根据微处理器命令向第二数字视频信号切换时,所述数字分离器/解码器搜索第一数字视频信号的拼接点,一旦识别出该拼接点,就利用第一数字视频信号中所述拼接点之后的时隙切换到第二视频信号,并随着第一视频信号根据微处理器的指令连续地重放,将第二数字视频信号装入缓冲器中,并且从第一数字视频信号切换到第二数字视频信号是无缝地进行的,由此使得所述视频信号的切换不产生视觉上的人为效应,显示装置,用于以并排或画中画的格式显示所述第二视频信号中的两个视频节目。 Decompression; a second tuner, which is connected to the microprocessor, the second tuner tuned to a second predetermined RF channel, wherein the second tuner to select the second RF channel according to an instruction of the microprocessor; the second digital demodulator device, which is connected with the second tuner, the second program for demodulating the signal; wherein, when switching to the second digital video signals according to commands microprocessor, the digital splitter / decoder searches a first digital splice point of the video signal, once identified the splice point after the first time slot on the use of a digital video signal in the video splice point switch to the second signal, and with a first video signal in accordance with instructions of a microprocessor continuously reproduced, the second digital video signal is loaded into the buffer, and switching from the first digital video signal to a second digital video signal seamlessly, thereby allowing the switching of the video signal does not produce a visually the artifact, a display means for displaying side by side format or the second picture in picture video signal two video programs.

以下将参照附图,以实例的方式对本发明的实施方式进行描述。 Below with reference to the accompanying drawings, by way of example be described embodiments of the present invention.

附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

图1是本发明的交互式电视系统的方框图。 FIG. 1 is a block diagram of the interactive television system according to the present invention.

图2是本发明的在双向发送结构中的另一种交互式电视的方框图。 FIG 2 is a block diagram of another interactive television transmission in the bidirectional structure of the present invention.

图3是实现视频信号间无缝切换的接收机的一实施例的方框图。 FIG 3 is a block diagram of an embodiment of a receiver to achieve seamless switching between video signals of.

图4是实现视频信号间无缝切换的接收机的另一实施例的方框图。 FIG 4 is a block diagram of another receiver to achieve seamless switching between video signals embodiment.

图5是中央位置处提供的编码单元的实施例的方框图。 FIG 5 is a block diagram embodiment of a position encoder provided at a central unit of the embodiment.

图6是具有拼接点和时隙的视频帧结构的方框图。 FIG 6 is a block diagram of a frame structure having a video splice points and time slots.

图7是接收单元的另一实施例的方框图。 FIG 7 is a block diagram of another embodiment of a receiving unit.

图8是显示音频帧的方框图。 FIG 8 is a block diagram of the audio frame is displayed.

图9是电视广播站交换机的方框图。 FIG 9 is a block diagram of a television broadcast station switches.

图10是用于无关节目切换的控制器的实施例的方框图。 FIG 10 is a block diagram of an embodiment of a controller for a program independent handover.

图11是用于多事件节目切换的控制器的实施例的方框图。 FIG 11 is a block diagram of an embodiment of a controller for a multi-event program handover.

图12是用于画中画节目无缝切换的控制器的方框图。 FIG 12 is a block diagram for the controller PIP seamless handover.

图13是用于多个商业购物节目的交换的实施例的方框图。 FIG 13 is a block diagram of an embodiment for a plurality of commercial exchange infomercials.

图14是用于数字式节目插入的实施例—可寻址广告的方框图。 FIG 14 is an embodiment of a digital program insertion - addressable advertising may block diagram.

图15是服务器中从一组信号到其它信号的无缝切换的实施例的方框图。 FIG 15 is a block diagram of an embodiment of a server in a seamless switch from a set of signals to other signals.

图16A和16B是一种双调谐器(Two-Tuner)的实施例的方框图。 A block diagram of the embodiment of FIGS. 16A and 16B is a dual tuner (Two-Tuner) a.

图17是另一种双调谐器实施例的方框图。 FIG 17 is a block diagram of another embodiment of the dual tuner.

具体实施方式 Detailed ways

本发明是一种交互式电视系统,其中多个观众可同时收看到多个不同的节目信息消息信号。 The present invention is an interactive television system in which a plurality of viewers can simultaneously watch a plurality of different program information message signals. 提供了多个视频信号1。 Providing a plurality of video signals. 视频信号1可以是例如体育节目中的各种现场和/或音频同步的摄像机视角,或是具有内容和对用户选择作出反应的主持人的游戏节目。 Video 1 camera angle for example, can be a variety of sports programs in the field and / or audio sync, or with a host of content and respond to user-selected game show. 另外,视频信号1可是任何适合于交互式会话的、如在美国专利4,847,700、3,947,972、4,602,279、4,264,925或4,264,924中所描述的视频信号,其具体内容在本说明书中引用作为参考。 Further, video signals 1 may be any suitable for the interactive session, such as a video signal or in U.S. Patent No. 4,264,924 4,847,700,3,947,972,4,602,279,4,264,925 described, the specific reference in the present specification by reference. 存在适合于交互式操作的各种类型的在时间和内容上相关的视频信号。 There are various types of video signals related in time and content suitable for interactive operation.

在先前的系统中,这些各式各样的信号将发送到接收机上的各广播或有线频道上,每个接收机要求有分立的6MHZ NTSC频道。 In previous systems, these various signals will be sent to each of the broadcast or cable channels on the receiver, each receiver requires a separate 6MHZ NTSC channel. 根据本发明,视频信号1是去模/数(A/D)转换器2的,其将模拟信号转换为数字格式以进行发送。 According, which converts the analog signal of the present invention, a video signal is to go to an analog / digital (A / D) converter 2 into a digital format for transmission. A/D转换器2可以是用于将模拟信号转换为数字格式的任何常规类型的转换器。 A / D converters 2 may be of any conventional type for converting analog signals into digital format. 可能不是每个视频信号1都需要A/D转换器,而是用更少的转换器或甚至于一个转换器就能够将各种视频信号1数字化。 1 each video signal may not require A / D converter, but with fewer converter or even a converter can be a variety of video signal digitization. 交互式视频节目还可以以预数字化和/或预压缩的格式传送至有线或其它分配网。 Interactive video programs may also be transmitted to the cable or other distribution network in pre-digitized and / or precompressed format.

数字转换造成了非常大量的数据。 Digital converter caused a very large amount of data. 因此希望减少被发送的量,以使更多的信号可经过单个发送频道发送。 It is therefore desirable to reduce the amount to be transmitted, so that more signals may be sent through a single transmission channel. 例如,单个帧的数字NTSC视频表示350K字节的数据。 For example, a digital representation of a single frame of NTSC video 350K bytes of data. 因此,两个小时的标准视频大约是80G字节。 Therefore, two hours of standard video is about 80G bytes. 因为在这种视频中每秒有30帧,数据传送率是22M字节/秒。 Because this video has 30 frames per second, the data transfer rate is 22M bytes / sec. 最好通过数字压缩来减少这种大量的数据。 Preferably such a large amount of data is reduced by digital compression.

为了减少数据传送的需求,各种数字视频信号最好在发送前压缩。 In order to reduce data transfer requirements, the various digital video signals are preferably compressed before transmission. 该视频可被任何常规的压缩算法所压缩,两种最普通的类型是“处理器加强(processor intensive)”和“存储器加强(memory intensive)”。 The video may be compressed by any conventional compression algorithm, the two most common type is the "processor-intensive (processor intensive)" and "strengthening memory (memory intensive)".

处理器加强的方法是通过从在信息的逐帧(frame-to-frame)传送的处理中消去画面不变的部分,并通过其它涉及算术运算的画面信息的操作,确定画面中一给定动作能够被人眼所感受到的程度。 The strengthening method by the processor from the same part of the screen erasing information processing frame by frame (frame-to-frame) in the transmission, and through the operation screen information relates to other arithmetic operations, determining a given motion picture degree can be felt by the human eye. 这种方法取决于在传送点的高速处理能力。 This approach depends on high-speed processing capability of the delivery point.

存储器加强方法包括将画面的帧分为数百个极小的像素块,其中给每个块一个代码,表示其色彩设置和亮度的变化。 The method comprises memory reinforcing frame picture is divided into hundreds of tiny pixel blocks, wherein each block to one code, which represents the change in brightness and color settings. 该代码与描述给定的图像块的整个的信息相比所增加的量是很少的。 This code is described in a given overall amount of information as compared to the increase in image block is very small. 将该代码发送到接收机。 The code is sent to the receiver. 在那里,其从储存在接收机的存储器中的块库中调用等同编码的块。 There, it calls equivalents coded block from the block library stored in a memory in the receiver.

这样,位流在此方法中占图像信息中的很小部分。 Thus, a small portion of the bit stream representing the image in this process information. 该系统一般被各种图像块所限制,这些块可以储存在接收机中,其直接与存储器的大小和微处理器的能力有关。 The system is generally limited by the variety of picture blocks which may be stored in the receiver, which is directly related to the size and capacity of a memory and a microprocessor.

在本发明中可用的公知的压缩技术的例子如:JPEG,MPEG1和MPEG2。 Examples of well-known compression technique useful in the present invention, such as: JPEG, MPEG1 and MPEG2.

设置数据压缩器3以减少必须被发送的各视频信号的数据。 Data compressor 3 is provided to reduce the data for each video signal which must be transmitted. 数据压缩器3可以是任何本领域所公知的常规类型的用于压缩视频图像的装置,如前面曾经说明过的。 Data compression apparatus 3 may be of any conventional type well known in the art for compressing video images, such as was described in the foregoing. 可以用比每个视频信号一个压缩器的方式数量少的数据压缩器3进行各种视频信号的压缩。 Than that of each embodiment may be a video signal compressor of a small number of data compressor 3 compresses the various video signals. 例如,在常规的模拟NTSC系统中,习惯上按每6MHZ信道发送一个视频信号。 For example, in a conventional analog NTSC system, a video signal transmitting customary 6MHZ every channel. 通过使视频信号数字化,就可能将含有多于一个视频信号的数据流在一个信道上发送。 By digitizing the video signal, it is possible to contain more than one video signal in a data stream transmitted on the channel. 压缩数字信号,使甚至更多的视频信号通过单个发送信道发送。 Compressed digital signal, so that even more of the video signals transmitted through a single transmission channel. 可在单个信道上发送的信号的数目一般与例如下面一些因素有关,a)被发送的视频类型;b)使用中的视频压缩方案;c)所使用的压缩器和存储器的能力;和d)发送信道的带宽。 For example, may be generally the following factors related to the number of signals transmitted on a single channel, a) the type of video being sent; b) the video compression scheme in use; c) and the memory capacity of the compressor used; and d) transmission bandwidth of the channel.

压缩技术利用了这样一种情况,即在运动图像中帧与帧之间的改变非常小。 Using compression techniques such a case, i.e., change between the frames in a moving image frame is very small. 将帧之间的冗余量进行剪辑和仅对变化部分编码可以得到高得多的压缩率。 The redundancy between frames encoding portions of the clip and variations can only give a much higher compression ratio. 一般包括大量的高速运动的视频类型,例如在现场体育节目中经常出现的,将因此具有最低的压缩率。 Typically include a large number of high-motion video type, for example, often appear in live sports programs, it will therefore have the lowest compression rate. 而在另一方面,电影通常比现场体育节目具有更低的帧速率,帧与帧之间的改变也更小,其将实现更高的压缩率。 On the other hand, the film is generally less than live sports frame rate, a change between frames has also smaller, which will achieve higher compression rates. 目前,公知的压缩方案的对卫星的压缩率是从2∶1变到10∶1,而对有线电视系统是从2∶1变到5∶1,这种变化取决于运动的程度。 Currently, the compression ratio of the satellites known compression scheme is a variation from 2:1 to 10:1, while the cable system is changed from 2:1 to 5:1, which varies depending on the degree of motion.

一旦各种视频信号1已经被数字化和被压缩之后,复用器4将各种数字信号合成为数量减少的传输数据流,以进行传输。 Once the various video signals 1 have been digitized and compressed, multiplexer 4 the various digital signals into a reduced number of transmission data streams for transmission. 例如,如果68个NTSC频道可用,而每个频道能够发送或者是4个数字化的、压缩的缓慢运动的视频信号(例如电影),或者是2个数字化的、压缩的、高速的视频信号(例如体育节目),那么各种NTSC频道应当按预定的方式分配,以使可同时发送的数目最大。 For example, if 68 NTSC channels are available, and each channel is capable of transmitting either 4 digitized, compressed slow moving video signals (e.g. movies) or 2 digitized, compressed, high-speed video signals (e.g. sports), then the various NTSC channels should be allocated in a predetermined manner, so that the maximum number of simultaneously transmittable.

举一个例子,与第一个NTSC频道对应的广播频率可包括分开进行数字压缩的非交互式电影的数据流。 As an example, a first NTSC channel may include a broadcast frequency corresponding to the data stream of digitally compressed non-interactive movies separately. 在该频率上,数据流将包含表示大量电影的视频信号。 On this frequency, the data stream comprising the video signal represents a large number of movies. 但是,视频信号与那些交互式的节目不同,在时间和内容上没有关联。 However, the video signal and those different interactive programs, not related in time and content. 与第二频道对应的广播频率可包括交互式体育节目的数字数据流,由两个复用的压缩高速视频信号构成,这两个视频信号最好在时间和内容上相关。 And a second broadcast frequency corresponding to a channel may include a digital data stream of an interactive sports program, which is preferably associated two by two video signals compressed high-speed video signals multiplexed in time and content configuration. 与第三频道对应的广播频率包括交互式电影的数字数据流,由四个复用的压缩视频信号构成,这四个视频信号最好在时间和内容上相关。 And the third channel comprises a broadcast frequency corresponding to the digital data stream of an interactive movie, compressed video signals composed of four, which is preferably associated by the four video signals multiplexed in time and content. 与第四频道对应的广播频率包括与本地节目相关的模拟NTSC信号,因此,使用本发明,四个NTSC频道可包含复用的电影频道、交互式体育节目、交互式电影、和本地节目。 The fourth channel comprises a broadcast frequency corresponding to an analog NTSC signal relating to local programming, therefore, the use of the present invention, four NTSC channels may include movies, an interactive sports program, an interactive movie, and local programming multiplexing.

复用器4接收送来的经压缩、数字化的视频信号并以预定的常规方式,与发射机5相结合将所要的视频信号复用到所要的频道上,并经过NTSC频道发送这些信号。 4 sent via multiplexer receives compressed, digitized video signals and in a predetermined conventional manner, the transmitter 5 and the combination of the video signal of the desired channel to be multiplexed, and these signals are transmitted through the NTSC channels. 某些NTSC频道可只包含模拟或数字形式的视频或其它信号。 Certain NTSC channels may contain only analog or digital form of video or other signals.

如前所述,可被复用到单个发送频道上的数据流中的视频信号的数目会改变。 As described above, the number can be multiplexed into the data stream of the video signal on a single transmission channel will change. 另外,使用数据流的频道数目会改变。 Further, the number of data streams using the channel change. 传送的数据流被发射机4经发送介质6发送到接收站7。 The transmitted data stream is transmitted to a receiving station transmitter 4 via transmission medium 6 7. 发射机4、介质6和接收机7可以是任何用于发送数字视频信号的装置,包括广播电视、有线电视、直播卫星、光纤或任何其它传输装置。 The transmitter 4, medium 6, and receiver 7 may be any means for transmitting digital video signals including broadcast television, cable television, direct broadcast satellite, fiber optic, or any other transmission means. 另外,本发明可以自己装在独立的系统中,下面将对此进行说明。 Further, the present invention can be installed in their own separate systems, as will be described below.

传输装置也可以是发送数字视频数据流的电话系统。 Transmission means may be a digital video data stream transmitted telephone system. 这样,包含几个广播频道或带有相关视频信号的交互式节目的复用数据流可以直接经单根电话线发送到用户。 Thus, containing several broadcast channels or an interactive program with related video signals multiplexed data stream can be transmitted over a single telephone line directly to the user. 上述数字传输设备也可包括用于发送模拟信号的装置。 The digital transmission devices may also include means for transmitting analog signals.

在一个优选实施例中,数字传输信号用有线电视系统发送。 In a preferred embodiment, the digital transmission signal using a cable television system. 接收机7接收各种NTSC频道、某些或所有的包含复用或不复用的数字视频信号。 Receiver 7 receives various NTSC channels, some or all of the digital video signal comprising multiplexed or not multiplexed. 通常,通过发射机5将发送多于一个的频道,并由接收机7接收,这与普通的有线电视系统一样。 Typically, the transmitter 5 to transmit more than one channel, received by the receiver 7, as in the conventional cable TV system. 但是,每个不同的频道可具有包含多个数字视频信号的数据流。 However, each of the different channels may have a data stream comprising a plurality of digital video signals. 因此,接收机7优选地结合信号选择器8一起进行操作,以选择用于重放的特定NTSC频道,并由此从数据流的复用信号中选出特定的视频信号,并在最后如果需要重放到监视器10上时,再进一步对该压缩视频信号进行解压缩或展开处理。 Therefore, receiver 7 preferably incorporates signal selector 8 operate together to select a particular NTSC channel for playback, and thus select a particular video signal from the multiplexed signal data stream, and if desired in the final when the weight placed on the monitor 10, and further the compressed video signal decompression or expansion processing.

