CN117776462A - Integrated constructed wetland sewage treatment system and sewage treatment process - Google Patents

Integrated constructed wetland sewage treatment system and sewage treatment process Download PDF

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Publication number
CN117776462A
CN117776462A CN202410199549.1A CN202410199549A CN117776462A CN 117776462 A CN117776462 A CN 117776462A CN 202410199549 A CN202410199549 A CN 202410199549A CN 117776462 A CN117776462 A CN 117776462A
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China
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sedimentation tank
constructed wetland
layer
sewage treatment
primary sedimentation
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庄涛
高舒嘉
左志玲
王武斌
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Jinan Environmental Research Institute Jinan Yellow River Basin Ecological Protection And Promotion Center
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Jinan Environmental Research Institute Jinan Yellow River Basin Ecological Protection And Promotion Center
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W10/00Technologies for wastewater treatment
    • Y02W10/10Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage

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Abstract

The invention belongs to the technical field of domestic sewage and industrial wastewater treatment, and discloses an integrated constructed wetland sewage treatment system and a sewage treatment process, wherein the integrated constructed wetland sewage treatment system comprises a primary sedimentation tank, a secondary sedimentation tank, a water collecting area and a constructed wetland which are sequentially communicated, wherein the primary sedimentation tank is of a cylindrical structure, a rainwater grate, a first porous bearing wall, an active carbon layer, a second porous bearing wall and a slag discharging pipe are sequentially arranged from top to bottom, the bottom of the primary sedimentation tank is of a funnel structure, and the slag discharging pipe is connected with the bottommost end of the funnel structure; the middle lower part of the primary sedimentation tank is connected with a sewage inlet pipe, a grid is arranged on the sewage inlet pipe; the cross section of the water collecting area is provided with a reaction permeation wall, and the reaction permeation wall is sequentially provided with a filter screen, a filling wall and a reaction medium layer from top to bottom. The organic combination of the primary sedimentation tank, the secondary sedimentation tank and the reaction permeation wall not only realizes the functions of separating, permeating and promoting the reaction, but also solves the problem that the traditional wetland is easy to be blocked.

Description

Integrated constructed wetland sewage treatment system and sewage treatment process
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of domestic sewage and industrial wastewater treatment, and particularly relates to an integrated constructed wetland sewage treatment system and a sewage treatment process.
Background
The statements herein merely provide background information related to the present disclosure and may not necessarily constitute prior art.
With the continuous growth of global population and the rapid promotion of industrialization progress, the pollution and shortage problems of water resources are increasingly highlighted, and the pollution and shortage problems have become one of the important challenges of sustainable development of the modern society. The problem of wastewater discharge and treatment not only directly affects human health and environmental quality, but also threatens the balance and sustainable utilization of the water ecosystem. Traditional wastewater treatment methods such as chemical treatment and biological treatment, while capable of achieving purification of water quality in some cases, have a series of limitations in terms of efficiency, cost, equipment scale, maintenance difficulty, etc., and are particularly difficult to cope with complex and variable wastewater components and water quality fluctuations.
Wetland is receiving attention as a natural water treatment system due to its excellent water quality improving effect and environmental friendliness. Natural wetland is subjected to various mechanisms such as plant absorption, microbial degradation, physical filtration and the like, can effectively remove pollutants in the wastewater, and realize purification and recovery of water quality. The artificial wetland technology is a brand-new corner and becomes an important wastewater treatment method. The constructed wetland simulates the water treatment effect of the natural wetland to a certain extent, has the advantages of small occupied area, relatively low construction cost, relatively convenient operation and maintenance and the like, and is widely applied to urban and rural wastewater treatment.
However, although constructed wetland is an important wastewater treatment technology, the constructed wetland still faces some key technical and engineering problems in practical application, and the possibility of deep development of the constructed wetland in the wastewater treatment field is limited. One of them is the problem of easy blockage of the wetland. Impurities and pollutants carried in the wastewater are gradually deposited and accumulated in the wet land treatment process, so that the wet land pores are blocked, the smoothness of water flow is affected, and the treatment efficiency and stability of the system are reduced. Another challenge is that carbon dioxide produced by plant respiration is not efficiently utilized but is released directly into the atmosphere.
