CN113148791B - Rapid calculation method for elevator balance coefficient - Google Patents

Rapid calculation method for elevator balance coefficient Download PDF

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Publication number
CN113148791B
CN113148791B CN202110343898.2A CN202110343898A CN113148791B CN 113148791 B CN113148791 B CN 113148791B CN 202110343898 A CN202110343898 A CN 202110343898A CN 113148791 B CN113148791 B CN 113148791B
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elevator
torque
counterweight
same horizontal
horizontal position
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CN113148791A (en
Inventor
高常进
张清鹏
戴光宇
张鹏
毕陈帅
吕哲
贺政豪
谢然
王志宇
卞敬
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Tianjin Institute Of Special Equipment Supervision And Inspection Technology (tianjin Special Equipment Accident Emergency Investigation And Treatment Center)
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Tianjin Institute Of Special Equipment Supervision And Inspection Technology (tianjin Special Equipment Accident Emergency Investigation And Treatment Center)
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B66HOISTING; LIFTING; HAULING
    • B66BELEVATORS; ESCALATORS OR MOVING WALKWAYS
    • B66B5/00Applications of checking, fault-correcting, or safety devices in elevators
    • B66B5/0006Monitoring devices or performance analysers
    • B66B5/0037Performance analysers

Abstract

The invention discloses a method for quickly calculating an elevator balance coefficient, which comprises the following stepsThe method comprises the following steps: A. the clamp-on ammeter respectively tests the current values of the elevator when the elevator runs upwards and downwards in the idle load to the same horizontal position of the lift car and the counterweight(ii) a B. Inquiring elevator tractor nameplate to confirm rated current of hostAnd rated torque(ii) a C. For the permanent magnet synchronous traction machine, the output torque at the same horizontal position is obtainedAnd(ii) a D. The equilibrium coefficient is obtained. The elevator counterweight balance system has the advantages that currents when the elevator runs upwards and downwards in a no-load state and is at the same horizontal position as the lift car and the counterweight are respectively measured and recorded by the aid of the pincerlike ammeter, and the balance coefficient can be rapidly solved and judged by means of the elevator traction machine related parameters, so that a theoretical basis is provided for field installation, debugging, inspection and maintenance personnel to rapidly diagnose the safety state of the elevator, and manpower, material resources and financial resources are saved.

Description

Rapid calculation method for elevator balance coefficient
Technical Field
The invention relates to the field of safe operation of elevators, in particular to a method for quickly calculating a balance coefficient of a no-load elevator.
Background
The elevator becomes a window and a name card of urban civilization, is also an indispensable vertical transportation tool in daily production and life of common people, plays an irreplaceable important role in social and economic development, and is special equipment directly related to life and property safety of people. The elevator balance coefficient is an important performance index of the traction type driving elevator, and is an important parameter for determining the running safety quality of the elevator. The ideal balance coefficient not only can improve the running efficiency of the traction machine and reduce the loss of the motor, but also is closely related to the braking force and the traction force of an elevator system, and has no obvious significance on the running safety of the elevator.
The TSG T7001-2009 elevator supervision inspection and regular inspection rule-traction and forced drive elevator contains No. 1 modification list, No. 2 modification list and No. 3 modification list (hereinafter, the inspection and specification abbreviations are used for replacing), and the balance coefficient of the traction elevator is regulated to be between 0.40 and 0.50 or to be in accordance with the design value of a manufacturing (transformation) unit. Currently, mainstream enterprises require that the design value of the balance coefficient is between 0.40 and 0.50, and meanwhile, the TSG T7001-2009 elevator supervision and inspection and regular inspection rule-traction and forced drive elevator fourth rule also stipulates that the enterprise can stipulate the design value meeting the requirements, namely, if special conditions that the technical indexes and requirements of the rule are affected by new technologies, new materials, new processes and the like related to elevator production and inspection occur, the national market supervision bureau can propose corresponding requirements according to specific conditions. The rules may be specified to determine the balance factor by one of the following methods: (1) the lift car respectively loads 30%, 40%, 45%, 50% and 60% of rated load capacity to carry out up-down full-range operation, when the lift car and the counterweight operate to the same horizontal position, the current value of the motor is recorded, a current-load curve is drawn, and a balance coefficient is determined by the intersection point of the up-down operation curve and the down-operation curve; (2) the method is identified as specified in the fourth paragraph of this rule. Currently, how to quickly and accurately test and obtain the balance coefficient becomes a big hotspot of research.
