CN112138853B - Fine particle hydraulic classification device and method based on vortex oblique flow - Google Patents

Fine particle hydraulic classification device and method based on vortex oblique flow Download PDF

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CN112138853B
CN112138853B CN202010933125.5A CN202010933125A CN112138853B CN 112138853 B CN112138853 B CN 112138853B CN 202010933125 A CN202010933125 A CN 202010933125A CN 112138853 B CN112138853 B CN 112138853B
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flow
inclined plate
classification
vortex
box
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CN112138853A (en
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崔宝玉
王学涛
魏德洲
沈岩柏
宋振国
何毅
赵强
康长科
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Northeastern University China
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B03SEPARATION OF SOLID MATERIALS USING LIQUIDS OR USING PNEUMATIC TABLES OR JIGS; MAGNETIC OR ELECTROSTATIC SEPARATION OF SOLID MATERIALS FROM SOLID MATERIALS OR FLUIDS; SEPARATION BY HIGH-VOLTAGE ELECTRIC FIELDS
    • B03BSEPARATING SOLID MATERIALS USING LIQUIDS OR USING PNEUMATIC TABLES OR JIGS
    • B03B5/00Washing granular, powdered or lumpy materials; Wet separating
    • B03B5/62Washing granular, powdered or lumpy materials; Wet separating by hydraulic classifiers, e.g. of launder, tank, spiral or helical chute concentrator type
    • B03B5/623Upward current classifiers

Abstract

A fine particle hydraulic classification device and method based on vortex oblique flow are characterized in that a plurality of inclined plates are distributed in a classification box of the device along the height direction, adjacent inclined plates are arranged in a staggered mode, and a plurality of grade separation spaces are formed by the inclined plates and a box body of the classification box. The method comprises the following steps: the solid-liquid mixed flow is induced by the inclined plate in the separation space to form a vortex flow state based on alternate inclined flow, so that the difference of centrifugal force, shearing force, inertia force and fluid resistance of different-granularity particles on the solid-liquid mixed flow is enlarged, and the difference of motion tracks and spatial distribution of materials with different particle sizes is strengthened to realize fine classification; the primary inclined flow on the lower surface of the inclined plate is used for increasing the hydraulic radius of a separation space, reducing the Reynolds number and simultaneously greatly improving the Froude number, and providing stable hydraulic conditions for particle separation; the secondary inclined flow on the upper surface of the inclined plate is used for reducing the hydraulic radius of the separation space, increasing the Reynolds number and simultaneously reducing the Froude number, and providing momentum for secondary circulation; finally, separating out material products with various particle sizes.