多选择控制器9用于控制接收机7和信号选择器8,以选择所要进行重放的特定视频信号。 Multiple choice controller 9 is used to control receiver 7 and signal selector 8 to select a particular video signal to be reproduced. 实际应用中,用户并不需要知道每个频道上正在使用多个信号。 Practical applications, users do not need to know you are using multiple signals on each channel. 如果,例如使用的是每频道4个信号的68个频道,则其将对控制器9,以及接收机7和信号选择器8一起进行程序设定,以将这些频道向用户表示为频道12-72。 If, for example, the 68 channels per channel 4 signal, the controller 9 which will, and a receiver 7 and signal selector 8 be programmed together to represent these channels to the user as a channel 12- 72. 监视器10可以是,例如,常规的电视机。 Monitor 10 may be, for example, a conventional television. 信号选择器8优选地包括一种用于从当前由接收机7正接收的频道上的数据流中选出特定视频信号的常规信号分离器。 Signal selector 8 preferably includes a demultiplexer of a conventional select a particular video signal from the current data stream from the receiver 7 for being received in the channel. 信号选择器8另外还包括,与压缩器3所采用的压缩方案所对应的必要解压缩或展开装置。 Further signal selector 8 further comprising, with the necessary decompression scheme 3 using a compressor to compress or expand the corresponding device.

在实际应用中,利用允许在单独一个NTSC频道(例如,频道34)上传送两套体育视频信号(例如,A和B)的压缩-复用方案,其可以在6MHZ的有线电视信号上传送一个交互式体育比赛节目。 In practice, allowing the use of a single NTSC channel (e.g., channel 34) transmits two sports video signals (e.g., A and B) compression - multiplexing scheme, which may be transmitted over a cable television signal of 6MHZ interactive sports game show. 对于上述特定的体育比赛项目,其可能需要有4种视频信号(例如,AD)。 For the specific sports events, which may need to have four video signals (e.g., AD). 第一视频信号(信号A)可以包含该比赛的标准广播信号;而第二视频信号(信号B)则可以包含比赛动作的特写画面;第三视频信号(信号C)可以包含对比赛精彩画面的连续更新的重放;第四视频信号(信号D)则可以包含关于比赛的统计信息。 A first video signal (signal A) may contain the standard broadcast signal of the game; and a second video signal (signal B) may contain a close-up picture of the game action; third video signal (signal C) may contain highlight scene of the game a continuously updated replay; the fourth video signal (signal D) may contain statistical information about the game. 其中,可以以如下方式来对这4种视频信号(AD)进行复用:视频信号A和B被复用到有线频道(cable channel)34上所传送的数据流上;视频信号C和D则被复用到有线频道35上所传送的数据流上。 Which may be performed in the following manner these four kinds of video signals (AD) multiplexed: video signals A and B channels are multiplexed on a wired (cable channel) data stream 34 transmitted; the video signals C and D They are multiplexed onto data stream transmitted on cable channel 35. 另选地,其也可以将所有4种视频信号(AD)一起复用到一个频道上所载送的数据流上。 Alternatively, it may be multiplexed onto a channel transmitted data stream carried on with all four video signals (AD). 然而,其也可以利用控制器9,或信号选择器8来对这4种信号进行映射,以作为单独频道画面向用户播出,由此使得当观众在多选择控制器上进行选择时,在各频道之间可以实现无缝切换。 However, it may also use the controller 9, or signal selector 8 to map these four kinds of signals to the user as a separate broadcast channel picture, thereby enabling the viewer to choose when multiple choice controller, in you can seamlessly switch between channels.

此种交互式节目的每种视频信号可以包括一个写的是,例如,“全屏动作—按A;特写动作—按B;重放—按C;统计信息—按D”的提示文本(label)。 Each video signal of this interactive program may include a written, for example, "Full Screen Action - Press A; Close-up Action - Press B; Replay - Press C; Statistics - Press D" prompt text (label) .

如图所示,如果对于某个交互式节目,其需要多于可映射到单独一个频道上的数据流的信号,则其可以对信号选择器8与接收机7一起进行程序设定,以在多种视频信号与多种广播频道之间进行切换,由此提供所需的交互水平(level)。 As shown, if for a certain interactive program, which requires more than the data signal may be mapped to a separate channel stream, it may be a signal selector 8 in conjunction with receiver 7 programmed, in order to switching between multiple broadcast channels with a variety of video signals, thereby to provide the desired level of interaction (level). 然而,在优选情况下,与某个特定交互式节目相关的多种视频信号将被复用到单独一个频道上。 However, in the preferred case, associated with a particular interactive program to a variety of video signals are multiplexed onto a single channel.

此外,信号选择器8可以存储与当前和先前用户响应有关的信息。 Further, the signal selector 8 may store the current and previous user responses related information. 例如,其可以将观众的个人档案(profile)或观众先前的响应模式存储到存储器中。 For example, it may be a viewer profile (Profile) or viewer previous responses stored in the memory mode. 正如本文中作为参考文献收入的专利No.4,602,279中所讨论的那样,其可以将此信息与视频信号内所传送的各种命令结合起来使用。 As used herein incorporated by reference Patent No.4,602,279 revenues discussed above, this may be combined with various commands which transferred the message with a video signal used together. 所存储的个人档案信息和所接收到的各种命令,可以被用来在不需要来自用户的回应的情况下,在数据流和各视频信号之间以交互的方式进行切换。 The stored personal profile information and various commands received, may be used without requiring a response from the user to switch interactively between data streams and video signals each.

如果愿意,其也可以在单独一条电话线上传送该种复用的交互式节目。 If desired, it may also be transmitted multiplexed with the kind of the interactive program in a separate telephone line. 在此实施例中,其将多选择控制器9用程序设定为在单独一条电话线上的各视频信号之间进行切换。 Embodiment, multiple choice controller 9 which program is set to switch between separate video signals a respective telephone line in this embodiment. 如果还需要另外的频道,则也可以如下所述使用双向(two-way)配置。 If needed additional channels may also be used as the bidirectional (two-way) configuration.

在教育型实施例中,也可以使用根据本发明的系统。 Educational In embodiments, the system may also be used according to the invention. 在此类实施例中,信息被存储在多个可重放信息段的每个数据流上,其每个均包含可由接收机、对应于根据用户在多选择控制器9上的选择而通过信号选择器8所选出的视频信号,而可直接重放出的完整讯息。 In such embodiments, the information on each data stream is a plurality of reproducible information segments, each of which comprises a receiver may be stored, corresponding to a user selection on multiple choice controller 9 through a signal in accordance with 8 select the selected video signal, but may be directly reproduce the complete message. 各数据流中的上述每个信息段均包含有具有相关多选择回应、回应消息、信息型消息,或其组合的询问型消息。 Each of said pieces of information for each data stream are associated with having multiple choice response, response message, informational messages, or combinations thereof interrogation message type.

各数据流中的各信息段优选地,与内容实时相关,以使其在显示视频信号时,可以进行交互式的对话,而用户则可以回应视频信号中所包含的各种询问。 Preferably each of the information pieces each data stream, real-time content related to the video signal so that the display can be interactive dialogue, the user can respond to various interrogation signal contained in the video. 当用户利用多项选择回应来回答某个特定询问问题时,其将利用信号选择器8来显示与其所作出的特定选择相关的视频信号中的信息。 When the user a number of options to respond to answer a specific question to ask when it will use the signal selector 8 to display information associated with a particular video signal selection made it in. 通常可以将上述各种询问、回应消息、以及信息型消息包含在任一个,或多于一个的,或所有的视频信号中。 Typically the above may be asked to respond to the message, and message type information contained in any one, or more than one, or all of the video signal.

其中每个广播频道包含有多种视频信号的数据流,可以被用于很多类型的交互式节目,诸如上述美国专利中所公开的那些节目。 Wherein each broadcast channel data stream comprising a plurality of video signals, can be used for many types of interactive programs, such as those disclosed in the above-described program U.S. Pat. 当然,也可以开发出本发明范围内的其它形式的交互式节目。 Of course, other forms may also be developed within the scope of the present invention, the interactive program.

本发明还可以被用作不需要传送装置的单机系统。 The present invention may also be used as a stand-alone system does not require the transfer device. 在此实施例中,构成某交互式节目的数字化视频信号被存储在诸如录像带、影碟、存储器(例如,RAM,ROM,EPROM等)的本地存储装置,或计算机中。 In this embodiment, the interactive program composed of a video signal is digitized local storage device such as a video tape, DVD, memory (e.g., RAM, ROM, EPROM, etc.) or a computer is stored in the embodiment. 优选地,数字式视频信号被复用到标准的NTSC信号上。 Preferably, the digital video signals are multiplexed onto a standard NTSC signal. 上述特定的存储装置可以与图3-5中所示并如下所述的,任何一种交互盒(interactivebox)相连。 The specific storage device may be that shown in Figure 3-5, and as described below, any of the interactive boxes (interactivebox) is connected. 这些交互盒将与一台电视机相连。 These interactions will box connected to a TV. 另选地,图3-5中下方所示的电路可以由一块插板来实现,并被插入到标准的个人电脑(PC)中。 Alternatively, the circuit shown in FIGS. 3-5 below may be implemented by a card, and is inserted into a standard personal computer (PC) are. 由于标准的PC处理器可以提供图3-5中所示处理器108的各种功能,因此该交互板不再需要配置单独的微处理器。 Since standard PC processor may provide the processor 108 shown in FIG. 3-5 of the various functions, so that the interactive board is unnecessary to configure a separate microprocessor.

如图2所示,根据本发明的系统可以以一种双向配置来进行操作。 As shown in FIG. 2, may be arranged to operate a two-way system according to the present invention. 在此模式中,将以先前所述的方式来对各信号进行处理,即由A/D转换器2进行数字化处理,再由视频压缩器3进行压缩。 In this mode, it will be the manner previously described for each signal processing, i.e., digitizing by A / D converter 2, and then is compressed by video compressor 3. 这些信号随后被择路发送给中央交换台14。 These signals are then transmitted to the central switching station Optional passage 14. 在此实施例中,各视频信号之间的切换是在数据转发器上而不是在接收机上完成的。 In this embodiment, the switching between the video signal at the headend rather than at the receiver is completed. 多选择控制单元9通过中继盒17将用户的多选择选定结果(multiple choice selection)中继回位于远程位置上的中央交换台14。 Multi-selection control unit 917 will select the plurality Selected results (multiple choice selection) the user through a relay box back to the relay switching station 14 in the center of the remote location. 这些多选择选定结果可以由中继盒17利用常规装置,诸如双模式有线电视,电话,或FM传送方式中继回交换台。 These multiple results may be utilized to select the chosen relay box 17 by a conventional means, such as a dual-mode cable television, telephone, or FM transmission mode back to the relay switching station. 交换台14接收用户的多选择选定结果,并将所需的信号路由给用于以常规方式沿用于该特定用户的合适有线频道传送所需视频信号的发射机5。 Exchange station 14 receives a user selection of multiple selection result, and routes the desired signal to a conventional manner for the particular user to follow a suitable cable channels required to transmit a video signal transmitter 5. 如果需要,发射机5也可以在被用来播出交互式节目的有线电视频道上传送常规的节目。 If desired, transmitter 5 may also transfer conventional programming on the cable television channel is used to broadcast the interactive program. 另选地,交换台14可以包括如前所述的复用设备,并由此在单独一个电视频道上,播出多套交互式或非交互式节目。 Alternatively, switching station 14 may include multiplexing equipment as previously described, and thus on a single television channel, broadcast the multiple sets of interactive or non-interactive program.

例如,如果其希望以如上所述的方式来实现交互式足球比赛节目转播,则其可以为该套节目分配单独的一条NTSC有线频道。 For example, if it is desired to achieve the manner described above the interactive football game broadcast programs, it may be a separate sets of programs allocated for NTSC cable channel. 然而,在此实例中,在发射端将出现多个视频信号。 However, in this example, at the transmitting end a plurality of video signals occurs. 响应于来自无线控制器9的信号,中继盒17将向用于将所需视频信号路由给点播观众的有线电视交换台发送一个信号。 In response to a signal from the wireless controller 9, a relay box 17 will be required for the video signal routed to the cable television audience demand switching station transmits a signal. 此类系统一般需要配备十分快速的交换设备,但也可以利用数字成像的技术来实现。 Such systems generally need to be equipped very fast switching equipment, but also can take advantage of digital imaging technology to achieve.

另选地,其也可能会希望通过单独一条电话线来传送体育比赛节目。 Alternatively, it may also wish to transmit sporting events through a single telephone line. 当该用户在控制器9上输入了某一项选择后,其将通过电话线,向用于通过该用户的电话线来择路发送交互式节目所需信号的中央交换台,发送一个信号,以使其通过单一链路来同时对正在接收机上进行的交互式选择、以及从来自实际响应于在接收机上进行的交互式选择而发生切换操作的数据转发器的多种选择中选出的一种选项的传输进行处理。 When the user input selecting an item on the controller 9, which through the telephone line to the central signal required for the subscriber's telephone line to transmit the optional interactive program channel switching station, transmitting a signal, interactively select it simultaneously to the receiver are performed by a single link, and selected from a plurality of selections from the actual response to the interactive selection made at the receiver switching operation occurs in the headend transmission possible options for processing.

用户与交换台之间的双向链路可以被用于其它的用途。 Two-way link between the user and the switching station may be used for other purposes. 例如,出于商业目的,如定位于特定收视群的广告、计费、向比赛竞猜活动获奖者发送用于领取奖品的获奖号码,或其它的商业或非商业目的,可以从用户那里向广播网络传送人口统计数据。 For example, for commercial purposes, such as advertising targeted at specific audience groups, billing, to send the game guesses the winners receive prizes for the winning numbers, or other commercial or non-commercial purpose, from the user to the broadcast network demographic data transfer.

如上所述,当帧与帧之间的内容包含有诸多基于象素内容的变化时(例如,在快速运动的过程中或场景发生变化时),压缩系统的压缩效率通常会变得非常低。 As described above, when (for example, a scene is changed or during the fast movement of) the content from frame to frame comprises changing pixels when there are many content-based compression efficiency of the system generally becomes very low. 而在根据本发明的系统中,则具有通过程序设定来减轻解压缩程序上的处理负担的优点。 In the system according to the present invention, there is the advantage to reduce the processing load on the decompression program set by a program. 当用户按下了控制器上的一个按键,以选择所需的信号时,如果愿意,也可以实现一个很细微的感觉不到的延迟。 When the user presses a button on the controller, to select the desired signal, if desired, may be achieved a very slight imperceptible delay. 此延迟将允许解压缩或展开算法有一段很短的时间,来对从一种视频信号到另一种视频信号的快速变化(其通常会使该算法的效率有所下降,从而在屏幕上出现一些视频干扰)作出相应的调整。 This delay will allow the expansion or decompression algorithm has a very short time, to (which generally makes the efficiency of the algorithm has decreased, which appeared on the video signal from one to another to quickly change the video signal on the screen Some video interference) to make corresponding adjustments.

图3,4,7,16和17所示为根据本发明的能够在同一频道或不同频道上的数字视频信号之间进行无缝无闪烁(flick-free)透明切换的接收机7和信号选择器8的多种优选实施例。 FIGS. 3,4,7,16 and 17 can be performed according seamless flicker-free (flick-free) switching the receiver 7 and the transparent signal selects between digital video signals on the same channel or on different channels of the present invention 8 various preferred embodiments. 这些实施例可以与任何类型的传输介质相连,或只是简单地与任何用于数字化复用交互式节目的单机存储装置相连。 These embodiments may be connected to any type of transmission medium, or any simply connected for digitizing a single multiplexed interactive program storage device. 优选地,接收机7和信号选择器8均是与电视机或其它的显示监视器相连的交互式节目盒11的组件。 Preferably, the interactive program box receiver 7 and signal selector 8 are the television or other display monitor connected to the assembly 11. 另选地,通过在个人电脑上增添一些必要的组件,其也可以将RF接收机7、信号选择器8和监视器所需的功能合并到一台标准个人电脑中。 Alternatively, by adding the necessary components on a personal computer, which may be RF receiver 7, signal selector 8 and monitor the desired functions into a standard personal computer. 为了提供此种能力,其只需将一块RF解调器板、数字信号分离器、解压缩器、帧缓冲器、以及同步组件添加到个人电脑上即可。 To provide this capability, which is simply an RF demodulator board, digital demultiplexer, decompressor, a frame buffer, and a synchronization component can be added to a personal computer. 上述物件或其它组件,可以与图3,4,7,16和17所示的PC处理器和存储器件相连。 The above-described object, or other components, may be connected to FIGS. 3,4,7,16 and PC processor and a memory device 17 as shown. 本实施例中,用户将通过计算机键盘来进行选择。 In this embodiment, the user will be selected through the computer keyboard.

图3所示为一种具有单独一个模拟帧缓冲器的实施例。 Figure 3 shows an embodiment having a single analog frame buffer. 图4包括如下所述的多对RF解调器,纠错器,和信号分离器和/或一对数字视频缓冲器。 FIG 4 comprising a plurality of pairs of RF demodulators, error corrector, and a demultiplexer and / or a pair of digital video buffers.

图3所示为一种允许在两个或多个单独数字视频信号之间进行无缝视频切换的实施例。 As shown in FIG allow embodiment as a seamless video switch between two three or more separate digital video signals. 如图3所示,微处理器108与RF解调器102和信号分离器106相连。 As shown, the microprocessor 108 and the RF demodulator 102 and demultiplexer 1063 is connected. 微处理器108对合适频道和数据流的解调和信号分离进行控制,以获得正确的视频信号。 Microprocessor 108 and the demodulated signal separation appropriate channel and data flow is controlled in order to obtain the correct video signal. 该合适频道是通过检查来自用户接口130的用户输入和/或存储在RAM/ROM 120中的任何其它信息或标准(诸如个人档案信息)来确定的。 The channel is suitably in RAM / ROM any other information or criteria (such as personal profile information) 120 is determined by examining the user input from user interface 130 and / or storage. 例如,如作为本说明书参考文献所收入的专利No.4,602,279中所述,RAM/ROM 120可以存储各视频信号中所提供的多种命令。 For example, in the present specification as references the revenue Patent No.4,602,279, RAM / ROM 120 may store a plurality of commands each of the video signal provided. 用户接口130则可以是一个用于于从多选择控制器9接收信息的红外型、无线型、或有线型接收机。 The user interface 130 may be a controller for selecting from the multi-type infrared, radio type, wire type, or receives information 9.

