CN114312345B - Dynamic smooth compensation distribution control method for front and rear axle torque of four-wheel drive pure electric vehicle - Google Patents

Dynamic smooth compensation distribution control method for front and rear axle torque of four-wheel drive pure electric vehicle Download PDF

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CN114312345B
CN114312345B CN202111247426.3A CN202111247426A CN114312345B CN 114312345 B CN114312345 B CN 114312345B CN 202111247426 A CN202111247426 A CN 202111247426A CN 114312345 B CN114312345 B CN 114312345B
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torque
driving motor
wheel
vehicle
rear axle
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CN114312345A (en
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任崇岭
王耀农
余伟
林贤德
胡凯
赵子瑾
张小龙
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Zhejiang Zero Run Technology Co Ltd
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    • Y02T10/72Electric energy management in electromobility

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Abstract

The invention discloses a dynamic smooth compensation distribution control method for front and rear axle torque of a four-drive pure electric vehicle, which is characterized by comprising the following steps: acquiring four wheel speeds and the speed of the whole vehicle; inquiring a calibration chart according to the running mode, the sliding distance and the sliding time of the vehicle to obtain a torque reduction target value of front axle torque and rear axle torque; and the front and rear shaft motors can use maximum and minimum torque values, the front and rear shaft motors are limited according to the torque reduction target value, the torque reduction value of the front/rear shaft driving motor is used as a rear/front shaft driving motor compensation value, and finally the torque adjustment value of the front/rear shaft driving motor is calculated. The front axle torque and the rear axle torque of the vehicle are dynamically adjusted according to the slipping condition, the vehicle is guaranteed to get rid of poverty by dynamic compensation, the motor is guaranteed to operate in the power range of the motor, the motor is guaranteed not to continuously slip, meanwhile, the total required torque of a driver is guaranteed to be fully reflected in the whole vehicle, and the dynamic performance of the vehicle is guaranteed.

Description

Dynamic smooth compensation distribution control method for front and rear axle torque of four-wheel drive pure electric vehicle
Technical Field
The invention relates to control of an electric vehicle, in particular to a dynamic smooth compensation distribution control method for front and rear axle torque of a four-wheel drive pure electric vehicle.
Background
With the increase of the keeping amount of the gasoline car, the atmospheric pollution is more and more serious. With the increasing demand of people on environmental protection, the pure electric vehicle is appeared, and the whole vehicle controller is used as a key part of the pure electric four-wheel drive vehicle, and the torque distribution method directly influences the driving dynamics, comfort and economy of the pure electric four-wheel drive vehicle, and reasonably distributes driving torque so as to fully exert the advantages of the four-driving force system. The front and rear driving torque distribution method of the four-wheel drive electric vehicle in the prior art calculates the front and rear axle torque by estimating the road adhesion coefficient, but the estimated road adhesion coefficient is easy to deviate, the wheel slip is judged only by the vehicle speed, the comparison is single, and the situation that the slip is easily misjudged or not timely detected in the actual operation is easy to occur.
For example, a "control method for driving torque distribution of front and rear axles of a four-wheel drive electric vehicle" disclosed in chinese patent literature, publication No. CN107640062a, includes the steps of: s1, calculating a total torque instruction T of a driver according to an accelerator pedal and a vehicle speed value d The method comprises the steps of carrying out a first treatment on the surface of the S2, initial torque distribution is carried out based on a system efficiency optimal principle, and initial driving torque T of the front axle is obtained df0 And rear axle initial drive torque T dr0 The method comprises the steps of carrying out a first treatment on the surface of the S3, estimating an adhesion coefficient available to the road surface to obtain an adhesion coefficient mu; s4, calculating a front axle driving torque limit value T according to the adhesion coefficient mu ufmax And rear axle drive torque limit value T urmax The method comprises the steps of carrying out a first treatment on the surface of the S5, according to the front axle driving torque limit value T ufmax And rear axle drive torque limit value T urmax Adjusting the initial torque distribution of the front axle and the rear axle; s6, respectively calculating a front axle motor torque command Tmf and a rear axle motor torque command Tmr. However, in the above scheme, the calculated peak road adhesion coefficient is an estimation result, longitudinal acceleration of the front and rear axles is calculated through the adhesion coefficient, and then torque is calculated, and the estimated road adhesion coefficient is easy to deviate by calculating the estimated peak road adhesion coefficient and then calculating the front and rear axle torque, so that the problem that false judgment is easy to occur or the slipping condition is not detected in time in actual operation is solved.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention provides a dynamic smooth compensation distribution control method for front and rear axle torque of a four-drive pure electric vehicle based on the speed and the wheel speed of the whole vehicle and the motor torque of a vehicle running mode, which aims to solve the problems of poor economy of the vehicle and poor driving comfort caused by unreasonable distribution control of front and rear axle torque of the four-drive electric vehicle in the prior art.
