CN111894611A - Bracket for measuring space attitude of shield tunneling machine and measuring method thereof - Google Patents

Bracket for measuring space attitude of shield tunneling machine and measuring method thereof Download PDF

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Publication number
CN111894611A
CN111894611A CN202010887472.9A CN202010887472A CN111894611A CN 111894611 A CN111894611 A CN 111894611A CN 202010887472 A CN202010887472 A CN 202010887472A CN 111894611 A CN111894611 A CN 111894611A
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China
Prior art keywords
shield
measuring
machine
tunneling machine
bracket
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CN202010887472.9A
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Inventor
李昕
周继海
刘卓
孙鹏
孙永锋
刘景华
黄彬
卢杨艺
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Guangzhou Municipal Dunjian Underground Construction Engineering Co ltd
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Guangzhou Municipal Dunjian Underground Construction Engineering Co ltd
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Priority to CN202010887472.9A priority Critical patent/CN111894611A/en
Publication of CN111894611A publication Critical patent/CN111894611A/en
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH OR ROCK DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D9/00Tunnels or galleries, with or without linings; Methods or apparatus for making thereof; Layout of tunnels or galleries
    • E21D9/06Making by using a driving shield, i.e. advanced by pushing means bearing against the already placed lining
    • E21D9/0607Making by using a driving shield, i.e. advanced by pushing means bearing against the already placed lining the shield being provided with devices for lining the tunnel, e.g. shuttering
    • E21D9/0609Making by using a driving shield, i.e. advanced by pushing means bearing against the already placed lining the shield being provided with devices for lining the tunnel, e.g. shuttering with means for applying a continuous liner, e.g. sheets of plastics, between the main concrete lining and the rock
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH OR ROCK DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D9/00Tunnels or galleries, with or without linings; Methods or apparatus for making thereof; Layout of tunnels or galleries
    • E21D9/003Arrangement of measuring or indicating devices for use during driving of tunnels, e.g. for guiding machines

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  • Engineering & Computer Science (AREA)
  • Mining & Mineral Resources (AREA)
  • Environmental & Geological Engineering (AREA)
  • Life Sciences & Earth Sciences (AREA)
  • General Life Sciences & Earth Sciences (AREA)
  • Geochemistry & Mineralogy (AREA)
  • Geology (AREA)
  • Excavating Of Shafts Or Tunnels (AREA)

Abstract

The invention relates to a bracket for measuring the space attitude of a shield tunneling machine and a measuring method thereof. The bracket for measuring the space attitude of the shield tunneling machine comprises a base plate for mounting a measuring instrument and a suspension bracket for mounting a tunnel segment. The end of the suspension frame far away from the base plate is used for being arranged in the upper space of the tunnel segment. The suspension frame at least comprises a first suspension frame, a second suspension frame and a third suspension frame, wherein the first suspension frame and the second suspension frame are vertically arranged on one side of the base plate and are used for being longitudinally arranged along the tunnel segment. The third suspension bracket is vertically arranged in the middle of the other side of the base plate and used for being transversely arranged along the tunnel segment. So set up, form three point fixation, make this bracket install at the tunnel section of jurisdiction steadily, the stability of bed plate and measuring instrument is good like this to guarantee the reliability of shield structure gesture measured data. Meanwhile, the rotation measuring operation of the measuring instrument can be ensured not to be influenced by the arrangement.

Description

Bracket for measuring space attitude of shield tunneling machine and measuring method thereof
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of shield construction, in particular to a bracket for measuring the space attitude of a shield machine and a measuring method thereof.
Background
The shield machine is a common tunnel construction technology, and pipe sheets are laid in a tunnel while the shield machine is tunneling, so that the shield machine is widely applied to engineering construction of urban underground railways, river-crossing tunnels and the like.
With the continuous development of shield tunnel construction, an automatic guide system for guiding the tunneling direction of a shield machine is widely applied, and a measuring instrument is required to be installed on a duct piece for measurement and orientation no matter a laser target guide system or a prism guide system. Typically, the measurement orientation is performed by mounting the measurement instrument to the segment using a mounting bracket. However, the stability of the bracket installation is poor, and the reliability of the shield attitude measurement is poor.
Disclosure of Invention
Therefore, the bracket for measuring the space attitude of the shield machine and the measuring method thereof need to be provided, and the reliability of the measurement of the shield attitude is ensured.
The utility model provides a bracket for measuring shield constructs quick-witted space gesture, bracket for measuring shield constructs quick-witted space gesture includes:
the base plate is used for mounting the measuring instrument; and
the suspension frame is used for being installed in the upper space of the tunnel segment at one end, which is far away from the base plate; the suspension frames at least comprise a first suspension frame, a second suspension frame and a third suspension frame, and the first suspension frame and the second suspension frame are vertically arranged on one side of the base plate and are used for being installed along the longitudinal direction of the tunnel segment; the third suspension frame is vertically arranged in the middle of the other side of the base plate and used for being transversely installed along the tunnel segment.
According to the bracket for measuring the space attitude of the shield machine, one end of the suspension bracket, which is far away from the base plate, is arranged on the tunnel segment at the upper right part of the tunneling direction of the shield machine. The first suspension bracket and the second suspension bracket are longitudinally arranged along the tunnel segment, and the third suspension bracket is transversely arranged along the tunnel segment to form three-point fixation, so that the bracket is stably arranged on the tunnel segment, and the base plate and the measuring instrument have good stability, thereby ensuring the reliability of the shield attitude measurement data. Meanwhile, the rotation measuring operation of the measuring instrument can be ensured not to be influenced by the arrangement.
In one embodiment, the first suspension frame and the second suspension frame have the same height, and the third suspension frame has a height smaller than the first suspension frame and the second suspension frame.
In one embodiment, the first, second and third suspension frames are telescopic structures.
