CN112343633A - Advanced support method for mining roadway - Google Patents

Advanced support method for mining roadway Download PDF

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Publication number
CN112343633A
CN112343633A CN202011193123.3A CN202011193123A CN112343633A CN 112343633 A CN112343633 A CN 112343633A CN 202011193123 A CN202011193123 A CN 202011193123A CN 112343633 A CN112343633 A CN 112343633A
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
anchor cable
top beam
recoverable
cylinder
anchor
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CN202011193123.3A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN112343633B (en
Inventor
赵希栋
刘洪涛
秦洪岩
江文渊
郭林峰
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North China Institute of Science and Technology
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North China Institute of Science and Technology
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Priority to CN202011193123.3A priority Critical patent/CN112343633B/en
Publication of CN112343633A publication Critical patent/CN112343633A/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of CN112343633B publication Critical patent/CN112343633B/en
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D17/00Caps for supporting mine roofs
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D21/00Anchoring-bolts for roof, floor in galleries or longwall working, or shaft-lining protection
    • E21D21/0093Accessories

Abstract

The invention provides a method for supporting a mining roadway in advance, which comprises the following steps: step S1, drilling an anchor hole in a roof rock stratum of the mining roadway, and installing an anchor cable in the anchor hole, wherein the anchor cable extends out of the roof rock stratum; step S2, mounting a recoverable top beam on the part of the anchor cable exposed out of the top plate rock stratum, wherein the recoverable top beam passes through the anchor cable and is tightly attached to the top plate rock stratum; step S3, mounting a constant-resistance yielding device on the part of the anchor cable exposed out of the recoverable top beam, and pressing the recoverable top beam on the top plate rock stratum by the constant-resistance yielding device; and step S4, after the anchor cable, the recoverable top beam and the constant-resistance yielding device are used up, the anchor cable is cut off through the recoverable top beam so as to recover the constant-resistance yielding device and the recoverable top beam. The supporting method effectively reduces the supporting cost, is simple to operate, is particularly suitable for the advanced supporting of stoping roadways on two sides of a coal face, and well solves the problems that the single hydraulic prop occupies the roadway space under the supporting, consumes manpower and material resources and the like.

Description

Advanced support method for mining roadway
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of rock-soil anchoring and engineering supporting, and particularly relates to a mining roadway advanced supporting method.
Background
With the increasingly complex underground coal mine mining conditions, roadway surrounding rocks often show irresistible large deformation characteristics under difficult conditions, and particularly for a stoping roadway affected by severe mining, secondary support needs to be carried out within a certain range in front of a working face to guarantee safe production. Although the commonly used single hydraulic prop can play a better maintenance role, the single hydraulic prop not only occupies a large amount of roadway space, but also consumes a large amount of manpower, and the effective operation of production operation is seriously influenced; in addition, although the conventional anchor cable can reduce the influence of support on the roadway space, the anchor cable also has the advantages of high strength, large control range, high prestress application and the like, the extension performance and the impact resistance of the anchor cable are difficult to adapt to severe deformation of surrounding rocks. The conventional stoping roadway support method occupies larger roadway space.
Therefore, there is a need to provide an improved solution to the above-mentioned deficiencies of the prior art.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide a constant-resistance suspended top beam to at least solve the problem that the conventional stoping roadway supporting method occupies a large roadway space.
In order to achieve the above purpose, the invention provides the following technical scheme:
a method for supporting a mining roadway in advance comprises the following steps:
step S1, drilling an anchor hole in a roof rock stratum of the mining roadway, and installing an anchor cable in the anchor hole, wherein the anchor cable extends out of the roof rock stratum;
step S2, mounting a recoverable top beam on the part of the anchor cable exposed out of the roof rock stratum, wherein the recoverable top beam passes through the anchor cable and clings to the roof rock stratum;
step S3, installing a constant-resistance yielding device on the part of the anchor cable exposed out of the recoverable top beam, wherein the constant-resistance yielding device compresses the recoverable top beam on the top plate rock stratum;
and step S4, after the anchor cable, the recoverable top beam and the constant-resistance yielding device are used up, cutting the anchor cable through the recoverable top beam so as to recover the constant-resistance yielding device and the recoverable top beam.
