CN111908603A - Novel anaerobic biological filter wastewater treatment equipment and wastewater treatment method thereof - Google Patents

Novel anaerobic biological filter wastewater treatment equipment and wastewater treatment method thereof Download PDF

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Publication number
CN111908603A
CN111908603A CN202010849893.2A CN202010849893A CN111908603A CN 111908603 A CN111908603 A CN 111908603A CN 202010849893 A CN202010849893 A CN 202010849893A CN 111908603 A CN111908603 A CN 111908603A
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China
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biological filter
wastewater
water
biofilter
biological
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陈志伟
陈佛颂
徐瑞娥
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Huizhou Weilan Environmental Protection Technology Co ltd
Huizhou Hexin Technology Co ltd
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Huizhou Weilan Environmental Protection Technology Co ltd
Huizhou Hexin Technology Co ltd
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Priority to CN202010849893.2A priority Critical patent/CN111908603A/en
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F3/00Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F3/28Anaerobic digestion processes
    • C02F3/2806Anaerobic processes using solid supports for microorganisms
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F2303/00Specific treatment goals
    • C02F2303/14Maintenance of water treatment installations

Abstract

The invention discloses a novel anaerobic biofilter wastewater treatment device and a wastewater treatment method thereof. When the wastewater is treated, firstly, the strains are inoculated into the biological filter for domestication and culture to form a microbial community, then the wastewater is introduced into the biological filter device, and backwashing is periodically carried out after the treatment. Gaps among the first biological filter materials are large, and the first biological filter materials are not easily blocked by wastewater in the biological filter, wastewater and microbial communities attached to the surfaces of the first biological filter materials. The equipment has the advantages of capability of treating high, medium and low concentration wastewater, strong impact load resistance, high sludge concentration, small occupied area and the like.

Description

Novel anaerobic biological filter wastewater treatment equipment and wastewater treatment method thereof
Technical Field
The invention relates to the field of sewage treatment, in particular to novel anaerobic biofilter wastewater treatment equipment and a wastewater treatment method thereof.
Background
Human economic, industrial, social activities and the like generate a large amount of wastewater. For example, a large amount of municipal domestic sewage is generated in residential communities. Hospitals produce medical waste water containing a large amount of viruses and bacteria. A great amount of rural domestic sewage is generated in rural areas. Industrial park facilities such as printing and dyeing mills, paper mills, food mills, chemical plants, electroplating plants, printed circuit board mills, and cowboy water washing plants produce large amounts of industrial wastewater. Pig farms, chicken farms, and slaughterhouses produce large amounts of livestock and poultry excrement wastewater. If the waste water is directly discharged into the environment, serious negative effects can be generated on rivers, lakes, soil, farmlands, communities, animals, plants and human health. The wastewater needs to be effectively and comprehensively treated, so that the wastewater can be discharged into the environment after reaching the national discharge standard.
Sewage often contains complex components such as garbage, suspended matter, food residues, nitrogen compounds, phosphorus compounds, heavy metals, etc. Therefore, the sewage treatment process usually needs a plurality of processes to remove various pollutants in the sewage one by one, so that the treated sewage reaches the discharge standard. The sewage treatment processes comprise a grid filtration process, a medicine-adding air flotation process, a flocculation precipitation process, an aerobic biological process, an anaerobic biological process, an adsorption process, an advanced oxidation process, a membrane filtration process and the like. The above processes have different functions and are suitable for treating sewage with different characteristics.
The sewage needs a special process to obtain a better treatment effect. The grid filtering process can only remove garbage and large-particle suspended matters, but cannot remove organic matters in sewage. The flocculation precipitation process can remove suspended matters in water, wherein the suspended matters comprise part of organic matters, nitrogen-containing compounds and phosphorus-containing compounds, but the water often contains a large amount of soluble organic matters, nitrogen-containing compounds and phosphorus-containing compounds, and the part of pollutants are difficult to remove by the flocculation precipitation process. The microbial community in the aerobic biological process is difficult to decompose macromolecular organic matters, and the treatment effect on the macromolecular organic matter wastewater is poor. The adsorption process mainly uses active carbon, ion exchange resin and the like to adsorb pollutants in sewage, for example, if the active carbon is used for adsorbing high-concentration organic suspended matter wastewater, the active carbon is easy to saturate, the adsorption capacity is limited, the price of the active carbon is high, and the regeneration or replacement cost is high. In the advanced oxidation process such as the Fenton oxidation process, a large amount of hydrogen dioxide, ferrous sulfate, acid and alkali are required to be added for removing the high-concentration organic wastewater, a large amount of materialized sludge and other secondary pollution can be generated, and the treatment cost is high. The membrane filtration technologies such as ultrafiltration, nanofiltration and reverse osmosis are used for directly treating high-concentration organic matter macromolecular wastewater, membrane blockage can be easily caused, the service life of the membrane is greatly shortened, and the treatment cost is high. The hydrolytic acidification bacteria of the anaerobic microbial community in the anaerobic biological process can convert macromolecular organic matters in the wastewater into micromolecular organic matters, and then the micromolecular organic matters are converted into methane through methanogens. The process is also suitable for high-concentration organic wastewater.
If the concentration of nitrogen-containing compounds in the sewage is high, the denitrification reaction can be carried out by using an anaerobic biological method. Firstly, converting ammonia nitrogen in water into nitrite, nitrate and the like by using an aerobic biological process, and carrying out denitrification reaction under the condition that a proper amount of carbon source, nitrite and nitrate exist in anaerobic denitrifying bacteria in an anaerobic biological system to convert the nitrite and nitrate in the water into nitrogen and reduce the total nitrogen concentration in the water.
If the concentration of the phosphorus-containing compound in the sewage is higher, the denitrification dephosphorization reaction can be carried out by using an anaerobic biological method. Can reduce the use of chemical agents, reduce secondary pollution and reduce the use cost.