Patent document ZL2013100375633 discloses a method for detecting the balance coefficient of an elevator, which comprises the steps of controlling the elevator to run to a position where the weights of a hoisting rope on a car side and a hoisting rope on a counterweight side are just offset with each other; then controlling the traction machine to operate at zero speed, opening a band-type brake, and recording the output torque of the traction machine at the moment after detecting that the elevator does not move; and calculating an elevator balance coefficient q according to the traction ratio of the traction machine, the radius of a traction wheel, the rated load of the elevator, the measured output torque and the gravity acceleration of the detection place. The solution proposed is applicable to all types of elevator hoisting machines, but has some disadvantages.
1. The tractor is controlled to operate at zero speed and then the brake is opened, meanwhile, the state process of outputting torque does not belong to the normal operation state of the elevator, and a test device is additionally arranged or a test program is customized in a control system for testing, so the universality is not high.
2. The test state needs to reach a state that the output torque of the frequency converter is exactly equal to the unbalanced torque of the traction sheave in a static state and the unbalanced torque is mutually offset. This state cannot be realized accurately, and if the state is careless, the car is easy to move accidentally.
Patent document ZL2011103978991 discloses an elevator balance coefficient measuring instrument and a detection method thereof, and the elevator balance coefficient measuring instrument comprises a controller module, a human-machine operation module, a sensor module, an output module and a power supply module, wherein the human-machine operation module, the sensor module, the output module and the power supply module are respectively and electrically connected with the controller module; the controller module is an ARM embedded central processing unit, and the sensor module is a flat plate type force and weighing sensor and is used for measuring the total weight of the counterweight side when the car is positioned at the highest landing and the total weight of the car side when the car is positioned at the lowest landing, and further calculating a balance coefficient. The scheme has strong universality, but also has some defects.
1. The testing process is complicated, time and labor are consumed, and the working complexity is basically equal to or even exceeds that of a load measuring method;
2. the cost of the instrument and the equipment is high, and special test equipment needs to be purchased additionally.
At present, common detection methods for the balance coefficient of the elevator comprise a load method and a no-load method. The load method is divided into a manual barring method and a load current method. The manual barring method is characterized in that standard weights with rated loads of 40% and 50% are respectively placed in a car, when the elevator stops at the same height of the car and the counterweight in maintenance operation, a main power supply is cut off, a brake is manually released, and the balance coefficient of the elevator is judged to be in the range by observing the 'car sliding' operation direction of the elevator. And (3) performing upper and lower full-range operation on the car respectively loading 30%, 40%, 45%, 50% and 60% of rated load capacity by using a current detection method such as TSG T7001-2009, recording the current value of the motor when the car and the counterweight move to the same horizontal position, drawing a current-load curve, and determining a balance coefficient at the intersection point of the upper and lower operation curves. The research result of the no-load method mainly tests parameters related to the balance coefficient of the elevator in a related test state by means of an externally developed instrument, and then calculates the balance coefficient through related operation. The scheme has the advantages of complex design, multiple test parameters, high cost and no official certification on whether the accuracy is high or not, and special instruments and equipment need to be purchased.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to solve the technical problem of overcoming the defects of the prior art and provides a method for quickly calculating the balance coefficient of a no-load elevator, which is suitable for a permanent magnet synchronous traction machine, has strong universality, low cost and simple and convenient operation.