In the forepoling method for the mining roadway as described above, preferably, at least one row of recoverable top beams are arranged in the width direction of the mining roadway, and the recoverable top beams are arranged in sections;
preferably, the length of each section of the recoverable top beam ranges from 1.3m to 1.7m, and the number of the anchor cables penetrating through each section of the recoverable top beam is at least two.
According to the forepoling method for the stoping roadway, preferably, the recoverable top beam comprises a box-shaped top beam and a shearing device, the shearing device is arranged in a protection space of the box-shaped top beam and comprises a hydraulic cylinder, a sliding gasket and a shearing head, a hole is formed in the shearing head and used for the anchor cable to penetrate through, and the hydraulic cylinder comprises an inner cylinder barrel and an outer cylinder barrel;
the anchor cable penetrates through the hole in the shearing head and the inner cylinder of the oil cylinder, and the anchor cable penetrates through the box-shaped top beam.
In the forepoling method for the mining roadway as described above, preferably, the recoverable top beam is temporarily propped against the top rock stratum by using the single hydraulic prop when the recoverable top beam is installed.
According to the advance support method for the mining roadway, preferably, the constant-resistance yielding device comprises a metal pipe and a tapered lock, the inner wall of the metal pipe is provided with threads, and a spring is arranged in the threads;
the inner cylinder of the oil cylinder penetrates through the lower bottom plate of the box-shaped top beam, and the metal pipe is sleeved on the periphery of the anchor rope and is connected with the lower end part of the inner cylinder of the oil cylinder; the tapered lock is positioned below the metal pipe and between the anchor cable and the metal pipe, and the tapered lock is fastened on the anchor cable and compresses the metal pipe so as to compress the recoverable top beam on a roof strata; and after the taper lock is installed, the single hydraulic prop can be detached.
In the forepoling method for the mining roadway, preferably, a backing plate is installed on the periphery of the top of the metal pipe, and the backing plate is in contact connection with the lower bottom plate of the recoverable top beam and is used for stopping the metal pipe from moving upwards to extrude the cylinder inner cylinder and the shearing head.
In the forepoling method for the mining roadway as described above, preferably, the outer diameter of the metal pipe is larger than the maximum outer diameter of the cylinder inner cylinder, and the upper end surface of the metal pipe is in contact connection with the lower bottom plate of the recoverable top beam to form a stopping structure for stopping the metal pipe from moving upwards.
In the forepoling method for the mining roadway, preferably, a wedge-shaped block is installed inside the tapered lock; when the tapered lock is installed, the hollow tapered lock is firstly sleeved on the periphery of the anchor cable, the tapered lock is abutted to the lower part of the metal pipe, and then a wedge block is installed between the tapered lock and the anchor cable so as to fix the tapered lock on the anchor cable.
In the forepoling method for the mining roadway, preferably, the shearing head comprises two metal blocks, and the metal blocks are L-shaped;
the transverse edges of the metal blocks are mutually overlapped, and holes are formed in the transverse edges of the two metal blocks; the vertical edges of the two metal blocks are respectively in sliding fit with the two ends of the sliding gasket, and the distance between the vertical edge of the metal block and the inner cylinder of the oil cylinder is continuously shortened along the upward direction.
According to the forepoling method for the mining roadway, preferably, an oil inlet and an oil outlet are formed in the outer cylinder of the oil cylinder;
when the anchor cable is cut off, an oil inlet and an oil outlet on the oil cylinder outer cylinder are respectively connected with an oil inlet pipeline and an oil outlet pipeline, the oil cylinder outer cylinder upwards pushes the sliding gasket, and the sliding gasket pushes the shearing head in the radial direction of the anchor cable, so that the shearing head moves towards two sides and shears the anchor cable in the radial direction of the anchor cable.
Compared with the closest prior art, the technical scheme provided by the invention has the following excellent effects:
the advance support method for the mining roadway provided by the invention can facilitate the installation of the constant-resistance suspension top beam, realizes the recycling of the constant-resistance suspension top beam, and effectively reduces the support cost.