The anaerobic biological treatment method comprises an anaerobic continuous stirring reactor, an up-flow anaerobic sludge bed, an anaerobic baffle reactor, an internal circulation anaerobic reactor, an anaerobic expanded granular sludge bed, an anaerobic (anoxic) biological filter, an anaerobic membrane bioreactor and the like. Inside waste water of anaerobism continuous stirring reactor and microbial community mix completely, and the waste water concentration of whole reactor is even, and waste water and microbial community fully contact are applicable to the processing and contain the more high concentration organic matter waste water of suspended solid. The upflow anaerobic sludge bed cultures anaerobic granular sludge in the reactor, wastewater enters the sludge bed from the bottom of the reactor and is separated from sludge from bottom to top through the three-phase separator, the wastewater is discharged from the effluent weir, and the sludge is blocked by the baffle. The upflow anaerobic sludge blanket has the advantages of simple structure, high load rate, low energy consumption and the like. Is generally used for treating high-concentration organic wastewater. Anaerobic baffled reactors use a series of vertical baffles to divide the reactor into several anaerobic biological reaction chambers connected in series. The waste water flows up and down on the baffle plate and passes through each reaction chamber in turn, and organic matters in the waste water, such as nitrogen, phosphorus, suspended matters and the like, are adsorbed or absorbed by the microbial community and are removed. The anaerobic baffle plate reactor has the advantages of simple structure, strong impact load resistance, high treatment efficiency, low energy consumption and the like. Is generally used for treating high-concentration organic wastewater. The internal circulation anaerobic reactor is equivalent to two layers of upflow anaerobic sludge beds which are connected in series, the wastewater flows from bottom to top from the reactor, pollutants are adsorbed, degraded and converted by microbial communities, and the wastewater is purified and then discharged from a water outlet weir. The internal circulation anaerobic reactor has the advantages of high volume load, investment and floor area saving, strong impact load resistance and good effluent stability, and is suitable for treating high-concentration organic wastewater. The anaerobic expanded granular sludge bed is improved from an upflow anaerobic sludge bed, a water inlet and distribution system is improved, the liquid ascending flow rate is improved, the methane stirring is increased, the granular sludge bed is fully expanded, and the contact between the wastewater and a microbial community is increased. The height-diameter ratio is increased, and better mud-water separation is realized. The method has the advantages of large-particle sludge, high hydraulic load, high organic load and the like, and is suitable for treating high-concentration organic wastewater. The anaerobic membrane bioreactor is a novel wastewater treatment technology organically combining a membrane separation technology and an anaerobic biological treatment technology, and the membrane component is used for intercepting anaerobic sludge and macromolecular organic matters in water, so that the concentration of the anaerobic sludge and the quality of effluent can be improved, and the anaerobic membrane bioreactor is suitable for treating medium-low concentration organic wastewater. However, sludge and organic matter easily block the membrane module, causing a sharp increase in membrane pressure and a shortened membrane life. The inside of the anaerobic (anoxic) biological filter is filled with the biological filter, such as ceramsite, ceramic ring, slag and the like, one part of anaerobic microbial community is attached to the biological filter materials, and the other part is positioned between the biological filter materials. The wastewater passes through the biological filter material, and pollutants and anaerobic microbial communities are contacted with each other to be effectively purified. Has long sludge retention time and strong impact load resistance, and is suitable for high, medium and low concentration organic wastewater. Compared with other anaerobic biological processes, the anaerobic (anoxic) biological filter has the advantages of convenient operation management, lower operation cost, long sludge retention time, wide application range, good effluent quality and the like.
The anaerobic (anoxic) biofilter is widely applied to degradation of medium and low organic wastewater, macromolecular organic matters in wastewater, degradation of refractory organic matters in wastewater, denitrification and denitrification of wastewater, denitrification and dephosphorization of wastewater, advanced wastewater treatment, upgrading and reconstruction of original wastewater treatment facilities and the like at present. The device consists of a filter pool body, a water distribution system, an air distribution system, a back flush system, a pressure bearing layer, a biological filter material, a microbial community system and the like. According to the water flow direction, the device can be divided into an upflow anaerobic (anoxic) biological filter and a downflow anaerobic (anoxic) biological filter.
The principle of removing wastewater pollutants in an anaerobic (anoxic) biofilter is the process of physically intercepting a biological filter material and an anaerobic microbial community, adsorbing, absorbing, degrading, reducing, converting, synthesizing and the like the pollutants by anaerobic microbial community colloidal groups attached to the biological filter material and the biological filter material, removing organic matters, ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen, phosphorus, suspended matters and the like in sewage, generating gases such as hydrogen, methane, carbon dioxide and nitrogen, and dissolving small molecular organic matters such as volatile fatty acid (acetic acid, propionic acid and the like) and small molecular organic alcohols (such as ethanol, propanol and the like) and other substances. An anaerobic (anoxic) biological filter is a wastewater treatment technology integrating biological action and physical filtration.
However, in the course of operation of the anaerobic (anoxic) biofilter, the anaerobic microbial community uses pollutants in the wastewater as substrates, and continuously grows, breeds and metabolizes, gradually filling the gaps of the biological filter material. In addition, the biological filter material and microbial community of the anaerobic (anoxic) biological filter trap pollutants and suspended matters in the wastewater, and gradually accumulate in the gaps of the biological filter material, thereby causing blockage. Especially, when high concentration organic waste water and organic waste water containing a large amount of suspended matter are treated, the clogging phenomenon is more serious. Clogging creates five problems during the operation of anaerobic (anoxic) biofilters. Firstly, the resistance of wastewater and gas passing through an anaerobic (anoxic) biological filter is increased, and the energy consumption of a water pump and a fan is increased; secondly, the blockage of sludge and pollutants can cause the short flow phenomenon of the anaerobic (anoxic) biofilter, and the passing of wastewater and gas by biological filter materials in different areas is not uniform enough, so that the wastewater treatment efficiency is reduced; thirdly, more pollutants are intercepted by the biological filter material and the anaerobic microbial community and accumulated in the anaerobic (anoxic) biological filter, so that the concentration of the pollutants in the effluent can possibly rise; fourthly, sludge of sludge in the anaerobic (anoxic) biological filter tank is hardened, so that the service life of the biological filter material is influenced; fifthly, the anaerobic (anoxic) biofilter needs to be frequently backwashed, the operation is complex, the operation cost is increased, and meanwhile, the loss of the biological filter material is caused by frequent backwashing of the anaerobic (anoxic) biofilter.
Disclosure of Invention
Aiming at the defects of the prior art, the invention provides a novel anaerobic biological filter wastewater treatment device, which comprises:
the biological filtering device comprises a biological filter, a bearing layer, a biological filter material module and a microbial community; the biological filter is provided with a water inlet and a water outlet, the water inlet and the water outlet are respectively positioned at the lower end and the upper end of the biological filter, or the water inlet and the water outlet are positioned at the upper end and the lower end of the biological filter; the supporting layer is provided with a filter head, the supporting layer is arranged in the biological filter pool and divides the biological filter pool into a first chamber and a second chamber, and the filter head is used for communicating the first chamber and the second chamber; the biological filter material module is arranged in the first cavity and comprises a first biological filter material module, the first biological filter material module comprises a first filter bag and a first biological filter material filled in the first filter bag, a plurality of filter holes are formed in the first filter bag, and a microbial community is domesticated on the surface of the first biological filter material;
and one end of the back washing system is communicated with the first chamber and the second chamber.
Preferably, the top of the biological filter is provided with a top cover which covers the biological filter.
Preferably, the back flush system comprises a flush system, the flush system comprises a flush water pump, a flush water pipe and a water collecting tank, one end of the flush water pump is communicated with the water collecting tank through one flush water pipe, and the other end of the flush water pump is communicated with the second chamber through the other flush water pipe.
Preferably, the back flush system comprises an air distribution system, the air distribution system comprises a fan and an air pipe, and the fan is communicated with the first cavity and the second cavity through the air pipe.
Preferably, the novel anaerobic biological filter wastewater treatment equipment further comprises a wastewater tank and a water distribution system, and the wastewater tank is communicated with the water inlet through the water distribution system.
Preferably, the first biological filter material comprises at least one of ceramsite, volcanic rock, ceramic glass ring, activated carbon, quartz sand, manganese sand, slag, lignite, coke, expanded aluminosilicate, coral sand, cobblestone, zeolite, medical stone, polystyrene, polypropylene and polyvinyl chloride.