The technical scheme adopted by the invention is that the method for rapidly calculating the balance coefficient of the elevator comprises the following steps:
A. clamp-on ammeter for respectively testing no-load up-running and down-running of elevatorCurrent value I when running to the same horizontal position of the car and the counterweightOutput 1、IOutput 2
B. Inquiring elevator traction machine nameplate to confirm rated current I of main machineForehead (forehead)And rated torque TForehead (forehead)
C. For the permanent magnet synchronous traction machine, the output torque T at the same horizontal position is obtainedOutput 1And TOutput 2TOutput ofAre respectively TOutput 1And TOutput 2
D. Obtaining a balance coefficient;
coefficient of balance
The system comprises Q elevator balance coefficients, Q elevator rated load capacity, i elevator steel wire rope traction ratio, g gravity acceleration, D traction wheel pitch diameter (m), eta elevator transmission system total mechanical efficiency, and eta is generally 0.9-1 for a permanent magnet synchronous traction machine.
Step C, ascending in no-load mode, enabling the elevator to run to the position where the lift car and the counterweight are at the same horizontal position, and enabling a system torque equation to be
TOutput 1=T-TInertia
Wherein, TOutput 1For the output torque of the frequency converter at this time, T-TInertiaAt this time, the torque is loaded;
the elevator runs to the same horizontal position of the car and the counterweight when the elevator is in idle load descending, and the system torque equation is
TOutput 2=T+TInertia
Wherein, TOutput 2For the output torque of the frequency converter at this time, T + TInertiaAt this time, the torque is loaded;
the elevator system has an unbalanced torque of
Step D, stress is applied when the lift car and the counterweight are in the same horizontal position in the static state of the lift system,
unbalanced torque applied to traction sheave by car and counterweight system
According to the elevator balance coefficient calculation formula
Conversion of the balance factor into an unbalanced torque of the elevator system of
Wherein M is2Weight of the counterweight (kg), M1The elevator traction system comprises a lift car weight (kg), an unbalanced torque of a T elevator system, a Q elevator balance coefficient, a Q elevator rated load capacity, I elevator steel wire rope traction ratio, g gravity acceleration, D traction wheel pitch diameter (m), I reducer transmission ratio, 1-I permanent magnet synchronous traction machine and total mechanical efficiency of an eta elevator transmission system.
The elevator balance system has the advantages that currents when the elevator runs upwards and downwards in a no-load state and the counterweight is at the same horizontal position are respectively measured and recorded by the aid of the pincerlike ammeter, the balance coefficient can be rapidly solved and judged by means of the elevator traction machine related parameters, theoretical basis is provided for rapid diagnosis of elevator safety states of field installation, debugging, inspection and maintenance personnel, and manpower, material resources and financial resources are saved.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram of the system state when the car and the counterweight are at the same horizontal position (traction ratio 1: 1);
FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram of system stress analysis when a car and a counterweight are at the same horizontal position (traction ratio is 1: 1);
fig. 3 is a schematic diagram of a test method.
Detailed Description
The invention is described in further detail below with reference to the following figures and detailed description:
as shown in FIG. 1, FIG. 2 and FIG. 3, the invention provides a method for rapidly calculating the balance coefficient of an elevator, comprising the following steps
A. The AC gear of the clamp-on ammeter measures the current of any phase of the three phases (the inlet end of the elevator tractor) output by the frequency converter, and respectively tests the current I when the elevator runs to the lift car and the counterweight at the same horizontal position in the idle-load ascending and descending mannerOutput 1、IOutput 2
B. Inquiring a nameplate of the elevator traction machine to obtain the rated current I of the traction machineForehead (forehead)And rated torque TForehead (forehead)
C. For the permanent magnet synchronous traction machine, the output torque T at the same horizontal position is obtainedOutput 1And TOutput 2(ii) a According toNamely, to find TOutput 1、TOutput 2
D. Obtaining a balance coefficient;
coefficient of balance
The system comprises Q elevator balance coefficients, Q elevator rated load capacity, i elevator steel wire rope traction ratio, g gravity acceleration, D traction wheel pitch diameter (m), eta elevator transmission system total mechanical efficiency, and eta is generally 0.9-1 for a permanent magnet synchronous traction machine.