In order to achieve the above purpose, the present invention adopts the following technical scheme:
a dynamic smooth compensation distribution control method for front and rear axle torque of a four-wheel drive pure electric vehicle comprises the following steps: step S1: acquiring four wheel speeds and the speed of the whole vehicle; calculating the sliding distance and the sliding time of each wheel to judge whether each wheel slides or not;
s2, inquiring a calibration chart according to the running mode, the sliding distance and the sliding time of the vehicle to obtain a torque reduction target value of the front axle torque and the rear axle torque;
step S3: according to the current maximum available torque and the current minimum torque fed back by the front axle motor and the rear axle motor, driving motor torque adjustment values of the front axle and the rear axle are calculated, when the vehicle accelerates, the torque reduction target value of the corresponding axle, the current maximum available torque value and the minimum value of the driver required torque are selected as driving motor torque adjustment values, when the vehicle decelerates, the torque reduction target value of the corresponding axle, the current minimum available torque value and the minimum value of the driver required torque are selected as driving motor torque adjustment values, the front axle driving motor torque reduction value is used as a rear axle driving motor compensation value, and the rear axle driving motor torque reduction value is used as a front axle driving motor compensation value. The motor adopts constant power control, the higher the motor rotating speed is, the smaller the available torque value is, the motor reports the maximum and minimum torque value currently available according to the current rotating speed, the motor torque is limited, and damage to the motor is avoided. The driver demand torque is distributed to the front and rear axles to obtain a front axle driver demand torque and a rear axle driver demand torque. When the accelerator pedal is loosened by a driver, the energy is recovered, the motor enters a power generation mode, the minimum value of the available torque of the current motor, the torque reduction target value and the torque adjustment value of the driving motor, which is the minimum value of the driver demand torque distributed to the corresponding shaft, are transmitted to the motor, the slip torque reduction compensation of the front axle vehicle is carried out on the rear axle, if the rear axle slips and reduces the torque, the difference value compensation is carried out on the front axle, if the wheels of the front axle and the rear axle slip, the front axle and the rear axle both reduce the torque, the dynamic compensation ensures that the vehicle gets trapped, the motor is ensured to run in the power range, the continuous slip is ensured, meanwhile, the total demand torque of the driver is ensured to be fully reflected in the whole vehicle, and the vehicle dynamic property is ensured.