In the advance support method, the constant-resistance yielding device is used, so that when the anchor cable is subjected to a large acting force, the anchor cable can drive the tapered lock to slide in the metal pipe, and the anchor cable is prevented from being broken due to large stress; the anchor cable is continuously yielding under constant high-strength support resistance, damage of instantaneous impact force to the cable body is effectively relieved, the yielding range of the constant-resistance yielding device can be set according to engineering conditions, and the problem that a traditional anchor cable is easy to break under the conditions of large deformation of surrounding rock and impact load is solved.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic view of the installation of a constant-resistance suspended top beam in an embodiment of the invention;
FIG. 2 is an enlarged view of FIG. 1 at A;
FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram of a recoverable top beam in an embodiment of the present disclosure;
FIG. 4 is a schematic structural diagram of an L-shaped metal block according to an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 5 is a schematic structural diagram of a sliding gasket according to an embodiment of the present invention;
fig. 6 is a schematic structural diagram of a constant resistance yielding device in an embodiment of the present invention.
In the figure: 1. a constant resistance yielding device; 2. the top beam can be recycled; 3. a metal tube; 4. a spring; 5. a tapered lock; 51. a wedge block; 6. a cutter; 7. a box-shaped top beam; 8. an oil cylinder outer cylinder; 9. a sliding gasket; 10. a base plate; 11. an anchor cable; 12. surrounding rocks; 13. a thread; 14. a hole; 15. an oil inlet; 16. an oil outlet; 17. an oil cylinder inner cylinder; 18. a blocking plug; 19. a metal block.
Detailed Description
The technical solutions in the embodiments of the present invention will be described clearly and completely below, and it is obvious that the described embodiments are only a part of the embodiments of the present invention, and not all embodiments. All other embodiments that can be derived by one of ordinary skill in the art from the embodiments given herein are intended to be within the scope of the present invention.
In the description of the present invention, the terms "longitudinal", "lateral", "upper", "lower", "front", "rear", "left", "right", "vertical", "horizontal", "top", "bottom", and the like indicate orientations or positional relationships based on the orientations or positional relationships shown in the drawings, which are for convenience of description of the present invention only and do not require that the present invention must be constructed and operated in a specific orientation, and thus, should not be construed as limiting the present invention. The terms "connected" and "connected" used herein should be interpreted broadly, and may include, for example, a fixed connection or a detachable connection; they may be directly connected or indirectly connected through intermediate members, and specific meanings of the above terms will be understood by those skilled in the art as appropriate.
The present invention will be described in detail below with reference to the embodiments with reference to the attached drawings. It should be noted that the embodiments and features of the embodiments may be combined with each other without conflict.
According to the specific embodiment of the invention, as shown in fig. 1-6, the invention provides a mining roadway advance support method, the support method uses a constant-resistance suspension top beam to support a mining roadway, the support method not only occupies a smaller roadway space, but also can realize recycling of the constant-resistance suspension top beam. The constant-resistance suspended top beam comprises a recoverable top beam 2 and a constant-resistance yielding device 1, and the recoverable top beam 2 and the constant-resistance yielding device 1 are both sleeved at the exposed end of the anchor cable 11 (namely the part of the anchor cable 11 exposed out of the surrounding rock 12); the recoverable top beam 2 comprises a shear 6 and a box-type top beam 7; the box-type top beam 7 is tightly attached to the surrounding rock 12, the shearing device 6 is arranged in the protection space of the box-type top beam 7, the shearing device 6 is sleeved at the exposed end of the anchor cable 11, and the shearing device 6 is used for shearing the anchor cable 11 to recover the constant-resistance suspended top beam.
The shearing device 6 comprises a hydraulic cylinder, a sliding gasket 9 and a shearing head, wherein the hydraulic cylinder is used for providing shearing force for shearing the anchor cable 11; the output end of the hydraulic cylinder is connected with the sliding gasket 9 so as to drive the sliding gasket 9 to move along the axial direction of the anchor cable 11; the shearing head is sleeved on the periphery of the anchor cable 11 and is in sliding fit with the sliding gasket 9, and the sliding gasket 9 pushes the shearing head to move radially towards the anchor cable 11 so as to shear the anchor cable 11. The anchor cable 11 is cut off by the cutting head, so that the constant-resistance suspended top beam can be recycled, and the supporting cost of the roadway is reduced.