RF解调器102是接收机7的部件,并用于在微处理器108的控制下,对来自广播频道的数据进行解调。 RF demodulator 102 is a receiver member 7, and under control of the microprocessor 108, the data from the broadcast channel demodulated. 在数据流被解调之后,其将经过前向纠错电路104而进入到数字信号分离器106中。 After the data stream is demodulated, it passes the front forward error correction circuit 104 into a digital demultiplexer 106. 信号分离器106在微处理器108的控制下,提供从该数据流中的各种视频、音频和数据信号中选出的具体视频、音频和数据信号,并将导引给该系统所用的合适装置。 Signal separator 106 under the control of the microprocessor 108 to provide specific video, audio and data signals selected from a variety of video, audio and data signals in the data stream, and the system used to guide the appropriate device. 为了无缝地从一个视频流拼接(splice)到另一个视频流上,其优选地在数字压缩域上来进行上述切换,以由此免去了同时对两个视频、音频和数据流进行解码的需要。 In order to seamlessly splice from one video stream (splice) to the other video stream, which is preferably performed in the digital compression onto the switching domain, thereby eliminating the need simultaneously to two video, audio, and data stream decoding need.

当压缩数字视频被发送给上述视频解码功能部件时,其首先被存储在存储器160中,直到已经缓存下足以确保视频流进行连续重放的信息为止。 When the compressed digital video when it is transmitted to the video decoding section, which is first in the memory 160, until the cache has been sufficient to ensure a continuous video stream until the reproduction of information stored. 正是由于视频信息的压缩特性,使得相对很小的缓冲器160便可以保存足够数量的信息(平均来说为5到6帧)。 It is because the compression characteristics of the video information, so that a relatively small buffer 160 can save a sufficient amount of information (average of 5-6). 其意味着从压缩视频被接收一直到其被解码和显示的过程中,存在有充分长的延迟。 Which is received from the compressed video means until it is decoded and displayed in the process, there is a sufficiently long delay. 因此,用于机顶盒中进行切换的本优选方法,是在继续在监视器上播放原先旧视频的同时,在到视频缓冲器160的路径上选择新的视频。 Accordingly, the preferred method for switching in the set top box is the old video while the playback of the original on the monitor, select the new video on path 160 to the video buffer. 由于可以通过产生语法正确的可拼接MPEG段来创建输入数据流,所以其可以很容易地实现上述方法。 Since the input data stream may be created by producing syntactically correct MPEG segments may be spliced, so that it can easily implement the above method. 利用此方法,在接收机中将不再需要另外的硬件。 With this method, the receiver will no longer require additional hardware. 并由此使得观众感觉就象在观看单独一段没有重复帧和丢失帧的视频流一样。 And thereby makes the viewer feel like watching a separate paragraph without repeating frames and a lost frame as a video stream.

MPEG允许利用叫做PCR(节目时钟参考)的数据字段,在接收机1 1上重构视频时钟。 MPEG allows the use of a data field called the PCR (Program Clock Reference), the reconstructed video clock at the receiver 11. 这对于保证解码器能够以其所输入的速率相同的速率来播放解码后的视频是必需的,从而避免了丢失或重复图象帧。 This is to ensure that the decoder at the same rate it is possible to input the rate of the decoded video to play is required to avoid loss or duplication of the image frame. MPEG流所内嵌的其它信息包括PTS(播放时间标记)和DTS(显示时间标记)。 Additional information embedded in the MPEG stream includes PTS (playback time stamp) and DTS (presentation time stamp). 其将利用这些信号来保持与音频的声像同步,并用来通知接收机何时在显示器上播放上述视频和音频信号。 Which we will use these signals to maintain audio and video synchronization with the audio, and to notify the receiver when playing back the video and audio signals on a display.

图4所示为一种用于在各个视频信号之间进行无缝切换的另选双调谐器实施例。 Figure 4 shows an alternative embodiment of the dual tuner embodiment for seamless switching between the respective video signals. 在此实施例中,其将在微处理器108的控制下,来选择所要由RF解调器102A,102B进行解调的RF频道。 Embodiment, which will be under the control of microprocessor 108 to select the desired RF-channel 102B demodulated by RF demodulators 102A, in this embodiment.

解调所得的数据流进入到前向纠错器(forward error corrector)104A,104B中。 The resulting demodulated data stream before entering into the error corrector (forward error corrector) 104A, 104B in. 并通过这些前向纠错器的输出,将各数据流传送给数字信号分离器106A,106B的输入。 And, each data stream to a digital input signal separator 106A, 106B through the front output to the error corrector.

与RF解调器102A,102B相同,数字信号分离器106A,106B由微处理器108来控制。 The same RF demodulator 102A, 102B, the digital demultiplexer 106A, 106B is controlled by a microprocessor 108. 此种配置将允许微处理器108独立地在不同的频道和数据流上,选出两个不同的单独被时间复用的视频信号。 This configuration allows the microprocessor 108 independently on different channels and data streams, to select two different individual video signals are time-multiplexed. 如果某交互式节目的所有的视频信号均被包含在单独一个频道或数据流上,则其将只需要配置单独一个RF解调器、前向纠错器、和与之串联并馈送到两个数字视频缓冲器中的数字信号分离器。 If all the video signals of an interactive program were contained on a single channel or data stream, it would only need to configure a single RF demodulator, forward error corrector, and connected in series therewith and fed to two a digital demultiplexer digital video buffer.

数字信号分离器106A,106B提供两个数据流。 A digital demultiplexer 106A, 106B provides two data streams. 这些信号分离器的输出包含有可以在微处理器108的控制下被导引给合适装置的视频、音频和数据。 The output of the demultiplexer with the appropriate apparatus may be directed to the microprocessor 108 under control of video, audio and data. 以此方式,其将不再需要将所有的信息均包含在一个RF频道中。 In this way, it will not need all of the information is contained in one RF channel. 取而代之的是,可以将信息分布于该RF频谱的不同频率上,而同时我们仍能够将各数据流拼接起来。 Instead, the information can be distributed over different frequencies of the RF spectrum, while we are still able to piece together each data stream. 通过在上述两个信号分离器的输出上放置一个简单的数字开关,我们能够避免复制上述解码链。 By placing a simple digital switch at the output of the two signal separator, we can avoid copying the decoding chain. 这里应当注意的是,该方法只是一种节省成本的途径,复制其余的解码链也同样可以工作。 It should be noted here that this method is only a cost effective way, the rest of the decoding chain replication also works.

标准MPEG流包含有不同类型的编码帧。 Standard MPEG stream contains different types of encoded frames. 其中有多个I帧(内编码),P帧(预测编码)和B帧(双向预测)。 Wherein a plurality of I frame (intra-coded), P frame (predictive coded) and B frames (bi-directional prediction). 标准MPEG结构便是常说的GOP(图象组)。 Standard MPEG structure is often said that the GOP (Group of Pictures). GOP一般起始于I帧,并可以结束于P或B帧。 GOP generally starts at the I frame, and may end in P or B frames. 通常每GOP只有一个I帧,但可以有多个P和B帧。 Each GOP typically has only one I-frame, but a plurality of P and B frames. 尽管也不是一定要有I帧,但出于许多原因,有I帧仍是有用的。 Although not a must have an I-frame, but for many reasons, there is an I-frame is still useful.

结束于B帧的GOP被视为开放型。 At the end of the B frame GOP is considered open. 而结束于P帧的GOP则被视为闭合型。 P-frames and ends with the closed GOP type is considered. 对于本发明来说,优选的代码是闭合型GOP,以确保没有指向在当前GOP外部的图象帧的运动向量。 For the present invention, preferably it is a closed-type GOP code, to ensure that no motion vector points outside of the current GOP picture frame.

在编码处理的过程中,为了更高效地对视频进行编码,MPEG还将对原来的显示顺序重新进行排序。 During the encoding process, in order to efficiently encode the video, MPEG will display order the original reordering. 而在解码器中,为了正确地显示该视频,必须再把重排后的顺序还原为原先的顺序。 In the decoder, in order to properly display the video, and then must be re-reduced to the order of the original order of the rows.

帧顺序: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20帧类型: I B B P B B P B B P I B B P B B P B B P典型帧重 1 4 2 3 7 5 6 10 8 9 11 14 12 13 17 15 16 20 18 19排序:传输顺序 I P B B P B B P B B I P B B P B B P B B帧类型:GOP1 GOP2拼接发生在GOP1末端的B帧之后与GOP2的I帧之前。 Frame sequence: 1 2. 4 5,678,910,111,213,141,516. 17 18 is. 19 20 Type: IBBPBBPBBPIBBPBBPBBP representative frame weight 1,423,756,108,911,141,213. 17 15 16 20 is 18 is. 19 Sort: transmission order IPBBPBBPBBIPBBPBBPBB frame types: GOP1 GOP2 splice occurs after the end of GOP1 prior to the B frame and the I frame of GOP2. 需要重点指出的是通过合适的控制,编码器可以对长度可变的GOP进行编码,并能够准确地放置拼接帧,以实现所需的交互效果。 It is important to point out that may be encoded by the variable length GOP suitable control, encoder, and the splice can be placed accurately frames, to achieve the desired interaction effects. 如果内容彼此没有关系,则编码器可以在每个GOP的末端进行拼接,以便于进行切换操作。 If the content is no relationship to each other, the encoder can splice at the end of each GOP in order to perform a switching operation. 由于上述GOP结束于P帧,所以其将产生一个闭合的GOP。 Since the above P-frames in the GOP end, so that it will generate a closed GOP.

数字系统中的改进型无缝切换如上所述的任何一种类型的接收单元实施例均可以被用来处理根据本发明的无缝拼接。 Example receiving unit of any type of digital system improved seamless handover as described above may be used to process both seamless present invention. 然而,在本发明的该优选实施例中,通过对编码处理进行某种新颖的改进,将可以进一步提高接收单元上的无缝视频拼接的准确性。 However, in the preferred embodiment of the present invention, the encoding process performed by some novel improvements, will further improve the accuracy of the seamless video splicing receiving unit.

如上所述,无论其所表示的是多个相互独立的电视节目,抑或是一个交互式节目内的不同相关信号,观众视觉感受好坏的关键在于各数字视频信号之间无缝切换的好坏。 As described above, whether they represent a plurality of independent television programs, or different related signals within one interactive program, the audience key quality visual experience that the quality of the seamless switch between the digital video signal . 无缝切换的定义是,不会在视觉上感受到人为的视频流切换。 Seamless switching is defined not feel artificial video stream switching visually. 编码处理的效果就是要简化无缝切换处理步骤以及提高其处理的质量。 Effect of the encoding process is to simplify and seamless handover processing step to improve the quality of their treatment.

其中,编码处理是在图5所示的为其部分元件的中央位置(centrallocation)上来进行的。 Wherein the encoding process is performed at a central location onto a portion of its element shown in FIG. 5 (centrallocation). 图5中所示为可以包括现场直播的或原先录制好的视频流的多种视频信号300。 As shown in FIG. 5 may include a live or recorded video signals in various original video stream 300 good. 视频信号的数据源可以来自用于直播视频的摄像机、视频服务器、录像机,DVD,卫星信号馈送器等诸如此类的设备。 Data source video signal from the camera can be used for live video, video servers, video recorder, DVD, satellite signal is fed and other like devices.

视频信号的制式可以是MPEG格式,HDTV,PAL等等。 Standard video signals may be in MPEG format, HDTV, PAL and the like. 而音频信号308则可以源自CD,磁带,麦克风等等。 The audio signal 308 may originate from CD, tape, microphones and the like.

而如图5所示从数据代码计算机316中发出的多个数据代码,是用于如上所述机顶盒转换器中所用到的交互处理的交互命令。 A plurality of data codes and data codes sent from the computer 316 shown in FIG. 5, the interactive commands for interactive processing of the set top box as described above are used in the converter. 优选地,这些数据代码是源发自编码计算机316的诸如ACTV标记语言等类型的,交互式标记语言(interactive scripting language)的一部分。 Preferably, these data codes are sent from the source computer coding language such as the type ACTV numerals 316, part of an interactive markup language (interactive scripting language) is. 这些数据代码将简化接收单元上多种交互式节目功能选项的实现。 The data code will simplify the implementation of a variety of options on the interactive program receiving unit. 本实施例需要一个使其能够在第一视频流与第二视频流之间进行同步切换的数据频道。 This embodiment requires a data channel can be synchronized so as to switch between a first video stream and the second video stream. 此数据频道包含有将不同节目元素(element)以及不同视频信号上的信息段连在一起的代码。 This data channel comprises a code segment of information on the different program elements (element) and linked to different video signals.

再次参看视频信号300,在视频同步锁定装置304中各视频信号300将被同步锁定,以由此实现时间同步。 Referring again to the video signal 300, the video genlock device 304 in each video signal 300 is synchronized locked, to thereby achieve time synchronization. 上述时间同步后的视频信号被导引到视频和音频编码器312中。 The video signal is directed to time synchronization of video and audio encoder 312. 在本优选实施例中,有线数据转发器需要配置多个兼容编码器312,以与多个远程位置上的数字接收单元一起协同工作。 In the preferred embodiment, the cable headend need to configure multiple compatible encoder 312 to the digital reception cooperative with a plurality of remote units on working position. 本发明优选地通过将数据转发器上的各命令同步到特定的视频帧和特定的音频帧上,来简化(facilitate)其交互式应用。 The present invention preferably each command by the headend synchronized to a specific video frame and a specific audio frame to simplify (Facilitate) which interactive applications. 此级别的同步可以在MPEG-2、4或7规范的语法标准内来实现。 Synchronization may be implemented at this level in the MPEG-2,4, or 7 standard syntax specification.

为了便于各接收站点上的无缝切换,其将优选地对视频编码器312进行时间同步。 In order to facilitate the seamless switch at each receiving station, which is preferably a video encoder 312 for time synchronization. 进行上述同步处理的目的在于,确保其所已经放置于视频内容中的多个拼接点出现在正确的帧号(frame number)上。 The purpose of the synchronization process is to ensure that it has been placed in a plurality of splice points in the video content occur at the correct frame number (frame number). 尽管并不是对所有的节目类型均需要获得此级别的准确性,但其是可以以此种方式来实现的。 Although not all need to get this level of accuracy for all program types, but it can be achieved in this way. 其将使节目制作人具有,在图象组(GOP)分辨率内的帧边界上进行视频切换的能力。 Which will have a program producer, the ability to switch on the video frame boundary in a group of pictures (GOP) resolution. SMPTE时间代码或垂直时间代码(VTC)信息可以被用来对编码器312进行同步。 SMPTE time code or Vertical Time Code (VTC) information can be used to synchronize the encoder 312. 此外,利用长度可变的GOP,其可以在任一帧上准确地放置一个拼接点(splice)。 Further, the GOP is variable length, which can be placed exactly at a splice point on either one (splice). 一旦接收到来自外部控制装置,如ACTV命令代码计算机313的命令,其将可以控制编码器312,在某个帧号位置上插入一个拼接点。 Upon receiving from the external control means, such as command ACTV command code computer 313, which controls the encoder 312 can insert a splice at a frame number position. 通过改进数据转发器上的编码器,将可以确保在机顶盒转换上所进行的无缝切换更为有效。 By improving encoder on the headend, to ensure seamless switching at the set top box for more effective conversion.

如图5所示,多个视频信号300,数据代码316和音频信号被输入到编码器312中。 5, a plurality of video signals 300, data codes 316 and audio signals are input to the encoder 312. 在本优选实施例中,编码器312一共输入有4个视频频道。 In the preferred embodiment, the encoder 312 has a total of four video input channels. 然而,根据其所要传送的内容,也可以输入数目多于或少于4个的视频流。 However, the content thereof is to be transmitted, the number of inputs may be more or less than four video streams. 在当前的环境下,视频数目的实际应用限制取决于图象的质量。 In the current environment, the number of practical limitations on the quality of the video image. 然而,归根结底,其对于单独一个频道内所能包含的视频和音频的数目没有限制。 Ultimately, however, for which video and audio can be contained within a single channel number is not limited. 另外,利用采用了双调谐器实现方式的另选实施例,当前的所有限制均可以被去掉。 Further, using the alternative embodiment using dual tuner implementations, all current limitations can be removed.

优选地,编码器312采用MPEG-2压缩格式。 Preferably, the encoder 312 uses MPEG-2 compression format. 然而,其也可以采用MPEG-4和MPEG-7,以及诸如小波和分形(fractle)等其它的压缩格式,来进行压缩处理。 However, it may also be used MPEG-4 and MPEG-7, such as wavelet and fractal, and (fractle) and other compression format, compression processing is performed. 这些技术均与现有用于数字视频系统的ATSC和DVB标准兼容。 These techniques are compatible with the existing ATSC and DVB standards for digital video systems. 然而,为了更便于在机顶盒上进行优选的无缝切换,其将对MPEG流进行一定形式的改动。 However, in order to facilitate a more preferred seamless switching at the set top box, which will be some form of MPEG stream changes. 接下来将参照图6中所示的视频帧结构332,来对编码方案的上述改动进行说明。 Next, the video frame structure 332 shown in Figure 6, to change the encoding scheme described above with reference to FIG.

当在接收信号中遇到视频拼接点336时,远程接收站点上将相应地发生切换。 When the video splice point 336 is encountered in the received signal, the switching occurs on a remote receiving station accordingly. 通过提供多个拼接点,节目切换将变得很容易。 By providing a plurality of splice point, the program will be switched easily. 通过匹配(adaptation)字段数据,其可以识别出节目流中的各个拼接点。 By matching (Adaptation) field data, which may identify each splice point of the program stream. 根据用户输入,存储在机顶盒转换器或数据转发器上的存储器中的个人档案信息,以及来自节目源的命令,将在这些点上进行节目切换。 The user inputs, personal profile information stored in memory on the set top box converter or the headend, and commands from the program source, the program will be switched at these points.