Preferably, the biological filter material module further comprises a second biological filter material module, the second biological filter material module is located between the support layer and the first biological filter material module, and the second biological filter material module comprises a second biological filter material.
Preferably, the second biological filter material module further comprises a second filter bag, and the second biological filter material is filled in the second filter bag.
Preferably, the top of the biological filter is provided with an effluent weir.
The invention also provides a method for treating wastewater, which uses the novel anaerobic biological filter wastewater treatment equipment and comprises the following steps:
inoculating the strain to the first biological filter material for domestication and culture to form a microbial community;
introducing the wastewater into a biological filtering device, filtering the wastewater by using a first biological filter material, and simultaneously carrying out biochemical reaction on the wastewater and microbial community;
after the wastewater is treated, the backwashing system performs backwashing on the biological filtering device.
Compared with the prior art, the first biological filter material is filled in the first filter bag, so that the gap of the first biological filter material is increased, pollutants of wastewater and microbial communities are prevented from being blocked in the gap of the first biological filter material, meanwhile, the gap of the first biological filter material provides a growth space for the microbial communities, and sufficient microbial communities and wastewater are guaranteed to have biochemical reaction. Compared with anaerobic continuous stirring reactors, anaerobic baffle plate reactors and the like, the invention has the advantages of high sludge treatment concentration, strong impact load resistance, stable treatment effect, good treatment effect, small occupied area and the like, and has the functions of filtration and biochemical reaction. Compared with an up-flow anaerobic sludge bed and the like, the anaerobic sludge bed has the advantages of difficult sludge loss, stable system operation and the like. Compared with the conventional anaerobic biological filter, the anaerobic biological filter has the advantages of wide treatment range, capability of treating high, medium and low concentration wastewater, low back washing frequency, simple and convenient operation and the like, and is not easy to block.
Drawings
The accompanying drawings, which are included to provide a further understanding of the application and are incorporated in and constitute a part of this application, illustrate embodiment(s) of the application and together with the description serve to explain the application and not to limit the application. In the drawings:
FIG. 1 is a schematic structural diagram of a wastewater treatment plant of a novel downflow anaerobic biological filter in an embodiment;
FIG. 2 is a schematic structural diagram of an upflow anaerobic biological filter wastewater treatment device in an embodiment;
FIG. 3 is a schematic structural view of a down-flow biofiltration device in an embodiment;
FIG. 4 is a schematic structural view of an upflow biofiltration device in an embodiment.
Reference numerals: 1 a biological filtration device; 11 biological filter; 111 a water inlet; 112 water outlet; 113 a first chamber; 114 a second chamber; 12 a support layer; 121 a filter head; 13 a biological filter material module; 131 a first biological filter material module; 132 a second biological filter material module; 14 a top cover; 141 exhaust port; 15, an effluent weir; 2, a back washing system; 21 flushing the system; 211 rinsing the water pump; 212 a flushing water pipe; 213 flush inlet valve; 214 flushing the water outlet valve; 215 a catch basin; 216 a water collection pipe; 217 a water collecting valve; 218 a drain pipe; 219 a drain valve; 22 air distribution system; a 221 fan; 222 an air pipe; 223 air valve; 3 a wastewater pool; 4, a water distribution system; 41 water distribution pump; 42 water distribution pipes; 43 water distributing and feeding valve; 44 water distributing and discharging valve.
Detailed Description
In the following description, for purposes of explanation, numerous implementation details are set forth in order to provide a thorough understanding of the various embodiments of the present invention. It should be understood, however, that these implementation details are not to be interpreted as limiting the invention. That is, in some embodiments of the invention, such implementation details are not necessary. In addition, some conventional structures and components are shown in simplified schematic form in the drawings.
The description of the present invention as to "first", "second", etc. is for descriptive purposes only, and not for purposes of particular ordinal or sequential meaning, nor for limitations, and is intended to identify components or operations described in the same technical language, but is intended to be construed as indicating or implying any relative importance or implicit identification of any number of technical features. Thus, a feature defined as "first" or "second" may explicitly or implicitly include at least one such feature. In addition, technical solutions between various embodiments may be combined with each other, but must be realized by a person skilled in the art, and when the technical solutions are contradictory or cannot be realized, such a combination should not be considered to exist, and is not within the protection scope of the present invention.
For a further understanding of the contents, features and effects of the present invention, the following examples are illustrated in the accompanying drawings and described in the following detailed description:
the first embodiment is as follows:
referring to fig. 1, fig. 1 is a schematic diagram of a structure of a novel downflow anaerobic biological filter wastewater treatment device in an embodiment, and fig. 2 is a schematic diagram of a structure of a novel upflow anaerobic biological filter wastewater treatment device in an embodiment. The embodiment provides a novel anaerobic biofilter wastewater treatment device, the wastewater treatment device comprises a biofilter 1 and a backwashing system 2, and the backwashing system 2 is used for cleaning the biofilter 1.
Referring to fig. 1 and 2, the biofiltration device 1 includes a biofilter 11, a support layer 12, a biofilter module 13, and a microbial community. The biological filter 11 comprises a water inlet 111 and a water outlet 112, wherein the water inlet 111 and the water outlet 112 are respectively positioned at the lower end and the upper end of the biological filter 11, or the water inlet 111 and the water outlet 112 are positioned at the upper end and the lower end of the biological filter 11. That is, the biofiltration device 1 may be of a down-flow type or an up-flow type, wherein the down-flow type means that the water inlet 111 is located at the bottom of the biofilter 11, the water outlet 112 is located at the top of the biofilter 11, and wastewater flows from the top to the bottom of the biofilter 11; the upflow means that the water inlet 111 and the water outlet 112 are respectively positioned at the bottom and the top of the biological filter 11, and wastewater flows from the bottom to the top of the biological filter 11.
Referring to fig. 3-4, fig. 3 is a down-flow biofiltration device in an embodiment, and fig. 4 is an up-flow biofiltration device in an embodiment. The filter head 121 is mounted on the support layer 12, and specifically, the support layer 12 includes a filter plate, the filter plate is mounted with the filter head 121, and the filter plate may be a high-strength material such as reinforced concrete, carbon steel, stainless steel, iron, fiber reinforced plastic, polyvinyl chloride, and polymethyl methacrylate, and is preferably reinforced concrete in view of strength and economy. Because of the filter head is with the intercommunication effect, the filter head leads to having the through-hole on the bearing layer for the intensity of filter plate reduces, and the quantity of filter head 121 needs to guarantee that the filter plate has certain intensity. Support layer 12 is located in biological filter 11, divide into first cavity 113 and second cavity 114 to biological filter 11, and filter 121 is used for communicateing first cavity 113 and second cavity 114, and preferably, filter 121 is equipped with and filters the piece, and filter the impurity that is used for preliminary filtration waste water, and filter the piece and be located the water inlet of filter 121, or filter the piece and be located the delivery port of filter 121, or filter the piece and be located the water inlet and the delivery port of filter 121.