The pure electric four-wheel drive system comprises a front axle drive assembly and a rear axle drive assembly, wherein the front axle drive assembly comprises a front axle main speed reducer and a front axle drive motor which are coaxially connected, and a front axle drive motor controller is connected with the front axle drive motor and controls the front axle drive motor to output torque. The rear axle driving assembly comprises a rear axle main speed reducer and a rear axle driving motor which are coaxially connected, and the rear axle driving motor controller is connected with the rear axle driving motor and controls the rear axle driving motor to output torque. The high-voltage battery pack is connected with the front axle driving motor controller and the rear axle driving motor controller through high-voltage wires respectively. The high-voltage battery pack is connected with the high-voltage battery management system, the high-voltage battery management system controls the charging and discharging of the high-voltage battery pack, and the high-voltage battery management system, the ABS controller, the mode selection button, the front axle driving motor controller and the rear axle driving motor controller are connected with the whole vehicle controller. The data in the calibration graph is that the vehicle is calibrated on a low-adhesion road surface, an ice surface and a snow field. The calibration chart comprises a torque reduction ratio coefficient table, the calibration mode of the torque reduction ratio coefficient table is to be calibrated according to the requirement of the whole vehicle running mode, for example, the ECO mode is to perform bench test according to the optimal efficiency of the front and rear shaft driving motors to calibrate a torque distribution ratio table, and the movement mode is to calibrate the torque distribution ratio table according to the vehicle hundred kilometer acceleration experiment test. The snow mode marks a torque distribution proportion table according to a distribution strategy with equal front and rear axle torques. The front axle or the rear axle is required to reduce torque when the wheels of the front axle or the rear axle slip, the magnitude of the torque reduction requirement is judged according to the slip degree (the larger the difference between the average speed of the two wheels of the front axle or the rear axle and the vehicle speed of the whole vehicle reported by the ABS is, the more serious the slip is), and the larger the slip degree is, the larger the torque reduction requirement is. The ABS is the vehicle anti-lock system. And the whole vehicle controller acquires wheel speeds and vehicle speeds and effective prompt signals of the wheel speeds and the vehicle speeds according to data reported by the ABS.
Preferably, the step S1 includes the steps of:
step S11: judging whether the rotational speeds of the four wheels sent by the ABS are effective data, if so, calculating the sliding distance and the sliding time of each wheel through the rotational speeds of the four wheels and the speed of the whole vehicle; if the slip distance of the wheel exceeds a set threshold value and/or the slip time exceeds a set time, judging that the wheel slips; if not, executing the step S12;
step S12: the wheel slip distance is obtained by dividing the rotational speed of the wheel corresponding motor by the speed change box and the main speed reduction ratio, and if the slip distance exceeds a set threshold value and/or the slip time exceeds a set time, the wheel slip is determined.
The front axle wheel and the rear axle wheel may slip or not slip, so we divide into four states, namely: the front axle wheel and the rear axle wheel are both in the slipping condition, namely the slipping mark positions of the front axle wheel and the rear axle wheel are both 1; the front axle wheel skids, and the rear axle wheel skids under the condition that the rear axle wheel does not skid, namely the front axle wheel skids the mark position 1, and the rear axle wheel skids the mark position 1; the front axle wheel does not slip, the rear axle wheel slips, namely the front axle wheel slip mark position is not 1, the rear axle wheel slip mark position is 1; the front and rear axle wheels are not slipped, namely, the slip zone bit of the front and rear axle wheels is not set at 1. The four conditions basically cover the running conditions of the vehicle on different attached roads. The method compensates for the situation of wheel slip caused by torque distribution of the controller under the condition of road surfaces with different attachment coefficients.
Preferably, the step S2 further includes the steps of:
step S21: setting a calibration map based on a vehicle operating mode;
step S22: and obtaining a proportionality coefficient K according to the running mode, the sliding distance and the sliding time of the vehicle based on a set calibration chart, and multiplying the proportionality coefficient K by the required torque to obtain a torque reduction target value.
Preferably, the slip time in step S2 is a time accumulated after the wheel slip flag is detected.
Preferably, the slip distance S of the wheels in step S2 is calculated by integrating the front axle vehicle speed and/or the rear axle vehicle speed with the slip time:
wherein S is the slip distance, V (t) is the integral function of speed and time, dt is the system utilization time, and t0 is the starting time after detecting that the wheel rotation speed exceeds the average vehicle speed reported by the ABS.
Preferably, the vehicle operation modes include an ECO mode, a sport mode, and a snowfield mode.
Preferably, the method further comprises the step S4: if the torque of the front axle driving motor is reduced to a certain preset threshold value, subtracting the torque of the driving motor from the total required torque to obtain a torque compensation value, and compensating for the rear axle driving motor; and if the torque of the rear axle driving motor is reduced to a certain preset threshold value, subtracting the torque of the driving motor from the total required torque to obtain a torque compensation value, and compensating for the front axle driving motor. According to the running mode of the whole vehicle selected by a driver, such as an ECO mode, a movement mode and a snowfield mode, the wheel end torque of the whole vehicle is distributed to the front axle driving motor and the rear axle driving motor in a vehicle speed table look-up mode, the average speed of the wheels of the front axle or the rear axle driving motor is compared with the vehicle speed of the whole vehicle reported by the ABS according to the rotating speed of the front axle or the rear axle driving motor, if the speed difference exceeds a set threshold value, the wheels slip, the torque demand of the slipping driving motor is reduced, and the reduced torque is compensated for the non-slipping driving motor, so that the power performance of the whole vehicle is ensured.