而在生成视频拼接点336时,视频编码器在每个图象组(GOP)上插入多个如图6所示的拼接点。 And when generating the video splice point 336, the video encoder inserting a plurality of splice point as shown in FIG. 6 in each group of pictures (GOP). 一个GOP,根据MPEG方案中的参数集,通常由一个I帧和一系列P和B帧组成。 A the GOP, according to the parameters set in the MPEG scheme, an I frame and usually consists of a series of P and B frames. 优选地,该GOP被编码成“闭合型”GOP结构,即意味着该GOP结束于P帧。 Preferably, the GOP is encoded as a "closed type" GOP structure, which means that the GOP ends on a P frame. 因此,将不会出现指向下一GOP的运动向量。 Therefore, the motion vector points to the next GOP will not appear. 如果存在从一个GOP到另一个GOP的运动向量,则其将会产生非自然信号,并可以在画面切换时被看出来。 If there is motion vector from one GOP to another GOP, it will produce artifacts, and can be seen when the picture is switched. 因此,其需要采用一种闭合型的GOP结构,以与MPEG语法相兼容,并确保在执行拼接后不会出现可见的非自然信号。 Accordingly, GOP structures which need a closure type, compatible with the MPEG syntax and to ensure that no visible artifacts do not appear after performing the splicing.

GOP长度是可程序设定的,并可以在1到有限视频帧的范围内任意取值。 Set the GOP length is programmable and can be any value in the range of 1 to limited video frame. 然而,优选情况下,GOP将包括10-15个视频帧。 However, Preferably, the GOP will comprise 10-15 video frames. 参照图6,其所示为4个视频信号。 Referring to Figure 6, four video signals which FIG. 同时其希望能够实现从任一视频信号到任一另外视频信号的无缝切换。 While it is desirable to achieve a seamless handover to any additional video signal from a video signal according to any.

如图6所示,无缝视频切换发生在GOP视频帧边界上。 6, seamless video switching occurs on a GOP video-frame boundary. 对于预先录制好的资料,为找出切换点需要先识别出拼接点。 For pre-recorded information, find the switching point for the need to identify the splice point. 而对于那些需要进行“自由”频道选择的节目(例如体育节目),则将把所有的GOP边界编码为拼接点。 For those who need to be "free" programs (eg sports) channel selection, and all the GOP will be coded as splice point boundary. 尽管切换必须是无缝的,但其并不一定要是立即的。 Although the switch must be seamless, but it may not necessarily be immediate. 例如,一条命令或按键输入需要有一段有限的时间来进行处理。 For example, a command or key input requires a finite period of time to process. 因此,其可以延迟视频切换,最长可达1.5倍GOP的长度。 Thus, it may be delayed video switching, up to 1.5 times the length of the GOP.

如图6所示,利用MPEG数据在通过数字信道传输的过程中非实时性的特点,可以产生一个时间间隙340,在该间隙340中,解码器可以从对一个视频流的解码处理切换到对另一个视频流的解码处理。 6, an MPEG data through a transmission channel during the real-time digital signal characteristics of Africa, a time slot 340 may be generated in the gap 340, the decoder may switch from decoding processing of a video stream to another video stream decoding. 因而,图6中所示的间隙340代表了切换时间(switch time)。 Thus, the gap shown in FIG 6340 represents the switching time (switch time). 其中的关键在于,在下一GOP的第一个数据包通过该信道之前,大多数复杂视频将已完成处理并通过了该信道。 The key is that, before the first packet of the next GOP is through the channel, the most complex video is completed and processed through the channel. 通过以低于该信道容量的数据率来进行编码,在所要进行切换的GOP的末端,将产生一些额外的时间。 Be encoded by a data rate less than the channel capacity of the channel, at the end of the GOP is to be switched, it will produce some additional time. 以此方式,两个MPEG流将被合并到一起,而生成一个单独的语法上完全正确的MPEG数据流。 In this way, two MPEG streams are merged together to generate a single syntactically correct MPEG data stream. 其中,其可以在如图5所示的编码器312上,利用任何类型的压缩方案来产生上述时隙。 Wherein, on which can be encoder 312 shown in Figure 5, to produce the aforementioned time slots using any type of compression scheme.

而对于音频信号,则优选地利用AC3格式来进行编码。 For audio signals, it is preferable to be encoded using the AC3 format. 然而,本发明可以对任何常规类型的音频编码方案进行转换。 However, the present invention may be of any conventional type for converting audio coding schemes.

所有各种视频、音频和数据信号均是在编码器312中进行数字化以及组合处理的。 All the various video, audio and data signals are digitized and processed in a combination of the encoder 312. 优选地,压缩及编码信号是以DS2、数字高速展开接口(DHEI)或其它任何常规格式来进行输出的。 Preferably, the compression and the encoded signal is DS2, a high-speed digital interface to expand (DHEI) or any other conventional format for output. 数据类型并不重要,其只是数据。 Data type is not important, it is just data. 编码处理随后以用于目标信道的适宜位速率,来输出数字数据流。 Encoding process followed by a suitable bit rate for the target channel, to the output digital data stream.

调制器320可以采用多种不同的可用调制方案中的任一种。 Modulator 320 of any of a plurality of different available modulation schemes may be employed. 优选地,其选用64-QAM作为调制方案。 Preferably, it is chosen as 64-QAM modulation scheme. 如果是这样的话,调制器320的输出上的数据率将大约为29.26Mbps。 If this is the case, the data rate of the modulator on the output 320 will be approximately 29.26Mbps. 然而,本发明也可以使用如下所示的多种具有各自近似数据率的调制方案,或其它的常规调制方案(诸如FSK,n-PSK等)中的任一种。 However, the present invention may be used in the following various modulation schemes having respective approximate data rates, or other conventional modulation scheme (such as FSK, n-PSK, etc.) of any one.

调制方案 数据率64-QAM 29.96Mbps256-QAM 40Mbps8VSB 19.3Mbps64QAM PAL 42Mbps256QAM PAL 56Mbps随后在一种常规的组合器中,优选地利用频率调制的方法,将各个单独的NTSC频道组合在一起,因而,如下所述,其可以在机顶盒转换器上,实现从一个信号到NTSC频道中的另一个信号,或从一个NTSC频道到另一个NTSC频道的无缝切换。 Data rate modulation scheme of 64-QAM followed by a conventional combiner, preferably using frequency modulation method, the combination of the individual channel NTSC 29.96Mbps256-QAM 40Mbps8VSB 19.3Mbps64QAM PAL 42Mbps256QAM PAL 56Mbps together, therefore, as follows above, which may be on the set top box converter, to achieve another signal from a signal to an NTSC channel or from one NTSC channel to another NTSC channel seamless handover.

总之,通过在编码器312上对信号进行时间同步,对编码器进行时间锁定,以及为每个数字视频流创建一个时间间隙340(其代表了编码率和信道容量之间的差别),而实现了解码器的无缝切换。 In short, by the signal at the encoder 312 for time synchronization, time-locked to the encoder, and creating a time gap 340 (which represents the difference between channel capacity and coding rate) for each digital video stream, achieved seamless switch decoder.

在进行完编码、调制和复用处理之后,可以通过卫星、无线电、陆上线路、广播、或任何其它的常规传输系统,将信号传送给多个接收站。 After performing encoding, modulation and multiplexing after treatment, via satellite, wireless, land line, broadcast, or any other conventional transmission system transmits signals to a plurality of receiving stations. 在本优选实施例中,各信号是通过电缆或其它类型的传输介质分送给各个远程站点的。 In the preferred embodiment, each signal is a cable or other type of transmission medium distributed to each remote site.

接收站在各个优选地由图7所示元件所构成的接收站上,其是通过调谐器机构344来接收信号的。 Preferably each station on the station by the elements shown in FIG. 7 constituted, which signal is received by the tuner means 344. 当采用的是卫星分送方式时,调谐器344可以是一种宽带调谐器,而对于标准的MPEG信号,则可以是一种窄带调谐器,或也可以是如下所述,用于在位于不同频道上的不同信号之间进行无缝切换的两个或多个调谐器。 When the satellite is used in dispensing mode, the tuner 344 may be a broadband tuner and for standard MPEG signals, the tuner may be a narrow band, as described below, or may be, in different for two or more tuners for seamlessly switching between different signals on the channel. 对于MPEG信号,调制器344调谐到由主处理器360所给出的命令所指示的特定NTSC频道上。 For MPEG signals, the modulator 344 to a particular NTSC channel tuned by the command given by the host processor 360 as indicated. 该主处理器360优选地是一个Motorola 68331处理器,但也可以是任何包括PowerPC,IntelPentium等在内的任何其它的常规类型处理器。 The main processor 360 is preferably a Motorola 68331 processor, but may comprise any PowerPC, IntelPentium etc., any other conventional type of processor.

该信号随后被转发给调制器364。 The signal is then forwarded to the modulator 364. 调制器364对该组合信号进行解调,去掉FEC,并将各数字信号转发给视频和音频解码器372。 Modulator 364 demodulates the combined signal, the FEC is removed, and forwards each of the digital signals to video and audio decoders 372. 在数字解码器372那里,将对各信号进行分离和解压缩。 In the digital decoder 372 where the signals will be separated and decompression. 解码器372去掉节目标识号(PID),并将这些PID路由给合适的解码器,无论其是视频、数据、音频或图形。 The decoder 372 to remove the program identification number (PID), PID and routes them to the appropriate decoder, whether video, data, audio or graphics. 音频优选地被转发给Dolby数字处理IC380。 The audio is preferably forwarded to the Dolby digital processing IC380. 随后,其将以下述方式,来对所选出的视频和音频进行解码,并将视频发送给用于准备所要显示的所选视频的视频数字-模拟(D/A)转换器338。 Subsequently, a manner which will be described below, to decode the selected video and audio, and digital video transmitted to the video to be displayed for preparing the selected video - analog (D / A) converter 338.

锁相环(PLL)恢复被编码在MPEG匹配字段的PCR段中的编码时钟。 A phase locked loop (PLL) clock recovery is encoded in coding section PCR of MPEG adaptation field. 优选地,其利用一个ROM来保存用于接收单元342的操作系统,同时利用闪存(Flash-ROM)来进行备份,以供可下载代码使用。 Preferably, use of a ROM to store its operating system for the reception unit 342, while using a flash memory (Flash-ROM) for backup, for downloadable code used. 另外,解码器372,380和图形芯片376上还连接有许多其它的存储装置,以用来存储例如图形重叠部分的数据(graphic overlay)。 Further, the decoder 372,380 and the graphics chip 376 is also connected to many other storage devices, the data to be used to (graphic overlay) portion of the graphic memory such as overlay. 另外,各家庭用户的档案数据也可以被存储在非易失性RAM或ROM352中。 Further, each home user profile data may also be stored in non-volatile RAM or in ROM352.

其中,还配备有一个回送信道(backchannel)编码器和调制器368,以用于将数据发送回数据转发器。 Wherein, further provided with a loopback channel (Backchannel) encoder and modulator 368, for sending data back to the headend. 此类数据可以包括个人档案信息,交互选择,用于向特定收视群作广告的人口统计信息数据,比赛竞猜得分,等诸如此类的信息。 Such data may include personal profile information, interactive selection, data for demographic information for advertising to specific audience groups, game quiz scores, and other information like that.

另外,接收单元342允许将新的应用软件下载于其上。 Further, the reception unit 342 allows the new application software downloaded thereon. 这些应用软件可以在硬件条件允许的情况下来对该单元进行控制,以及重新定义这些单元的功能。 These applications may be performed in conditions that allow the hardware down to the control unit and redefine the functionality of these units. 上述控制的范围可以十分广泛,包括对面板画面(front-panel display)、屏幕画面、全部输入和输出端口、MPEG解码器、RF调谐器、图形芯片和红外遥控功能映射的控制。 The control range may be quite extensive, including control panel screen (front-panel display), the screen, all the input and output ports, MPEG Decoder, the RF tuner, graphics chip and the mapping of the IR remote control.

优选地,本发明的交互式节目技术,包括提供多个摄像机角度的画面,针对个人播出广告等诸如此类的功能,是作为应用软件在接收单元342中实现的。 Preferably, the interactive program techniques of this invention, comprises providing a plurality of camera angles of a screen, like a personal broadcast advertising for other functions, is implemented as an application software 342 in the receiving unit. 其相应的应用程序优选地被存储在如图7所示的接收单元的ROM或闪存352中。 The corresponding application program is preferably stored in ROM or flash memory 352 of the receiving unit 7 shown in FIG. 然而,上述交互技术应用程序也可以被存储在包括RAM、EPROM、EEPROM、PROM等在内的其它任何类型的存储装置中。 However, the above technique interactive applications may also be any other type of memory device including RAM, EPROM, EEPROM, PROM, etc., are stored. 同样地,该软件也应该可以存取及控制该装置的各种硬件元件。 Similarly, the software should be able to access and control the various hardware elements of the apparatus. 在本优选实施例中,不再需要另外的硬件便可以在接收单元342中完全地应用上述交互式节目技术,来实现如上所述的性能。 In the present preferred embodiment, it is no longer necessary additional hardware can be applied to the above-described technique fully interactive program receiving unit 342 in to achieve the properties described above.

本发明可以使用任何类型的常规遥控装置348。 The present invention may use any type of conventional remote control device 348. 然而,优选地,遥控装置348是一种红外型(IR)装置,并包括有4个或多个功能选项按钮及其相关的IR代码。 Preferably, however, the remote control device 348 is a type of infrared (IR) devices, and comprises four or more option buttons and functions associated IR codes.

接下来将对接收单元342上的无缝视频切换进行说明。 Next, will be received on the seamless video switching unit 342 will be described. 如图7所示的接收单元342优选地能够进行实时MPEG-2,MPEG-4或MPEG-7解码。 Receiving unit 342 shown in Figure 7 preferably is capable of real-time MPEG-2, MPEG-4 or MPEG-7 decoding. 接收单元342监控从程序源传送来的用户交互和信息,并对视频和音频流进行适宜的无缝切换。 Monitoring receiving unit 342 from a program source to user interaction and information transmission of video and audio streams and seamless switching appropriately.

根据观众的回应和请求,该单元自动且无缝地在反映了观众早先回应的视频、图形和音频节目序列(programming sequence)之间进行无缝切换。 The response and request of the viewer, the unit automatically and seamlessly reflected in the audience responded earlier video, seamless switch between graphics and audio programming sequences (programming sequence). 根据本发明的交互技术允许很高级别的交互性,而同时却并不要求机顶盒单元342,来向节目源传送回任何的信息。 According to the present invention allow interactive technology a very high level of interactivity, while it does not require set-top box unit 342, a program to be transmitted back to the source of any information.

在如图7所示的视频解码器372中,其从MPEG数据流中去掉头信息数据。 In the video decoder 372 shown in Figure 7, to turn around its information from the MPEG data stream. 该特定视频随后根据来自主处理器360的命令被选中。 The particular video is then selected according to a command from the host processor 360. 同时,与其相关的音频则被发送给音频解码部380。 At the same time, were associated audio is sent to the audio decoder 380. 所选中的视频先被缓存在标准的视频缓冲器中,而后再进行输出,以对其进行解码。 The selected video is cached in the first standard video buffer, and then output to decode it. 缓冲器大小由作为参考文献收入于本说明书中的MPEG标准来定义。 Buffer size is defined by the MPEG standard as a reference in this specification income. 在开始进行解码时,其必须容留有足够长的时间,以用I帧和其它数据来“填满”该缓冲器。 At the beginning of decoding, which shelter must have a sufficiently long time to use the I-frame and other data to "fill in" the buffer.

在缓存结束之后,所选中的视频将通过MPEG解码处理的各个步骤,其中优选地是利用可变长度解码(VLD)方法。 After the end of the buffer, the selected video through the respective steps of the MPEG decoding process, wherein preferably using variable length decoding (VLD) method. 通常,可变长度解码技术将以运行长度进行编码的数据流转换为长度稍长一些的位流格式。 Typically, a variable length decoding technique will run length encoded data stream into a length slightly longer bitstream format. 该位流被解码为其相应的成分,即运动向量、dct系数和诸如此类,以便于重构出该视频。 The bit stream is decoded to their respective components, i.e., motion vectors, DCT coefficients, and the like, in order to reconstruct the video. 接着,其利用一个反离散余弦变换(DCT)滤波器,将该数据流转换为频域信息。 Next, utilizing an inverse discrete cosine transform (DCT) filter, the data stream is converted into frequency domain information. 如果各帧是以彼此相互关联的方式来进行编码的(intercode),则其将可以产生象素数据并将其存储在缓冲器中。 If the frames are associated with each other to each other encoding (intercode), it will be generated and pixel data stored in the buffer.

接下来将参照图7,对从一个到另一个MPEG视频流的无缝切换进行说明。 Next, with reference to FIG. 7, the seamless switch from one to another MPEG video stream will be described. 各次切换均出现在如图6所示的各个拼接点上。 They are each time switching occurs at each splice point as shown in Fig. 当如图7所示的信号分离器/解码器372“遇到”上述拼接点时,其将切换到被发送到缓冲器中的所选视频信号。 When the demultiplexer shown in FIG. 7 / decoder 372 "encounters" The splice point, it switches to the selected video signal is sent to the buffer. 随后,从主处理器360将下一个信号PID装入到解码器372中。 Subsequently, from the main processor 360 will next signal PID is loaded into the decoder 372. 为了实现到4个视频流中的一个的切换,如图7所示的视频解码器372,必须可以识别出新视频流的PID号。 In order to achieve a switching of the four video streams, as shown in Figure 7, the video decoder 372, you must be able to identify the PID number of the new video stream. 另外,为了便于在多个相互独立的视频和音频流之间进行无缝切换,每个输入视频和音频流将优选地分别具有属于其自己的并为机顶盒转换器342的存储器中所存储的交互应用软件所知的PID。 Further, in order to facilitate seamless switching between a plurality of independent video and audio streams, each of the input video and audio streams will preferably have its own interaction and belonging to the memory of the set top box converter 342 stored in PID application software known. 随后其必须调用相应的例程来执行所述切换操作。 It must then call the appropriate routine to perform the switching operation. 而标识了下一所选视频信号的下一PID则可以根据用户的选择或利用交互式控制代码、或同时根据两者,来进行确定。 And identifying the next selected video signal in a next PID can be according to a user's selection or the use of interactive control codes, or both at the same time according to the determination. 一旦装入了下一个PID,则解码器372将开始查询所选的视频流,同时,由于在视频数据流中创建有间隙340,因此解码器372将总能够找出下一视频信号的头信息。 Once the PID next loaded, the decoder 372 will begin query of the selected video streams at the same time, since the video data stream to create a gap 340, so the decoder 372 will always be able to find the next header information of a video signal . 一旦解码器看到了第一视频的拼接点标识,同时由解码器识别出了第二视频信号,则在第一视频信号继续播出的同时,第二压缩视频信号将开始载入到缓冲器中。 Once the decoder sees the splice point identifying the first video by the decoder while identifying a second video signal, while the first continues to broadcast video signal, a second compressed video signal begins to load into the buffer . 其中,将根据用户的选择或根据交互控制代码来选择新的视频信号。 Wherein the or to select a new interactive video signal in accordance with the control code according to a user selection.