The biological filter material module 13 comprises a first biological filter material module 131, the first biological filter material module 131 comprises a first filter bag and a first biological filter material filled in the first filter bag, a plurality of filter holes are arranged on the first filter bag, and preferably, a plurality of filter holes are uniformly and densely distributed on the surface of the first filter bag. The height of the first biological filter material module in the biological filter tank is generally 2-7 m. The nominal diameter of the filter holes is 0.5-60 mm, or the area of the filter holes is 0.8-2600 mm2,. The shape of the first filter bag can be rectangle, circle, ellipse, diamond or triangle, etc. The size of the first filter bag is selected according to actual needs, such as a rectangular first filter bag, the length of the rectangular first filter bag is between 4cm and 90cm, and the width of the rectangular first filter bag is between 4cm and 90 cm. The diameter of the circular first filter bag is between 4cm and 110 cm. The material of the first filter bag comprises at least one of polyamide synthetic fiber, polyester fiber, polyacrylonitrile fiber and the like. The first biological filter material is made of at least one of ceramsite, volcanic rock, ceramic glass ring, activated carbon, quartz sand, manganese sand, furnace slag, lignite, coke, expanded aluminosilicate, coral sand, cobblestone, zeolite, medical stone, polystyrene, polypropylene and polyvinyl chloride. The first filter bag is provided with an inlet for filling the first biological filter material, the inlet is sealed after the first biological filter material is filled, and the sealing mode of the inlet can be a zipper or a button and the like. The nominal diameter of the first biological filter material is generally between 0.8mm and 60mm, and the particle size of the first biological filter material is larger than the filter holes of the first filter bag, so that the first biological filter material cannot leak out of the filter holes. The first biological filter material is domesticated with microbial community, which reacts with waste water to decompose various pollutants in the waste water. The first biological filter material intercepts pollutants and suspended matters, thereby playing a role in filtering wastewater. The surface of the first biological filter material is rough, so that the friction coefficient of the surface of the first biological filter material is large, and microbial communities can be attached to the surface of the first biological filter material to be generated; first biological filter material fills in first filter bag for first biological filter material's clearance is great, and this provides the space of growth reproduction for the microbial community, simultaneously, also makes the difficult first biological filter material that blocks up of pollutant and microbial community in the waste water.
Referring back to fig. 1 and 2, one end of the back-flushing system 2 is communicated with the first chamber 113 and the second chamber 114, and the back-flushing system 2 is used for flushing the biological filtering device 1.
The wastewater of the present invention flows in from the water inlet 111, is filtered by the first biological filter of the first biological filter module 131, and simultaneously, the wastewater and the microbial community attached to the surface of the first biological filter generate biochemical reaction to decompose and absorb pollutants in the wastewater, and the treated wastewater is discharged from the water outlet 112. According to the growth condition of the microbial community in the biological filter 11, the sedimentation and blockage condition of pollutants and the water quality condition of the outlet water of the biological filter 11, the backwashing operation is periodically carried out, and during the backwashing, the backwashing system 2 is opened to carry out the backwashing on the biological filter device 1, so that the pollutants in the biological filter device 1 are separated from the biological filter device 1 and are mixed with the filtered waste water to be discharged out of the biological filter device 1. First biological filter material is filled in first filter bag, increases the clearance between the first biological filter material for the first biological filter material is difficult for blockking up to pollutant and the microbial community of mass propagation in the waste water.
Further, referring to fig. 1 and 2 again, in order to form an absolute anaerobic environment, a top cover 14 is provided on the top of the biological filter, and preferably, the top cover 14 is formed by splicing a plurality of small cover plates. The top cover 14 is provided with an exhaust port 141, the top cover 14 covers the top of the biological filter 11, the material of the top cover 14 can be at least one of concrete, galvanized material, iron, stainless steel, carbon steel, aluminum alloy, polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene, fiber reinforced plastics, polymethyl methacrylate and the like, and the galvanized material is preferred. After the top cover 14 is covered on the top of the biological filter 11, an absolute anaerobic environment is formed, which is beneficial to the formation and dominance of anaerobic microbial communities, and the microbial communities attached to the surface of the first biological filter material and the wastewater generate biochemical reaction, and meanwhile, external pollutants are prevented from entering the biological filter 11. The wastewater biochemically reacts with the microbial community to generate biogas such as methane, hydrogen, or carbon dioxide, which is discharged from the exhaust port 141. Preferably 11, the gas outlet is communicated with a gas furnace, and the gas is used as fuel, so that energy is saved, and the pollution of the gas generated by biochemical reaction to the environment is reduced.
Further, the backwashing system 2 may be high-speed water flow backwashing, gas-water backwashing or surface-assisted washing high-speed water flow backwashing, wherein the gas-water backwashing includes first gas washing and then water washing, first gas-water simultaneous washing, then separate water washing, and washing in the order of gas washing, gas-water mixed washing, and water washing. Preferably, the backwashing system 2 is a high-speed water flow backwashing system, referring back to fig. 1, the backwashing system 2 includes a washing system 21, the washing system 21 includes a washing water pump 211, a washing water pipe 212, a washing water inlet valve 213, a washing water outlet valve 214 and a water collecting tank 215, one end of the washing water pump 211 is communicated with the water collecting tank 215 through a washing water pipe 212, the other end of the washing water pump 211 is communicated with the second chamber 114 of the biological filter 11 through another washing water pipe 212, the washing water inlet valve 213 is disposed on the washing water pipe 212 near the water collecting tank 215, and the washing water outlet valve 214 is disposed on the washing water pipe 212 near the second chamber 114. Preferably, the water collecting tank 215 is communicated with the upper end of the biological filter 11, specifically, the flushing system 21 further comprises a water collecting pipe 216, a water collecting valve 217, a water discharging pipe 218 and a water discharging valve 219, one end of the water collecting valve 217 is communicated with the water outlet of the biological filter 11 through one water collecting pipe 216, the other end of the water collecting valve 217 is communicated with the water collecting tank 215 through the other water collecting pipe 216, the water collecting valve 217 controls the connection and disconnection between the water outlet 111 of the biological filter 11 and the water collecting tank 215, and the water discharging valve 219 controls the connection and disconnection of the water discharging pipe 218. Furthermore, the backwashing system 2 further comprises an air distribution system 22, the air distribution system 22 is communicated with the first chamber 113 and the second chamber 114 of the biological filter 11, specifically, the air distribution system 22 comprises a fan 221, an air pipe 222 and an air valve 223, one end of the air valve 223 is communicated with the fan 221 through the air pipe 222, the other end of the air valve 223 is communicated with the first chamber 113 and the second chamber 114 of the biological filter 11 through the other air pipe 222, and the air valve 223 is used for controlling the on-off of the fan 221 and the first chamber 113 and the second chamber 114. The gas pipe 222 may be a cast iron pipe, a carbon steel pipe, a stainless steel pipe, a polyethylene pipe, a polyvinyl chloride pipe, a polymethyl methacrylate pipe, a silicone tube, or the like. Periodically performing backwashing operation according to the growth condition of the microbial community in the biological filter 11, the sedimentation and blockage condition of pollutants and the water quality condition of the outlet water of the biological filter 11, for example, detecting the pressure value in the middle of the biological filter module 13 by using a pressure gauge, and performing backwashing when detecting that the pressure in the middle of the biological filter module 13 is too large; observing the water outlet condition of the water outlet 112, and performing backwashing when the water outlet contains sludge or suspended matters; and taking out water at the water outlet for water quality detection, and performing backwashing when the concentration of the effluent pollutants is increased by 20% compared with the normal concentration of the effluent pollutants. During back flushing, firstly, the water inlet 111 and the water outlet 112 are closed, the fan 221 and the air valve 223 are opened, the compressed air with high air pressure enters the biological filter 11 for a period of time, preferably 5-30min, and the first biological filter material, the microbial community growing and dying and pollutants in the biological filter are intensively stirred and mixed with water to form a mixture of high-concentration sludge and water. The water outlet 112 is opened, the fan 221 is kept running, simultaneously, the washing water pump 211 is started, washing water enters the biological filter 11, and compressed air and the washing water are jointly washed for a period of time, preferably 5-30 min. A high concentration sludge and water mixture containing a large number of microbial communities and contaminants is continuously discharged from the water outlet 112. After back flushing, microbial communities and pollutants in the biological filter 11 are reduced; the blocking phenomenon is greatly relieved or eliminated; wastewater and gas resistance are reduced; the phenomenon of short flow of wastewater and gas is greatly alleviated or eliminated; the effluent quality is improved.