Therefore, the invention has the following beneficial effects: and judging whether the wheel slip exceeds a slip threshold value according to the wheel speed and the whole vehicle speed, dynamically adjusting the front and rear axle torque of the vehicle according to the slip condition, and improving the driving comfort and economy of the electric vehicle while ensuring the power performance of the whole vehicle.
Drawings
Fig. 1 is a block diagram of a system for a pure electric vehicle according to an embodiment of the present invention.
Fig. 2 is a flow chart of slip flag calculation according to an embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 3 is a flowchart of a torque reduction target calculation according to an embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 4 is a flow chart of torque adjustment calculation according to an embodiment of the present invention.
Detailed Description
The invention is further described below with reference to the drawings and detailed description.
Examples:
the front and rear axle torque control system of the four-drive pure electric vehicle shown in fig. 1 consists of a front axle driving assembly and a rear axle driving assembly, wherein the front axle driving assembly comprises a front axle main reducer and a front axle driving motor which are coaxially connected, and a front axle driving motor controller is connected with the front axle driving motor and controls the front axle driving motor to output torque. The rear axle driving assembly comprises a rear axle main speed reducer and a rear axle driving motor which are coaxially connected, and the rear axle driving motor controller is connected with the rear axle driving motor and controls the rear axle driving motor to output torque. The high-voltage battery pack is connected with the front axle driving motor controller and the rear axle driving motor controller through high-voltage wires respectively. The high-voltage battery pack is connected with the high-voltage battery management system, the high-voltage battery management system controls the charging and discharging of the high-voltage battery pack, and the high-voltage battery management system, the ABS controller, the mode selection button, the front axle driving motor controller and the rear axle driving motor controller are connected with the whole vehicle controller.
The method for dynamically and smoothly compensating and distributing the front and rear axle torque of the four-wheel drive pure electric vehicle comprises the following steps: step S1: acquiring four wheel speeds and the speed of the whole vehicle; calculating the sliding distance and the sliding time of each wheel to judge whether each wheel slides or not;
step S11: judging whether the rotational speeds of the four wheels sent by the ABS are effective data, if so, calculating the sliding distance and the sliding time of each wheel through the rotational speeds of the four wheels and the speed of the whole vehicle; if the slip distance of the wheel exceeds a set threshold value and/or the slip time exceeds a set time, judging that the wheel slips; if not, executing the step S12;
step S12: the wheel slip distance is obtained by dividing the rotational speed of the wheel corresponding motor by the speed change box and the main speed reduction ratio, and if the slip distance exceeds a set threshold value and/or the slip time exceeds a set time, the wheel slip is determined. As shown in fig. 2, the front and rear axle wheels may slip or not slip, so we divide into four states, namely: the front axle wheel and the rear axle wheel are both in the slipping condition, namely the slipping mark positions of the front axle wheel and the rear axle wheel are both 1; the front axle wheel skids, and the rear axle wheel skids under the condition that the rear axle wheel does not skid, namely the front axle wheel skids the mark position 1, and the rear axle wheel skids the mark position 1; the front axle wheel does not slip, the rear axle wheel slips, namely the front axle wheel slip mark position is not 1, the rear axle wheel slip mark position is 1; the front and rear axle wheels are not slipped, namely, the slip zone bit of the front and rear axle wheels is not set at 1. The four conditions basically cover the running conditions of the vehicle on different attached roads. The method compensates for the situation of wheel slip caused by torque distribution of the controller under the condition of road surfaces with different attachment coefficients.