In one embodiment, each of the first, second and third suspension frames includes at least two frame bodies, one of the frame bodies is provided with a first strip-shaped hole, the other adjacent frame body is provided with a second strip-shaped hole, and the first strip-shaped hole and the second strip-shaped hole are correspondingly arranged; the suspension frame further comprises a fastener, and the fastener is arranged in the first strip-shaped hole and the second strip-shaped hole;
or one of the frame bodies is provided with a plurality of first adjusting holes which are arranged along the height direction of the frame body; adjacent another the support body is equipped with a plurality of second regulation holes, and is a plurality of the second regulation hole is followed the direction of height setting of support body, first regulation hole corresponds with the second regulation hole and sets up, the fastener is located first regulation hole and second regulation hole.
In one embodiment, the bracket for measuring the space attitude of the shield tunneling machine further comprises a mounting plate for connecting to a tunnel segment, the mounting plate is arranged at one end of the suspension bracket far away from the base plate, and the mounting plate is obliquely arranged relative to the base plate;
the mounting panel is equipped with two at least mounting holes, wherein two the mounting hole symmetry sets up.
In one embodiment, the base plate is provided with a fixing hole for fixing the surveying instrument, the fixing hole being located at a middle portion of the base plate.
In one embodiment, the bracket for measuring the space attitude of the shield tunneling machine further comprises a bubble level gauge, and the bubble level gauge is arranged on the base plate.
A method for measuring the space attitude of a shield machine comprises the following steps:
before the shield machine starts to enter a tunnel, at least three attitude measurement and control points are distributed at the upper right in the shield machine, and the three-dimensional coordinates of the attitude measurement and control points are measured;
distributing a plurality of measuring points on the circumference of a shell of the shield tunneling machine, and measuring the three-dimensional coordinates of the measuring points in the same coordinate system; fitting the central coordinate of the shield machine according to the three-dimensional coordinate of the measuring point to obtain the central axis of the shield machine;
establishing a shield attitude detection model according to the three-dimensional coordinates of the measuring points, the attitude measurement and control points and the center of the shield machine;
the shield tunneling machine starts to enter a tunnel, a bracket for measuring the space attitude of the shield tunneling machine is arranged on a tunnel segment at the upper right of the tunneling direction of the shield tunneling machine, and a measuring instrument is arranged on a base plate;
in the tunneling process, measuring the three-dimensional coordinates of the attitude measurement and control point of the shield tunneling machine by a measuring instrument at the upper right of a tunnel segment; and
and calculating the shield attitude parameters.
In the method for measuring the space attitude of the shield tunneling machine, the bracket for measuring the space attitude of the shield tunneling machine is arranged on the tunnel segment at the upper right in the tunneling direction of the shield tunneling machine, and the measuring instrument is arranged on the base plate of the bracket, so that the measuring instrument is arranged in the upper right space of the tunnel segment. The measuring instrument measures the attitude measurement and control point at the upper right of the tunnel segment, so that the measured coordinate is transmitted at the top of the tunnel segment, and the reliability of shield attitude measurement data is ensured. Meanwhile, the forward measurement of the lower part without continuous rotation point can be avoided, so that the construction progress of the battery car, the tunneling and the like can not be influenced.
In one embodiment, a plurality of measuring points are distributed on the circumference of the shell of the shield tunneling machine, and the three-dimensional coordinates of the measuring points are measured in the same coordinate system; according to the three-dimensional coordinates of the measuring points, fitting the central coordinates of the shield machine, and obtaining the central axis of the shield machine:
the measuring points comprise a plurality of first measuring points, a plurality of second measuring points and a plurality of third measuring points, the first measuring points are arranged on the circumference of a cutter head shell of the shield tunneling machine, the second measuring points are arranged on the circumference of a middle body shell of the shield tunneling machine, and the third measuring points are arranged on the circumference of a rear body shell of the shield tunneling machine;
in one embodiment, before the shield machine starts to enter a hole, at least three attitude measurement and control points are arranged at the upper right part in the shield machine, and the three-dimensional coordinates of the attitude measurement and control points are measured:
the attitude measurement and control point is arranged on the middle body jack surface of the shield tunneling machine.
Drawings
Fig. 1 is a schematic structural diagram of a bracket for measuring a spatial attitude of a shield tunneling machine according to an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a front view of the shield tunneling machine spatial attitude measurement bracket shown in FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a side view of the shield tunneling machine spatial attitude measurement bracket shown in FIG. 1;
FIG. 4 is a flowchart of a method for measuring a spatial attitude of a shield tunneling machine according to an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 5 is a layout diagram of circumferential measurement points of a cutter head shell of the shield tunneling machine according to an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 6 is a layout diagram of circumference measuring points of a middle body outer shell of the shield tunneling machine according to an embodiment of the present invention;
fig. 7 is a schematic diagram of a shield machine pitch angle and a yaw angle of the shield machine spatial attitude measurement method according to an embodiment of the present invention;
fig. 8 is a schematic diagram of a shield tunneling machine torsion angle of the shield tunneling machine spatial attitude measurement method according to an embodiment of the present invention;
fig. 9 is a diagram of a shield attitude detection model of a shield machine spatial attitude measurement method according to an embodiment of the present invention;
fig. 10 is a schematic diagram of three-dimensional alignment of shield machine postures in the shield machine spatial posture measurement method according to an embodiment of the present invention.
Reference numerals: 10. a base plate; 20. a suspension frame; 21. a first suspension frame; 22. a second hanger bracket; 23. A third suspension frame; 24. a frame body; 241. a first bar-shaped hole; 242. a second bar-shaped hole; 30. a mounting plate; 31. and (7) installing holes.
Detailed Description
In order to make the aforementioned objects, features and advantages of the present invention comprehensible, embodiments accompanied with figures are described in detail below. In the following description, numerous specific details are set forth in order to provide a thorough understanding of the present invention. This invention can be embodied in many different forms than those herein described and one skilled in the art can make similar modifications without departing from the spirit of the invention and it is therefore not limited to the specific embodiments disclosed below.