Further, referring back to fig. 1, the novel anaerobic biofilter wastewater treatment equipment further comprises a wastewater tank 3 and a water distribution system 4, wherein the wastewater tank 3 is communicated with the water inlet 111 of the biofilter 11 through the water distribution system 4. The water distribution system 4 comprises a water distribution pump 41, a water distribution pipe 42, a water distribution inlet valve 43 and a water distribution outlet valve 44, wherein one end of the water distribution pump 41 is communicated with the wastewater tank 3 through one water distribution pipe 42, the other end of the water distribution pump 41 is communicated with the water inlet 111 of the biological filter 11 through the other water distribution pipe 42, the water distribution inlet valve 43 is arranged on the water distribution pipe 42 between the wastewater tank 3 and the water distribution pump 41, and the water distribution outlet valve 44 is arranged on the water distribution pipe 42 between the biological filter 11 and the water distribution pump 41 and is used for controlling the on-off of wastewater in the water distribution pipe 42. The water distribution pump 41 may be a centrifugal pump, a submersible pump, an axial flow pump, a reciprocating pump, or the like, and the water distribution pipe 42 may be a polyvinyl chloride pipe, a polyethylene pipe, a polymethyl methacrylate pipe, a silicone pipe, a cast iron pipe, a carbon steel pipe, a steel pipe, or the like.
Further, referring to fig. 1 again, the biological filter material module 13 further includes a second biological filter material module 132, the second biological filter material module 132 is located between the support layer 12 and the first biological filter material module 131, the second biological filter material module 132 includes a second biological filter material, and a microbial community is domesticated on the second biological filter material. Preferably, the second biological filter material module 132 further includes a second filter bag, the second biological filter material is filled in the second filter bag, and the nominal diameter of the second biological filter material is larger than that of the first biological filter material. Preferably, the second biological filter material is cobblestones, more preferably, the nominal diameter of the cobblestones is preferably 2-15 cm, and the height of the cobblestones paved on the bearing plate is 0.2-1 m. The surface of the second filter bag is provided with a plurality of filter holes and openings, the openings of the second filter bag are provided with zippers or buttons, the second biological filter material is filled into the second filter bag from the openings of the second filter bag, the openings are sealed by the zippers or the buttons, and the second biological filter material cannot leak from the second filter bag because the size of the second biological filter material is larger than the filter holes of the second filter bag. The second filter bag is laid between the supporting layer 12 and the first biological filter material module 131, so that the first biological filter material module 131 is piled on the second biological filter material module 131, the gap between the first biological filter material modules is increased, the gap between the second biological filter materials is also increased, and therefore a larger growth space of microbial communities is given, meanwhile, the first biological filter material is not easy to block, the biological filter device 1 can keep normal operation for a long time, and the number of backwashing times is reduced. In addition, the size of the second biological filter material is larger than that of the first biological filter material, the gap of the second biological filter material is larger than that of the first biological filter material, the second biological filter material filters large-particle pollutants firstly, and the first biological filter material filters small-particle pollutants, so that the pollutants are prevented from blocking the first biological filter material easily, and the filtering effect is improved.
Further, referring to fig. 1 again, the top of the biological filter 11 is provided with an effluent weir 15, and preferably, the effluent weir 15 is arranged at a position 0.2-1 meter away from the top of the biological filter 11. The shape of the weir 15 can be triangular, rectangular, trapezoidal, etc., and is preferably triangular. The material of the effluent weir 15 can be concrete, iron, stainless steel, carbon steel, aluminum alloy, polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene, fiber reinforced plastic, polymethyl methacrylate, etc., preferably concrete. Preferably, the effluent weir 15 is arranged at the top end of the biological filter 11 at a position of 0.2-1 meter, and the height of the effluent weir 15 corresponds to the water outlet 112.
Furthermore, the novel anaerobic biological filter can be designed into a module, and a plurality of biological filters 11 can be connected in series or in parallel for use when the flow of wastewater is large. Specifically, the serial connection of the plurality of biofilters 11 means that the water outlet 111 of the first biofilter 11 is communicated 112 with the water inlet of the second biofilter 11, the water outlet 112 of the second biofilter 11 is communicated 112 with the water inlet 111 of the third biofilter 11, and so on. The parallel connection of the plurality of biofilters 11 means that the water inlets 111 of all biofilters 11 are connected to the same wastewater source, for example, the water inlets 111 of all biofilters 11 are connected to the same wastewater tank 3. Therefore, the modular design greatly improves the treatment efficiency of the wastewater.
The working principle is as follows: opening the water distribution inlet valve 43, the water distribution outlet valve 44, the water collecting valve 217 and the drain valve 219, closing the top cover 14, closing the flushing inlet valve 213, the flushing outlet valve 214 and the air valve 223; the wastewater is introduced into the wastewater tank 3, the wastewater in the wastewater tank 3 is extracted by the flushing water pump 211, and the wastewater flows from the wastewater tank 3 through the water distribution water pump 41 and the water distribution pipe 42 and then enters the second chamber 114; with the increase of the wastewater in the biological filter 11, the wastewater enters the second chamber 114 through the filter head 121, sequentially passes through the supporting layer 12, the second biological filter material module 132 and the first biological filter material module 131, and is filtered by the second biological filter material and the first biological filter material, while the wastewater and microbial community attached to the second biological filter material and the first biological filter material carry out biochemical reaction, and gas generated by the biochemical reaction is discharged to the outside through the exhaust port 141; the treated wastewater enters a water collecting tank 215 through a water collecting pipe 216; according to the microbial community growth condition, pollutant deposition and blockage condition and the water quality condition of the filter tank 11, the backwashing operation is periodically carried out, and during the backwashing, the air valve 223 and the fan 221 are opened to enable the airflow blown out by the fan 221 to enter the first chamber 113 and the second chamber 114; then, while the blower 221 is kept running, the flushing water inlet valve 513 and the flushing water outlet valve 213 are opened, the flushing water in the water collecting tank 215 is pumped by the flushing water pump 211, and the wastewater in the water collecting tank 215 enters the second chamber 114 through the flushing water pipe 212 and the flushing water pump 211 to flush the components in the biological filter 11.