Description

Fine particle hydraulic classification device and method based on vortex oblique flow
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of hydraulic classification, and particularly relates to a fine particle hydraulic classification device and method based on vortex oblique flow.
Background
The particle size property difference is utilized to carry out grading treatment on the particles in the composite force field, and the technology is widely applied to a plurality of fields of chemical industry, metallurgy, mineral processing, pharmacy, wastewater treatment and the like. With the continuous progress and development of classification technology, the fine classification requirement of fine particles is increasingly increased, especially for fine particles with particle size less than 100um, in the solid-liquid mixed phase, because the centrifugal force, fluid resistance and inertia force difference of different particle size particles are small, the motion tracks of different particle size particles are similar, at this time, the classification equipment such as conventional cyclone, vibrating screen, thickener and elutriator can not meet the classification requirement of fine particles, and the conventional classification equipment generally has the problems of poor particle size applicability, low classification precision, high energy consumption, low classification efficiency, complex equipment structure, high production and processing cost and the like. Therefore, the classification capability of the particles can be improved only by enhancing the difference of the acting forces of centrifugal force, shearing force, fluid resistance, inertia force and the like on the particles in different particle sizes in the composite force field, but a hydraulic classification device capable of meeting the technical requirements is provided at present.
Disclosure of Invention
Aiming at the problems in the prior art, the invention provides a fine particle hydraulic classification device and method based on vortex oblique flow, which can generate vortex flow for enhancing centrifugal force, shearing force and inertia force among particles with different particle sizes, can generate oblique flow for enhancing fluid resistance among particles with different particle sizes, effectively strengthens difference of motion behaviors among particles with different particle sizes through synergistic action of the vortex flow and the oblique flow, improves retention time of the particles in a separation space, promotes the particles to form different motion tracks according to the particle sizes, enables the particles with different particle sizes to be distributed along the axial direction in a trend of gradually reducing the particle sizes, and further realizes high-precision classification of fine particles efficiently under a low-energy-consumption environment without external mechanical energy input and output.
In order to achieve the purpose, the invention adopts the following technical scheme: a fine particle hydraulic classification device based on vortex oblique flow comprises a classification box, an inclined plate, a flow guide groove, a flow guide elbow, a feeding port, a discharging port, a tail material port, a feeding electromagnetic valve, a discharging electromagnetic valve and a tail material electromagnetic valve; the classifying box is vertically arranged, the inclined plates are a plurality in number, the inclined plates are uniformly distributed in the classifying box along the height direction, the inclined angles of the inclined plates are the same, and the adjacent inclined plates are arranged in a staggered manner; the guide groove is positioned at the bottommost part of the grading box, the feeding port is arranged at the feeding end of the guide groove, and the feeding electromagnetic valve is arranged between the feeding port and the feeding end of the guide groove; the flow guide groove and the inclined plate at the bottommost part of the grading box have the same inclination angle and are distributed in parallel; a discharge port is arranged on the box body of the grading box above the root part of each inclined plate, and all the discharge ports are provided with discharge electromagnetic valves; the top box plate of the grading box is obliquely arranged, and the inclination angle of the top box plate of the grading box and the inclined plate at the top of the grading box have the same inclination angle and are distributed in a staggered manner; a flow guide elbow is arranged on the grading box opposite to the head part of each inclined plate; the tailing port is arranged at the topmost part of the grading box, and the tailing electromagnetic valve is arranged at the tailing port.
The cross-sectional shapes of the grading box and the diversion trench are all rhombuses with wide middle and narrow two ends.
The number and the inclination angle of the inclined plates are set according to the particle classification precision; the more the number of the inclined plates is, the finer the particle size classification is; the inclination angle of the inclined plate is 15-75 degrees, and the larger the inclination angle of the inclined plate is, the lower the separation difficulty of large-granularity particles is.
The fine particle hydraulic classification device based on the vortex oblique flow can adopt a single-stage operation mode or a multi-stage series operation mode, under the multi-stage series operation mode, the particle classification precision of a later stage device is higher than that of a former stage device, and a series access point of two adjacent stage devices can be any discharge outlet.