Disclosure of Invention
Aiming at the defects existing in the prior art, the invention aims to provide an integrated constructed wetland sewage treatment system and a sewage treatment process.
In order to achieve the above object, the present invention is realized by the following technical scheme:
in a first aspect, the invention provides an integrated constructed wetland sewage treatment system, comprising a primary sedimentation tank, a secondary sedimentation tank, a water collecting area and a constructed wetland which are sequentially communicated, wherein,
the primary sedimentation tank is of a cylindrical structure, and is sequentially provided with a rainwater grate, a first porous bearing wall, an active carbon layer, a second porous bearing wall and a slag discharging pipe from top to bottom, wherein the bottom of the primary sedimentation tank is of a funnel structure, and the slag discharging pipe is connected with the bottommost end of the funnel structure; the middle lower part of the primary sedimentation tank is connected with a sewage inlet pipe, and a grid is arranged on the sewage inlet pipe;
the structure of the secondary sedimentation tank is the same as that of the primary sedimentation tank;
a reaction permeation wall is arranged on the cross section of the water collecting area, and divides the water collecting area into an upper water collecting chamber and a lower water collecting chamber; the reaction permeation wall is sequentially provided with a filter screen, a filling wall and a reaction medium layer from top to bottom; the reaction medium layer is prepared from nano zero-valent iron and organic clay;
the lower water collecting chamber is connected with the constructed wetland through a pipeline.
The primary sedimentation tank and the secondary sedimentation tank are both cylindrical structures, solid particles in the sewage are settled during the stay period of the sewage, are collected and discharged through the funnel, and after primary sedimentation and secondary sedimentation, the solid particles in the sewage are effectively removed, so that the constructed wetland can be effectively prevented from being blocked.
The tops of the primary sedimentation tank and the secondary sedimentation tank are both provided with an active carbon layer, so that not only can solid suspended matters in rainwater be effectively filtered and adsorbed, but also the odor of sewage in the primary sedimentation tank and the secondary sedimentation tank can be effectively absorbed, and the odor is prevented from overflowing.
Infill walls are commonly used to filter and intercept solid particles, sediment and other suspended matter from entering the lower collection chamber. This helps to keep the lower header clean and reduces the contaminant burden during subsequent processing. And also helps to regulate horizontal penetration and prevent excessive moisture from entering the lower collection chamber. This helps control the hydrologic process, preventing the groundwater level from being too high or too low.
The reaction medium layer mainly comprises nano zero-valent iron and organic clay. In general, in wastewater treatment, the application of materials such as nano zero-valent iron may lead to some typical reactions:
1. reduction reaction: the metal ions in certain contaminants are reduced to metal, which is removed. For example, chloride ions in certain organic compounds may be reduced.
2. Adsorption and precipitation: the nano zero-valent iron generally has a larger specific surface area, and therefore has the capability of adsorbing pollutants. This may include adsorption of certain organics and heavy metals. At the same time, some of the reduced products or reaction products may form precipitates and thus be effectively removed.
3. Oxidation reaction: in some cases, it may react with oxygen to produce iron oxide or the like. Such reactions may help oxidize certain organics.
As for organoclays, their main characteristics include a large specific surface area and adsorption capacity, so that it is possible to adsorb organic matters in wastewater by means of physical adsorption.
In some embodiments, the infill wall is made from 20-40 parts sand, 10-20 parts apatite, 15-25 parts zeolite, 20-30 parts straw, and 5-15 parts biochar.
Infill walls are generally a structure for increasing surface area to facilitate wastewater treatment. In addition, the infill wall is composed of materials with high specific surface areas to increase the reaction surface, promoting better physical or chemical reaction of the contaminants in the body of water with the materials on the infill wall. Such a structure contributes to an improvement in the wastewater treatment effect. The materials of the infill wall include sand, apatite, zeolite, straw, biochar, etc., and may provide some specific functions, such as increasing adsorption surface, promoting biodegradation, providing specific catalytic reactions, etc., according to their characteristics.