The hydraulic cylinder comprises an oil cylinder inner cylinder 17 and an oil cylinder outer cylinder 8, the oil cylinder inner cylinder 17 is sleeved on the anchor cable 11, and the upper end of the oil cylinder inner cylinder 17 is abutted to the shearing head; the cylinder outer cylinder 8 is arranged at the periphery of the cylinder inner cylinder 17, and the cylinder outer cylinder 8 is the output end of the hydraulic cylinder. An oil inlet 15 and an oil outlet 16 are arranged on the oil cylinder outer cylinder 8, an oil way is connected with the oil outlet 16 through the oil inlet 15 to control the oil cylinder outer cylinder 8 to move relative to the oil cylinder inner cylinder 17, an oil cavity is formed between the oil cylinder outer cylinder 8 and the oil cylinder inner cylinder 17, a blocking plug 18 is arranged in the oil cavity, the blocking plug 18 is located between the oil inlet 15 and the oil outlet 16, the blocking plug 18 divides the oil cavity into an upper oil cavity and a lower oil cavity, and the upper oil cavity and the lower oil cavity are driven to move up and down through. The hydraulic cylinder is simple in structure, can provide large pressure, and is convenient for shearing the head to shear the anchor cable 11.
The sliding gasket 9 is sleeved on the periphery of the oil cylinder inner cylinder 17, and the sliding gasket 9 slides along the guide of the oil cylinder inner cylinder 17, so that the sliding of the sliding gasket 9 is more stable, and the stable shearing of the shearing head is further ensured.
The shearing head comprises two metal blocks 19, the metal blocks 19 are of L-shaped structures, and the L-shaped metal blocks 19 comprise transverse edges and vertical edges; the transverse edges of the two metal blocks 19 are mutually overlapped, the transverse edges of the metal blocks 19 are provided with holes 14, and the anchor cable 11 passes through the holes 14; the hole 14 is provided with a bevel, i.e. a relatively thin edge (relatively sharp edge) is formed on the metal block 19, so as to facilitate cutting of the anchor cable 11. As shown in fig. 3, when the two metal blocks 19 are sleeved on the periphery of the anchor cable 11, the center of the intersection of the overlapping surface of the transverse edges of the two metal blocks 19 and the axis of the anchor cable 11 is defined as a central point, and the grooves on the two holes 14 are centrosymmetric around the central point, that is, the two grooves form two sharp edges which are oppositely arranged, and two sharp edges similar to scissors are oppositely arranged, so that the anchor cable 11 is easier to cut.
The vertical edges of the two metal blocks 19 are in sliding fit with the two ends of the sliding gasket 9 respectively, the vertical edges of the metal blocks and the distance between the inner cylinders of the oil cylinders are shortened along the upward direction continuously, namely, an included angle is formed between the vertical edge of the metal block 19 and the sliding surface between the sliding gasket 9 and the axial direction of the anchor cable 11, the included angle is an acute angle, namely, the contact surface between the sliding gasket 9 and the vertical edge of the metal block 19 is an inclined plane, the sliding gasket 9 moves upwards in the axial direction, the two metal blocks 19 are pushed to move outwards along the radial opposite direction, and accordingly shearing force for shearing the anchor cable 11 is provided.
The box-shaped top beam 7 is made of I-shaped steel, preferably, the box-shaped top beam 7 is formed by welding two pieces of I-shaped steel with the same type, and the shearing device 6 is arranged in a protection space of the I-shaped steel, so that the shearing device 6 is completely protected by the I-shaped steel.