A fine particle hydraulic classification method based on vortex oblique flow adopts the fine particle hydraulic classification device based on vortex oblique flow, and comprises the following processes: opening a feeding electromagnetic valve to enable solid-liquid mixed flow with set flow to enter a diversion trench through a feeding port, dispersing solid particles in the solid-liquid mixed flow in the diversion trench, enabling the solid-liquid mixed flow after the solid particles are dispersed to rapidly flow into a first-stage separation space through a first diversion elbow, wherein the first-stage separation space is composed of a classification box body, a first inclined plate and a second inclined plate, and the solid-liquid mixed flow is induced in the separation space through the inclined plates to form flow state vortex based on alternate inclined flow so as to expand the difference of centrifugal force, shearing force, inertia force and fluid resistance of different-granularity particles on the solid-liquid mixed flow and further strengthen the difference of motion tracks and spatial distribution of materials with different particle sizes to realize fine classification; wherein, a primary inclined flow is formed on the lower surface of the inclined plate, and a secondary inclined flow is formed on the upper surface of the inclined plate; the primary oblique flow is used for increasing the hydraulic radius of a separation space, reducing the Reynolds number and simultaneously greatly improving the Froude number, and providing stable hydraulic conditions for particle separation; the secondary oblique flow is used for reducing the hydraulic radius of a separation space, increasing the Reynolds number and simultaneously reducing the Froude number, and providing momentum for secondary circulation; because large-particle-size particles are subjected to larger centrifugal force, inertia force and fluid resistance, the large-particle-size particles can move around the vortex, under the flow choking action of the lower inclined plate, the large-particle-size particles are preferentially separated from a high-speed flowing mixed flow to form a coarse particle flow, the mixed flow carrying fine particles quickly flows into a second-stage separation space through a second flow guide elbow, the second-stage separation space is composed of a classification box body, a lower second inclined plate and a lower third inclined plate, and the solid-liquid mixed flow is subjected to re-separation in the second-stage separation space; by analogy, the solid-liquid mixed flow rises step by step until tailings containing the minimum granularity or pure liquid phase are formed in the last-stage separation space; along with the gradual increase of different granularity materials in each grade separation space, the material can be piled up on the pyramis space and the swash plate that swash plate and classification case box lateral wall formed, can discharge accumulational material through the bin outlet through opening row material solenoid valve this moment, carries out the tails through opening the tails solenoid valve and according to setting for the emission simultaneously and discharges.
The invention has the beneficial effects that:
the fine particle hydraulic classification device and method based on the vortex oblique flow can generate the vortex flow for enhancing the centrifugal force, the shearing force and the inertia force among particles with different particle sizes, can generate the oblique flow for enhancing the fluid resistance among the particles with different particle sizes, effectively strengthens the difference of motion behaviors among the particles with different particle sizes through the synergistic effect of the vortex flow and the oblique flow, improves the retention time of the particles in a separation space, promotes the particles to form different motion tracks according to the particle sizes, enables the particles with different particle sizes to be distributed in a trend of gradually reducing the particle sizes along the axial direction, and further realizes high-precision classification of the fine particles efficiently under the low-energy-consumption environment without external mechanical energy input and output.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a perspective view of an embodiment of a fine particle hydraulic classification apparatus based on a swirling oblique flow according to the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a front view of an embodiment of a fine particle hydraulic classification apparatus based on swirling oblique flow according to the present invention;
FIG. 3 is a left side view of an embodiment of a fine particle hydraulic classification apparatus based on swirling oblique flow according to the present invention;
FIG. 4 is a top view of an embodiment of a fine particle hydraulic classification apparatus based on swirling oblique flow according to the present invention;
FIG. 5 is a schematic diagram illustrating the effect of the fine particle hydraulic classification process based on the swirling oblique flow in the embodiment;
in the figure, 1 is a grading box, 2 is an inclined plate, 3 is a diversion trench, 4 is a diversion elbow, 5 is a feeding port, 6 is a discharging port, 7 is a tailing port, 8 is a feeding electromagnetic valve, 9 is a discharging electromagnetic valve and 10 is a tailing electromagnetic valve.
Detailed Description
The invention is described in further detail below with reference to the figures and the specific embodiments.
As shown in fig. 1 to 4, a fine particle hydraulic classification device based on vortex oblique flow comprises a classification box 1, an inclined plate 2, a diversion trench 3, a diversion elbow 4, a feeding port 5, a discharging port 6, a tailing port 7, a feeding electromagnetic valve 8, a discharging electromagnetic valve 9 and a tailing electromagnetic valve 10; the classifying box 1 is vertically arranged, the inclined plates 2 are a plurality in number, the inclined plates 2 are uniformly distributed in the classifying box 1 along the height direction, the inclined angles of the inclined plates 2 are the same, and the adjacent inclined plates 2 are arranged in a staggered manner; the diversion trench 3 is positioned at the bottommost part of the grading box 1, the feeding port 5 is arranged at the feeding end of the diversion trench 3, and the feeding electromagnetic valve 8 is arranged between the feeding port 5 and the feeding end of the diversion trench 3; the diversion trench 3 and the inclined plate 2 at the bottommost part of the grading box 1 have the same inclination angle and are distributed in parallel; a discharge opening 6 is formed in the box body of the grading box 1 above the root part of each inclined plate 2, and all the discharge openings 6 are provided with discharge electromagnetic valves 9; the top box plate of the grading box 1 is obliquely arranged, and the inclination angle of the top box plate of the grading box 1 and the inclined plate 2 at the top of the grading box 1 have the same inclination angle and are distributed in a staggered manner; a flow guide elbow 4 is arranged on the grading box 1 opposite to the head part of each inclined plate 2; the tailing port 7 is arranged at the topmost part of the grading box 1, and the tailing electromagnetic valve 10 is arranged at the tailing port 7.