The particle size of the sand is 0.1-1.0 mm, and the sand is used for providing a uniform pore structure, and is beneficial to filtration and permeation so as to remove suspended particles and solid substances in water;
the apatite has the function of adsorbing phosphate, is beneficial to reducing the phosphorus content in water, and has positive effect on preventing water eutrophication;
the zeolite has the particle size of 0.5-2.0 mm, has a larger specific surface area and a porous structure, and is used for adsorbing organic matters and heavy metal ions and promoting water purification;
the length of the straw is 5-20 cm, the straw is used for providing gaps and water flow channels in the filling wall, promoting the distribution of water flow, providing a growth surface for microorganisms and promoting the degradation of organic matters in the wastewater;
the biochar has the particle size of 0.2-5 mm, has good adsorption performance and pore structure, is favorable for adsorbing organic matters and improving smell, and can provide places for attaching microorganisms and promote biodegradation.
The straw is selected from rice, wheat and corn straw. These stalks have the following advantages: porosity: the straw is porous, has larger specific surface area, and is beneficial to improving the adsorption effect in the wastewater treatment system; biodegradability: the straw is a natural organic material, is easy to biodegrade, can promote the growth of microorganisms when used in the filling wall, and is beneficial to biodegrade organic matters in the wastewater; the cost is low: straw is typically agricultural waste and therefore may be a lower cost waste utilization in some areas.
In some embodiments, the nano zero-valent iron is 2-7%, the organoclay is 93-98%, and the% is mass percent in the reaction interlayer.
The main functions of the reaction medium layer are as follows:
the nano zero-valent iron, organic clay and other materials in the reaction medium layer have the capability of removing pollutants. The nano zero-valent iron is used for reducing and adsorbing pollutants such as heavy metals, organic matters and the like, and the organoclay has the capability of adsorbing organic pollutants.
The design of the reaction medium layer helps to initiate chemical reactions, such as reduction reactions, oxidation reactions and the like, and helps to convert certain pollutants in the wastewater into less harmful products.
By introducing specific materials into the reaction medium layer, the treatment efficiency for specific pollutants can be improved, thereby improving the water quality.
In some embodiments, the height of the connecting conduit between the primary and secondary settling tanks is greater than the height of the connecting conduit between the secondary settling tank and the water collection zone is greater than the height of the sewage inlet conduit.
The height of the connecting pipeline between the primary sedimentation tank and the secondary sedimentation tank is the largest, and in the process that sewage in the primary sedimentation tank overflows into the secondary sedimentation tank, solid particles in the sewage can carry out better precipitation, and the solid particles are deposited at the bottom of the primary sedimentation tank and are convenient to discharge through a slag discharge pipeline.
The connecting pipeline between the secondary sedimentation tank and the water collecting area is lower than the connecting pipeline between the primary sedimentation tank and the secondary sedimentation tank, so that sewage in the secondary sedimentation tank can smoothly enter the water collecting area.
The connecting pipeline between the secondary sedimentation tank and the water collecting area and the connecting pipeline between the primary sedimentation tank and the secondary sedimentation tank are arranged at the higher position, so that disturbance to sedimentation of solid particles caused by sewage flow can be effectively avoided.
The organic combination of the primary sedimentation tank, the secondary sedimentation tank and the reaction permeation wall can separate wastewater and a treatment unit, realize substance permeation, promote biological reaction, control water flow and pressure, avoid the problem that larger scum blocks the constructed wetland, and effectively prolong the service life of the wetland.
Preferably, the height of the sewage inlet pipe is 1/4-1/2 of the height of the primary sedimentation tank;
the connecting pipeline between the primary sedimentation tank and the secondary sedimentation tank is positioned at 1/2-2/3 of the height of the primary sedimentation tank.
Preferably, the slag discharging ports of the primary sedimentation tank and the secondary sedimentation tank are communicated through inclined pipes. Facilitating the discharge of the deposited solid particles.
In some embodiments, a lifting pump is arranged on a connecting pipeline between the lower water collection chamber and the constructed wetland.
Preferably, the tail end of the connecting pipeline between the lower water collecting chamber and the constructed wetland is provided with a porous water distribution pipe, and the porous water distribution pipe is vertically arranged in the plant layer of the constructed wetland.
A porous water distribution pipe is vertically arranged in the plant layer of the constructed wetland, sewage generates certain water pressure under the pumping of a lifting pump, the sewage is sprayed out from the through holes of the porous water distribution pipe and uniformly distributed on the plant layer, so that the sewage uniformly flows through the plant layer, and the uniform purification of the plant layer is obtained.