The constant-resistance yielding device 1 is fixed on the lower portion of the recoverable top beam 2 and is confined at the exposed end of the anchor cable 11, the constant-resistance yielding device 1 comprises a metal pipe 3, a spring 4 and a tapered lock 5, the metal pipe 3 is sleeved on the periphery of the anchor cable 11, threads 13 are arranged on the inner wall of the metal pipe 3, the threads 13 are trapezoidal threads 13, and the side length of the inner bottom of each trapezoidal thread 13 is relatively small. The spring 4 is arranged in the thread 13, and the spring 4 is tangent to two trapezoidal side edges of the thread 13; the tapered lock 5 is arranged on the anchor cable 11, the tapered lock 5 is fastened at the opening of the metal pipe 3, the minimum inner diameter of the tapered lock 5 is smaller than the inner diameter of the metal pipe 3, and the maximum inner diameter of the tapered lock 5 is the same as the inner diameter of the metal pipe 3. Be provided with wedge 51 between tapered lock 5 and anchor rope 11, the wedge tip portion of wedge 51 is up, drives tapered lock 5 upward movement at anchor rope 11, and under the effect of wedge 51, tapered lock 5 fastens more on anchor rope 11, has guaranteed that tapered lock 5 firmly fixes on anchor rope 11.
When the surrounding rock 12 deforms and applies large stress to the anchor cable 11, the anchor cable 11 can drive the conical lock 5 to move inside the metal pipe 3, continuous yielding of the anchor cable 11 under constant high-strength supporting resistance is achieved, and damage and fracture of the anchor cable 11 due to the large stress are avoided.
The cylinder inner cylinder 17 and the metal pipe 3 in the hydraulic cylinder are of an integrated structure, so that the whole metal pipe 3 is better in integrity and higher in structural strength, and structural components in the whole constant-resistance suspension top beam are reduced. In other embodiments, the cylinder inner barrel 17 and the metal pipe 3 can be detachably connected together through threads (as shown in fig. 2 and 3), and the detachable connection facilitates the installation and detachment of the constant-resistance suspended top beam. The periphery of the metal pipe 3 is provided with a base plate 10, the base plate 10 can be connected to the outer wall of the metal pipe 3 through threads, the base plate 10 and a bottom plate at the bottom of the box-type top beam 7 are in blocking fit with each other, when the anchor cable 11 drives the tapered lock 5 to move upwards, friction force cannot drive the metal pipe 3 and an oil cylinder inner cylinder 17 fixed together to extrude the metal block 19 upwards due to blocking effect between the base plate 10 and the box-type top beam 7, and it is ensured that the two metal blocks 19 cannot bear large static friction force, so that the metal block 19 can be displaced relatively to shear the anchor cable 11.
Preferably, a spring is further arranged between the cylinder inner cylinder 8 and the anchor cable 11, the inner diameter of the cylinder inner cylinder 8 is equal to the inner diameter of the metal pipe 3, a trapezoidal thread is arranged on the inner diameter of the cylinder inner cylinder 8, and a spring 4 is arranged in the trapezoidal thread, namely the spring 4 penetrates into the cylinder inner cylinder 8 from the metal pipe 3. The spring is arranged in the oil cylinder inner cylinder 8, so that the length of the spring in the metal pipe 3 can extend into the oil cylinder inner cylinder 8, the tapered lock 5 can slide into the oil cylinder inner cylinder 8, the sliding stroke of the tapered lock 5 in the metal pipe 3 and the oil cylinder inner cylinder 8 is increased, and the anchor cable 11 can adapt to surrounding rock deformation in a large range.
When the constant-resistance suspended top beam is used, firstly, holes are punched in a roadway, an anchor rope 11 is installed, after an anchoring agent is solidified, a recoverable top beam 2 and a constant-resistance yielding device 1 sequentially penetrate through the exposed end of the anchor rope 11, the recoverable top beam 2 is tightly attached to surrounding rock 12 of a roof rock stratum, and a tapered lock 5 is locked at the bottom of the constant-resistance yielding device 1. When the surrounding rock 12 deforms, the surrounding rock 12 deforms to drive the anchor cable 11 to displace, the anchor cable 11 drives the conical lock 5 to move, the conical lock 5 firstly extrudes the spring 4, when the anchor cable 11 deforms to a certain value, the spring 4 is completely extruded into the thread 13, and at the moment, the anchor cable 11 drives the conical lock 5 to slide in the metal pipe 3; the anchor cable 11 is prevented from being damaged and broken due to large stress, so that the pressure of the surrounding rock 12 is released and the anchor cable 11 is supported with constant resistance.