Referring to fig. 1, fig. 1 shows a structural schematic diagram of a shield tunneling machine spatial attitude measurement bracket according to an embodiment of the present invention. The bracket for measuring the space attitude of the shield tunneling machine provided by the embodiment of the invention comprises a base plate 10 and a suspension bracket 20, wherein the base plate 10 is used for mounting a measuring instrument, and one end of the suspension bracket 20, which is far away from the base plate 10, is used for mounting in the space above a tunnel segment. The suspension frame 20 at least includes a first suspension frame 21, a second suspension frame 22 and a third suspension frame 23, and the first suspension frame 21 and the second suspension frame 22 are vertically disposed on one side of the bedplate 10 for being installed along the longitudinal direction of the tunnel segment. The third suspension bracket 23 is vertically disposed at the middle of the other side of the bedplate 10, and is used for being installed in the transverse direction of the tunnel segment.
In the bracket for measuring the space attitude of the shield tunneling machine, one end of the suspension bracket 20, which is far away from the base plate 10, is arranged on a tunnel segment at the upper right part of the tunneling direction of the shield tunneling machine. The first hanger 21 and the second hanger 22 are installed along the longitudinal direction of the tunnel segment, and the third hanger 23 is installed along the transverse direction of the tunnel segment to form three-point fixation, so that the bracket is stably installed on the tunnel segment, and thus the base plate 10 and the measuring instrument have good stability, thereby ensuring the reliability of shield attitude measurement data. Meanwhile, the rotation measuring operation of the measuring instrument can be ensured not to be influenced by the arrangement.
In one embodiment, referring to fig. 2 and 3, the first and second suspension frames 21 and 22 have the same height, and the third suspension frame 23 has a height smaller than the first and second suspension frames 21 and 22. So, first hanger bracket 21 and second hanger bracket 22 can be along the vertical installation of tunnel segment, and third hanger bracket 23 can be along the horizontal installation of tunnel segment, makes this bracket install at the tunnel segment steadily, and the stability of bed plate 10 and measuring instrument is good like this to guarantee the reliability of shield gesture measured data.
In one embodiment, the first, second and third suspension frames 21, 22 and 23 are telescopic structures. Therefore, according to the tunnel construction requirement, for example, the tunnel is an uphill section or a downhill section, the first suspension frame 21, the second suspension frame 22 and the third suspension frame 23 are adjusted in a telescopic mode, the height of the suspension frame 20 is adjusted, the bracket is installed on the tunnel segment, station changing work is not needed frequently, and therefore the shield construction progress is not affected by shield attitude measurement.
In one embodiment, referring to fig. 1 and 2, each of the first, second, and third suspension brackets 21, 22, and 23 includes at least two frame bodies 24. One of the frame bodies 24 is provided with a first bar-shaped hole 241, the other frame body 24 adjacent thereto is provided with a second bar-shaped hole 242, and the first bar-shaped hole 241 and the second bar-shaped hole 242 are correspondingly arranged. The suspension frame 20 further includes fastening members disposed in the first bar-shaped hole 241 and the second bar-shaped hole 242. And releasing the fastening members, moving one of the frame bodies 24 towards a direction close to or away from the base plate 10 according to construction requirements, such as the gradient of the tunnel, until the suspension frame 20 is adjusted to a proper height, and fixing the two adjacent frame bodies 24 through the fastening members. If the tunnel is an uphill section or a downhill section, the height of the suspension frame 20 can be adjusted by telescopically adjusting the suspension frame 20, so that the station change work is not required to be frequently carried out after the bracket is installed, and the shield construction progress is not influenced by shield attitude measurement.
Further, the length of the first bar-shaped hole 241 is 30mm to 80mm, and the length of the second bar-shaped hole 242 is 30mm to 100 mm. It should be understood that the lengths of the first bar holes 241 and the second bar holes 242 may be equal or different. The first and second bar holes 241 and 242 having lengths within this range can satisfy the height adjustment of the hanger 20, and simultaneously, the strength of the hanger 20 is not reduced.
Specifically, in the present embodiment, the first suspension frame 21, the second suspension frame 22 and the third suspension frame 23 each include two frame bodies 24. The height of one frame body 24 of the first suspension frame 21 and the second suspension frame 22 is 80mm, and the length of the first strip-shaped hole 241 is 50 mm; the height of another support body 24 is 595mm, and the length of second bar hole 242 is 90 mm. The height of one of the frame bodies 24 of the third suspension frame 23 is 80mm, and the length of the first bar-shaped hole 241 is 50 mm; the height of the other frame body 24 of the third suspension frame 23 is 406mm, and the length of the second bar-shaped hole 242 is 90 mm.
In another embodiment, one of the frame bodies 24 is provided with a plurality of first adjusting holes, and the plurality of first adjusting holes are arranged at intervals along the height direction of the frame body 24. And a plurality of second adjusting holes are formed in the adjacent other frame body 24 and are arranged at intervals along the height direction of the frame body 24. The first adjusting hole and the second adjusting hole are correspondingly arranged, and the fastening piece is arranged in the first adjusting hole and the second adjusting hole. The fastener is unloaded in the pine, according to the construction demand, for example the slope in tunnel, with first regulation hole corresponding to the second regulation hole of suitable height, realizes suspending the regulation of 20 degrees in midair, and two adjacent support bodies 24 are fixed to rethread fastener.
Specifically, referring to fig. 1, the first suspension frame 21, the second suspension frame 22, and the third suspension frame 23 are angle irons or angle irons. Of course, the first suspension frame 21, the second suspension frame 22 and the third suspension frame 23 may be suspension pieces with other structures, and the invention is not limited thereto.
In one embodiment, referring to fig. 1 and 2, the shield tunneling machine spatial attitude measurement bracket further includes a mounting plate 30 for mounting on a tunnel segment. The mounting plate 30 is provided at an end of the suspension frame 20 away from the base plate 10, and the mounting plate 30 is disposed to be inclined with respect to the base plate 10. Optionally, the mounting plate 30 is a steel plate. The inclination directions of the attachment plates 30 on the top portions of the first suspension holder 21, the second suspension holder 22, and the third suspension holder 23 may be the same or different. By arranging the mounting plate 30 obliquely with respect to the base plate 10, the surface of the mounting plate 30 can be made to conform to the inner wall of the tunnel pipe, facilitating mounting of the bracket on the tunnel segment.