Further preferably, the plant layer of the constructed wetland is positioned on the ground, and the shell of the constructed wetland adopts toughened glass. Is convenient for the entry of sunlight so as to ensure the normal growth of plants.
Still more preferably, through holes are uniformly distributed at the top of the toughened glass shell. And the exchange of gas inside and outside the shell is facilitated.
Still more preferably, the toughened glass casing is connected with the carbon dioxide storage box through a carbon dioxide pipeline, and a valve is arranged on the carbon dioxide pipeline.
The carbon dioxide storage tank can be designed by adopting the existing carbon dioxide storage mode, such as adsorption storage by an adsorbent, and the specific steps are as follows:
structural design:
a shell: the storage tanks are typically constructed of a pressure and corrosion resistant material, such as stainless steel or an alloy material, to ensure safe storage and to prevent gas leakage.
And (3) a sealing device: the storage tank should have an effective sealing structure to prevent leakage of carbon dioxide and maintain stability of the storage environment.
Pressure regulator: a pressure regulator may be provided in the reservoir to maintain the proper reservoir pressure.
Filled carbon dioxide storage medium:
an adsorbent: the medium filling the carbon dioxide storage tank is typically a highly efficient adsorbent for adsorbing and storing carbon dioxide gas. For example, molecular sieves, activated carbon, metal Organic Frameworks (MOFs) or oxide materials can be used, which have a high degree of selectivity and adsorption capacity.
Liquid or compressed storage medium: in some cases, carbon dioxide in liquid or compressed form may also be used as a storage medium, depending on system design and requirements.
Monitoring and control system:
1. carbon dioxide detector: to ensure that the carbon dioxide concentration in the storage tank is within a safe range, a carbon dioxide detector may be installed for monitoring the gas concentration in real time.
2. An automatic control system: an automatic control system may be integrated in the storage box for adjusting the storage conditions and ensuring the stability of the storage environment.
Preferably, the toughened glass shell is connected with the air pump through an air pipeline, a one-way valve is arranged in the air pipeline, and a photosensitive switch is arranged on a circuit of the air pump. The air pump is used for starting at night, and air is introduced into the constructed wetland for the respiration of plants.
In some embodiments, the plant in the plant layer is selected from canna, hua Kela sha, kuh-seng, or green bristletail.
Preferably, the bottom of plant layer is the soil horizon, and the below of soil horizon has set gradually gravel layer, first porous bearing wall, pebble layer, second porous bearing wall and membrane filter equipment.
The grit layer has a particle size of 10-50 mm and functions to provide a support and stability layer, promote water penetration and in some cases to act as a filter.
The pebble layer has a particle size of 50mm or more, and has a function of providing a larger pore space, increasing water circulation, and being applicable to sites where organisms attach and provide microorganism growth.
Further preferably, the membrane of the membrane filtration device is a ceramic membrane, a water level sensor is arranged above the ceramic membrane, and a water outlet pipe is arranged below the ceramic membrane.
The ceramic membrane adopted in the membrane filtration device has a microporous structure, and can selectively remove specific pollutants in the wastewater, such as dissolved organic matters, heavy metal ions and the like. In the constructed wetland system, the ceramic membrane is used as a core component of the membrane filtering device, so that the problem that the treatment efficiency is reduced due to the fact that the traditional constructed wetland is easy to block is effectively solved. Its stability and pressure resistance properties enable it to be used in and the complex wetland environment stably operates for a long time. Meanwhile, the ceramic membrane can also realize the selective removal of specific pollutants in the wastewater, thereby further improving the wastewater treatment effect.
In a second aspect, the invention provides an integrated constructed wetland sewage treatment process, which comprises the following steps:
sequentially introducing sewage into a primary sedimentation tank and a secondary sedimentation tank for pre-sedimentation, and discharging collected solid particles through a bottom slag discharge port;
the sewage after pre-sedimentation enters a water collecting area, is pumped to a plant layer of the constructed wetland after being filtered by a filter screen, filled with a wall and a reaction medium layer in sequence, and is discharged after being treated by the plant layer, a gravel layer, a pebble layer and a membrane filtering device.
In some embodiments, air is pumped into the plant layer by an air pump when there is no sun, and carbon dioxide is pumped into the carbon dioxide storage tank when the carbon dioxide concentration in the plant layer is high;
when the sun exists, the stored carbon dioxide is released, and carbon dioxide gas is pumped into the plant layer for photosynthesis of plants.