The mining roadway advance support method comprises the following steps:
and step S1, drilling anchor holes in a roof rock stratum of the mining roadway, installing anchor cables 11 in the anchor holes, and arranging at least one row of anchor cables 11 in the width direction of the mining roadway. The anchor cable 11 extends out of the top plate rock stratum, the length of the anchor cable 11 extending out of the top plate rock stratum is longer than the sum of the thickness of the recoverable top beam 2 and the axial length of the constant-resistance yielding device, namely enough length is reserved for the part of the anchor cable 11 extending out of the top plate rock stratum, and the recoverable top beam 2 and the constant-resistance yielding device 1 are convenient to mount.
And step 2, the recyclable top beam is assembled, namely the cutter is installed in the protection space of the box-type top beam. And mounting a recoverable top beam on the part of the anchor cable 11 exposed out of the roof rock stratum, wherein the recoverable top beam passes through the anchor cable 11 and is tightly attached to the roof rock stratum.
At least one row of recoverable top beams 2 are arranged in the width direction of the mining roadway, the recoverable top beams 2 are arranged in sections, namely the row number of the recoverable top beams 2 corresponds to the row number of the anchor cables 11 in the width direction of the mining roadway, a plurality of sections of the recoverable top beams 2 are arranged on each row of the anchor cables 11, the length range of each section of the recoverable top beams 2 is 1.3m-1.7m (1.3 m, 1.4m, 1.5m, 1.6m, 1.7m and the like can be selected), the number of the anchor cables 11 penetrating through each section of the recoverable top beams 2 is at least two according to the anchor cables 11, and particularly, the number of the anchor cables 11 penetrating through each section of the recoverable top beams 2 is selected according to actual supporting parameters of the anchor. The recyclable top beam 2 is installed in sections, and the length of each section of the recyclable top beam 2 is not too long, so that the recyclable top beam 2 is convenient to install.
When the recoverable top beam is installed, the anchor cable 11 sequentially penetrates through the hole 14 in the metal block 19 and the axial center of the oil cylinder inner cylinder 17, so that the anchor cable 11 penetrates through the whole recoverable top beam 2 in the vertical direction, and then the recoverable top beam 2 is temporarily supported by the single hydraulic prop, so that the recoverable top beam 2 is tightly attached to a top plate rock stratum of a stoping roadway.
Step S3, installing the constant-resistance yielding device 1 on the part of the anchor cable 11 exposed out of the recoverable top beam 2, and pressing the recoverable top beam on the roof strata by the constant-resistance yielding device. And a base plate 10 is arranged on the periphery of the metal pipe 19, and the base plate 10 is in contact connection with the lower bottom plate of the recoverable top beam 2 and used for mutually stopping the metal pipe 3 from moving upwards to extrude the cylinder inner cylinder 17 and the shearing head. The inner cylinder 17 of the oil cylinder penetrates through a bottom plate at the lower part of the box-shaped top beam 7, a metal pipe 19 is sleeved on the periphery of the anchor cable 11, and the metal pipe 19 is connected with the lower end part of the inner cylinder 17 of the oil cylinder; the metal pipe 19 is arranged at the lower end of the oil cylinder inner cylinder 17, and the metal pipe 19 is in threaded connection with the oil cylinder inner cylinder 17.
In other embodiments, the backing plate 10 may not be provided, and at this time, the outer diameter of the metal tube 19 is larger than the maximum outer diameter of the cylinder inner cylinder 17, and the upper end surface of the metal tube 3 is in contact connection with the lower bottom plate of the recoverable top beam 2 to form a stopping structure for stopping the metal tube 3 from moving upwards and stopping each other; that is, a step is formed between the metal tube 19 and the cylinder inner cylinder 17, and the upper end surface (i.e., the step surface) of the metal tube 19 and the lower portion of the recoverable top beam 2 are blocked. Therefore, the friction force between the tapered lock 5 and the metal pipe 3 cannot drive the metal pipe 3 and the oil cylinder inner cylinder 17 fixed together with the metal pipe to extrude the metal block 19 upwards, so that the two metal blocks 19 cannot bear large static friction force, and the metal blocks 19 can be displaced relatively to shear the anchor cable 11 conveniently.