The number of the mounting plates 30 is the same as that of the suspension brackets 20, and the mounting plates 30 are mounted on the ends of the suspension brackets 20 away from the base plate 10. Specifically, in the embodiment, three mounting plates 30 are provided, and the three mounting plates 30 are respectively disposed at one ends of the first suspension frame 21, the second suspension frame 22 and the third suspension frame 23 far away from the base plate 10. In addition, the horizontal angle of the mounting plate 30 is set correspondingly according to the radius of the tunnel segment in the shield construction process, as long as the surface of the mounting plate 30 can be attached to the inner wall of the tunnel segment, so the horizontal angle of the mounting plate 30 is not particularly limited here.
Alternatively, the mounting plate 30 is a flat plate that is disposed obliquely with respect to the base plate 10. Alternatively, the mounting plate 30 is an arc-shaped plate. So set up, the surface of mounting panel 30 can laminate in the inner wall of tunnel section of jurisdiction, is convenient for fix this bracket in the tunnel section of jurisdiction.
In one embodiment, referring to fig. 1 and 3, the mounting plate 30 is provided with at least two mounting holes 31, wherein the two mounting holes 31 are symmetrically disposed. When the bracket is installed, a tunnel segment is drilled, and fasteners such as bolts are inserted into the installation holes 31 of the installation plate 30 and the drilled holes of the tunnel segment, so that the bracket is installed on the tunnel segment. By arranging at least two mounting holes 31 on the mounting plate 30, on one hand, the bracket is conveniently and stably mounted on the tunnel segment, so that the base plate 10 and the measuring instrument have good stability, and the reliability of shield attitude measurement data is ensured; on the other hand, because the steel bars are arranged in the tunnel pipe pieces, in the drilling process, if the steel bars are drilled, the drilling is stopped, other mounting holes 31 can be replaced for mounting, and the use is more flexible.
In the present embodiment, referring to fig. 1 and 3, four mounting holes 31 are provided, two of the mounting holes 31 are spaced apart from one side of the surface of the mounting plate 30, and the other two mounting holes 31 are symmetrically provided on the other side of the surface of the mounting plate 30. Of course, the number of the mounting holes 31 may be three or more, but not limited thereto.
In one embodiment, the base plate 10 is provided with fixing holes for fixing the measuring instrument, the fixing holes being located at the middle of the base plate 10. Optionally, the fixing hole is a threaded hole. By providing the fixing hole in the middle of the base plate 10, it is convenient to reliably mount the measuring instrument on the base plate 10. Specifically, when the base plate 10 is installed, the installation hole 31 at the bottom of the measuring instrument is disposed corresponding to the fixing hole of the base plate 10, and the measuring instrument is installed on the base plate 10 by inserting a fastening member such as a bolt through the installation hole 31 of the measuring instrument and the fixing hole of the base plate 10.
Of course, in other embodiments, a magnetic member may be disposed in the middle of the base plate 10, and the measuring instrument may be stably mounted on the base plate 10 through the magnetic cooperation. Or, the middle part of the base plate 10 is provided with a limiting groove, and the limiting groove is matched with the bottom of the measuring instrument.
In one embodiment, the bracket for measuring the spatial attitude of the shield tunneling machine further comprises a level detector, and the level detector is arranged on the base plate 10. Alternatively, the level detector is a bubble level, or other type of detection instrument. The horizontal detector is arranged on the base plate 10, so that an installer can conveniently detect whether the base plate 10 is horizontally arranged or not; if the base plate 10 is not horizontally installed, the installation position, the height of the suspension bracket 20, and the like are adjusted until the base plate 10 is in a horizontal state, so that the horizontal installation of the surveying instrument can be ensured, thereby improving the reliability of the surveying structure of the surveying instrument.
Referring to fig. 1 and 4, a shield machine spatial attitude measurement method according to an embodiment of the present invention provides a bracket for shield machine spatial attitude measurement. The shield tunneling machine space attitude measurement method comprises the following steps:
and S10, before the shield machine starts to enter the tunnel, at least three attitude measurement and control points are arranged at the upper right in the shield machine, and the three-dimensional coordinates of the attitude measurement and control points are measured.
In the present embodiment, the bracket for measuring the spatial attitude of the shield tunneling machine is attached to the tunnel segment on the upper right in the tunneling direction of the shield tunneling machine. And then, measuring the three-dimensional coordinates of the attitude measurement and control points by using the measuring instrument arranged on the bracket, and arranging the attitude measurement and control points at the upper right in the shield machine in order to enable the measuring instrument to measure the attitude measurement and control points of the shield machine.
In order to ensure the precision of the attitude measurement and control points, a plurality of attitude measurement and control points are distributed inside the shield tunneling machine, and plane and elevation control measurement is carried out through measuring instruments such as a total station and the like according to the requirements of precise conducting wires and leveling measurement, so that the three-dimensional coordinates of the attitude measurement and control points are obtained. Specifically, the three-dimensional coordinates of a plurality of attitude measurement and control points can be measured in a foundation pit before the initial entry into a hole or in a plant. Before the shield machine starts to enter the tunnel, the measurement site of the attitude measurement and control point can be selected according to actual requirements, and the method is not limited to this.
And S20, referring to the figures 5 and 6, arranging a plurality of measuring points on the circumference of the shell of the shield tunneling machine, and measuring the three-dimensional coordinates of the measuring points in the same coordinate system. And fitting the three-dimensional coordinates of the center of the shield body of the shield machine according to the three-dimensional coordinates of the measuring points to obtain the central axis of the shield machine.
It should be noted that the same coordinate system means that the coordinate systems of the measurement point and the attitude measurement and control point are the same coordinate system, which is convenient for establishing the shield attitude detection model. In addition, step S20 may be executed first, and then step S10 is executed, that is, the measurement points are laid first, and the three-dimensional coordinates of the measurement points and the three-dimensional coordinates of the center of the fitting shield body are measured; and then, laying attitude measurement and control points, and measuring the three-dimensional coordinates of the attitude measurement and control points. Of course, the attitude measurement and control points and the measurement points may be arranged at the same time, and then the three-dimensional coordinates of the attitude measurement and control points and the measurement points are measured respectively.