S2, inquiring a calibration chart according to the running mode, the sliding distance and the sliding time of the vehicle to obtain a torque reduction target value of the front axle torque and the rear axle torque;
step S21: setting a calibration map based on a vehicle operating mode;
step S22: and obtaining a proportionality coefficient K according to the running mode, the sliding distance and the sliding time of the vehicle based on a set calibration chart, and multiplying the proportionality coefficient K by the required torque to obtain a torque reduction target value. The slip time is accumulated time after the wheel slip marker bit is detected. The slip distance S of the wheels is calculated through integration of the front axle speed and/or the rear axle speed and the slip time:
wherein S is the slip distance, V (t) is the integral function of speed and time, dt is the system utilization time, and t0 is the starting time after detecting that the wheel rotation speed exceeds the average vehicle speed reported by the ABS.
Step S3: according to the current maximum available torque and the current minimum torque fed back by the front axle motor and the rear axle motor, calculating driving motor torque adjustment values of the front axle and the rear axle, selecting a torque reduction target value of the corresponding axle, the current maximum available torque value and the minimum value of the driver required torque as driving motor torque adjustment values when the vehicle accelerates, and selecting the torque reduction target value of the corresponding axle and the minimum value of the current minimum available torque value and the driver required torque as driving motor torque adjustment values when the vehicle decelerates; the front axle driving motor torque reduction value is used as a back axle driving motor compensation value, and the back axle driving motor torque reduction value is used as a front axle driving motor compensation value. The motor adopts constant power control, the higher the motor rotating speed is, the smaller the available torque value is, the motor reports the maximum and minimum torque value currently available according to the current rotating speed, the motor torque is limited, and damage to the motor is avoided. The driver demand torque is distributed to the front and rear axles to obtain a front axle driver demand torque and a rear axle driver demand torque. When the accelerator pedal is loosened by a driver, the energy is recovered, the motor enters a power generation mode, the minimum value of the available torque of the current motor, the torque reduction target value and the torque adjustment value of the driving motor, which is the minimum value of the driver demand torque distributed to the corresponding shaft, are transmitted to the motor, the slip torque reduction compensation of the front axle vehicle is carried out on the rear axle, if the rear axle slips and reduces the torque, the difference value compensation is carried out on the front axle, if the wheels of the front axle and the rear axle slip, the front axle and the rear axle both reduce the torque, the dynamic compensation ensures that the vehicle gets trapped, the motor is ensured to run in the power range, the continuous slip is ensured, meanwhile, the total demand torque of the driver is ensured to be fully reflected in the whole vehicle, and the vehicle dynamic property is ensured. The data in the calibration graph is that the vehicle is calibrated on a low-adhesion road surface, an ice surface and a snow field. The calibration chart comprises a torque reduction ratio coefficient table, the calibration mode of the torque reduction ratio coefficient table is to be calibrated according to the requirement of the whole vehicle running mode, for example, the ECO mode is to perform bench test according to the optimal efficiency of the front and rear shaft driving motors to calibrate a torque distribution ratio table, and the movement mode is to calibrate the torque distribution ratio table according to the vehicle hundred kilometer acceleration experiment test. The snow mode marks a torque distribution proportion table according to a distribution strategy with equal front and rear axle torques. The wheel of the front axle or the rear axle is in slipping condition, the front axle or the rear axle is subjected to torque reduction requirement, the torque reduction requirement is judged according to the slipping degree, the larger the difference between the average speed of the two wheels of the front axle or the rear axle and the vehicle speed of the whole vehicle reported by the ABS is, the more serious the slipping is, the larger the slipping degree is, and the torque reduction requirement is larger. The ABS is the vehicle anti-lock system.
Step S4: if the torque of the front axle driving motor is reduced to a certain preset threshold value, subtracting the torque of the driving motor from the total required torque to obtain a torque compensation value, and compensating for the rear axle driving motor; and if the torque of the rear axle driving motor is reduced to a certain preset threshold value, subtracting the torque of the driving motor from the total required torque to obtain a torque compensation value, and compensating for the front axle driving motor. Ensuring the dynamic performance of the whole vehicle. And meanwhile, the driving comfort and economy of the electric vehicle are improved.