And analyzing the stress of the elevator car and the counterweight when the elevator system is in the same horizontal position in the static state. Because there is the weight difference to counter weight and car, form unbalanced torque at traction sheave both ends, the stopper releases under the static state, provides braking torque, and braking torque is greater than unbalanced torque under normal condition, prevents that the car from taking place to remove.
Obtaining unbalanced torque of the lift car and the counterweight acting on the traction sheaveWherein M is2Weight of the counterweight (kg), M1Car weight (kg), η is the total mechanical efficiency taking into account the mechanical losses of the system, I reducer transmission ratio.
According to the formula of the balance coefficientAnd obtaining the relation between the unbalanced torque T acted on the traction sheave by the system and the balance coefficient q, and further converting the balance coefficient solving into the unbalanced torque solving of the elevator system.
The system comprises a T elevator system, a G elevator system, a D traction wheel pitch circle diameter (m), a I reducer transmission ratio, a T elevator system, a Q elevator balance coefficient, a Q elevator rated load capacity, an I elevator steel wire rope traction ratio, g gravity acceleration, a D traction wheel pitch circle diameter (m), and an I reducer transmission ratio, wherein parameter values are usually marked on a nameplate for an asynchronous motor; for a permanent magnet synchronous tractor, the total mechanical efficiency of an elevator transmission system is eta, wherein I is 1.
When the elevator runs, the frequency converter outputs current, the traction machine is electrified and excited to generate electromagnetic torque, and the output torque of the frequency converter is equal to the electromagnetic torque of the traction machine. When the elevator accelerates, the electromagnetic torque of the tractor is larger than the load torque, when the elevator decelerates, the electromagnetic torque is equal to the load torque, and when the elevator decelerates, the electromagnetic torque is smaller than the load torque. Selecting a constant speed state for analysis, selecting the positions of the lift car and the counterweight on the same horizontal plane in order to eliminate the influence of the weight of the traction steel wire rope and the compensation chain (matching) on the system, wherein the system reaches a torque balance state, and the output torque of the frequency converter, the unbalanced torque T of the system and the inertia torque T of the traction sheaveInertiaThere is a quantitative relationship. The inertia torque of the traction sheave comprises friction torque caused by friction force of the steel wire rope acting on the traction sheave and torque caused by rotation of the self weight of the traction sheave. No matter the elevator goes up and down, because the friction force on the traction sheave is the same when the elevator car and the counterweight are at the same horizontal plane position (no consideration is given to relative sliding between the steel wire rope and the traction sheave), the inertia torque of the system is equal in magnitude and opposite in direction under the two running conditions.
The elevator runs to the same horizontal position of the lift car and the counterweight when the elevator runs in an idle load ascending mode, at the moment, the elevator runs at a constant speed, the running speed is a rated speed, the output torque of the frequency converter is equal to the load torque of the system, and the system torque equation is
TOutput 1=T-TInertiaWherein, TOutput 1For the output torque of the frequency converter at this time, T-TInertiaFor this purpose, a torque is loaded.
The elevator runs to the same horizontal position of the lift car and the counterweight when the elevator runs in an idle load downward mode, at the moment, the elevator runs at a constant speed, the running speed is a rated speed, the output torque of the frequency converter is equal to the load torque of the system, and the system torque equation is
TOutput 2=T+TInertiaWherein, TOutput 2For the output torque of the frequency converter at this time, T + TInertiaFor this purpose, a torque is loaded.
Combining the two formulas to obtainNamely, the solution of the unbalanced torque is converted into the solution of the output torque of the frequency converter. The formula is suitable for all types of elevator traction machines, but the output torque of the frequency converter can be directly displayed only through an operation panel under certain conditions, and otherwise, the output torque is difficult to directly obtain.
For the permanent magnet synchronous traction machine for elevator, the permanent magnet synchronous traction machine is required to work below the rated rotating speed, and in order to obtain stable speed regulation performance, the speed regulation is generally carried out by adopting the zero d-axis current control principle, i.e. i is set during the controld0, tractor electromagnetic torque valueWherein p isnThe number of the pole pairs of the motor is,for the permanent-magnet flux linkage of the motor being a constant value, iqIs quadrature axis current, i.e. torque current.