The cylindrical constructed wetland system can monitor the carbon dioxide concentration threshold value in the wetland and collect carbon dioxide gas released by plants so as to be supplied again when the plants perform photosynthesis through automatic control while treating wastewater. The innovation not only improves the utilization rate of the wastewater of the wetland system, but also meets the requirement of 'double carbon strategy'.
The beneficial effects achieved by one or more embodiments of the present invention described above are as follows:
the organic combination of the primary sedimentation tank, the secondary sedimentation tank and the reaction permeation wall not only realizes the functions of separating, permeating and promoting reaction, but also solves the problem that the traditional wetland is easy to block, and avoids the blocking of the artificial wetland by larger scum through ingenious design, thereby greatly prolonging the service life of the wetland system.
The reaction permeation wall not only realizes the separation of wastewater and the permeation of substances, but also promotes the biological reaction, and further improves the wastewater treatment efficiency. The design enables the constructed wetland system to treat wastewater with different characteristics and pollutants more comprehensively.
The cylindrical constructed wetland system monitors the carbon dioxide concentration threshold value in the wetland through automatic control, and actively collects carbon dioxide gas released by plants so as to supply plant respiration again. Not only improves the wastewater treatment efficiency, but also achieves the aim of 'carbon reduction' of the wetland.
The main body part of the membrane filter device adopts a high-strength ceramic membrane, has functions of microporous filtration and selective separation, and can efficiently remove specific pollutants in wastewater. The stability and pressure resistance of the system under high pressure environment provide powerful support for the stable operation of the system under severe working conditions.
Drawings
The accompanying drawings, which are included to provide a further understanding of the invention and are incorporated in and constitute a part of this specification, illustrate embodiments of the invention and together with the description serve to explain the invention.
FIG. 1 is a front view of an integrated constructed wetland sewage treatment system according to an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a top view of FIG. 1;
fig. 3 is a front view of a reactive permeable wall according to an embodiment of the present invention.
In the figure: 1-a primary sedimentation tank (a secondary sedimentation tank is positioned on the right of the primary sedimentation tank, has the same structure as the primary sedimentation tank and has no grid); 11-a rain grate; 12-a porous bearing wall; 13-an activated carbon layer; 14-a water storage tank; 15-grating;
2-a water collection area; 21-a water collection chamber; 22-reaction permeable wall; 23-lift pump; 24-filtering the mixture; 25-a water-proof wall; 26-Filler a wall; 27-a reaction medium layer;
3-columnar constructed wetland; 31-toughened glass top; 32-a porous water distribution pipe; 33-air duct; 34-carbon dioxide delivery conduit; 35-an air pump; 36-a carbon dioxide storage tank; 37-plant layer; 38-a gravel layer; 39-pebble layer;
4-membrane filtration device; 41-ceramic membrane; 42-a water level sensor; 43-an induction pressurizing pump; 44-water outlet pipe.
Detailed Description
It should be noted that the following detailed description is illustrative and is intended to provide further explanation of the invention. Unless defined otherwise, all technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meaning as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art to which this invention belongs.
The invention is further described below with reference to examples and figures.
As shown in fig. 1 and 2, the constructed wetland is cylindrical in shape as a whole, and comprises a primary sedimentation tank 1 (a secondary sedimentation tank is positioned on the right of the primary sedimentation tank, has the same structure as the primary sedimentation tank and is free of a grid), a rainwater grate 11, a porous bearing wall 12, an activated carbon layer 13, a water storage tank 14, a grid 15, a water collecting area 2, a water collecting chamber 21, a reaction permeable wall 22, a lifting pump 23, a filter screen 24, a water-proof wall 25, a filling wall 26, a reaction medium layer 27, a cylindrical constructed wetland 3, a toughened glass top 31, a porous water distribution pipe 32, an air pipe 33, a carbon dioxide conveying pipe 34, an air pump 35, a carbon dioxide storage tank 36, a plant layer 37, a gravel layer 38, a pebble layer 39, a membrane filter 4, a ceramic membrane 41, a water level sensor 42, an induction pressurizing pump 43 and a water outlet pipe 44.