The specific embodiments described herein are offered by way of example only to illustrate the spirit of the invention. Those skilled in the art may make various modifications or additions to the described embodiments or substitutions thereof without departing from the spirit of the invention or exceeding the scope of the invention as defined in the accompanying claims.
Although the terms torque, slip distance, drive motor, etc. are used more herein, the possibility of using other terms is not precluded. These terms are used merely for convenience in describing and explaining the nature of the invention; they are to be interpreted as any additional limitation that is not inconsistent with the spirit of the present invention.

Claims (6)

1. A dynamic smooth compensation distribution control method for front and rear axle torque of a four-wheel drive pure electric vehicle is characterized by comprising the following steps:
step S1: acquiring four wheel speeds and the speed of the whole vehicle; calculating the sliding distance and the sliding time of each wheel to judge whether each wheel slides or not;
s2, inquiring a calibration chart according to the running mode, the sliding distance and the sliding time of the vehicle to obtain a torque reduction target value of the front axle torque and the rear axle torque;
step S3: according to the current maximum available torque and the current minimum available torque fed back by the front axle motor and the rear axle motor, calculating driving motor torque adjustment values of the front axle and the rear axle, selecting a torque reduction target value of the corresponding axle, the current maximum available torque value and the minimum value of the driver required torque as driving motor torque adjustment values when the vehicle accelerates, and selecting the torque reduction target value of the corresponding axle and the minimum value of the current minimum available torque value and the driver required torque as driving motor torque adjustment values when the vehicle decelerates; the front axle driving motor torque reduction value is used as a rear axle driving motor compensation value, and the rear axle driving motor torque reduction value is used as a front axle driving motor compensation value;
step S4: if the torque of the front axle driving motor is reduced to a certain preset threshold value, subtracting the torque of the driving motor from the total required torque to obtain a torque compensation value, and compensating for the rear axle driving motor; and if the torque of the rear axle driving motor is reduced to a certain preset threshold value, subtracting the torque of the driving motor from the total required torque to obtain a torque compensation value, and compensating for the front axle driving motor.
2. The method for dynamically and smoothly compensating and distributing the torque of the front and rear axles of the four-wheel drive pure electric vehicle according to claim 1, wherein the step S1 comprises the following steps:
step S11: judging whether the rotational speeds of the four wheels sent by the ABS are effective data, if so, calculating the sliding distance and the sliding time of each wheel through the rotational speeds of the four wheels and the speed of the whole vehicle; if the slip distance of the wheel exceeds a set threshold value and/or the slip time exceeds a set time, judging that the wheel slips; if not, executing the step S12;
step S12: the wheel slip distance is obtained by dividing the rotational speed of the wheel corresponding motor by the speed change box and the main speed reduction ratio, and if the slip distance exceeds a set threshold value and/or the slip time exceeds a set time, the wheel slip is determined.
3. The method for dynamically and smoothly compensating and distributing the torque of the front and rear axles of the four-wheel drive electric vehicle according to claim 2, wherein the step S2 further comprises the following steps:
step S21: setting a calibration map based on a vehicle operating mode;
step S22: and obtaining a proportionality coefficient K according to the running mode, the sliding distance and the sliding time of the vehicle based on a set calibration chart, and multiplying the proportionality coefficient K by the required torque to obtain a torque reduction target value.
4. The method for dynamically and smoothly compensating and distributing the torque of the front and rear axles of the four-wheel drive electric vehicle according to claim 3, wherein the slip time in the step S2 is the accumulated time after the wheel slip flag bit is detected.
5. The method for dynamically and smoothly compensating and distributing the torque of the front and rear axles of the four-wheel drive electric vehicle according to claim 4, wherein the slip distance S of the wheels in the step S2 is calculated by integrating the speed of the front axle and/or the speed of the rear axle with the slip time:
wherein S is the slip distance, V (t) is the integral function of speed and time, dt is the system utilization time, and t0 is the starting time after detecting that the wheel rotation speed exceeds the average vehicle speed reported by the ABS.
6. The method for dynamically compensating and controlling the distribution of torque in front of and behind a four-wheel drive electric vehicle according to any one of claims 1 to 5, wherein the vehicle running modes include an ECO mode, a sport mode and a snowfield mode.
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