Specifically, the shield machine has different structures, and the positions of the measuring points arranged on the circumference of the shell of the shield machine are different. For example, if the shield head and the shield tail of the shield machine are fixedly connected, a plurality of measurement points are respectively arranged on the circumference of the shield head shell and the shield tail shell of the shield machine, and the three-dimensional coordinates of the shield head shell circumference measurement point and the shield tail shell circumference measurement point are measured. Respectively calculating three-dimensional coordinates of the centers of the head and the tail of the shield according to the principle that three points determine a plane and a circle center; and connecting the central points of the shield head and the shield tail to obtain the central axis of the shield machine. If the shield head and the shield tail of the shield machine are hinged, a plurality of measuring points are respectively distributed on the circumferences of a cutter head, a middle body and a rear body shell of the shield machine, and three-dimensional coordinates of the centers of the cutter head, the middle body and the rear body are measured.
Referring to fig. 5, in the present embodiment, the shield tunneling machine includes a cutter head, a middle body and a rear body. Taking the calculation of the center O of the cutter head as an example, the three-dimensional coordinate of the center O of the cutter head is calculated by the principle that a plane and a circle center are determined by three spatial points.
First, assume the center O point coordinate of the cutter head as (x)o,yo,zo)
In the construction process, the three-dimensional coordinates of the outer circumference measuring points 1, 2 and 3 of the shield machine are respectively (x)i, yi,ziI is 1, 2, 3), the coordinates (x) of the cutter center O point are obtained from the three-dimensional coordinates of the points 1, 2, 3o,yo,zo)。
According to the distance formula between two points
Figure BDA0002655999610000101
In the formula: d1o、d2o、d3oThe distances from 1, 2 and 3 points to the center O point of the cutter head respectively, and the initial coordinates (x) of the control points 1, 2 and 3 and the center O point of the cutter head after the shield is in placei0,yi0,zi0I is 1, 2, 3) and (x)o0,yo0,zo0) The following were obtained:
Figure BDA0002655999610000111
expanding the formula (1) and subtracting to obtain
Figure BDA0002655999610000113
Figure BDA0002655999610000114
The control points 1, 2, 3 define a plane M123And solving a plane normal formula by using known three-point coordinates to obtain:
Figure BDA0002655999610000112
in the formula: (x)n,yn,zn) Is a plane M123The normal direction vector coordinates of (1).
Plane M123The equation is:
xnx+yny+znz+D=0 (6)
coordinate (x) of point 11,y1,z1) Substituting the formula to obtain:
D=-(xnx1+yny1+znz1) (7)
from the formula of the distance from the point to the plane
do=xnxo+ynyo+znzo+D (8)
In the formula: do is the plane M from the center O of the cutter to the control points 1, 2 and 3123The initial coordinates (x) of the control points 1, 2 and 3 and the center O point of the cutter head can be measured after the shield machine is in placei0,yi0,zi0I is 1, 2, 3) and (x)o0,yo0,zo0) And (4) obtaining.
Shift the above formula to obtain
xnxo+ynyo+znzo=do-D (9)
Formula (9) with formula (3) and formula (4) form a compound related to (x)o,yo,zo) Solving the equation set to obtain the three-dimensional coordinate (x) of the center O point of the cutter heado,yo,zo)。
According to the method, the center coordinates of the middle body and the rear body of the shield tunneling machine can be calculated.
And S30, establishing a shield attitude detection model according to the three-dimensional coordinates of the measuring points, the three-dimensional coordinates of the attitude measurement and control points and the center coordinates of the shield machine.
Specifically, the three-dimensional coordinates of the measurement points, the three-dimensional coordinates of the attitude measurement and control points and the solved central three-dimensional coordinates of the shield machine are input into the CAD, and a graph formed by the points is the required shield attitude detection model and is pasted into a three-dimensional graph block for storage. The shield attitude detection model is the prior art and is not described in detail herein.
S40, the shield machine starts to enter the tunnel, the measuring instrument is installed on the bottom plate 10 of the bracket for measuring the space attitude of the shield machine, and the bracket for measuring the space attitude of the shield machine is installed on the tunnel segment at the upper right of the tunneling direction of the shield machine.
Specifically, the first hanger frame 21 and the second hanger frame 22 are mounted on the tunnel segment at the upper right in the driving direction of the shield tunneling machine in the longitudinal direction of the tunnel segment, the first hanger frame 21 and the third hanger frame 23 are mounted on the tunnel segment at the upper right in the driving direction of the shield tunneling machine in the transverse direction of the tunnel segment, and the measuring instrument is mounted on the foundation plate 10. Therefore, the measuring instrument can measure the attitude measurement and control point at the upper right inside the shield tunneling machine.
And S50, in the tunneling process, measuring the three-dimensional coordinates of the attitude measurement and control point of the shield tunneling machine in real time through the measuring instrument in the space above the right of the tunnel segment.
It should be noted that the length of the shield machine is generally 80m to 100m, the range of the shield machine cannot be provided with the attitude measurement and control point, the middle part of the shield machine trolley is required to be provided with a rotating point for measuring the shield attitude, and the attitude measurement and control point is transferred to the forefront of the shield machine for measurement. In the embodiment, the measuring instrument is arranged in the upper right space of the tunneling direction of the shield tunneling machine, the attitude measurement and control point is measured at the position, and the measured coordinate is transmitted at the top of the tunnel segment, so that the forward measurement of the lower part without continuous rotation point can be avoided, and the construction progress of a battery car, tunneling and the like can not be influenced.
And S60, calculating the shield attitude parameters.