As shown in fig. 1 and 2, the primary sedimentation tank 1 and the secondary sedimentation tank have similar structures and respectively comprise a rainwater grate 11, a porous bearing wall 12, an active carbon layer 13 and a water storage tank 14. The secondary sedimentation tank adopts a design without a grid. On the one hand, the wastewater enters the water collecting area 2 after passing through the primary sedimentation tank and the secondary sedimentation tank, wherein larger scum is intercepted by the grille 15, other larger suspended matters are deposited at the bottom of the tank through gravity sedimentation, and an induction valve below the tank body is required to be opened periodically so as to clean the scum. On the other hand, rainwater can enter the activated carbon layer 13 through the rainwater grate 11 to perform preliminary filtration and adsorption, so that the above-ground and underground cooperative purification treatment is realized.
The activated carbon layer 13 can also deodorize the wastewater in the water storage tank 14, so as to prevent the foul gas from overflowing and polluting the external environment. The water collection area 2 includes a water collection chamber 21, a reaction penetration wall 22, and a lift pump 23. As shown in fig. 3, the reaction permeable wall 22 adopts a multi-layered structure including a screen 24, a partition wall 25, a filler wall 26, and a reaction medium layer 27. The reaction medium layer mainly comprises nano zero-valent iron and organic clay, wherein the mass percentage of the nano zero-valent iron is 5%, and the mass percentage of the organic clay is 95%.
The material composition of the filling wall is as follows: 25 parts of sand, 15 parts of apatite, 20 parts of zeolite, 25 parts of straw and 10 parts of biochar. The grain diameter of the sand is 0.1-1.0 mm, the grain diameter of the zeolite is 0.5-2.0 mm, the length of the straw is 5-20 cm, and the grain diameter of the biochar is 0.2-5 mm.
The wastewater enters through the water collection chamber 21, passes through the filter screen 24 and the water barrier 25, and enters the area of the filler wall 26 and the reaction medium layer 27, where the wastewater reacts with the filler material, degrading the organic matter and adsorbing the pollutants. Finally, the treated wastewater is sent to an upper treatment unit by a lift pump 23. The design of the primary sedimentation tank 1, the secondary sedimentation tank and the water collecting area is not only beneficial to removing suspended matters and pollutants in the wastewater and degrading organic matters in the wastewater, but also solves the problem that the wetland is easy to block, and improves the stability and the reliability of the system.
As shown in fig. 1, the cylindrical constructed wetland 3 is composed of an overground part and an underground part, and the overground part is surrounded by cylindrical toughened glass, so that sufficient sunlight transmission is ensured, and sufficient illumination is provided for wetland plants. The toughened glass top 31 is of a porous structure, which is beneficial to gas exchange between the inside of the wetland and the outside. The wastewater enters the cylindrical constructed wetland 3 through the porous water distribution pipe 32, and the through holes in the water distribution pipe are uniformly distributed, so that the wastewater is ensured to be uniformly distributed in the whole plant layer 37, and the plants are promoted to absorb nutrients and degrade pollutants. The air duct 33 is used for the supply of oxygen, and air is pumped into the interior of the plant layer 37 by means of an air pump or the like. The carbon dioxide delivery conduit 34 is for collecting and supplying carbon dioxide gas, and the carbon dioxide storage tank 36 is for collecting carbon dioxide gas released by plant respiration. The system realizes automatic collection and supply of carbon dioxide gas by monitoring the concentration of carbon dioxide.
Wetland plants such as canna, hua Kela sa, bitter grass, green bristlegrass, etc. are planted in the plant layer 37. Plants absorb nutrient substances in the wastewater through photosynthesis, and promote degradation and purification of the wastewater. The subterranean section is comprised of a layer of gravel 38 and a layer of pebbles 39 for providing filtration of the plant growth substrate and wastewater from the plant layer that permeates into the layer of gravel 38 and pebbles 39 through the porous load-bearing wall 12 into the next treatment unit.