进行无缝切换所需的多个标识项(item)包含有拼接点计数器和拼接点标志。 A plurality of identification item (item) required to switch seamlessly with splice point counter and a splice point flag. 这两个标识被放置在MPEG视频流的匹配字段中。 These two fields in the matching flag is placed in an MPEG video stream. 拼接点计数器表明了该拼接点之前的视频数据包的数目。 Splice point counter indicates the number before the splice point of video data packets. 拼接点标志表明了在该数据流中存在有拼接计数(splice count)。 Splice point flag indicates the presence in the data stream with a count splicing (splice count). 一旦解码器372确定了该拼接点,其将可以开始缓存下一视频信号,并继续对该信号进行解压缩,就好象在一个MPEG流上一样。 Once the decoder 372 determines the splice point, it will start the next video buffer, and continues to decompress the signal, just as if in a MPEG stream.

音频切换同视频流一样,优选地,在每次服务中存在有4个分别由唯一PID进行标识的AC-3音频流。 Like audio switching video streams, preferably four AC-3 audio streams are identified by a unique PID in the presence of each service. 上述PID号是在启用该种交互服务时,从诸如SI、PG和PM的MPEG-2传送表中获得的。 When the above-described PID number is enabled in this type of interactive service, obtained from the MPEG-2 transport table such as SI, PG, and PM's. 这些PID中的一部分被选作缺省的音频信道,并在得到某次服务的同时被选定。 Some of these PID is selected as the default audio channel, and is selected to obtain a particular service at the same time. 其余的3个信道是任选的,并且其应由控制程序根据控制消息和/或用户输入来选定。 The remaining three channels are optional, and it should be selected according to the control program control messages and / or user input. 尽管音频信道通常均根据相关的视频频道来进行切换,但其也可以独立地进行切换。 While audio channels are generally in accordance with the relevant video channel to switch, but it may be switched independently.

在本实施例中,如图8所示的4个音频流的数字帧表示形式(representation)392中所示,切换发生在各帧边界上。 In the present embodiment, four frames of digital audio stream representation shown in Figure 8 in FIG form (representation) 392, switching occurs at each frame boundary. 当从一个频道切换到另一个频道上时,可能会丢失掉一个图象帧(本例中,为帧5),而音频将从新频道的帧6来重新开始。 When switching from one channel to another channel, out of an image may be lost frame (in the present embodiment, the frame 5), and the frame 6 of the new channel audio will be restarted. 音频解码器380能够通过由如图5所示的解码器312插入音频拼接点来进行音频切换。 The audio decoder 380 can be switched by the audio decoder 312 shown in Figure 5 is inserted into the audio splice point. 优选地,解码器312将在当前音频帧的匹配字段的拼接倒计数时隙中插入合适的数值。 Preferably, the decoder 312 counts down the appropriate value in the splice insertion slots match field of the current audio frame.

当音频解码器380检测出此拼接点时,解码器380将会切换音频信道。 When the audio decoder 380 detects this splice point the decoder 380 will switch the audio channel. 尽管上述音频拼接并不是无缝的,但其对用户来说几乎是察觉不到的。 Although the above audio splice is not seamless, but the user is almost imperceptible.

数据命令因为数据命令在数值实施例中是对时间敏感的,所以其将从数据转发器通过命令数据PID(数据包标识)来进行发送。 Command command data because the data is time-sensitive embodiments the numerical embodiment, so the data from the transponder to transmit the command data PID (packet identification). 这些命令必须在编码器端与视频GOP进行同步。 These commands must be synchronized with the GOP in the video encoder side. 为了实现上述操作,如图5所示的数据代码计算机316必须将各个单独的命令作为整个数据包来进行发送。 To achieve the above operation, the data code computer 316 shown in Figure 5 must be the individual commands as a whole packet to be transmitted. 而每条命令可以仅由2个字节来构成。 And each command may be composed of only 2 bytes. 因此,其发生器必须用代码FF(16进制)来填充该数据包剩下的字节。 Therefore, it must use the code generator FF (16 hex) to fill the remaining bytes of the packet. 当此整个数据包被发送给编码器312时,编码器312将尽可能早地对其进行传送处理。 When this whole packet is sent to the encoder 312, the encoder 312 will be performed as early as its transfer process. 如果仅有部分的数据包被发送给编码器312,则编码器312将不会发送命令,直到接收完该数据包中所剩下的其余各条命令为止。 If only part of the data packet is sent to the encoder 312, the encoder 312 will not send the command until after receiving the data packet in the rest of the remaining commands far.

各条命令,如在(1)ACTV编码语言,教育型命令集1.1版,以及(2)ACTV编码语言,娱乐扩展命令集2.0版(其均已作为参考文献收入于本说明书中)所定义的,是通过将2字节到6字节的长命令串在一起而形成的。 Each command, as in (1) ACTV coding language, Educational Command Set Version 1.1, and (2) ACTV coding language, version 2.0 entertainment extended command set (which have been incorporated by reference in the present specification income) as defined , by the command length 6 bytes to 2 bytes together to form a string. 该命令数据将被输出给编码器的ISO接口,同时将填满数据包,以确保能够及时地完成命令代码的传送。 The command data is output to the encoder of the ISO interface, the packet will be filled simultaneously, to ensure timely completion of the transfer command code.

控制程序优选地被存储在RAM 352中。 The control program is preferably stored in the RAM 352. 处理器360接收来自控制程序的指令。 The processor receives an instruction from the control program 360. 另外,诸如用户回应的按键输入、个人档案信息以及控制消息被处理器360用来进行切换判定。 Further, a key input such as a user response, the personal profile information and the control message is used for the processor 360 to switch determination.

优选地,该控制程序以由所接收到的交互命令消息所决定的5种模式来运行。 Preferably, the control program in five modes by the received interactive command messages determined to run. 这5种模式分别是:·根据用户输入切换音频和/或视频·根据用户输入和所存储的数据切换音频·根据用户输入和所存储的数据切换音频和/或视频·根据控制消息切换音频和/或视频·根据控制消息和所存储的先前输入切换音频和/或视频该控制程序可以同时采用多种上述模式。 The five modes are: Switch Audio and / or video · The user input data and the stored switch audio and / or video Switch Audio based on the control message in accordance with user input data and the stored switch audio-user input and / * video or more of the above modes can be used simultaneously according to the control message and the previously stored audio input switching and / or control the video program.

上面的第一种模式,“切换音频和视频频道”,是最简单的运行模式。 The above first mode, "switch audio and video channel", is the simplest mode of operation. 该控制程序由微处理器360“下达”命令,以接受4种遥控器按键代码中的一种,并切换对应的音频/视频频道。 The microprocessor 360 controlled by the program "issued" command to receive one of four remote control key code, and switches the corresponding audio / video channel. 该程序在当前GOP末端上的视频帧边界上执行此种切换。 The program performs this switch on the video frame boundary at the end of the current GOP. 一旦显示了新频道,该程序具有利用来自数据转发器的,或者以本地方式存储的新文本和/或图象消息,来更新屏幕画面的能力。 Once the new channel is displayed, the program has the ability to use, or stored locally new text and / or image message from the headend to update the screen.

上面的第二种模式,“显示一个视频频道及切换音频频道”,将连续地显示一个单独的视频频道。 The above second mode, "display a video channel and switch audio channels", will be continuously displaying a single video channel. 当其接收到遥控器按键输入代码时,视频将继续播出,而音频频道将被切换。 When it receives the code to the remote controller key input, it will continue to broadcast the video, the audio channel to be switched. 如上所述,通过检查匹配字段中的拼接点计数值,其可以确定合适的音频帧边界。 As described above, by checking for a match splice point counter value in the field, which can determine the appropriate audio frame boundary. 由用户所作出的选择被存储在RAM寄存器中。 Made by the user is selected is stored in the RAM registers. 每当用户作出选择时,该程序将再次检查上述按键代码和先前所存储的选择,以确定下一音频频道。 Whenever a user make a selection, the program selection and checking of the above key code previously stored again, to determine the next audio channel.

如上所述的第三种模式,“根据用户输入和先前的选择切换音频/视频频道”,将显示一个初始的音频/视频频道。 The third mode as described above, "switch audio / video channels based on user input and the previous selection", displays an initial audio / video channel. 当命令消息流发出命令时,在屏幕画面上将显示其文本信息。 When the command issues a command message stream, text information which is displayed on the screen in the screen. 该程序随即等待用户的输入。 The program then waits for the user's input. 当其接收到用户输入时,其将与先前的用户选择一起被存储在RAM寄存器中。 When it receives a user input, which user selection along with the previously stored in the RAM registers. 利用该程序对该寄存器进行检查,并随后根据所存储的逻辑来确定所要显示的下一音频/视频频道。 The check register, and then determines to be displayed next audio / video channel in accordance with the stored program logic using this.

在上面的第四种模式是“根据控制消息切换音频/视频频道”,其也将显示一个初始音频/视频频道。 In the above fourth mode is the "switch audio / video channels based on control messages", which also shows an initial audio / video channel. 上述程序随后等待来自控制消息流的控制输入。 The program then waits for the above-described control input from the control message stream. 根据此输入,该程序在当前GOP末端的视频帧边界上切换各个频道。 According to this input, the program switches in the respective channels on a video frame boundary of the end of the current GOP.

上面的第五种模式,“根据控制消息和先前的选择进行切换”,将显示一个初始音频/视频频道。 The above fifth mode "is switched according to the control message and the previous selection", displays an initial audio / video channel. 上述程序随后等待来自控制消息流的控制输入。 The program then waits for the above-described control input from the control message stream. 当控制消息输入被接收到时,其将与先前的用户选择和控制消息一起被存储到RAM寄存器中。 When the control message input is received, which is stored in the RAM register along with previous user selection and control messages. 随后上述程序将对此寄存器进行检查,以确定所要显示的下一音频/视频频道。 Then the above procedure will check this register to determine the next audio / video channel to be displayed.

数字视频系统及其应用接下来将对如图1-8中所示的数字实施例,以及如下参照图16和17所说明的双调谐器实施例的几种应用进行说明。 Its digital video system shown in figures 1-8 the application will be described using some embodiments of the embodiment, and a dual tuner as 16 and 17 will be described in the following embodiment shown in FIG.

TV广播电台切换在此实施例412中,从一个信号到另一个信号的无缝切换在TV广播控制中心来完成,并被转发到如图9所示的用户数字接收装置。 In the TV broadcasting station is switched in Example 412, the seamless switch from one signal to another signal is accomplished in a TV broadcast control center and forwarded to the user of the digital receiving device shown in FIG. 9. 在数据转发器396,其将根据如上所述的任何一种方法将多个数字节目组合在一起。 In the headend 396, which in accordance with any of the methods described above combines a plurality of digital programs.

一旦接收到由广播电台所播出的节目,则各信号将被馈送到一个数字数据流选择器400中。 Upon receiving the broadcast by the broadcast station program, the respective signal is fed to a digital data stream selector 400. 此选择器由如上述在任一种用于进行无缝切换的另选实施例(图1-4,7,15-17)中所说明过的元件构成,只是此单元的位置并不在远程站点上。 Example (FIG 1-4,7,15-17) as described in the alternative configuration of this element by a selector as described above in any embodiment for seamless switching, not only the position of the unit at the remote site . 无论数字流选择器400是在中心位于某个频率的一个频道上的一个数据流中的多个复用信号之间,还是在不同数据流中的信号之间,或是从某个接收信号到所插播广告的范围内进行选择的,在如图9所示的实施例中上述切换均是无缝的。 Whether the digital stream selector 400 is multiplexed signals between a plurality of data streams on a channel of a certain frequency, or signals at different data streams is located between the central, or to receive a signal from a selecting commercials within the range, the above-described embodiment embodiments are seamless handover as shown in FIG. 9. 如上所述,上述选择是作为电台特权,远程用户选择和/或个人档案信息(通过回送信道所传送的),或特定收视群广告的函数来进行的。 As described above, select the radio as a privilege, a remote user to select and / or personal profile information, or function-specific ratings group advertising (transmitted through the loopback channel) carried out.

一旦其作出了选择,则其将可以通过任意类型的常规装置404,将节目信号传送给远程站点408,以进行播放。 Once the selection is made thereof, it will be by any type of conventional apparatus 404, the program transmits a signal to a remote site 408, for playback.

不相关节目切换图10所示为用于在不相关节目之间进行切换的一种实施例430。 Related program switching is not performed as shown in FIG. 10 A handover for Example 430 between unrelated programs. 换句话说,其只是简单地从一个TV频道切换到下一个TV频道。 In other words, it is simply switching from one TV channel to the next TV channel. 目前,在数字环境中,其还不能实现在不出现闪烁的情况下,从一个信号到另一个信号的切换。 At present, in the digital environment, which can not be achieved in a case where flicker does not occur, the switching from one signal to another signal.

在本发明中,一个观众可以从一个节目切换到另一个节目,无论其是否相关,其之间的过渡均是无缝的。 In the present invention, a viewer may switch from one program to another program, whether related to the transition between which are seamless. 换句话说,在从一个节目切换到另一个节目的过程中,将不会出现可见的非自然信号。 In other words, the process of switching from one program to another, the artifacts will not be visible signal appears.

如果各个节目均经过压缩处理并被复用到一个MPEG流中,则本文中所公开的任一种实施例均能够进行无缝切换。 If the individual processing programs are compressed and multiplexed into one MPEG stream, any of the herein disclosed one embodiment are able to switch seamlessly. 如果各节目是在单独的NTSC频道上,则其将必须使用各种数字“双调谐器”实施例(图4,16和17)中的一种,以允许进行频率偏移。 If each program is on a separate NTSC channels, it will have to use one kind of various digital embodiment (FIGS. 4, 16 and 17) in the "dual tuner" embodiments, to allow for the frequency offset.

图10所示为用于不相关节目切换的系统430的高层(high-level)元件的示意图。 10 is not related to a program switching system 430 of the high-level (high-level) as shown in schematic elements. 优选地,上述不相关节目均经过了压缩处理,并在视频编码器上利用MPEG流将其复用到一个使用一个NTSC频道的数据流中。 Preferably, the related program does not undergo a compression process, and an MPEG video encoder stream multiplexed into a data stream using an NTSC channel. 不相关节目可以被组合到一个MPEG流中,或也可以被送到不同的NTSC频道上。 Unrelated programs may be combined into an MPEG stream, or may be sent to a different NTSC channels. 例如,上述节目可以由体育、新闻、连续剧或儿童节目组成。 For example, the above program may consist of sports, news, drama or children's programs. 这些节目由调制器/上变频器420进行调制,并通过如上所述的任一种合适的传送装置进行传送。 These programs by a modulator / upconverter 420 is modulated, and transmitted by any suitable conveying device as described above.

最终用户可以在数字监视器/调谐器、个人电脑上,或通过与模拟电视机相连的外部转换器428(当在该转换器上可进行无缝切换时),收看上述数字节目。 External converter may be connected to the end user in a digital monitor / tuner, a personal computer, or by an analog television set 428 (when the switching converter can be seamlessly), the digital watch programs. 上述装置的任一种均可以让用户根据其自己的喜好,而在各个频道上进行“冲浪”。 Are any of the above apparatus allows the user based on their own preferences, and for "surfing" on the respective channels. 另外,接收单元也可以选用图1-4,7,15-17中所示的任一种另选实施例。 Further, the receiving unit may also use any 1-4,7,15-17 shown in FIG An alternative embodiment.

多比赛项目节目内的无缝切换在此应用中,如图11所示,提供了系统450,以使用户能够在单独一个节目内的各个独立比赛项目之间进行切换。 Seamless events within a multi-program switching in this application, as shown in FIG. 11, a system 450 to enable a user to switch between separate events within a respective independent programs. 例如,在进行奥运会比赛转播时,可能会包括对应于例如滑雪、速滑、花样滑冰、跳台滑雪等多种不同比赛项目的多种节目。 For example, during the broadcast of the Olympic Games, it may include, for example, correspond skiing, speed skating, figure skating, ski jumping and other events of a variety of different programs. 优选地,其将在视频编码器基座(chassis)434上,对这些独立的比赛项目节目进行压缩,并将其复用到一个MPEG数字流中,随后再经过调制器/上变频器438,并通过传送装置442,作为单独的NTSC信号来进行传送。 Preferably, the upper 434 which, independent of those events in the program video encoder base (The chassis) compressed and multiplexed into one MPEG digital stream, and subsequently through the modulator / upconverter 438, by transfer means 442, as a single NTSC signal for transmission.

然而,在广播中心也可以将这些比赛项目节目分别编码到彼此独立的NTSC频道上。 However, in the broadcast center may show these events are encoded into the NTSC channel independent of each other.