The shield attitude parameters mainly comprise a pitch angle, a rolling angle and a yaw angle of the shield machine. The three parameters can be calculated through the central coordinates and the measuring points of the shield tunneling machine, and the calculation process is as follows:
referring to fig. 7, in order to reflect the relative deviation between the axis of the shield tunneling machine and the line axis, the pitch angle in this embodiment refers to the angle between the axis of the shield tunneling machine and the line direction in the vertical plane, and the yaw angle refers to the angle between the axis of the shield tunneling machine and the line direction in the horizontal plane.
A connecting line of a point O of the center of the cutter head and a point C on the axis of the shield tunneling machine forms an axis OC of the shield tunneling machine, and the vector OC completely determines the pitch angle and the yaw angle of the shield tunneling machine. The solving steps are as follows:
(1) let the line design axis vector be t (x)t,yt,zt) And the included angle between the line and the horizontal plane is beta, and the normal vector M (x) of a plane M with the angle between t and the horizontal plane being beta is obtainedm,ym,zm)。
From the normal vector m (x)m,ym,zm) And vector t (x)t,yt,zt) Is perpendicular to
xtxm+ytym+ztzm=0 (10)
From the normal vector m (x)m,ym,zm) At an angle of beta to the lead line vector (0, 0, 1)
Figure BDA0002655999610000131
Is finished to obtain
Figure BDA0002655999610000132
Will vector m (x)m,ym,zm) Unitized result
Figure BDA0002655999610000133
(x) can be obtained by combining the formulas (10) to (12)m,ym,zm)。
(2) Calculating the projection vector coordinate o 'c' (x) of the shield machine axis OC on the plane Mco,yco,zco)。
By obtaining the coordinates (x) of the O point at the center of the cutter heado,yo,zo) The coordinate (x) of point C can be obtained according to the same procedurec,yc,zc) From this, the vector coordinates of the axis OC can be found:
(xoc,yoc,zoc)=(xo-xc,yo-yc,zo-zc) (13)
an auxiliary line p is made on the plane M, p is perpendicular to the axial line OC of the shield tunneling machine, and the vector coordinate of p is set as (x)p,yp,zp). Since the auxiliary line lies on plane M, p is also the vector M (x) normal to plane Mm, ym,zm) And is vertical.
The vector product of the two vectors is expressed as:
Figure BDA0002655999610000141
let the vector coordinate of the projection o 'c' of the shield machine axis OC on the plane M be (x)co,yco,zco) O 'c' and the normal vector M (x) of the plane Mm,ym,zm) Perpendicular to, and o 'c' also associated with, auxiliary line p (x)p,yp,zp) And is vertical.
The vector product formula of the two vectors is used for solving the following steps:
Figure BDA0002655999610000142
(3) the angle between the vector OC and the vector o 'c' is the pitch angle α.
The vector coordinates of the vector OC and the vector o 'c' are obtained according to the formula of the included angle between the two vectors
Figure BDA0002655999610000143
In the formula: (x)oc,yoc,zoc) And (x)co,yco,zco) The vector coordinates of the shield machine axis OC and the projection o 'c' thereof on the plane M are respectively shown in formula (13) and formula (15).
2. The angle between the vector o 'c' and the line design axis vector t is the yaw angle psi.
According to the formula of the included angle between two vectors
Figure BDA0002655999610000144
In the formula: (x)t,yt,zt) The vector coordinates of the line design axis t (which can be found from the three-dimensional coordinates DTA of the line design axis) are determined.
3. Roll angle
Figure BDA0002655999610000155
Referring to FIG. 8, roll angle
Figure BDA0002655999610000156
The angle of rotation of the shield tunneling machine around the axis of the shield tunneling machine is indicated.
The solving steps are as follows:
(1) calculating the normal vector Q (x) of the point A and the plane Q of the point O and the point C on the shield machine axisq,yq,zq)。
The coordinates of the control points 1, 2, 3 have been determined previously
Center O point coordinate (x) of cutter heado,yo,zo) And C point coordinate (x)c,yc,zc) Can be obtained by the same method
Coordinate of point A (x)a,ya,za). From the three-point coordinates, the normal vector coordinate Q (x) of the plane Q can be obtainedq,yq, zq)
Figure BDA0002655999610000151
(2) Calculating the normal vector H (x) of the vertical plane H of the shield machine axis OCh,yh,zh)。
The vector coordinate of the shield machine axis OC is (x)oc,yoc,zoc) The vector coordinate of the plumb line is (0, 0, 1), the normal vector H of the plumb line H is perpendicular to the shield tunneling machine axis OC, and is also perpendicular to the plumb line vector, and then the vector product formula of the two vectors is obtained:
Figure BDA0002655999610000152
(3) the included angle between the plane Q and the vertical plane H is the rolling angle of the shield machine
Figure BDA0002655999610000154
According to the formula of the included angle between two vectors
Figure BDA0002655999610000153
Through the measurement and calculation, the central coordinates of a cutter head, a middle body and a rear body of the shield tunneling machine are obtained, three key parameters of a pitch angle, a roll angle and a yaw angle of the shield tunneling machine are also obtained, and the real-time attitude of the shield tunneling machine can be calculated by setting the parameters in automatic guidance system software of the shield tunneling machine. However, during the shield tunneling process, the shield shell is in the soil layer, and at this time, the shield attitude measurement cannot be realized by using the method of outer circumference measurement. Therefore, a mathematical model convenient for detecting the shield attitude in the tunneling process must be established.
In order to facilitate observation and ensure redundant observation numbers, at least three attitude measurement and control points are distributed near the top surface of a middle body jack of the shield machine, and the three-dimensional coordinates of the three attitude measurement and control points are measured.
Referring to fig. 9 and 10, a shield attitude detection model is established by using the calculated center coordinates of the cutter head and the shield body of the shield machine, which are assumed to be A, E points, and combining the measured attitude measurement and control points (which are assumed to be B, C, D points) in the shield body.
In the actual detection process, the three-dimensional coordinates of the attitude measurement and control points are measured, the three-dimensional coordinates of the center of the cutter head and the center of the shield body are obtained according to the coordinate translation principle, and the shield attitude can be obtained by comparing the three-dimensional coordinates with the center line of the tunnel. In the field measurement process, in order to provide posture guidance for tunneling rapidly, an AUTOCAD three-dimensional alignment command can be used for aligning the model to the actually measured posture point position, and the real-time posture of the shield tunneling machine is obtained immediately.