As shown in fig. 1, the membrane filtration device 4 includes a ceramic membrane 41, a water level sensor 42, a sensing pressurizing pump 43, and a water outlet pipe 44. The ceramic membrane 41 has a fine micropore structure, and the micropore size can be adjusted according to different wastewater treatment requirements, so that the membrane can selectively intercept and dissolve specific pollutants such as organic matters, heavy metal ions and the like, and more efficient wastewater purification is realized. In addition, the ceramic membrane has excellent mechanical strength, pressure resistance and good chemical stability, is suitable for long-time operation under high-pressure environment, and can keep stable performance under different wastewater components and pH conditions. The water level sensor 42 is positioned above the ceramic membrane 41, monitors the water level of wastewater on the membrane surface, automatically controls the operation of the induction pressurizing pump 43 according to the water level change, and ensures proper water pressure and flux, thereby realizing stable wastewater treatment efficiency.
The induction pressurizing pump 43 operates as follows:
when the water level sensor detects the rising of the water level in the system, the water level is fixed at a certain time (designed according to actual engineering), the system triggers the starting mechanism of the induction pressurizing pump, the ceramic membrane is generally micro-filtration or ultrafiltration aperture, if no large particle impurity exists in the pretreated water, the water can be automatically infiltrated by gravity, and if the induction pressurizing pump detects that the gravity is insufficient for filtration, the water level above the ceramic membrane is continuously raised, so that the smooth proceeding of filtration is ensured.
In addition, the ceramic membrane has higher mechanical strength and better pressure resistance than other filtering membranes. If the potential risk of damaging the mechanical properties of the ceramic membrane is considered according to the actual situation, the mechanical properties of the ceramic membrane can be improved from aspects of material selection, design, preparation process and the like. The following are relatively common methods:
1. and (3) material selection: the choice of ceramic materials with high compression resistance is critical to the enhancement of the compression resistance of the membrane. Some common high compressive ceramic materials include alumina, zirconia, and silicon carbide. These materials have excellent mechanical strength and hardness and can be used to enhance the pressure resistance of ceramic membranes.
2. And (3) membrane structural design: through optimizing the structural design of ceramic membrane, can improve its holistic compressive capacity. This includes the size, distribution, shape of the micropores and the thickness of the entire membrane. Proper design of these parameters can make the membrane stronger and pressure resistant.
3. Surface treatment: the pressure resistance of the ceramic membrane can be improved by surface treatment, such as coating or modification. The special coating material or surface modifier can fill or repair micro cracks, and improves the overall pressure resistance of the film.
4. And (3) optimizing a preparation process: the process of preparing ceramic membranes also has a great influence on their properties. The preparation process is optimized, uniform micropore distribution and compact structure are ensured, and the compression resistance of the membrane can be improved. The control of parameters such as sintering temperature, time and pressure is a key preparation optimization aspect.
5. And (3) designing a supporting material: the ceramic membrane may be used in combination with a support material. The support materials and the combination mode of the membrane and the support layer are reasonably designed and selected, so that the compression resistance of the whole membrane system can be effectively enhanced.
6. Thickness increase: on the premise of not affecting the performance, the compressive capacity of the ceramic membrane can be improved by moderately increasing the thickness of the ceramic membrane. However, this requires a balance between performance and cost.
The clean water filtered by the ceramic membrane 41 is discharged out of the system through a water outlet pipe 44, and the water outlet pipe 44 is positioned below the ceramic membrane, so that the filtered water can be discharged rapidly and effectively. A water quality monitoring device can be arranged near the water outlet pipe 44 to monitor and analyze the outlet water in real time, so as to ensure that the outlet water reaches the specified water quality standard.
The above description is only of the preferred embodiments of the present invention and is not intended to limit the present invention, but various modifications and variations can be made to the present invention by those skilled in the art. Any modification, equivalent replacement, improvement, etc. made within the spirit and principle of the present invention should be included in the protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (10)

1. An integrated constructed wetland sewage treatment system which is characterized in that: comprises a primary sedimentation tank, a secondary sedimentation tank, a water collecting area and an artificial wetland which are communicated in sequence,
the primary sedimentation tank is of a cylindrical structure, and is sequentially provided with a rainwater grate, a first porous bearing wall, an active carbon layer, a second porous bearing wall and a slag discharging pipe from top to bottom, wherein the bottom of the primary sedimentation tank is of a funnel structure, and the slag discharging pipe is connected with the bottommost end of the funnel structure; the middle lower part of the primary sedimentation tank is connected with a sewage inlet pipe, and a grid is arranged on the sewage inlet pipe;
the structure of the secondary sedimentation tank is the same as that of the primary sedimentation tank;
a reaction permeation wall is arranged on the cross section of the water collecting area, and divides the water collecting area into an upper water collecting chamber and a lower water collecting chamber; the reaction permeation wall is sequentially provided with a filter screen, a filling wall and a reaction medium layer from top to bottom; the reaction medium layer is prepared from nano zero-valent iron and organic clay;
the lower water collecting chamber is connected with the constructed wetland through a pipeline.