The above formula shows that the electromagnetic torque of the permanent magnet synchronous traction machine is in direct proportion to the torque current, that is, the output torque of the frequency converter is in direct proportion to the output current.
Example (b):
the following tests were conducted on two passenger elevators, the main machine of which was a permanent magnet synchronous traction machine, respectively.
The tractor of the passenger elevator 1 is a common permanent magnet synchronous tractor in the market, and the tractor of the passenger elevator 2 is a special purpose GeN2 steel belt host machine for aoris. The host machines of two different types ensure the reproducibility of the test result. The following table 1 is the basic parameters of the passenger elevator 1 and the passenger elevator 2.
Table 1 basic parameters of passenger elevator 1 and passenger elevator 2
Parameter(s) Passenger ladder 1 Passenger ladder 2
With or without machine room Is provided with Is free of
Load weight kg 1000 1000
Rated speed m/s 1.0 1.0
Landing door 3/3/4 3/3/3
With or without compensation chains Is free of Is free of
The traction machine parameter I can be obtained from the nameplate of the host of the passenger elevator 1Forehead (forehead)=15A,TForehead (forehead)=640N·m。
The balance coefficient of the elevator is measured by a load method, the elevator car is respectively loaded with 30%, 40%, 45%, 50% and 60% of rated load capacity to carry out the whole-process operation of the elevator car and the elevator car, and when the elevator car and the counterweight run to the same horizontal position, the current value of the motor is measured and recorded by using a clamp-on ammeter alternating current gear. The ladder equilibrium coefficient was measured to be 45%.
The method for deriving no-load current is adopted, the current value of the motor (output current of a frequency converter) is measured by using the alternating current gear of the pincer-shaped ammeter, and the currents when the elevator runs upwards and downwards in no-load to the lift car and the counterweight are respectively measured to be IOutput 1=8.0A、IOutput 210.5A. In the test process, the current of the motor is basically unchanged when the elevator runs to a position where the car and the counterweight are at the same horizontal position and a distance between the car and the counterweight is observed through the display screen of the clamp-on ammeter, and the correctness of the derivation process is reflected laterally.
Calculating the balance coefficient of the ladder Eta is 0.9 to 1, and q is calculated to be 0.402 to 0.447.
The traction machine parameter I can be obtained from the nameplate of the host of the passenger elevator 2Forehead (forehead)=8.6A,TForehead (forehead)=160N·m。
The balance coefficient of the elevator is measured by a load method, the elevator car is respectively loaded with 30%, 40%, 45%, 50% and 60% of rated load capacity to carry out the whole-process operation of the elevator car and the elevator car, and when the elevator car and the counterweight run to the same horizontal position, the current value of the motor is measured and recorded by using a clamp-on ammeter alternating current gear. The ladder equilibrium coefficient was measured to be 47%.
The method for deriving no-load current is adopted, the current value of the motor (output current of a frequency converter) is measured by using the alternating current gear of the pincer-shaped ammeter, and the currents when the elevator runs upwards and downwards in no-load to the lift car and the counterweight are respectively measured to be IOutput 1=4.2A、IOutput 2=9.1A。
Calculating the balance coefficient of the ladder Eta is 0.9 to 1, and q is calculated to be 0.420 to 0.467.
The correctness of the theoretical derivation is verified by two methods of testing the passenger elevator 1 and the passenger elevator 2, the method is limited by the influence of uncertainty of numerical values of the total mechanical efficiency eta of an elevator transmission system, and the calculated value of the balance coefficient by the method is not very accurate at present. The existing multiple test results show that when the eta value is close to 0.9, the calculation method is closer to the actual equilibrium coefficient value, which is more consistent with the actual condition of mechanical loss, and the eta value is summarized and revised by combining a large amount of test data in the later work, so that the calculation result is more accurate.