In one embodiment, a plurality of measurement points are arranged on the circumference of the shell of the shield machine, three-dimensional coordinates of the measurement points are measured in the same coordinate system, and according to the three-dimensional coordinates of the measurement points, three-dimensional coordinates of the shield body center of the shield machine are fitted to obtain a central axis of the shield machine in step S20, a plane and a circle center are determined by three spatial points, so that the plurality of measurement points can be freely combined to solve the three-dimensional coordinates of the shield body centers. And then, solving the average value of the three-dimensional coordinates of the centers of the plurality of shields to obtain the optimal three-dimensional coordinate of the center of the shield. Therefore, the three-dimensional coordinate of the center of the shield body is closer to the real coordinate value, and the measurement error of the shield attitude is reduced.
In one embodiment, in steps S10, S20 and S50 of the shield machine spatial attitude measurement method, an attitude measurement and control point and a measurement point are measured by using a total station. Specifically, laser emitted by the total station irradiates to the attitude measurement and control point and the measuring point, and then three-dimensional coordinates of the attitude measurement and control point and the measuring point are obtained.
It should be noted that, in the conventional measurement mode, a measurement point prism is installed at the position of the attitude measurement and control point and the measurement point, and the total station aligns to the measurement point prism to obtain the three-dimensional coordinates of the attitude measurement and control point and the measurement point. However, after the measuring point prism is installed on the shield machine, a height difference exists between the measuring point prism and the attitude measuring and controlling point or the measuring point, for example, a certain height difference exists between the lower end of the measuring point prism and the shell of the shield machine, so that errors exist in the measuring result by adopting the method, and the accuracy of the measuring result is influenced. In this embodiment, the laser emitted by the total station illuminates the measurement and control point and the measurement point of the attitude, so that the measured three-dimensional coordinate is more accurate, and the error of shield attitude detection is reduced.
In one embodiment, a plurality of measuring points are distributed on the circumference of the shell of the shield tunneling machine, and the three-dimensional coordinates of the measuring points are measured in the same coordinate system; and a step S20 of fitting the three-dimensional coordinates of the center of the shield body of the shield machine according to the three-dimensional coordinates of the measuring points to obtain the central axis of the shield machine:
when the shield constructs the machine and includes blade disc, midbody and afterbody, the measuring point includes a plurality of first measuring points, a plurality of second measuring points and a plurality of third measuring points, and first measuring point is laid in the blade disc shell circumference of shield structure machine, and the second measuring point is laid in the midbody shell circumference of shield structure machine, and the third measuring point is laid in the afterbody shell circumference of shield structure machine. As the middle body and the rear body move in the tunneling process of the shield tunneling machine, the first measuring point, the second measuring point and the third measuring point are respectively distributed on the cutter head, the middle body and the rear body, so that shield attitude detection can be conveniently carried out on the cutter head, the middle body and the rear body.
In one embodiment, before the shield machine starts to enter the hole, at least three attitude measurement and control points are arranged at the upper right inside the shield machine, and the step S10 of measuring the three-dimensional coordinates of the attitude measurement and control points is as follows: the attitude measurement and control point is arranged on the jack surface of the middle body of the shield tunneling machine. It should be noted that, the shield constructs the machine at the in-process that inhomogeneous stratum shield tunneled, jack is inhomogeneous to the effort of tunnel section of jurisdiction can lead to tunnel section of jurisdiction to stagger or the tunnel section of jurisdiction is twistd reverse to the jack forms the problem that the uneven tunnel section of jurisdiction damage can lead to the atress inequality too big, so this embodiment locates the jack position department of the body in the shield constructs the machine with gesture measurement and control point, the shield gesture of the jack of the body in can obtaining like this, be convenient for adjust the shield gesture, avoid appearing leading to tunnel section of jurisdiction to stagger because of the jack, damage scheduling problem.
In the description of the present invention, it is to be understood that the terms "center," "longitudinal," "lateral," "length," "width," "thickness," "upper," "lower," "front," "rear," "left," "right," "vertical," "horizontal," "top," "bottom," "inner," "outer," "clockwise," "counterclockwise," "axial," "radial," "circumferential," and the like are used in the orientations and positional relationships indicated in the drawings for convenience in describing the present invention and to simplify the description, and are not intended to indicate or imply that the referenced device or element must have a particular orientation, be constructed and operated in a particular orientation, and are not to be considered limiting of the present invention.
Furthermore, the terms "first", "second" and "first" are used for descriptive purposes only and are not to be construed as indicating or implying relative importance or implicitly indicating the number of technical features indicated. Thus, a feature defined as "first" or "second" may explicitly or implicitly include at least one such feature. In the description of the present invention, "a plurality" means at least two, e.g., two, three, etc., unless specifically limited otherwise.
In the present invention, unless otherwise expressly stated or limited, the terms "mounted," "connected," "secured," and the like are to be construed broadly and can, for example, be fixedly connected, detachably connected, or integrally formed; can be mechanically or electrically connected; they may be directly connected or indirectly connected through intervening media, or they may be connected through the interior of two elements or through the interaction of two elements unless otherwise expressly limited. The specific meanings of the above terms in the present invention can be understood by those skilled in the art according to specific situations.
In the present invention, unless otherwise expressly stated or limited, the first feature "on" or "under" the second feature may be directly contacting the first and second features or indirectly contacting the first and second features through an intermediate. Also, a first feature "on," "over," and "above" a second feature may be directly or diagonally above the second feature, or may simply indicate that the first feature is at a higher level than the second feature. A first feature being "under," "below," and "beneath" a second feature may be directly under or obliquely under the first feature, or may simply mean that the first feature is at a lesser elevation than the second feature.
It will be understood that when an element is referred to as being "secured to" or "disposed on" another element, it can be directly on the other element or intervening elements may also be present. When an element is referred to as being "connected" to another element, it can be directly connected to the other element or intervening elements may also be present. As used herein, the terms "vertical," "horizontal," "upper," "lower," "left," "right," and the like are used for illustrative purposes only and do not represent the only embodiments.