Fastening a conical lock 5 on the anchor cable 11, wherein the conical lock 5 is positioned below the metal pipe 3, the conical lock 5 is positioned between the anchor cable 11 and the metal pipe 3, and the conical lock 5 is fastened on the anchor cable 11 and tightly presses the metal pipe 3 to tightly press the recoverable top beam 2 on a top plate rock stratum; a wedge-shaped block 51 is arranged in the tapered lock 5; when the tapered lock 5 is installed, the hollow tapered lock 5 is firstly sleeved on the periphery of the anchor cable 11, the tapered lock 5 is abutted to the lower part of the metal pipe 3, and then the wedge-shaped block 51 is installed between the tapered lock 5 and the anchor cable 11 so as to fix the tapered lock 5 on the anchor cable 11. After the tapered locks 5 are installed, the single hydraulic prop can be removed.
Step S4, after the anchor cable 11, the recoverable top beam and the constant-resistance yielding device are used up, the anchor cable 11 is cut off by the recoverable top beam 2, so as to recover the constant-resistance yielding device 1 and the recoverable top beam 2. Specifically, an oil inlet 15 and an oil outlet 16 on the oil cylinder outer cylinder 8 are respectively connected with an oil inlet pipeline and an oil outlet pipeline, oil is fed into the hydraulic cylinder through the oil inlet 15, the oil outlet 16 discharges oil from the hydraulic cylinder, so that the oil cylinder outer cylinder 8 moves upwards, the oil cylinder outer cylinder 8 pushes the sliding gasket 9 to move upwards along the axial direction of the anchor cable 11, the sliding gasket 9 pushes the metal block 19 to move outwards along the radial direction of the anchor cable 11, the metal block 19 shears the anchor cable 11, when the shearing force exceeds the ultimate strength of the anchor cable 11, the anchor cable 11 is sheared, the constant-resistance suspension top beam and the anchor cable 11 are separated from each other, and therefore the recovery and reutilization of the whole constant-resistance suspension top.
In conclusion, the forepoling method for the stoping roadway provided by the invention can facilitate the installation of the constant-resistance suspended top beam, realizes the recycling of the constant-resistance suspended top beam, effectively reduces the shoring cost, is simple to operate, is particularly suitable for the forepoling of stoping roadways on two sides of a coal face, better solves the problems of occupying roadway space, consuming manpower and material resources and the like under the support of single hydraulic prop, and can better solve the problem of difficult roadway top-down under the conventional support when the roadway behind the working face needs to be subjected to top-down treatment.
The above description is only exemplary of the invention and should not be taken as limiting the invention, as any modification, equivalent replacement, or improvement made within the spirit and principle of the invention is intended to be covered by the appended claims.

Claims (10)

1. A method for supporting a mining roadway in advance is characterized by comprising the following steps:
step S1, drilling an anchor hole in a roof rock stratum of the mining roadway, and installing an anchor cable in the anchor hole, wherein the anchor cable extends out of the roof rock stratum;
step S2, mounting a recoverable top beam on the part of the anchor cable exposed out of the roof rock stratum, wherein the recoverable top beam passes through the anchor cable and clings to the roof rock stratum;
step S3, installing a constant-resistance yielding device on the part of the anchor cable exposed out of the recoverable top beam, wherein the constant-resistance yielding device compresses the recoverable top beam on the top plate rock stratum;
and step S4, after the anchor cable, the recoverable top beam and the constant-resistance yielding device are used up, cutting the anchor cable through the recoverable top beam so as to recover the constant-resistance yielding device and the recoverable top beam.
2. The forepoling method of mining roadways according to claim 1, characterized in that at least one row of recoverable top beams is arranged in the width direction of the mining roadway, the recoverable top beams being arranged in sections;
preferably, the length of each section of the recoverable top beam ranges from 1.3m to 1.7m, and the number of the anchor cables penetrating through each section of the recoverable top beam is at least two.