In conclusion, the first biological filter material is filled in the first filter bag, so that the gap between the first biological filter material is increased, the first biological filter material is not easily blocked by pollutants in microbial communities and wastewater, the backwashing frequency is reduced, and the maintenance cost of the novel anaerobic biological filter wastewater treatment equipment is reduced. In addition, the gaps among the first biological filter materials can provide space for the growth and the propagation of microbial communities, and the efficiency of biochemical reaction between the wastewater and the microbial communities is improved.
Example two:
the structure of the biological filter 11 is a cuboid filter body with the length of 1m, the width of 1m and the height of 4 m. Wherein the supporting layer 12 is 0.8m below. Cobblestones with the grain size of 5cm to 10cm are used as the second biological filter material module 132, and the height is 0.4 m. The first biological filter material module 131 is a rectangular first filter bag made of polyamide fiber. The first filter bag is 20cm long and 15cm wide. The nominal diameter of the filter hole of the first filter bag is about 1.5 mm. After the first filter bag is filled with ceramsite with the particle size of 3-5 mm, the first filter bag is orderly placed above the second biological filter material module 132, and the height of the first filter bag is 3.5 m. Preparing the chemical oxygen demand concentration of the simulated wastewater of 130 to 150mg L-1Ammonia nitrogen concentration of 16-18 mg L-1Total nitrogen concentration 16 to 18mg L-1Total phosphorus concentration 1.2 to 1.4mg L-1. The hydraulic retention time of the wastewater in the novel anaerobic biological filter is 2 to 3 hours. The dissolved oxygen concentration of the novel anaerobic biological filter is 0-0.1mg L-1. After the wastewater is treated by the novel anaerobic biological filter, hydrolytic acidification reaction, methanogenesis reaction and the like occur under the condition of the existence of abundant hydrolytic acidification bacteria, methanogenesis bacteria, phosphorus accumulating bacteria and the like. The indexes of various pollutants are reduced, and specifically, the chemical oxygen demand concentration of the effluent is 70-100 mg L-1The ammonia nitrogen concentration is 14 to 17mg L-1 Total nitrogen concentration 14 to 17mg L-1Total phosphorus concentration 0.4 to 0.8mg L-1
Example three:
the structure of the biological filter 11 is a cuboid filter body with the length of 1m, the width of 1m and the height of 4 m. Wherein the supporting layer 12 is 0.8m below. The novel anaerobic biological filter takes cobblestones with the grain diameter of 5cm to 10cm as a second biological filter material module 132, and the height is 0.4 m. The first biological filter material module 131 adopts a rectangular first filter bag made of polyamide fibers. The filter bag is 20cm long and 15cm wide. The nominal diameter of the filter hole of the first filter bag is about 1.5 mm. After the first filter bag is filled with ceramsite with the particle size of 3-5 mm, the first filter bag is orderly placed above the second biological filter material module 132, and the height of the first filter bag is 3.5 m. Preparing the chemical oxygen demand concentration of the simulated wastewater of 130 to 150mg L-1Nitrate nitrogen concentration 16 to 18mg L-1Total nitrogen concentration 16 to 18mg L-1Total phosphorus concentration 1.2 to 1.4mg L-1. The hydraulic retention time of the wastewater in the novel anaerobic biological filter is 2 to 3 hours. The dissolved oxygen concentration of the novel anaerobic biological filter is 0-0.2mg L-1. After the wastewater is treated by the novel anaerobic biological filter, under the condition of the existence of abundant hydrolytic acidification bacteria, methanogen, denitrifying bacteria, phosphorus accumulating bacteria and the like, the indexes of all pollutants are reduced to some extent, and the hydrolytic acidification reaction, the methanogen reaction, the denitrification reaction and the like occur, specifically, the chemical oxygen demand concentration of effluent is 50-100 mg L-1Nitrate nitrogen concentration of 1 to 4mg L-1 Total nitrogen concentration 1 to 4mg L-1Total phosphorus concentration 0.4 to 0.8mg L-1
Example four:
the structure of the biological filter 11 is a cuboid filter body with the length of 1m, the width of 1m and the height of 4 m. Wherein the thickness below the bearing layer is 0.8 m. The novel anaerobic biological filter takes cobblestones with the grain diameter of 5cm to 10cm as a second biological filter material module 132, and the height is 0.4 m. The first biological filter material module 131 is a rectangular first filter bag made of polyamide fiber. The filter bag is 20cm long and 15cm wide. The nominal diameter of the filter hole of the first filter bag is about 1.5 mm. After the first filter bag is filled with ceramsite with the particle size of 3-5 mm, the first filter bag is orderly placed above the second biological filter material module 132, and the height of the first filter bag is 3.5 m. Preparing the chemical oxygen demand concentration of the simulated wastewater from 3000 to 3200mg L-1Ammonia nitrogen concentration of 30-35 mg L-1Total nitrogen concentration 30 to 35mg L-1Total phosphorus concentration 3 to 3.3mg L-1. The hydraulic retention time of the wastewater in the novel anaerobic biological filter is 12 to 24 hours. The reactor pH was maintained at around 6. The dissolved oxygen concentration of the novel anaerobic biological filter is 0mg L-1. After the wastewater is treated by the biological filter 11, the wastewater is subjected to water generation under the existence of abundant hydrolytic acidification bacteria, methanogen, phosphorus-accumulating bacteria and the likeAnd (4) acid decomposition reaction. The indexes of various pollutants are reduced, and specifically, the chemical oxygen demand concentration of the effluent is 2000-2800 mg L-1The ammonia nitrogen concentration is 25 to 32mg L-1Total nitrogen concentration 25 to 32mg L-1Total phosphorus concentration 1.2 to 2mg L-1. The top cover 14 of the novel anaerobic biological filter 11 is provided with a biogas outflow which contains hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methane and other components. The effluent contains a large amount of volatile fatty acid, such as acetic acid, propionic acid or butyric acid, and also contains alcohol, such as ethanol, propanol or butanol.