It should be noted that the protection scope of the present invention is not limited to the above specific examples, and the object of the present invention can be achieved by substantially the same structure according to the basic technical concept of the present invention, and embodiments that can be imagined by those skilled in the art without creative efforts belong to the protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (1)

1. The method for quickly calculating the balance coefficient of the elevator is characterized by comprising the following steps
A. The clamp-on ammeter respectively tests the output current value of the frequency converter when the elevator runs upwards and downwards in the idle load to the same horizontal position of the lift car and the counterweight
B. Inquiring elevator tractor nameplate to confirm rated current of hostAnd rated torque
C. For the permanent magnet synchronous traction machine, the output torque of the frequency converter at the same horizontal position is obtainedAnd
are respectively asAnd
when the elevator runs in an idle load ascending mode, the elevator runs to the position where the lift car and the counterweight are at the same horizontal position, and the system torque equation is as follows
Wherein the content of the first and second substances,T output 1For the output torque of the frequency converter at this time,at this time, the torque is loaded;
the elevator runs to the same horizontal position of the car and the counterweight when the elevator is in idle load descending, and the system torque equation is
Wherein the content of the first and second substances,T output 2For the output torque of the frequency converter at this time,at this time, the torque is loaded;
the elevator system has an unbalanced torque of
When the lift car and the counterweight are in the same horizontal position in the static state of the elevator system,
unbalanced torque applied to traction sheave by car and counterweight system
According to the elevator balance coefficient calculation formula
Conversion of the balance factor into an unbalanced torque of the elevator system of
Wherein the content of the first and second substances,M 2the weight (kg) of the counterweight,M 1the weight (kg) of the car,the unbalanced torque of the elevator system is,the balance coefficient of the elevator is calculated,Qthe nominal load capacity of the elevator,ithe traction ratio of the steel wire rope of the elevator,gthe acceleration of the gravity is carried out,Dthe diameter (m) of the traction wheel section circle,speed reducer transmission ratio, permanent magnet synchronous traction machine=1,ηOverall mechanical efficiency of the elevator drive system;
D. obtaining a balance coefficient;
coefficient of balance
Wherein the content of the first and second substances,qthe balance coefficient of the elevator is calculated,Qthe nominal load capacity of the elevator,the traction ratio of the steel wire rope of the elevator,gthe acceleration of the gravity is carried out,Dthe diameter (m) of the traction wheel section circle,ηthe total mechanical efficiency of the elevator transmission system is improved, and for the permanent magnet synchronous traction machine,ηtypically 0.91。
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Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN102689826A (en) * 2012-05-31 2012-09-26 广州日滨科技发展有限公司 Method and system for detecting balance coefficient of elevator on basis of frequency converter
CN105253732A (en) * 2015-08-03 2016-01-20 西子奥的斯电梯有限公司 Method for detecting balance coefficient of elevator
CN105752785A (en) * 2016-04-13 2016-07-13 苏州汇川技术有限公司 System and method for detecting elevator balance coefficient
CN108328445A (en) * 2018-02-07 2018-07-27 湖北九泰安全环保技术有限公司 A kind of check method of balance coefficient of elevator
CN111348511A (en) * 2020-02-26 2020-06-30 沈阳市蓝光自动化技术有限公司 Elevator braking force accurate detection method based on elevator balance coefficient

Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN102689826A (en) * 2012-05-31 2012-09-26 广州日滨科技发展有限公司 Method and system for detecting balance coefficient of elevator on basis of frequency converter
CN105253732A (en) * 2015-08-03 2016-01-20 西子奥的斯电梯有限公司 Method for detecting balance coefficient of elevator
CN105752785A (en) * 2016-04-13 2016-07-13 苏州汇川技术有限公司 System and method for detecting elevator balance coefficient
CN108328445A (en) * 2018-02-07 2018-07-27 湖北九泰安全环保技术有限公司 A kind of check method of balance coefficient of elevator
CN111348511A (en) * 2020-02-26 2020-06-30 沈阳市蓝光自动化技术有限公司 Elevator braking force accurate detection method based on elevator balance coefficient

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