The cross-sectional shapes of the grading box 1 and the diversion trench 3 are all rhombuses with wide middle and narrow ends. After the cross section is adopted, the flow channel area can be increased and then reduced, the expansion structure of the front process of the flow channel area is beneficial to improving the dispersibility of solid particles in the mixed material, and the contraction structure of the rear process of the flow channel area is communicated with the flow guide elbow 4, so that the fluid movement speed in the separation space is improved, and the strength of the vortex flow can be enhanced.
The number and the inclination angle of the inclined plates 2 are set according to the particle classification precision; the more the number of the inclined plates 2 is, the finer the particle size classification is; the inclination angle of the inclined plate 2 is 15-75 degrees, and the larger the inclination angle of the inclined plate 2 is, the lower the separation difficulty of large-granularity particles is.
The fine particle hydraulic classification device based on the vortex oblique flow can adopt a single-stage operation mode or a multi-stage series operation mode, under the multi-stage series operation mode, the particle classification precision of a later stage device is higher than that of a former stage device, and a series access point of two adjacent stage devices can be any discharge outlet 6.
A fine particle hydraulic classification method based on vortex oblique flow adopts the fine particle hydraulic classification device based on vortex oblique flow, and comprises the following processes: opening a feeding electromagnetic valve 8 to enable solid-liquid mixed flow with set flow to enter a diversion trench 3 through a feeding port 5, dispersing solid particles in the solid-liquid mixed flow in the diversion trench 3, enabling the solid-liquid mixed flow after the solid particles are dispersed to rapidly flow into a first-stage separation space through a diversion elbow 4, wherein the first-stage separation space is composed of a classification box 1, a lower first inclined plate 2 and a lower second inclined plate 2, and the solid-liquid mixed flow is induced to form a vortex flow state based on alternate inclined flow in the separation space through the inclined plates 2 to expand the difference of centrifugal force, shearing force, inertia force and fluid resistance of different-size particles on the solid-liquid mixed flow, so that the difference of the motion tracks and the spatial distribution of materials with different particle sizes is strengthened to realize fine classification; wherein, a primary inclined flow is formed on the lower surface of the inclined plate 2, and a secondary inclined flow is formed on the upper surface of the inclined plate 2; the primary oblique flow is used for increasing the hydraulic radius of a separation space, reducing the Reynolds number and simultaneously greatly improving the Froude number, and providing stable hydraulic conditions for particle separation; the secondary oblique flow is used for reducing the hydraulic radius of a separation space, increasing the Reynolds number and simultaneously reducing the Froude number, and providing momentum for secondary circulation; because the large-particle-size particles are subjected to larger centrifugal force, inertia force and fluid resistance, the large-particle-size particles can move around the vortex, under the flow choking action of the lower inclined plate 2, the large-particle-size particles are preferentially separated from the high-speed flowing mixed flow to form a coarse particle flow, the mixed flow carrying the fine particles quickly flows into a second-stage separation space through a second diversion elbow 4, the second-stage separation space is composed of a classification box 1 box body, a lower number of second inclined plates 2 and a lower number of third inclined plates 2, and the solid-liquid mixed flow is subjected to re-separation in the second-stage separation space; by analogy, the solid-liquid mixed flow rises step by step until tailings containing the minimum granularity or pure liquid phase are formed in the last-stage separation space; along with the gradual increase of different granularity materials in each grade separation space, the material can be piled up on the pyramis space and the swash plate 2 that swash plate 2 and classification case 1 box lateral wall formed, can discharge accumulational material through bin outlet 6 through opening row material solenoid valve 9 this moment, discharges through opening tails solenoid valve 10 and carrying out the tails according to setting for the emission simultaneously. Fig. 5 is a schematic diagram showing the effect of the fine particle hydraulic classification process based on the vortex oblique flow.
In the embodiment, six-stage separation spaces are designed, including tailings, so that seven kinds of particle size products can be discharged, the inclined plate 2 and the classification box 1 in each stage of separation space are connected in a seamless welding mode, the inclined plate 2 also serves as a guide plate, the inclined plate 2 is of a U-shaped hollow plate structure, and the head of the inclined plate 2 is subjected to arc boundary treatment, so that the flow blocking effect can be reduced, and the wear resistance of the inclined plate is improved; because energy and momentum loss exist in the rising process of the solid-liquid mixed flow, the particle size of the particles in the mixed material is gradually reduced and changed, and finally six-stage discharging distribution with the particle size gradually reduced from bottom to top is formed.
The embodiments are not intended to limit the scope of the present invention, and all equivalent implementations or modifications without departing from the scope of the present invention are intended to be included in the scope of the present invention.