Example five:
the structure of the biological filter 11 is a cuboid filter body with the length of 1m, the width of 1m and the height of 4 m. Wherein the supporting layer 12 is 0.8m below. The biological filter 11 uses cobblestones with the grain size of 5cm to 10cm as a second biological filter material module 132, and the height is 0.4 m. The first biological filter material module 131 is a rectangular first filter bag made of polyamide fiber. The filter bag is 20cm long and 15cm wide. The nominal diameter of the filter holes of the first filter bag is about 1.5 mm. After the first filter bag is filled with ceramsite with the particle size of 3-5 mm, the first filter bag is orderly placed above the second biological filter material module 132, and the height of the first filter bag is 3.5 m. Preparing the chemical oxygen demand concentration of the simulated wastewater from 3000 to 3200mg L-1Ammonia nitrogen concentration of 30-35 mg L-1Total nitrogen concentration 30 to 35mg L-1Total phosphorus concentration 3 to 3.3mg L-1. The hydraulic retention time of the wastewater in the novel anaerobic biological filter is 24 to 48 hours. The reactor pH was maintained around 7. The dissolved oxygen concentration of the novel anaerobic biological filter is 0mg L-1. After the wastewater is treated by the novel anaerobic biological filter, hydrolytic acidification reaction, methanogenesis reaction and the like occur under the condition of the existence of abundant hydrolytic acidification bacteria, methanogenesis bacteria, phosphorus accumulating bacteria and the like. The indexes of various pollutants are reduced, and specifically, the chemical oxygen demand concentration of the effluent is 600-2000 mg L-1The ammonia nitrogen concentration is 25 to 32mg L-1Total nitrogen concentration 25 to 32mg L-1Total phosphorus concentration 0.8 to 2mg L-1. The biological fuel gas flows out from the top cover 14 of the novel anaerobic biological filter and contains components such as methane, carbon dioxide, hydrogen and the like. The effluent contains a portion of volatile fatty acids, such as acetic acid, propionic acid or butyric acid, and the effluent also containsThere are alcohols such as ethanol, propanol or butanol, etc.
Example six:
the structure of the biological filter 11 is a cuboid filter body which is 3m long, 3m wide and 5m high. Wherein the supporting layer 12 is 0.8m below. The biological filter 11 uses cobblestones with the grain size of 5cm to 10cm as a second biological filter material module 132, and the height is 0.4 m. The first biological filter material module 131 is a rectangular first filter bag made of polyamide fiber. The filter bag is 50cm long and 35cm wide. The nominal diameter of the filter hole of the first filter bag is about 1.5 mm. After the first filter bag is filled with ceramsite with the particle size of 3-5 mm, the first filter bag is orderly placed above the second biological filter material module 132, and the height of the first filter bag is 3.5 m. Taking actual domestic sewage, wherein the chemical oxygen demand concentration is 150-200 mg L-1, the ammonia nitrogen concentration is 18-20 mg L-1, the total nitrogen concentration is 20-22 mg L-1, and the total phosphorus concentration is 1.6-1.8 mg L-1. The hydraulic retention time of the domestic sewage in the biological filter 11 is 2 to 3 hours. The concentration of dissolved oxygen in the biological filter 11 is 0-0.1mg L-1. After the wastewater is treated by the biological filter 11, hydrolytic acidification reaction, methane production reaction and the like are carried out under the condition of the existence of abundant hydrolytic acidification bacteria, methane production bacteria, phosphorus accumulation bacteria and the like. The indexes of various pollutants are reduced, the chemical oxygen demand concentration of effluent is 80-120 mg L-1, the ammonia nitrogen concentration is 15-18 mg L-1, the total nitrogen concentration is 17-20 mg L-1, and the total phosphorus concentration is 0.6-1 mg L-1.
Example seven:
when the biological filter 11 is used for treating different types of wastewater, the microbial communities are different, and the operating conditions are also different. The dissolved oxygen concentration of the biological filter 11 is generally controlled between 0 and 1mg L-1. When absolute anaerobism is required, such as a methanogenic biochemical reaction stage, the dissolved oxygen concentration is generally controlled to be 0mg L-1. In the anaerobic denitrification stage, the dissolved oxygen in the filter tank may be 0 to 0.5mg L-1And is not in an absolutely anaerobic state but in an anoxic state.
When the biological filter 11 is used for treating organic high-concentration wastewater, if the biochemical reaction of the filter is controlled at the stage of hydrolysis acidification, the dissolved oxygen concentration can be kept at 0mg L-1Under the condition of a certain concentration of wastewater pollutants, such as 3000mg L-1Reducing hydraulic retention time of filter, e.g. hydraulic retention timeThe control is between 6 and 24 hours. Under the retention time, the hydrolysis acidification bacteria in the biological filter 11 hydrolyze and acidify the macromolecules in the wastewater into micromolecular volatile fatty acids, alcohols, biogas and the like. Due to the short residence time, these small molecules are discharged from the biofilter without being converted to methane.
When the biological filter 11 is used for treating organic high-concentration wastewater, if the biochemical reaction is controlled at the methanogenesis stage, the dissolved oxygen concentration can be kept at 0mg L-1Under the condition of a certain concentration of wastewater pollutants, such as 3000mg L-1And increasing the hydraulic retention time of the filter, for example, controlling the hydraulic retention time to be between 24 and 72 hours, and not limited to the above time. At this retention time, the biofilter 11 undergoes two stages, a hydrolytic acidification stage and a methanogenesis stage. The hydrolytic acidification bacteria hydrolyze and acidify macromolecules in the wastewater into micromolecular volatile fatty acid, alcohols, biogas and the like. In the methanogenic stage, methanogens convert volatile fatty acids, alcohols, hydrogen, etc. to methane and carbon dioxide.
When the biological filter 11 treats the total nitrogen in the wastewater by anaerobic denitrification biochemical reaction, the carbon-nitrogen ratio of the wastewater is kept to be at least 4: 1. The carbon-nitrogen ratio is mainly based on actual needs, enough carbon source is needed to realize anaerobic denitrification reaction, and excessive carbon source cannot be used to cause the chemical oxygen demand concentration of effluent to be too high. The denitrification inlet water is the effluent water of a nitrosation biological reaction tank and a nitrification biological reaction tank, so as to realize the short-cut nitrification and denitrification reaction and the nitrification and denitrification reaction in the biological filter 11. Keeping the dissolved oxygen concentration of the biological filter 11 between 0 and 0.2mg L-1The denitrification reaction does not require a very strict anaerobic environment, because the effluent of the nitrosoation and nitrification biological reaction tanks generally contains a higher concentration of dissolved oxygen. In the presence of a sufficient carbon source, the denitrifying bacteria convert nitrites and nitrates to nitrogen, thereby reducing the total nitrogen in the water.
In addition, the denitrifying phosphorus accumulating bacteria in the biological filter 11 can be used for removing the total phosphorus in the wastewater. In the presence of a carbon source and nitrate, denitrifying bacteria utilize the carbon source to carry out denitrification reaction, thereby inhibiting phosphorus release of phosphorus-accumulating bacteria. The microbial community in the biological filter 11 can also adsorb part of the phosphorus. Under the comprehensive action of the microbial community in the biological filter 11, the effect of dephosphorization is achieved.