在调制及接下来的传送处理之后,多个远程站点446上将接收到这些节目。 After modulation and subsequent transmission process, a plurality of remote sites 446 on receipt of these programs. 这些远程站点446均包括,一个包含有数字监视器/调谐器,个人电脑,或者是与监视器相连的外部数字转换器的接收单元。 The remote site 446 comprises, with a digital monitor / tuner, a personal computer receiving unit, or the external monitor connected to the digital converter. 而用户则可以通过其遥控装置,在不同的比赛项目节目之间进行选择。 And users may select between the different programming events via its remote control. 当用户想要切换到另一个比赛项目节目上时,切换处理将根据如上所述的任一种方法和系统(图1-4,7,15-17),无缝地进行。 When the user wants to switch to another program events, the handover process (FIG 1-4,7,15-17), seamlessly and system according to any of the methods described above.

无缝画中画节目切换图12公开了一种用于利用“画中画”在优选地不相关节目之间进行切换的实施例470。 Seamless handover PIP 12 470 discloses an embodiment of a method for using a "picture in picture" is not related to switching between the preferred program. 无论该用户是否正在以小帧显示的节目与以大帧显示的节目之间进行切换,利用本发明所提供的技术,所有的此类切换将均是无缝的。 The program regardless of whether a user is displayed in a small frame to be large between a program display frame is switched, the present invention provides the use of technology, and all such switches are seamless will.

在本发明中,观众可以在所显示的两个窗口的任一个中,从一个节目切换到另一个节目。 In the present invention, the viewer may be either of the two displayed windows, the switching from one program to another. 换句话说,在从一个节目切换到另一个节目的过程中,将不会出现可见的非自然信号。 In other words, the process of switching from one program to another, the artifacts will not be visible signal appears.

在图12中所显示的是用于画中画节目切换470的系统的高层次元件。 Shown in FIG. 12 is a high-level switching element for the PIP system 470. 优选地,在视频编码器基座454上,将4到7个节目压缩并复用到一个MPEG流中,再到一个NTSC频道上的一个数据流中。 Preferably, the video encoder on the base 454, the compression program 4-7 and multiplexed into an MPEG stream, a data stream and then to an NTSC channel. 在视频编码器基座454上,其它的节目也可以被组合成其它的MPEG数据流。 Base on the video encoder 454, other programs may also be combined into other MPEG stream. 例如,上述节目可以包括体育,新闻,连续剧或儿童节目。 For example, the above program may include sports, news, drama or children's programs. 其中,可以以如上所述的方式,对这些节目进行调制,并通过任何合适的传送装置来进行传送。 Which may be the manner described above, these programs are modulated and to be transmitted by any suitable conveying means.

最终用户可以在数字监视器/调谐器、个人电脑上,或通过与模拟电视机相连的外部转换器428(当在该转换器上可进行无缝切换时),收看上述数字节目。 External converter may be connected to the end user in a digital monitor / tuner, a personal computer, or by an analog television set 428 (when the switching converter can be seamlessly), the digital watch programs. 该实施例以及图12所示的流程,将允许用户调用画中画功能,并无缝地在单独一个MPEG流内的各不同节目之间进行切换。 Embodiment shown in FIG. 12 and process this embodiment, PIP function will allow the user to call, and a single switch between different programs within an MPEG stream seamlessly. 如果想要从一个MPEG复用流切换到另一个上,上述转换器,PC或数字监视器/调谐器466将需要采用多个调谐器/解码器,图4,16和17中给出了其几种实例。 If you want to switch from one MPEG multiplexed stream to another, said converter, PC or digital monitor / tuner 466 will need to adopt a plurality of tuner / decoder, in FIG. 4, 16 and 17 gives its several instances.

多个商业/购物节目内的切换本发明的另一个应用涉及如图13所示的,基于具有返回路径的系统的交易。 Another application of the present invention is switched in a plurality of business / shopping program shown in FIG. 13 relates to systems based on transactions with a return path. 与如上所述的其它实施例相同,视频编码器474对多个不同的节目进行压缩,并将其复用到一个或多个NTSC频道上,以将其传送给多个远程站点。 As with other embodiments described above, the video encoder 474 for a plurality of different programs compressed and multiplexed onto one or more NTSC channels to be transmitted to a plurality of remote sites.

优选地,多个不同类型的购物节目被压缩及复用到单独一个NTSC频道上。 Preferably, a plurality of different types of shopping programs are compressed and multiplexed onto a single NTSC channel. 例如,可以有分别针对服装、首饰、家用器皿等等的节目。 For example, there may be separately program for clothing, jewelry, housewares and so on. 如果所需要的节目多于单独一个NTSC频道上所允许的节目数,则本发明也可以使用多于一个的NTSC频道。 If the required number of the program than a program on a single NTSC channel is allowed, the present invention may use more than one NTSC channel.

这些节目通过合适的传送装置482,被传送给如图13所示最终用户的接收单元486。 These programs by suitable transfer means 482, transmitted to the end user as shown in FIG. 13 the receiving unit 486. 在接收单元486上,用户可以无缝地在不同产品种类的节目之间进行切换。 On the receiving unit 486, the user may seamlessly switch between different product categories of programs. 另选地,接收单元486也可以根据个人档案或人口统计信息切换到某个产品节目上。 Alternatively, the receiving unit 486 may switch to a program product based on personal profile or demographic information. 以此方式,只有那些最接近匹配或适合于特定个人的兴趣和需求的产品,将被展示给该用户。 In this way, only those closest to matching the product or suitable for a particular individual interests and needs, will be presented to the user. 这些数据可以被存储在接收单元486或数据转发器中。 These data may be stored in the receiving unit 486 or the headend.

如果用户决定其想购买某种产品或接收关于某产品的额外信息,则其可以采用诸如图10所示的回送信道490,来将此类请求传送回中心位置。 If the user decides it wants to buy a product or to receive additional information about a product, it may be employed as shown in FIG. 10 the loopback channel 490, such a request will be sent back to the central position.

数字节目插播—可寻址广告播放(addressable advertising)图14所示为一种用于提供数字节目插播的实施例526。 Digital program insertion - addressable advertising player (addressable advertising) embodiment embodiment shown in Figure 14 provides a digital stream for a program 526. 在播出节目过程中的某些预定时间,通过其将向观众播放某些广告。 In the process some predetermined time broadcast of the program, which will be played by some advertising audience. 在本优选实施例中,将根据个人档案信息或人口统计信息,针对特定的观众播放“个性化”(individualized)的广告。 In the present preferred embodiment, the personal profile information or demographic information, advertising "personalized" (Individualized) for a particular audience playback. 接下来将对此类针对特定收视群广告形式进行说明。 Next will be described such forms of advertising for a specific audience groups.

在中央位置,多条广告被插入到节目播出流中。 At a central location, a plurality of advertisements is inserted into the broadcast stream. 优选地,该中央位置所采用的是一种用于将广告插入到节目中去的混合数字插入系统。 Preferably, the central location uses a hybrid digital advertisements into the program for insertion to the system. 如本文中作为参考文献所收入的“CableLab有线广告白皮书”中所述,混合数字系统利用计算机,磁盘驱动器和解码卡代替了模拟系统的磁带机(tape deck)。 The "Cable Advertising White Paper CableLab" in the income as references, the use of hybrid digital computer systems, disk drives and decoder cards instead of the analog drive system (tape deck) herein. 广告内容506可以源自于多种可能的数据源中的任一种,其中包括(但并不仅限于此):服务器,磁带机,卫星信号馈送器。 Advertising content 506 may originate from any of a variety of possible data sources, including (but not limited to): the server, the tape drive, the satellite signal feeder. 至于存储方面,优选地将通过离线处理,并利用MPEG1,MPEG1.5,MPEG2,或其它合适的方法,来对各光点(spot)进行数字化编码和压缩处理。 For storage, preferably the off-line process, using MPEG1, MPEG1.5, MPEG2, or other suitable methods, to digitize and compression coding processing for each spot (spot). 从编码器到服务器再到重放系统的分送,可以通过网络或磁盘或磁带来完成。 From the encoder to the server and then dispensing the playback system, or a network can be accomplished by disk or tape.

在进行完编码之后,光点将被分送给服务器,以进行存储,直到需要进行重放时。 After performing encoding finished, the spot will be distributed to the server, for storage until it is needed for reproduction. 优选地,光点可以直接从服务器播放到解码卡上,以将其转换回模拟信号。 Preferably, the light spot can be played directly from the server to a decoder card, to be converted back to analog signals. 该光点被转换成模拟信号,随后将通过插入转换开关以常规的方式来进行发送。 The spot is converted into an analog signal, then transmitted to the switch by inserting a conventional manner. 在以如上参照图5所述的方法对各镜头进行完数字编码和压缩之后,其输出视频和音频将被转发给图5中的中央站配置中所示的音频和视频编码器。 Following the method described above with reference to FIG 5 has been completely encoded and compressed for each digital camera that outputs video and audio to be configured to forward the audio and video encoder shown in the central station to FIG. 5.

尽管其效率不如数字广告插播方法,但利用常规的采用模拟或基于磁带的系统的广告插播系统,也可以实现将广告插入到节目中的实际切换。 Although the figures thereof as efficient as ad insertion method, but using a conventional system using analog or tape based advertisement insertion system, can be achieved advertisements into the program of the actual switching.

将广告插入到节目流中以及广告的播放,均是利用信令和可寻址性命令插入装置498来控制的。 Advertisements into the program stream and playing the advertisement, the insertion device 498 are controlled by signaling and addressability command. 通过为某些观众“寻址”某些其会感兴趣的广告,便可以实现个性化广告宣传。 By some viewers as "addressing" some of its ads will be interested in, you can personalize advertising. 例如,某个汽车公司可能会想要使其商品广告“个性化”,以最好地满足观众的不同需求和意愿。 For example, a car company may want to make it commercial advertising "personalized" to best suit the needs and wishes of the audience. 如果其知道某个特定用户是男性并且喜爱户外活动,则节目制作人便可能想要为其播放对应于该汽车公司的体育专用车,而并不播放其小型商用车的广告。 If it know that a particular user is male and favorite outdoor activities, the show's producers will probably want to play for their corresponding to the car company's dedicated sports car, but does not play its small commercial vehicles advertising. 根据存储在远程最终用户单元上的、或通过该节目提供商的数据转发器中的机顶盒控制器寻址到该最终用户的数据流中的数据,可以将这些对应于其爱好的广告“推送”给最终用户。 The memory on the remote end user unit or to the end user data in the data stream by a set-top box controller addressing the program provider in the headend, may be interested in the advertisement corresponding to its "push" to the end user.

优选地,其将根据参照图5所述的方式,来对多种广告功能选项进行编码。 Preferably, according to which the embodiment described with reference to FIG 5, encodes the multiple ad options. 因为在编码器510上已对广告镜头视频进行了强制同步和时间同步,因此从主节目到各广告之一的切换,对于观众来说将是无缝的。 Because the advertisement has been shot in the video encoder 510 and time synchronization force, thus switching from the main program to one of each ad, for the audience will be seamless. 在服务器中从一组信号到另一组信号的无缝切换接下来将根据本发明的另一种实施例,对直播和已提供的视频内容之间的切换处理进行说明。 In the server seamlessly switch from one set to another set of signals will next signal to another embodiment of the present invention, a switching process between the live video and the content provided will be described. 与从单独一个数字信号到另一个单独数字信号的切换相反,此实施例允许从一组信号到另一组信号的无缝切换。 Switching from a single digital signal to another single digital signal contrast, this embodiment allows for seamless switching from a group of signals to another group of signals. 这就要求上述切换过渡是以能够使其输出位流在MPEG语法上连续和正确的方式来进行的。 This requires that the switching is possible to make a transition in the output bit stream and the MPEG syntax continuously carried out in the right way. 正确的切换将确保任何类型的标准MPEG解码器均能够象播放其中没有错误的数据流一样,来播放所得到的位流。 Correct switching ensures that any standard MPEG type decoder is capable of playback as a data stream in which no error as to play bitstream obtained.

图15所示即为用于进行此种切换的优选实施例530。 Figure 15 is the preferred for performing such a handover Example 530. 图15所示的各元件位于一个有线数据转发器上,或另选地,位于一个用于卫星分送网络的集中式op中心上。 The elements shown in FIG. 15 is located on a cable headend, or alternatively, located on a centralized op center for a satellite distribution network. 为了便于进行说明,将直播信号组标注为A组信号,而B组信号则被假设为所存储的预先录制的信号(优选地被存储在服务器550上)。 For ease of explanation, the broadcast signal group labeled as Group A signals, and Group B signals were assumed to be the signal (preferably stored on server 550) stored in pre-recorded. 例如,A组信号可以包括多个代表了某个体育比赛项目中各个不同摄像机角度的视频信号。 For example, A may include a set of signals representative of a plurality of sports events in the different camera angles of video signals. 而B组信号则可以表示一系列的商品广告。 Group B signals may represent a series of commercials. 然而,其所应理解的是,A组信号和B组信号均可以表示预先录制的或直播的信号。 However, it should be understood that, A and Group B signals may represent a set of signals are signals pre-recorded or live.

在此实施例中,其想要从A组信号切换到B组信号上。 In this embodiment, it wants to switch from the Group A signals to the Group B signals. 而A组信号是在服务器550上从位于本地或远程站点上的实时编码器546接收来的。 And A is a group of signals at the server 550 from a local or on a real-time encoder 546 receives the remote site. 同时,其将在特定频道上的A组内容流中插入专用的MPEG数字数据包。 Meanwhile, the Group A content stream on a particular channel inserting specific MPEG digital data packets. 而命令和控制终端534则将在进行模拟-数字转换之前,提供上述视频信号的模拟单音(tone)。 And the command and control terminal 534 will be performing the analog - digital conversion before providing analog tones (Tone) of the video signal. 一旦这些信号从命令和控制终端534到达实时编码器546那里,则实时编码器546将在检测到模拟单音的同时,在A组信号数字数据流中的合适位置点上插入一个数字单音。 Once the signals reach the real time encoder from the command and control terminal 534 546 where the real time encoder 546 detects analog tone while inserting a digital tone at the appropriate position of the point A set of signals in a digital data stream. 在插入了上述单音之后,其将从实时编码器546输出该A组数字流,并将其转发给数据转发器上的服务器550。 After insertion of the above tones, from the real time encoder 546 which outputs the Group A digital stream and forwards it to the server 550 on the headend. 服务器550一接收到A组数据流,便将其转发给服务器550中的MPEG传送开关装置。 A server 550 receives a set of data flows, put forwards it to an MPEG transport switch device in the server 550. 控制终端538将向该MPEG传送服务器开关装置发送一条命令,以使该开关开始寻找先前所插入的数字单音。 The control terminal 538 will be an MPEG transport server switch device transmits a command to make the switch started looking for a previously inserted digital tone.

为了重放B组内容,该服务器开关装置必须从A组数字数据流中解码出定时信息,并在随后,利用来自A组信号的合适定时信号,来对B组内容重新进行标记。 To play back the Group B content, the server switch device must decode a digital data stream from group A in the timing information, and then, using the appropriate timing signal from the signal group A to group B to re-mark the contents. 优选地,其是通过对PCR视频流(优选地,其为嵌入有上述数字单音的同一数据流)进行强制同步、以及从该视频流中剥离出节目时钟参考(PCR、由此创建出原始A组内容的编码时钟,来实现的。 Preferably, it is a genlock video stream by PCR (preferably, which is embedded in the same data stream has the digital tone) carried out, and the release program clock reference (PCR from the video stream, thereby creating the original a set of content encoding clock to achieve.

一旦检测到该数字单音,服务器开关装置便启动到由B组预先录制信号组成的B组数字数据流的转换。 Once the digital tone, the server switch device detects from the group B will start to record digital signals previously converted Group B consisting of a data stream. 优选地,该服务器开关装置具有关于B组内容长度的在先知识,因此,当该服务器开关装置检测出B组内容的末尾时,其将切换回A组内容。 Preferably, the server switch device has prior knowledge of the length of the Group B content, therefore, when the server switch device detects the end of the Group B content, it switches back to the Group A content. 从服务器到发射机的所得数字数据流输出,同时包含有A组和B组内容。 The resulting digital data stream output from the server to the transmitter, contain both Group A and Group B content. 而如上所述,发射机554将把数字数据流转发给远程接收站点,以进行播出。 And as mentioned above, the transmitter 554 will be receiving digital data stream to the remote site to be broadcast.

以此方式,在播放由多个直播数字视频信号所表示的体育比赛(即A组内容)的过程中的某些时段,例如,根据例如服务器开关的动作,在接收转换器单元上所接收到的视频流,将自动地过渡到B组预先存储的内容。 In this manner, at certain times during playing sports (i.e., the Group A content) by a plurality of live digital video signal represented, for example, in accordance with an operation switch such as a server, on receiving converter unit received video stream, will automatically transition to the group B content stored in advance. 如上所述,接收站点上的解码器随后将选出B组内容中的一条广告。 As described above, the decoder on the receiving station will then select an ad group B content. 在这些广告的末尾,该解码器将如上所述,自动地重新开始接收A组内容,并选出一个直播信号。 At the end of the advertisements, the decoder described above, automatically begins receiving the Group A content again and selects one broadcast signal. 以此方式,其可以实现从直播编码视频内容到预先录制内容的无缝切换。 In this manner, it may be pre-recorded seamlessly switch from live encoded video content to content.

用于无缝切换的双调谐器实施例数字数据流到数字数据流的无缝切换图16A和16B所示为,用于提供从位于一个频道(以下简称为“频道A”)内的数字信号,到位于另一频道(以下简称为“频道B”)的无缝切换的双调谐器实施例558。 FIG Example seamless switching digital data dual tuner embodiment for seamless switching stream to a digital data stream 16A and 16B is, located from the digital signal for providing a channel (hereinafter referred to as "channel A") in , located to another channel (hereinafter "channel B") of the dual tuner embodiment 558 of the seamless switching.