The technical features of the embodiments described above may be arbitrarily combined, and for the sake of brevity, all possible combinations of the technical features in the embodiments described above are not described, but should be considered as being within the scope of the present specification as long as there is no contradiction between the combinations of the technical features.
The above-mentioned embodiments only express several embodiments of the present invention, and the description thereof is more specific and detailed, but not construed as limiting the scope of the invention. It should be noted that, for a person skilled in the art, several variations and modifications can be made without departing from the inventive concept, which falls within the scope of the present invention. Therefore, the protection scope of the present patent shall be subject to the appended claims.

Claims (10)

1. The utility model provides a shield constructs quick-witted space attitude measurement and uses bracket which characterized in that, shield constructs quick-witted space attitude measurement and includes:
the base plate is used for mounting the measuring instrument; and
the suspension frame is used for being installed in the upper space of the tunnel segment at one end, which is far away from the base plate; the suspension frames at least comprise a first suspension frame, a second suspension frame and a third suspension frame, and the first suspension frame and the second suspension frame are vertically arranged on one side of the base plate and are used for being installed along the longitudinal direction of the tunnel segment; the third suspension frame is vertically arranged in the middle of the other side of the base plate and used for being transversely installed along the tunnel segment.
2. The shield machine spatial attitude measurement bracket according to claim 1, wherein the first and second suspension frames have the same height, and the third suspension frame has a height smaller than the first and second suspension frames.
3. The shield machine spatial attitude measurement bracket according to claim 1, wherein the first, second, and third suspension frames are of a telescopic structure.
4. The bracket for measuring the spatial attitude of the shield tunneling machine according to claim 3, wherein each of the first suspension frame, the second suspension frame and the third suspension frame comprises at least two frame bodies, one of the frame bodies is provided with a first strip-shaped hole, the other frame body adjacent to the first suspension frame is provided with a second strip-shaped hole, and the first strip-shaped hole and the second strip-shaped hole are correspondingly arranged; the suspension frame further comprises a fastener, and the fastener is arranged in the first strip-shaped hole and the second strip-shaped hole;
or one of the rack bodies is provided with a plurality of first adjusting holes, and the plurality of first adjusting holes are arranged along the height direction of the rack body; adjacent another the support body is equipped with a plurality of second regulation holes, and is a plurality of the second regulation hole is followed the direction of height setting of support body, first regulation hole corresponds the setting with the second regulation hole, the fastener is located first regulation hole and second regulation hole.
5. The bracket for measuring the spatial attitude of the shield tunneling machine according to claim 1, further comprising a mounting plate for connecting to a tunnel segment, wherein the mounting plate is provided at an end of the hanger bracket remote from the foundation plate, and the mounting plate is disposed to be inclined with respect to the foundation plate;
the mounting panel is equipped with two at least mounting holes, wherein two the mounting hole symmetry sets up.
6. The shield tunneling machine spatial attitude measurement bracket according to claim 1, wherein the bedplate is provided with a fixing hole for fixing the measuring instrument, the fixing hole being located at a middle portion of the bedplate.
7. The bracket for measuring the spatial attitude of the shield tunneling machine according to claim 1, further comprising a bubble level gauge provided on the bed plate.
8. A shield machine space attitude measurement method is characterized by comprising the following steps:
before the shield machine starts to enter a tunnel, at least three attitude measurement and control points are distributed at the upper right in the shield machine, and the three-dimensional coordinates of the attitude measurement and control points are measured;
distributing a plurality of measuring points on the circumference of a shell of the shield tunneling machine, and measuring the three-dimensional coordinates of the measuring points in the same coordinate system; fitting the central coordinate of the shield machine according to the three-dimensional coordinate of the measuring point to obtain the central axis of the shield machine;
establishing a shield attitude detection model according to the three-dimensional coordinates of the measuring points, the attitude measurement and control points and the center of the shield machine;
the shield tunneling machine starts to enter a tunnel, a bracket for measuring the space attitude of the shield tunneling machine is arranged on a tunnel segment at the upper right of the tunneling direction of the shield tunneling machine, and a measuring instrument is arranged on a base plate;
in the tunneling process, measuring the three-dimensional coordinates of the attitude measurement and control point of the shield tunneling machine by a measuring instrument at the upper right of a tunnel segment; and
and calculating the shield attitude parameters.
9. The shield tunneling machine spatial attitude measurement method according to claim 8, wherein a plurality of measurement points are arranged on the circumference of the shell of the shield tunneling machine, and the three-dimensional coordinates of the measurement points are measured in the same coordinate system; according to the three-dimensional coordinates of the measuring points, fitting the central coordinates of the shield machine, and obtaining the central axis of the shield machine:
the measuring points comprise a plurality of first measuring points, a plurality of second measuring points and a plurality of third measuring points, the first measuring points are arranged on the circumference of a cutter head shell of the shield tunneling machine, the second measuring points are arranged on the circumference of a middle body shell of the shield tunneling machine, and the third measuring points are arranged on the circumference of a rear body shell of the shield tunneling machine.
10. The shield tunneling machine spatial attitude measurement method according to claim 8, wherein at least three attitude measurement and control points are arranged at the upper right of the interior of the shield tunneling machine before the shield tunneling machine starts to enter the hole, and the step of measuring the three-dimensional coordinates of the attitude measurement and control points comprises:
the attitude measurement and control point is arranged on the middle body jack surface of the shield tunneling machine.
CN202010887472.9A 2020-08-28 2020-08-28 Bracket for measuring space attitude of shield tunneling machine and measuring method thereof Pending CN111894611A (en)

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Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN113266369A (en) * 2021-06-03 2021-08-17 上海市基础工程集团有限公司 Detection device applied to ultra-long distance shield axis positioning

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN113266369A (en) * 2021-06-03 2021-08-17 上海市基础工程集团有限公司 Detection device applied to ultra-long distance shield axis positioning

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