This example provides a method for treating wastewater using the novel anaerobic biofilter wastewater treatment apparatus of example 1. First, a microbial community is formed by inoculating strains including denitrifying bacteria, anammox bacteria, phosphorus accumulating bacteria and the like on a first biological filter material for acclimatization culture, and sludge contaminated by wastewater preferably contains the acclimatized strains, and the sludge contaminated by wastewater is fed into the biological filter 11 for acclimatization culture. After the strains are inoculated, at least two culture modes are available: firstly, adding nutrient solution to culture, preferably, the nutrient solution is prepared by glucose, flour, nitrogen-containing nutrient, phosphorus-containing nutrient, trace element nutrient and the like, when the microbial community is proliferated to a certain amount, the prepared nutrient solution and the wastewater are added into the biological filter 11 according to a certain proportion, and the proportion of the wastewater is continuously increased, for example, the proportion of the wastewater and the nutrient solution is gradually increased by 20%, 50%, 80% and 100%, and the microbial community suitable for treating the wastewater is gradually cultured and domesticated; secondly, the wastewater and nutrient solution are directly added into the biological filter 11, preferably, the nutrient solution is prepared by glucose, flour, nitrogen-containing nutrient, phosphorus-containing nutrient, trace element nutrient and the like, and the microbial community suitable for treating the wastewater is gradually cultured and domesticated.
After acclimatization, passing the wastewater to a first biological filter material, wherein the wastewater has a pollutant concentration in the range of 20 to 20000mg L of chemical oxygen demand-1Ammonia nitrogen concentration of 5-2000 mg L-1Total nitrogen concentration 10 to 2000mg L-1Total phosphorus concentration 0.4 to 20mg L-1Suspension concentration 10 to 2000mg L-1Turbidity 40 to 1000NTU, etc. Specifically, the water distribution inlet valve 43, the water distribution outlet valve 44, the water collection valve 217, and the drain valve 219 are opened, the top cover 14 is closed, and the flush inlet valve 213, the flush outlet valve 214, and the air valve 223 are closed. The water distribution pump 41 pumps the wastewater in the wastewater tank 1, so that the wastewater flows through the water distribution system 4 and flows to the first chamber 113; as the wastewater in the biological filter 11 increases, the wastewater flows through the first biological filter materialA biological filter material filters the wastewater, and simultaneously, the wastewater and microbial community of the first biological filter material carry out biochemical reaction, and the generated gas is discharged from the exhaust port 141;
after the wastewater is treated for a period of time, the backwashing operation is periodically carried out according to the growth condition of the microbial community of the biological filter 11, the sedimentation and blockage condition of pollutants and the water quality condition of the outlet water of the filter. During the back washing operation, the air valve 223 and the fan 221 are opened, so that the airflow blown out by the fan 221 enters the upper part and the lower part of the supporting layer 12, and the airflow enters the biological filter 11; next, while the blower 221 is kept in operation, the flush water inlet valve 213 and the flush water outlet valve 214 are opened, the flush water in the sump 215 is pumped by the flush water pump 211, and the flush water in the sump 215 enters the first chamber 113 through the flush water pipe 212 and the flush water pump 211 to flush the components of the biofiltration device 1.
In conclusion, the method of the embodiment is simple in process and steps, compared with the traditional water purification method, gaps are large between the first biological filter materials, pollutants in the wastewater and microbial communities attached to the surfaces of the first biological filter materials are not prone to blocking the first biological filter materials, frequent backwashing of the biological filter device is avoided, and therefore the use cost is reduced.
The above description is only an embodiment of the present invention, and is not intended to limit the present invention. Various modifications and alterations to this invention will become apparent to those skilled in the art. Any modification, equivalent replacement, improvement, etc. made within the spirit and principle of the present invention should be included in the scope of the claims of the present invention.

Claims (10)

1. A novel anaerobic biological filter wastewater treatment device is characterized by comprising,
the biological filter device (1) comprises a biological filter (11), a supporting layer (12), a biological filter material module (13) and a microbial community; the biological filter (11) is provided with a water inlet (111) and a water outlet (112), the water inlet (111) and the water outlet (112) are respectively positioned at the lower end and the upper end of the biological filter (11), or the water inlet (111) and the water outlet (112) are positioned at the upper end and the lower end of the biological filter (11); the supporting layer (12) is provided with a filter head (121), the supporting layer (12) is arranged in the biological filter (11) and divides the biological filter (11) into a first chamber (113) and a second chamber (114), and the filter head (121) is used for communicating the first chamber (113) with the second chamber (114); the biological filter material module (13) is arranged in the first cavity (113), the biological filter material module (13) comprises a first biological filter material module (131), the first biological filter material module (131) comprises a first filter bag and a first biological filter material filled in the first filter bag, a plurality of filter holes are formed in the first filter bag, and the microbial community is domesticated on the first biological filter material;
a backwash system (2), one end of the backwash system (2) being in communication with the first chamber (113) and the second chamber (114).
2. The novel anaerobic biofilter wastewater treatment equipment according to claim 1, wherein a top cover (14) is arranged on the top of the biofilter (11), and the top cover (14) covers the biofilter (11).
3. The novel anaerobic biofilter wastewater treatment apparatus according to claim 1, wherein said backwashing system (2) comprises a flushing system (21), said flushing system (21) comprises a flushing water pump (211), a flushing water pipe (212) and a water collecting tank (215), one end of said flushing water pump (211) is communicated with said water collecting tank (215) through one said flushing water pipe (212), and the other end of said flushing water pump (211) is communicated with said second chamber (114) through the other said flushing water pipe (212).
4. The novel anaerobic biofilter wastewater treatment equipment according to claim 1, wherein said backwashing system (2) comprises an air distribution system (22), said air distribution system (22) comprises a fan (221) and an air pipe (222), said fan (221) is communicated with said first chamber (113) and said second chamber (114) through said air pipe (222).
5. The novel anaerobic biofilter wastewater treatment equipment according to claim 1, further comprising a wastewater pond (3) and a water distribution system (4), wherein the wastewater pond (3) is communicated with the water inlet (113) through the water distribution system (4).
6. A novel anaerobic biofilter wastewater treatment apparatus according to claim 1, wherein said first biofilter material comprises at least one of ceramsite, volcanic rock, ceramic glass ring, activated carbon, quartz sand, manganese sand, slag, lignite, coke, expanded aluminosilicate, coral sand, cobblestone, zeolite, medical stone, polystyrene, polypropylene and polyvinyl chloride.
7. The novel anaerobic biofilter wastewater treatment plant according to claim 1, wherein said biofilter module (13) further comprises a second biofilter module (132), said second biofilter module (132) being located between said support layer (12) and said first biofilter module (131), said second biofilter module (131) comprising a second biofilter.
8. The novel anaerobic biofilter wastewater treatment apparatus according to claim 7, wherein said second biofilter module (132) further comprises a second filter bag, said second biofilter being filled in said second filter bag.
9. The novel anaerobic biofilter wastewater treatment apparatus according to claim 1, wherein a water outlet weir (15) is provided at the top of said biofilter (11).
10. A method for treating wastewater using the novel anaerobic biofilter wastewater treatment apparatus according to any one of claims 1 to 9, the method comprising:
inoculating the strain to the first biological filter material for domestication and culture to form a microbial community;
introducing the wastewater into a biological filtering device (1), filtering the wastewater by a first biological filter material filled in a first filter bag, and simultaneously carrying out biochemical reaction on the wastewater and a microbial community;
after the wastewater is treated, the backwashing system (2) performs backwashing on the biological filtering device (1).
CN202010849893.2A 2020-08-21 2020-08-21 Novel anaerobic biological filter wastewater treatment equipment and wastewater treatment method thereof Pending CN111908603A (en)

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