2. The integrated constructed wetland sewage treatment system according to claim 1, wherein: the filling wall is prepared from 20-40 parts of sand, 10-20 parts of apatite, 15-25 parts of zeolite, 20-30 parts of straw and 5-15 parts of biochar;
or the grain diameter of the sand is 0.1-1.0 mm; the grain diameter of the zeolite is 0.5-2.0 mm; the length of the straw is 5-20 cm; the particle size of the biochar is 0.2-5 mm.
3. The integrated constructed wetland sewage treatment system according to claim 1, wherein: in the reaction medium layer, the mass part of nano zero-valent iron is 2-7%, the mass part of organic clay is 93-98%, and the percentage is mass percent.
4. The integrated constructed wetland sewage treatment system according to claim 1, wherein: the height of the connecting pipeline between the primary sedimentation tank and the secondary sedimentation tank is larger than that between the secondary sedimentation tank and the water collecting area, and the height of the connecting pipeline between the primary sedimentation tank and the secondary sedimentation tank is larger than that of the sewage inlet pipe.
5. The integrated constructed wetland sewage treatment system according to claim 4, wherein: the height of the sewage inlet pipe is 1/4-1/2 of the height of the primary sedimentation tank;
the connecting pipeline between the primary sedimentation tank and the secondary sedimentation tank is positioned at 1/2-2/3 of the height of the primary sedimentation tank.
6. The integrated constructed wetland sewage treatment system according to claim 1, wherein: a lifting pump is arranged on a connecting pipeline between the lower water collecting chamber and the constructed wetland; the tail end of the connecting pipeline between the lower water collecting chamber and the constructed wetland is provided with a porous water distribution pipe which is vertically arranged in the plant layer of the constructed wetland;
the plant layer of the artificial wetland is positioned on the ground, and the shell of the artificial wetland adopts toughened glass;
or through holes are uniformly distributed on the top of the toughened glass shell;
or, the toughened glass shell is connected with the carbon dioxide storage box through a carbon dioxide pipeline, and a valve is arranged on the carbon dioxide pipeline;
or, the toughened glass shell is connected with the air pump through an air pipeline, a one-way valve is arranged in the air pipeline, and a photosensitive switch is arranged on a circuit of the air pump.
7. The integrated constructed wetland sewage treatment system according to claim 1, wherein: the plant in the plant layer is selected from canna, hua Kela sa, bitter grass or green bristlegrass;
the bottom of plant layer is the soil horizon, and the below of soil horizon has set gradually gravel layer, first porous bearing wall, pebble layer, second porous bearing wall and membrane filter equipment.
8. The integrated constructed wetland sewage treatment system according to claim 7, wherein: the membrane of the membrane filtering device is a ceramic membrane, a water level sensor is arranged above the ceramic membrane, and a water outlet pipe is arranged below the ceramic membrane.
9. An integrated artificial wetland sewage treatment process is characterized in that: the method comprises the following steps:
sequentially introducing sewage into a primary sedimentation tank and a secondary sedimentation tank for pre-sedimentation, and discharging collected solid particles through a bottom slag discharge port;
the sewage after pre-sedimentation enters a water collecting area, is pumped to a plant layer of the constructed wetland after being filtered by a filter screen, filled with a wall and a reaction medium layer in sequence, and is discharged after being treated by the plant layer, a gravel layer, a pebble layer and a membrane filtering device.
10. The integrated constructed wetland sewage treatment process according to claim 9, wherein: pumping air into the plant layer by an air pump when the sun is not present, and pumping and storing the carbon dioxide into a carbon dioxide storage tank when the carbon dioxide concentration in the plant layer is high;
when the sun exists, the stored carbon dioxide is released, and carbon dioxide gas is pumped into the plant layer for photosynthesis of plants.
CN202410199549.1A 2024-02-23 2024-02-23 Integrated constructed wetland sewage treatment system and sewage treatment process Pending CN117776462A (en)

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