Claims (5)

1. A fine particle hydraulic classification device based on vortex oblique flow is characterized in that: the device comprises a grading box, an inclined plate, a diversion trench, a diversion elbow, a feeding port, a discharging port, a tailing port, a feeding electromagnetic valve, a discharging electromagnetic valve and a tailing electromagnetic valve; the classifying box is vertically arranged, the inclined plates are a plurality in number, the inclined plates are uniformly distributed in the classifying box along the height direction, the inclined angles of the inclined plates are the same, and the adjacent inclined plates are arranged in a staggered manner; the guide groove is positioned at the bottommost part of the grading box, the feeding port is arranged at the feeding end of the guide groove, and the feeding electromagnetic valve is arranged between the feeding port and the feeding end of the guide groove; the flow guide groove and the inclined plate at the bottommost part of the grading box have the same inclination angle and are distributed in parallel; a discharge port is arranged on the box body of the grading box above the root part of each inclined plate, and all the discharge ports are provided with discharge electromagnetic valves; the top box plate of the grading box is obliquely arranged, and the inclination angle of the top box plate of the grading box and the inclined plate at the top of the grading box have the same inclination angle and are distributed in a staggered manner; a flow guide elbow is arranged on the grading box opposite to the head part of each inclined plate; the tailing port is arranged at the topmost part of the grading box, and the tailing electromagnetic valve is arranged at the tailing port.
2. The fine particle hydraulic classification device based on the vortex diagonal flow as claimed in claim 1, characterized in that: the cross-sectional shapes of the grading box and the diversion trench are all rhombuses with wide middle and narrow two ends.
3. The fine particle hydraulic classification device based on the vortex diagonal flow as claimed in claim 1, characterized in that: the number and the inclination angle of the inclined plates are set according to the particle classification precision; the more the number of the inclined plates is, the finer the particle size classification is; the inclination angle of the inclined plate is 15-75 degrees, and the larger the inclination angle of the inclined plate is, the lower the separation difficulty of large-granularity particles is.
4. The fine particle hydraulic classification device based on the vortex diagonal flow as claimed in claim 1, characterized in that: the fine particle hydraulic classification device based on the vortex oblique flow adopts a single-stage operation mode or a multi-stage series operation mode, under the multi-stage series operation mode, the particle classification precision of a later stage device is higher than that of a former stage device, and a series access point of two adjacent stage devices is any discharge outlet.
5. A fine particle hydraulic classification method based on vortex diagonal flow, which adopts the fine particle hydraulic classification device based on vortex diagonal flow of claim 1, and is characterized by comprising the following processes: opening a feeding electromagnetic valve to enable solid-liquid mixed flow with set flow to enter a diversion trench through a feeding port, dispersing solid particles in the solid-liquid mixed flow in the diversion trench, enabling the solid-liquid mixed flow after the solid particles are dispersed to rapidly flow into a first-stage separation space through a first diversion elbow, wherein the first-stage separation space is composed of a classification box body, a first inclined plate and a second inclined plate, and the solid-liquid mixed flow is induced in the separation space through the inclined plates to form flow state vortex based on alternate inclined flow so as to expand the difference of centrifugal force, shearing force, inertia force and fluid resistance of different-granularity particles on the solid-liquid mixed flow and further strengthen the difference of motion tracks and spatial distribution of materials with different particle sizes to realize fine classification; wherein, a primary inclined flow is formed on the lower surface of the inclined plate, and a secondary inclined flow is formed on the upper surface of the inclined plate; the primary oblique flow is used for increasing the hydraulic radius of a separation space, reducing the Reynolds number and simultaneously greatly improving the Froude number, and providing stable hydraulic conditions for particle separation; the secondary oblique flow is used for reducing the hydraulic radius of a separation space, increasing the Reynolds number and simultaneously reducing the Froude number, and providing momentum for secondary circulation; because large-particle-size particles are subjected to larger centrifugal force, inertia force and fluid resistance, the large-particle-size particles can move around the vortex, under the flow choking action of the lower inclined plate, the large-particle-size particles are preferentially separated from a high-speed flowing mixed flow to form a coarse particle flow, the mixed flow carrying fine particles quickly flows into a second-stage separation space through a second flow guide elbow, the second-stage separation space is composed of a classification box body, a lower second inclined plate and a lower third inclined plate, and the solid-liquid mixed flow is subjected to re-separation in the second-stage separation space; by analogy, the solid-liquid mixed flow rises step by step until tailings containing the minimum granularity or pure liquid phase are formed in the last-stage separation space; along with the gradual increase of different granularity materials in each grade separation space, the material can be piled up on the pyramis space and the swash plate that swash plate and classification case box lateral wall formed, can discharge accumulational material through the bin outlet through opening row material solenoid valve this moment, carries out the tails through opening the tails solenoid valve and according to setting for the emission simultaneously and discharges.
CN202010933125.5A 2020-09-08 2020-09-08 Fine particle hydraulic classification device and method based on vortex oblique flow Active CN112138853B (en)