如图16A和16B所示,此实施例包含有两个调谐器560A,560B(用于调谐独立的频道),微处理器564(用于选择频道以及嵌于其中的数字信号),数字解调器568A,568B(用于解调来自载波的信号),数字信号分离器/解码器572(用于从合成数字数据流中剥离出所选的音频、视频和所选内容的数据)和显示处理器576(用于对所要显示的视频信号进行格式化)。 16A and 16B, this embodiment comprises two tuners 560A, 560B (independent channels for tuning), the microprocessor 564 (for selecting a channel and digital signals embedded therein), digital demodulation devices 568A, 568B (for the demodulated signal from the carrier), (data for peeling the selected audio streams from the composite digital data, and the selected video content) digital demultiplexer / decoder 572 and the display processing 576 (for the video signal format to be displayed).

此实施例将通过如下步骤,从频道A中的一个数字数据流切换到B频道中的另一个数字数据流。 This embodiment will by step, a digital data stream from the channel A is switched to another digital data stream B channel. 第一调谐器560A被调谐到频道A上并接收一个合成数字数据流(优选地由相关频道中的多个数字视频、音频和/或数据信号组成)。 The first tuner 560A is tuned to Channel A and receives a composite digital data stream (preferably a plurality of digital video channels related to audio and / or the data signals). 该合成数字数据流从第一调谐器560A被送到数字解调器568A,以进行解调。 The resultant digital data stream from the first tuner 560A is supplied to the digital demodulators 568A, for demodulation. 而解调的类型可以是如上所述的常见常规类型的任一种。 And demodulation may be any type of a common conventional type described above.

该合成数字数据流随后被送往数字信号分离器/解码器572,其中先在信号分离器573中从合成数字数据流中剥离出所选的音频和视频信号,而随后分别将其转发给音频和视频解码器575和574。 The resultant digital data stream is then sent to a digital demultiplexer / decoder 572, wherein the first release from the composite digital data stream out of the selected audio and video signals in a demultiplexer 573, respectively, and then forward it to the audio and a video decoder 575 and 574. 随后,将根据其信号编码方案(优选地是一种MPEG方案)对这些信号进行解压缩和解码。 Subsequently, the (preferably a MPEG scheme) decompressing and decoding the signals according to their signal coding schemes. 一旦解码完毕,上述音频和视频(和/或数据,如果需要)将被转发给显示处理器576,随后再由其发送给监视器。 Once decoded, the above audio and video (and / or data, if required) will be forwarded to the display processor 576, followed by transmission to the monitor.

一旦作出决定要切换到频道B上的另一个数字信号上去,则微处理器564将向第二调谐器560B发送一条命令,以预先调谐到频道B的频率上。 Once a decision to switch to another digital signal on channel B up, the microprocessor 564 of the second tuner 560B would send a command to pre-tunes to the frequency of the B channel. 频道B中的合成数字数据流经过解调器568B处理后,被转发给数字信号分离器/解码器572。 Synthesis of digital data stream in channel B after processing the demodulator 568B, the digital signal is forwarded to the splitter / decoder 572. 此时,数字信号分离器572将同时接收位于频道A和频道B上的数字数据流。 At this time, the digital demultiplexer 572 located in the digital data stream simultaneously receive on channel A and channel B. 因此,如果频道A和频道B均载送有4种数字信号时,信号分离器572将会接收到8个数字信号。 Thus, if both Channel A and Channel B carried four kinds of digital signals, the demultiplexer 572 will receive eight digital signals. 随后,该数字信号分离器572将接收到来自微处理器564的一条指明要从来自频道B的合成数字数据流中剥离出哪些数字信号的命令。 Then, the digital demultiplexer 572 receives a release from the microprocessor 564 indicates a command from the digital signal which the digital data stream from the channel synthesis of B. 由此数字信号分离器/解码器572分别地从来自频道A和B的合成数字数据流中剥离出所选中的视频和音频(和/或数据)。 Whereby a digital demultiplexer / decoder 572, respectively, peeled off from the resultant digital data stream from the channel A and B out of the selected video and audio (and / or data). 而后,所选出的这些信号被转发给视频和音频解码器574和575。 Then, the selected signals are forwarded to the video and audio decoders 574 and 575. 而视频解码器574则将以如上参照图6和7所述的方法,从当前所显示的视频信号切换到新选中的视频信号上。 And then the video decoder 574 according to the method described above with reference to FIGS. 6 and 7, the switching from the video signal currently displayed on the newly selected video signal. 因此,解码器574识别当前数据流中的拼接点。 Thus, the splice point the decoder 574 identify the current data stream. 一旦解码器574检测到拼接点,其将确定切换到第二数据流的适宜时间。 Once the decoder 574 detects the splice point, it will determine an appropriate time to switch to the second data stream. 随后,解码器574将开始将第二数据流装入缓冲器中,并利用第一数据流中的时间间隙来实现无缝切换。 Subsequently, the decoder 574 starts the second data stream loaded into the buffer, and using a first time slot in the data stream to achieve seamless handover. 一旦解码器输出了第二数据流,其便被转发给显示处理器576,在此将为了进行显示而对该视频信号进行相应的格式化。 Once the decoder outputs the second data stream, which is then forwarded to the display processor 576, where the display is performed for the corresponding format the video signal.

音频解码器575用于,以如上参照图11所述的方式,进行从当前音频流到第二音频流的切换。 The audio decoder 575 is used, in the manner described above with reference to FIG. 11, the audio stream to the second audio stream is switched from the current. 一旦完成了上述切换,则第二音频流将被转发给显示处理器576。 Once the switching is completed, the second audio stream is forwarded to the display processor 576.

从模拟信号到数字信号,或从数字信号到模拟信号的切换图17所示为双调谐器实施例590,用于从位于第一RF频道上的模拟信号,到第二RF频道中以数字方式进行压缩的信号的切换或其反向切换。 From an analog signal to a digital signal, or a signal from a digital signal to an analog switch 17 shown in FIG embodiment is a dual tuner 590, an analog signal from the first RF channel is located, the second RF channel in a digital manner signal compressing reverse handover or handover. 在此实施例中,观众正在收看某个特定频率上的特定频道(无论其是模拟还是数字信号),而后其决定切换到另一RF频率的另一个频道上(无论其是模拟还是数字信号)。 In this embodiment, the viewer is watching a particular channel (whether analog or digital signal) on a particular frequency, then it determines handover to another RF channel on another frequency (whether analog or digital signal) . 其中使用了两个调谐器560A,560B,来进行从一个RF频率到另一个不同RF频率的转换。 Wherein the two tuners 560A, 560B, performs frequency conversion from an RF to a different RF frequency.

举例假设该观众当前正在收看某个具有模拟信号的频道(频道A),而现在决定要切换到另一不同频道(频道B)中的以数字方式压缩的信号上,则本实施例将以如下方式进行操作。 For example assume that the viewer is currently watching a channel (Channel A) with an analog signal, but now decided to switch to a digitally compressed signal in a different channel (channel B) is, the present embodiment will be as follows operating mode. 对于模拟信号,其中的一个调谐器560A调谐到与频道A相关的RF频率上。 For analog signals, wherein the one of the tuners 560A tunes to the RF frequency associated with Channel A. 因此该频道传送的是模拟信号,所以调谐器560A将把该信号送往模拟解调器569A和VBI解码器570A。 Thus the transmission channel is an analog signal, the tuner 560A will be the signal to the analog demodulator 569A and VBI decoder 570A. 模拟解调器569A可以利用本技术领域中的任何常见的常规模拟解调方案,来对该模拟信号进行解调。 Analog demodulator 569A may utilize any common conventional analog demodulation scheme in the art, to demodulate the analog signal. 而VBI解码器570A则将剥离出嵌在垂直消隐间隔(VBI)中的任何信息(例如,交互命令,结束字幕(close captioning))。 And VBI decoder 570A will release any information embedded in the vertical blanking interval (VBI) (e.g., interactive commands, terminates the caption (close captioning)). 解调后的模拟信号随后被转发给模拟显示处理器580,由其对该模拟信号进行格式化,随后将其输出给VBI开关588,再由其传送给显示装置。 The demodulated analog signal is then forwarded to the analog display processor 580, format by the analog signal and then outputs it to the VBI switch 588, and then transmitted therefrom to the display device.

当其决定要切换到包含有复用和压缩数字信号的频道上时,微处理器564将确定此频道的RF频率,并将其信息通过一条命令转发给第二调谐器560B。 When it decided to switch to and multiplexed with the compressed digital channel signal, the microprocessor 564 determines the RF frequency of this channel and forwards the information by which a command to the second tuner 560B. 第二调谐器560B一接收到此命令,其便预先调谐到所指明的第二RF频率(频道B)上。 A second tuner 560B receives this command, it will advance to a second tuned RF frequency (Channel B) specified. 频道B的输出随后被转发到数字解调器568B的输入上,由其利用本技术领域中任何常见的数字解调方案来进行解调处理。 The output of channel B is then forwarded to the input of the digital demodulator 568B, by using any of a digital demodulation scheme common in the art to perform the demodulation process. 而后解调器568B输出该数字数据流,并由数字信号分离器/解码器572来接收。 Then the output of demodulator 568B of the digital data stream by a digital demultiplexer / decoder 572 to receive. 微处理器564向该信号分离572发送一条指明了所选数字信号的命令。 The microprocessor 564 to the signal separator 572 transmits a command indicating the selected digital signal. 数字信号分离器/解码器572对多个数字信号进行信号分离,并对其进行解压缩。 A digital demultiplexer / decoder 572 a plurality of digital signals for signal separation, and subjected to decompression. 随后将以如上参照图16所说明的方式,将处理所得的所选分信号(音频,视频和数据)转发给合适的解码器574,575(见图16B),由此视频解码器574将开始对该视频信息进行解码,并向微处理器564发送一个信号,以信号的方式通知该数据流已被正确地解码,同时音频与图像正保持声像同步。 16 embodiment will subsequently be described with reference to FIG above, the process of the selected sub resulting signals (audio, video, and data) forwarded to the appropriate decoders 574, 575 (see FIG. 16B), whereby the video decoder 574 will start decode the video information, and sends a signal to the microprocessor 564, so as to inform the data signal stream has been correctly decoded, while the audio and image being held audio and video synchronization.

上述视频和音频随后被转发给数字显示处理器584,其中将把各信号从数字形式转换为模拟形式。 It said video and audio is then forwarded to the digital display processor 584, each of which will be converted from digital signal to analog form. 所得到的与频道B相对应的模拟信号随后被输入到VBI开关588中。 The B channel corresponding to the analog signal is then inputted to the resulting VBI switch 588. 一旦微处理器564发命令要在两个视频之间进行切换时,则VBI开关588将在垂直消隐间隔的合适时段内进行切换,从而实现从模拟频道到数字频道的切换。 Once the microprocessor 564 to send commands to switch between the two videos, the VBI switch 588 to switch the appropriate blanking interval in the vertical period to switching from an analog channel to a digital channel.

如果其想要从数字频道切换到模拟频道,则只需简单地将上述处理反过来执行,同时第二调谐器560B预先调谐到模拟频道上即可。 If it wants to switch from a digital channel to an analog channel, it is simply the above-described processing performed in reverse, while the second tuner 560B pre-tunes to the analog channel can. 另外,图17所示的实施例也可以从模拟频道切换到模拟频道。 Further, the embodiment shown in FIG. 17 can also be switched from an analog channel to an analog channel.

尽管上文中已参照某些实施例和实例对本发明进行了详细地说明,但在如所附权利要求所定义地本发明的范围内,存在有多种形式的变型和修正。 While the foregoing has been with reference to certain embodiments and examples of the present invention has been described in detail, but within the scope of the invention as defined in the appended claims, there are many forms and variations correction.

Claims (45)