3. The mining roadway advance support method according to claim 2, wherein the recoverable top beam comprises a box-shaped top beam and a shearing device, the shearing device is arranged in a protection space of the box-shaped top beam, the shearing device comprises a hydraulic cylinder, a sliding gasket and a shearing head, a hole is formed in the shearing head and used for the anchor cable to pass through, and the hydraulic cylinder comprises an inner cylinder barrel and an outer cylinder barrel;
the anchor cable penetrates through the hole in the shearing head and the inner cylinder of the oil cylinder, and the anchor cable penetrates through the box-shaped top beam.
4. The method of claim 3, wherein the recoverable top beam is temporarily braced against the roof strata by hydraulic props during installation of the recoverable top beam.
5. The advance support method for the mining roadway according to claim 4, wherein the constant-resistance yielding device comprises a metal pipe and a tapered lock, the inner wall of the metal pipe is provided with threads, and a spring is arranged in the threads;
the inner cylinder of the oil cylinder penetrates through the lower bottom plate of the box-shaped top beam, and the metal pipe is sleeved on the periphery of the anchor rope and is connected with the lower end part of the inner cylinder of the oil cylinder; the tapered lock is positioned below the metal pipe and between the anchor cable and the metal pipe, and the tapered lock is fastened on the anchor cable and compresses the metal pipe so as to compress the recoverable top beam on a roof strata; and after the taper lock is installed, the single hydraulic prop can be detached.
6. The forepoling method of mining roadways according to claim 5, characterized in that a backing plate is installed on the periphery of the top of the metal tube, and the backing plate is in contact connection with the lower bottom plate of the recoverable top beam and used for stopping the metal tube from moving upwards to squeeze the inner cylinder barrel and the shearing head.
7. The forepoling method of mining roadways according to claim 5, characterized in that the outer diameter of the metal pipe is larger than the maximum outer diameter of the cylinder inner barrel, and the upper end surface of the metal pipe is in contact connection with the lower bottom plate of the recoverable top beam to form a stopping structure for stopping the metal pipe from moving upwards.
8. The mining roadway forepoling method of claim 5, wherein a wedge-shaped block is installed inside the tapered lock; when the tapered lock is installed, the hollow tapered lock is firstly sleeved on the periphery of the anchor cable, the tapered lock is abutted to the lower part of the metal pipe, and then a wedge block is installed between the tapered lock and the anchor cable so as to fix the tapered lock on the anchor cable.
9. The mining roadway forepoling method of claim 3, wherein the shear head comprises two metal blocks, the metal blocks being L-shaped;
the transverse edges of the metal blocks are mutually overlapped, and holes are formed in the transverse edges of the two metal blocks; the vertical edges of the two metal blocks are respectively in sliding fit with the two ends of the sliding gasket, and the distance between the vertical edge of the metal block and the inner cylinder of the oil cylinder is continuously shortened along the upward direction.
10. The mining roadway forepoling method of claim 9, wherein an oil inlet and an oil outlet are formed in the outer cylinder of the oil cylinder;
when the anchor cable is cut off, an oil inlet and an oil outlet on the oil cylinder outer cylinder are respectively connected with an oil inlet pipeline and an oil outlet pipeline, the oil cylinder outer cylinder upwards pushes the sliding gasket, and the sliding gasket pushes the shearing head in the radial direction of the anchor cable, so that the shearing head moves towards two sides and shears the anchor cable in the radial direction of the anchor cable.
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CN107461215A (en) * 2017-08-29 2017-12-12 河南理工大学 A kind of back timber formula anchor cable constant-resistance structure and its installation method
CN207686741U (en) * 2017-11-21 2018-08-03 焦作大学 A kind of top beam formula constant-resistance structure

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* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN103343532A (en) * 2013-07-05 2013-10-09 郭红标 Pre-stressed anchor cable pile-slab wall
CN104653203A (en) * 2014-11-07 2015-05-27 山东科技大学 Roadway roof supporting method of coal seam roof, soft rock roof or composite roof and for coal mine deep mining
CN204920999U (en) * 2015-09-11 2015-12-30 华北科技学院 Along empty top of roadway board supporting device
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