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Citations (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN2339303Y (en) * 1998-10-08 1999-09-22 昆明冶金研究院 Oblique-plate spiral grader
CN101011680A (en) * 2006-12-27 2007-08-08 株洲滴水恩环保科技有限责任公司 High efficiency second flow grading method and device
CN101439313A (en) * 2008-12-17 2009-05-27 中国铝业股份有限公司 Hydraulic sorting device
CN101524673A (en) * 2009-04-01 2009-09-09 太原理工大学 Compartment-type multi-section cyclone grader
KR20100064892A (en) * 2008-12-05 2010-06-15 한국수자원공사 The siudge blanket type of high-rate settling tank having hydraulic spiral flow
CN203565186U (en) * 2013-07-05 2014-04-30 安徽理工大学 Microbubble impulsive motion liquid-solid fluidized bed coarse coal slime sorting machine
CN104689900A (en) * 2015-02-13 2015-06-10 中南大学 Comprehensive force field multithread gravity concentrator
CN107661818A (en) * 2017-09-18 2018-02-06 中国石油大学(北京) A kind of method and grain classifier for improving powder granule effectiveness of classification
CN209968636U (en) * 2019-04-30 2020-01-21 长江造型材料(集团)科左后旗有限公司 Feeding structure of quartz sand sorting device

Patent Citations (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN2339303Y (en) * 1998-10-08 1999-09-22 昆明冶金研究院 Oblique-plate spiral grader
CN101011680A (en) * 2006-12-27 2007-08-08 株洲滴水恩环保科技有限责任公司 High efficiency second flow grading method and device
KR20100064892A (en) * 2008-12-05 2010-06-15 한국수자원공사 The siudge blanket type of high-rate settling tank having hydraulic spiral flow
CN101439313A (en) * 2008-12-17 2009-05-27 中国铝业股份有限公司 Hydraulic sorting device
CN101524673A (en) * 2009-04-01 2009-09-09 太原理工大学 Compartment-type multi-section cyclone grader
CN203565186U (en) * 2013-07-05 2014-04-30 安徽理工大学 Microbubble impulsive motion liquid-solid fluidized bed coarse coal slime sorting machine
CN104689900A (en) * 2015-02-13 2015-06-10 中南大学 Comprehensive force field multithread gravity concentrator
CN107661818A (en) * 2017-09-18 2018-02-06 中国石油大学(北京) A kind of method and grain classifier for improving powder granule effectiveness of classification
CN209968636U (en) * 2019-04-30 2020-01-21 长江造型材料(集团)科左后旗有限公司 Feeding structure of quartz sand sorting device

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