1.一种无缝切换单元(11,558,590),用于接收节目和从第一数字视频信号无缝地切换到第二数字视频信号,该无缝切换单元在被设置以从远程发射机接收所述第一和第二数字视频信号的接收单元中实现,该无缝切换单元包括:微处理器(108,564),该微处理器选择信号以进行显示;解码器(110,572),其与微处理器连接,用于将第一数字视频信号送到视频缓冲器(160);其中,在根据微处理器命令切换到第二数字视频信号时,所述解码器(110,572)搜索第一数字视频信号的拼接点,并且一旦识别出所述拼接点,就利用第一数字视频信号中所述拼接点之后的时隙切换到第二数字视频信号,并且随着第一视频信号连续地从缓冲器(160)中重放,将第二数字视频信号装入缓冲器中,并且其中从第一视频信号切换到第二视频信号流是无缝地进行的。 A seamless switching unit (11,558,590), for receiving a program and seamlessly switching from the first digital video signal to a second digital video signals, which seamlessly switch unit is arranged to transmit from the remote the receiving unit receives the first and second digital video signals to achieve the seamless switching unit comprises: a microprocessor (108,564), the selection signal to the microprocessor for display; a decoder (110,572 ), which is connected to the microprocessor, for the first digital video signal supplied to the video buffer (160); wherein, when switching to the second digital video signal in accordance with a microprocessor command, said decoder (110, 572) splice point searching the first digital video signal, and upon identifying the splice point, a first time slot on the use of a digital video signal after the splice point switch to a second digital video signal, and as the first continuously reproduced video signal from the buffer (160), a second digital video signal is loaded into the buffer, and wherein the switching from the first video signal to the second video signal stream is seamlessly performed.
2.根据权利要求1所述的无缝切换单元,进一步包括:数字解调器,其与微处理器(108,564)连接,用于接收节目信号并对其进行解调,所述节目信号包括第一和第二数字视频信号;分离器,其与解调器和微处理器连接,用于对节目信号进行分离,以获得第一和第二数字视频信号。 2. Seamless switching unit according to claim 1, further comprising: a digital demodulator and a microprocessor (108,564), for receiving a program signal and demodulates the program signal It comprises a first and a second digital video signal; splitter, which is connected to a demodulator and a microprocessor, for separating a program signal to obtain first and second digital video signal.
3.根据权利要求1所述的无缝切换单元,其中第一数字视频信号在第一RF频道上接收的第一节目信号中进行复用,第二数字视频信号在第二RF频道上接收的第二节目信号中进行复用,所述无缝切换单元还包括:第一调谐器(560A),其与微处理器连接,用于调谐到第一RF频道,其中第一调谐器根据微处理器的指令选择第一RF频道;第一数字解调器(568A),其与第一调谐器连接,用于对第一节目信号进行解调;数字分离器(572),其与第一数字解调器和微处理器连接,用于对第一节目信号进行分离,以获得第一数字视频信号;第二调谐器(560B),其与微处理器连接,该第二调谐器预先调谐到第二RF频道,其中第二调谐器根据微处理器的指令选择第二RF频道;第二数字解调器(568B),其与第二调谐器连接,用于对第二节目信号进行解调;其中,从第一数字视频信号到第二 The seamless switching unit according to claim 1, wherein the first program signal received by the first digital video signal on a first RF channel multiplexing, a second digital video signal received on a second RF channel multiplexing a second program signals, the seamless switching unit further comprises: a first tuner (560A), which is connected to the microprocessor, for tuning to a first RF channel, wherein the first tuner microprocessing an instruction to select a first RF channel; a first digital demodulator (568A), which is connected with the first tuner, a first program for demodulating the signal; a digital splitter (572), with the first digital and a demodulator connected to the microprocessor, for separating a first program signal to obtain a first digital video signal; a second tuner (560B), which is connected to the microprocessor, the second tuner tunes to advance a second RF channel, wherein the second tuner to select the second RF channel according to instructions of a microprocessor; a second digital demodulator (568B), which is connected with the second tuner, a program for the second signal is demodulated ; wherein the digital video signal from the first to the second 字视频信号的无缝切换不产生视觉上的人为效应。 Seamless switching digital video signal does not produce visual artifacts.
4.根据权利要求1,2或3所述的无缝切换单元,其中所述无缝切换单元实现于其中的所述接收单元是一用户接收单元(11,590),该用户接收单元从用户分配网接收节目,所述用户分配网选自有线电视、广播电视和直播卫星所构成的组。 The seamless switching unit according to claim 2 or 3, wherein the seamless switching unit implemented in the receiving unit wherein the receiving unit is a subscriber (11,590), the subscriber unit receives from the user receiving a program distribution network, the subscriber distribution network selected cable, direct broadcast satellite, and broadcast television group constituted.
5.根据权利要求1,2或3所述的无缝切换单元,其中所述无缝切换单元实现于其中的所述接收单元包括用于显示第一和第二数字视频信号的电视机(10)。 The seamless switching unit according to claim 2 or 3, wherein the means to achieve seamless handover in which the receiving means comprises means for displaying said television set (10 of the first and second digital video signal ).
6.根据权利要求1,2或3所述的无缝切换单元,其中所述无缝切换单元实现于其中的所述接收单元还包括一用于储存已被创建的个人档案的存储器,其中第一或第二视频信号部分地根据该个人档案来选择。 The seamless switching unit according to claim 2 or 3, wherein the means to achieve seamless handover in which the receiving unit further comprises a profile storage memory has been created, in which the first or a second video signal in part based on the selected profile.
7.根据权利要求1,2或3所述的无缝切换单元,其中所述无缝切换单元实现于其中的所述接收单元包括一用户接口(9),用于接收用户的选择,并且其中第一或第二视频信号根据一个或多个用户的选择来选择。 The seamless switching unit according to claim 2 or 3, wherein the means to achieve seamless handover in which the receiving unit comprises a user interface (9) for receiving a user's selection, and wherein the first or second video signal is selected according to one or more of the user's selection.
8.根据权利要求1,2或3所述的无缝切换单元,其中所述无缝切换单元实现于其中的所述接收单元包括数字显示处理器(584),其与所述解码器(572)的输出连接,用于接收所选择的视频信号并将其格式化以进行显示。 The seamless switching unit according to claim 2 or 3, wherein the seamless switching unit implemented in the receiving unit which includes a digital display processor (584), with said decoder (572 ) connected to the output for receiving the video signal selected and formatted for display.
9.根据权利要求1,2或3所述的无缝切换单元,其中所述第一和第二数字视频信号包含用于商品销售和服务的购物节目,并且其中所述无缝切换单元还包括用于将用户采购的选择发送回中央位置的装置。 Seamless switching unit according to claim 2 or claim 3, wherein said first and second digital video signal containing a program for the sale of goods and shopping services, and wherein the switching unit further comprises a seamless means for transmitting back to the central position of the selected user purchase.
10.根据权利要求1,2或3所述的无缝切换单元,其中所述数字视频信号中至少之一表示广告,并且其中所述无缝切换单元进一步还包括用于存储含有广告的信号的存储器。 10. The seamless switching unit according to claim 2 or 3, wherein said digital video signal represents at least one advertisement, and wherein the signal for storing ad-seamless switching unit further comprises memory.
11.根据权利要求1,2或3所述的无缝切换单元,其中所述第一和第二数字视频信号包括一个或多个常规的电视节目信号。 11. The seamless switching unit in claim 1, 2 or 3, wherein said first and second digital video signal comprises one or more conventional television signals.
12.根据权利要求1,2或3所述的无缝切换单元,其中所述第一和第二视频信号包括交互式节目的一个或多个交互式节目信号。 12. The seamless switching unit according to claim 2 or 3, wherein said first and second video signals comprises interactive program one or more interactive program signals.
13.根据权利要求1,2或3所述的无缝切换单元,其中所述第一和第二数字视频信号包括一个或多个广告。 13. The seamless switching unit according to claim 2 or 3, wherein said first and second digital video signal comprises one or more ads.
14.根据权利要求1,2或3所述的无缝切换单元,其中所述第一和第二数字视频信号包括同一事件的不同的摄像机视角。 14. A seamless switching unit according to claim 2 or 3, wherein said first and second digital video signals comprise different camera angles of the same event.
15.根据权利要求1,2或3所述的无缝切换单元,其中所述数字视频信号包括一事件的特写镜头。 15. A seamless switching unit according to claim 2 or 3, wherein said digital video signal comprises a closeup event.
16.根据权利要求1,2或3所述的无缝切换单元,其中所述数字视频信号是通过单个有线频道传送的。 16. The seamless switching unit according to claim 2 or 3, wherein said digital video signal is transmitted through a single cable channel.
17.根据权利要求1,2或3所述的无缝切换单元,其中所述数字视频信号是通过一6MHZ NTSC频道传送的。 17. A seamless switching unit according to claim 2 or 3, wherein said digital video signal through a transmission channel 6MHZ NTSC.
18.根据权利要求1,2或3所述的无缝切换单元,其中所述第一和第二数字视频信号包含不相关的节目。 18. A seamless switching unit according to claim 2 or 3, wherein said first and second digital video signal containing the program irrelevant.
19.根据权利要求1,2或3所述的无缝切换单元,其中所述第一和第二数字视频信号包含用于商品销售或服务的购物节目。 19. The seamless switching unit according to claim 2 or 3, wherein said first and second digital video signal containing a program for the sale of goods or shopping services.
20.一种在数字接收单元中在两个数字视频信号间进行无缝切换的方法,所述数字接收单元被设置以从远程发射机接收所述数字视频信号并且其包括微处理器和解码器,该方法包括如下步骤:从所述远程发射机接收第一和第二数字视频信号,各数字视频信号包括视频拼接点和时隙;在视频缓冲器中缓存第一数字视频信号;接收来自微处理器的指令,切换至第二数字视频信号;搜索第一数字视频信号的拼接点;利用所述第一数字视频信号中所述拼接点之后的时隙切换至第二数字视频信号;在所述第一数字视频信号从所述缓冲器连续重放和显示时,将第二数字视频信号装入所述视频缓冲器中;其中从第一数字视频信号切换至第二数字视频信号是无缝的,以使得所述视频信号的切换不产生视觉上的人为效应。 20. A method of seamlessly switching between two digital signals in a digital video receiving unit, the digital receiving unit is arranged to receive the digital video signal from the remote transmitter and which includes a microprocessor and a decoder the method comprising the steps of: receiving from a remote transmitter of the first and second digital video signals, each video signal comprising a digital video splice point and a time slot; cache of the first digital video signal in the video buffer; receiving from the microprocessor an instruction processor switching to a second digital video signal; splice point searching the first digital video signal; slot after the first digital video signal using the splice point in the digital video signal to a second switch; in the when said first digital video signal is reproduced and displayed continuously from the buffer, the second digital video signal into said video buffer; wherein switching from the first digital video signal to a second digital video signal is seamless so that the switching of the video signal does not produce visual artifacts.
21.一种在中央位置制备多个数字信号,以在远程接收站进行无缝切换的方法,该方法包括如下步骤:在中央位置接收多个视频信号;将多个视频信号进行同步锁定,其中该同步锁定产生时间同步的视频信号;控制多个视频信号至一个或多个视频编码器;将拼接点插入多个视频信号中;使多个视频编码器在时间上同步,从而保证在视频中插入的拼接点在正确的帧数上出现;对视频编码器中的多个数字视频信号进行数字压缩,形成数字节目流,其中数字视频信号以比频道容量低的比特率编码,从而在各视频信号中产生一定的时隙;其中在远程接收站从一个视频信号切换至另一个视频信号的节目切换通过时隙的产生而成为无缝的,在所述拼接点之后的所述时隙由此容许有从一个视频信号切换至另一个视频信号的无缝切换时间。 21. A prepared at a central location a plurality of digital signals, to a method for seamless handover in the remote station, the method comprising the steps of: receiving a plurality of video signals at a central location; genlock plurality of video signals, wherein the synchronization lock time synchronization generating a video signal; a plurality of video signals to control one or more video encoders; splice points inserted into the plurality of video signals; a plurality of video encoders synchronized in time, thereby ensuring that the video inserting splice points appear in the correct frame number; a plurality of digital video signals of the video encoder digitally compressed, forming a digital program stream, wherein the digital video signal is lower than the bit rate coding of channel capacity so that each video signal in a certain time slot; wherein the remote station to switch from one video signal to another video signal is switched by the program generation becomes seamless slots, the slots after the splice point whereby susceptible seamless switch to switch from one video signal to another video signal.
22.根据权利要求21所述的方法,其中产生了多个数字节目流,而且还包括将多个数字节目流复用的步骤。 22. The method of claim 21, wherein generating a plurality of digital program stream, and further comprising the step of a plurality of multiplexed digital program stream.
23.根据权利要求21或22所述的方法,其中多个音频信号与多个视频信号相关,而且还包括接收多个音频信号的步骤、对多个接收的音频信号编码的步骤和对多个音频信号压缩的步骤。 23. The method of claim 21 or claim 22, wherein the plurality of audio signals associated with a plurality of video signals, and further comprising the step of receiving a plurality of audio signals, the encoded audio signal to a plurality of receiving a plurality of steps and audio signal compression step.
24.根据权利要求21或22所述的方法,其中编码器接收多个数据计算机码,并且还包括用多个视频信号对接收的多个数据计算机码编码的步骤。 24. The method of claim 21 or claim 22, wherein the encoder receives a plurality of data computer codes, and a plurality of video signals further comprises the step of encoding a plurality of data computer codes received.
25.一种数字编码系统,用于在中央位置制备多个数字信号,以在远程接收站进行无缝地切换,包括:至少一个视频同步锁定装置(304),用于接收多个视频信号,并产生时间同步的视频信号;至少一个视频编码器(312),其与视频同步锁定装置连接,用于将拼接点插入多个视频信号中,并对多个视频信号进行编码和压缩,以形成数字节目流,其中视频编码器是时间同步的;其中数字视频信号以比频道容量低的比特率编码,从而在各视频信号中产生一定的时隙,在所述拼接点之后的所述时隙由此容许有从一个视频信号切换至另一个视频信号的无缝切换时间;所述数字编码系统还包括发射机,用于向所述远程接收站发射所述的多个数字视频信号,在所述远程接收站从一个视频信号切换至另一个视频信号通过所述时隙的产生而成为无缝的。 25. A digital encoding system for preparing a plurality of the center position of the digital signal to a remote receiving station for seamless switching, comprising: at least one video genlock device (304) for receiving a plurality of video signals, and generating a video time synchronization signal; at least one video coder (312) which is connected to the video genlock device, for inserting splice points in the plurality of video signals, and a plurality of video signals encoded and compressed to form digital program stream, wherein the video encoders are time synchronized; wherein the digital video signal is lower than the channel capacity of the bit rate encoding, resulting in a certain time slot in each of the video signal, the time slot after the splice point thereby allowing a seamless switch has to switch from one video signal to another video signal; a digital encoding system further comprises a transmitter, a plurality of said digital video signal to the remote station transmitter, in the said remote station to switch from one video signal to another video signal generated by the time slot becomes seamless.
26.根据权利要求25所述的数字编码系统,其中产生有多个数字节目流,并且还包括用于对多个数字节目流复用的复用器(324)。 26. The digital encoding system according to claim 25, wherein generating a plurality of digital program stream, and further comprising a multiplexer for multiplexing a plurality of digital streams with programs (324).
27.根据权利要求25或26所述的数字编码系统,其中所述发射机(328)被设置用于传送所述的多个数字视频信号到用户分配网上,该用户分配网是从有线电视、广播电视和直播卫星构成的组中选出的。 27. A digital coding system of claim 25 or claim 26, wherein the transmitter (328) is provided for transmitting a plurality of digital video signals according to a user assigned Internet, the user is from a cable distribution network, direct broadcast satellite television and radio group consisting selected.
28.根据权利要求25或26所述的数字编码系统,其中多个音频信号(308)与多个视频信号相关,而所述编码器(312)接收多个音频信号并将该多个音频信号编码和解压缩。 28. The digital encoding system of claim 25 or claim 26, wherein the plurality of audio signals (308) associated with a plurality of video signals, and said encoder (312) receiving a plurality of audio signals and audio signals of the plurality of coding and decompression.
29.根据权利要求25或26所述的数字编码系统,其中所述编码器(312)接收多个数据计算机码(316)并用多个视频信号对数据计算机码进行编码。 29. The digital encoding system of claim 25 or claim 26, wherein said encoder (312) receives a plurality of data computer codes (316) and encodes the data computer codes with the plurality of video signals.
30.根据权利要求25或26所述的数字编码系统,其中至少一个视频信号包括常规的电视节目信号。 30. A digital coding system of claim 25 or claim 26, wherein the at least one conventional video signal comprises a television program signal.
31.根据权利要求25或26所述的数字编码系统,其中至少两个视频信号包括交互式节目的交互式节目信号。 31. A digital coding system of claim 25 or claim 26, wherein the at least two video signals comprises interactive program signals of an interactive program.
32.根据权利要求25或26所述的数字编码系统,其中多个视频信号包括一个或多个广告。 32. The digital encoding system of claim 25 or 26, wherein the plurality of video signals comprise one or more ads claimed in claim.
33.根据权利要求25或26所述的数字编码系统,其中所述多个视频信号中的至少两个包括相同事件的不同摄像机视角。 33. A digital coding system of claim 25 or claim 26, wherein said plurality of at least two video signals comprise different camera angles of the same event.
34.根据权利要求25或26所述的数字编码系统,其中至少一个数字视频信号包括一事件的特写。 34. A digital coding system of claim 25 or claim 26, wherein at least one of a digital video signal including a close event.
35.根据权利要求25或26所述的数字编码系统,其中所述数字节目流被发送到单个有线频道上。 35. A digital coding system of claim 25 or claim 26, wherein said digital program stream is sent to a single cable channels.
36.一种接收单元,用于从远程发射机接收节目和从在第一RF频道上接收的第一节目信号中复用的第一数字视频信号无缝地切换到在第二RF频道上接收的第二节目信号中复用的第二数字视频信号,所述第二数字视频信号包含以画中画格式同时显示的两个视频节目,该接收单元包括:微处理器(564),该微处理器选择信号来进行显示;第一调谐器(560A),其与微处理器连接,用于调谐到第一RF频道,其中第一调谐器根据微处理器的指令选择第一RF频道;第一数字解调器(568A),其与第一调谐器连接,用于对第一节目信号进行解调;数字分离器/解码器(572),其与第一数字解调器和微处理器连接,用于对第一节目信号进行分离,以获得第一数字视频信号,所述数字分离器/解码器包括一缓冲器,用于将第一数字视频信号缓存,并将第一数字视频信号进行解压缩;第二 36. A receiving unit for seamlessly switching from a remote transmitter receives the program signal and a first digital video signal received from a first program on a first RF channel multiplexed on the received second RF channel a second digital video signal in the second program multiplexed signal, said second digital video signal comprises two video programs simultaneously displayed in PIP format, the receiver unit comprising: a microprocessor (564), the micro- the processor selection signal for display; the first tuner (560A), which is connected to the microprocessor, for tuning to a first RF channel, wherein the first tuner selects a first RF channel according to an instruction of the microprocessor; the first a digital demodulator (568A), which is connected with the first tuner, a first program for demodulating the signal; a digital splitter / decoder (572), with the first digital demodulator and a microprocessor connection, for separating a first program signal to obtain a first digital video signal, said digital splitter / decoder comprises a buffer for caching a first digital video signal and a first digital video signal decompress; second 谐器(560B),其与微处理器连接,该第二调谐器预先调谐到第二RF频道,其中第二调谐器根据微处理器的指令选择第二RF频道;第二数字解调器(568B),其与第二调谐器连接,用于对第二节目信号进行解调;其中,在根据微处理器命令向第二数字视频信号切换时,所述数字分离器/解码器(572)搜索第一数字视频信号的拼接点,一旦识别出该拼接点,就利用第一数字视频信号中所述拼接点之后的时隙切换到第二视频信号,并随着第一视频信号根据微处理器的指令连续地重放,将第二数字视频信号装入缓冲器中,并且从第一数字视频信号切换到第二数字视频信号是无缝地进行的,由此使得所述视频信号的切换不产生视觉上的人为效应,显示装置,用于以并排或画中画的格式显示所述第二视频信号中的两个视频节目。 Tuner (560B), which is connected to the microprocessor, the second tuner tuned to a second predetermined RF channel, wherein the second tuner to select the second RF channel according to instructions of a microprocessor; a second digital demodulator ( 568B), which is connected with the second tuner, the second program for demodulating the signal; wherein, when switching to the second digital video signals according to commands microprocessor, the digital splitter / decoder (572) searching for the first splice point digital video signal, once identified the splice point after the first time slot on the use of a digital video signal in the video splice point switch to the second signal, and with a first video signal from the microprocessor an instruction continuously reproduced, the second digital video signal is loaded into the buffer, and switching from the first digital video signal to a second digital video signal is performed seamlessly, thereby allowing the switching of the video signal no visual artifacts on the display device, side by side or PIP format for display of the second video signal in two video programs.
37.根据权利要求36所述的接收单元,其中所述第一和第二节目信号是从包含了卫星发送系统、有线发送系统、广播发送系统、专用网络以及体育场内网络的组中之一接收的。 37. A receiving unit according to claim 36, wherein said first and second program signals from a satellite transmission system comprising, one set wired transmission system, broadcasting transmission system, a private network and the network receives the stadium of.
38.根据权利要求36或37所述的接收单元,其中所述接收单元是从包含了下面内容的组中选择的:带有电视卡的计算机工作站,与模拟有线机顶盒工作连接的电视,数字电视,与数字有线盒工作连接的电视,和与计算机工作站工作连接的电视。 38. The receiving unit of claim 36 or claim 37, wherein said receiving means is selected from the group comprising the following contents: TV computer workstation with a TV card, the set-top box operatively connected to the analog cable, digital TV , and digital TV box connected to the work, and a work station computer connected to a television.
39.根据权利要求36或37所述的接收单元,其中所述第二数字视频的两个视频节目中至少之一与预定的摄像机视角对应。 39. The receiver unit of claim 36 or claim 37, wherein one of the at least two video programs corresponding to the second digital video camera with a predetermined angle of view.
40.根据权利要求36或37所述的接收单元,其中所述第二数字视频的两个视频节目中至少之一是从包含了实况节目事件和预录制节目事件的组中选择的。 40. The receiver unit of claim 36 or claim 37, wherein two of said second video program in at least one of the digital video from a group comprising a pre-recorded and live programming events selected program event.
41.根据权利要求36或37所述的接收单元,其中所述第二数字视频的两个视频节目中至少之一对应于主节目馈送。 41. The receiver unit of claim 36 or claim 37, wherein two of the second video programs at least one digital video program corresponding to the main feed.
42.根据权利要求36或37所述的接收单元,其中所述第一数字视频节目对应于主节目馈送。 42. The receiver unit of claim 36 or claim 37, wherein said first digital video program corresponding to the main program feed.
43.根据权利要求36或37所述的接收单元,其中所述第二数字视频的两个视频节目中之一对应于重放。 43. The receiver unit of claim 36 or claim 37, wherein two of said second video program in one of the digital video corresponding to the reproduction.
44.根据权利要求36或37所述的接收单元,其中所述的两个视频节目的一个对应于对应于主节目馈送,另一个对应于从下面的组中选择的一项:重放、预定的摄像机视角、公告、个人聚焦、慢动作视频以及播放器统计。 44. The receiver unit of claim 36 or claim 37, wherein one of said two video program corresponding to the main program corresponding to the feed, corresponding to the other one selected from the following group: reproduction, predetermined the camera angle, announcements, personal focus, slow-motion video and player statistics.
45.根据权利要求36所述的接收单元,其中所述第一和第二节目信号是从包含了下面内容的组中之一接收的:数字视盘、CD ROM、计算机硬盘。 45. The group receiving unit according to claim 36, wherein said first and second signals from a program contains the following content of the received one of: a digital video disk, CD ROM, computer disk.
CN 98811211 1998-09-16 1998-12-16 Method and apparatus for implementing seamless switching between two digital video signals CN1214633C (en)

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