CN111379561A - Coal mining system and pillar-free self-entry mining method based on same - Google Patents

Coal mining system and pillar-free self-entry mining method based on same Download PDF

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Publication number
CN111379561A
CN111379561A CN202010263393.0A CN202010263393A CN111379561A CN 111379561 A CN111379561 A CN 111379561A CN 202010263393 A CN202010263393 A CN 202010263393A CN 111379561 A CN111379561 A CN 111379561A
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
coal mining
support
mining
coal
roadway
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CN202010263393.0A
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CN111379561B (en
Inventor
何满潮
王亚军
黄瑞峰
王�琦
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Beijing Zhongkuang Innovation Alliance Energy Environmental Science Academy
Beijing Zhongkuang Innovation Alliance Energy Env Science Academy
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Beijing Zhongkuang Innovation Alliance Energy Env Science Academy
Beijing Zhongkuang Innovation Alliance Energy Environmental Science Academy
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Priority to CN202010263393.0A priority Critical patent/CN111379561B/en
Publication of CN111379561A publication Critical patent/CN111379561A/en
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Classifications

    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21CMINING OR QUARRYING
    • E21C41/00Methods of underground or surface mining; Layouts therefor
    • E21C41/16Methods of underground mining; Layouts therefor
    • E21C41/18Methods of underground mining; Layouts therefor for brown or hard coal
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21CMINING OR QUARRYING
    • E21C25/00Cutting machines, i.e. for making slits approximately parallel or perpendicular to the seam
    • E21C25/68Machines for making slits combined with equipment for removing, e.g. by loading, material won by other means
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21CMINING OR QUARRYING
    • E21C35/00Miscellaneous items relating to machines for slitting or completely freeing the mineral from the seam
    • E21C35/20General features of equipment for removal of chippings, e.g. for loading on conveyor

Abstract

The invention provides a coal mining system and a coal pillar-free self-roadway mining method. The coal mining system also comprises a machine head roadway forming mechanism, a reversed loader and a conveyor. The machine head lane forming mechanism comprises a second scraper conveyor and a second coal mining machine. The second scraper conveyor is arranged on one side of the head of the first scraper conveyor along a second direction and extends forwards, and the second direction is perpendicular to the first direction. The second shearer is movably arranged on the second scraper conveyor. The elevating conveyor is arranged on one side of the machine head of the first scraper conveyor, and the first scraper conveyor and the second scraper conveyor are respectively connected to the elevating conveyor. The conveyor is arranged in the second direction and is connected to the reversed loader. The coal mining system can be pushed towards the working face along the second direction, and the second coal mining machine can mine the part, located on one side of the machine head, of the working face and combine roof cutting and pressure relief to form a machine head roadway gate way when the coal mining system is pushed.

Description

Coal mining system and pillar-free self-entry mining method based on same
Technical Field
The disclosure relates to the technical field of mining, in particular to a coal mining system and a pillar-free self-entry mining method based on the coal mining system.
Background
The method is limited by the major defects of the traditional coal mining method (such as 121 methods), namely huge resource loss caused by reserving coal pillars, complex coal mining systems caused by various roadways, and the problems of mining continuity tension caused by mining separation, and the like, and the method for mining without the coal pillars is creatively proposed by the flood academicians, so that the coal pillar-free mining is really realized, the roadway arrangement system is optimized, and the mining continuity tension is eliminated. According to the longwall mining N00 method, the current N00 method roadway layout system is shown in fig. 1, and three roadways, namely, an air return downhill channel 25, a track downhill channel 26 and a belt downhill channel 27 are prepared before mining on the working face 20. In the coal mining process, 2 roadways are needed on two sides of a working face to form a complete ventilation loop, in the method, one roadway is always arranged on two sides of the working face, and the other roadway is formed by cutting through a coal mining machine and is reserved through a roadway retaining measure.
The existing N00 construction method solves the problem of mining and reserving integrated equipment at the tail of a machine, and the problem of mining and reserving integrated equipment at the head side of the machine is still not solved.
In the current working face equipment arrangement system, a transfer conveyor is arranged at the position of a working face head, the transfer conveyor is connected with a scraper conveyor along a first direction P1 (namely the direction of a coal mining channel), and is connected with a belt conveyor along a second direction P2 (namely the direction of a roadway), the scraper conveyor, the transfer conveyor and the belt conveyor jointly form a working face coal logistics system, the three are arranged approximately at a right angle in geometric shape, the transfer conveyor is located at the position of an intersection point, and a coal mining machine is arranged on the scraper conveyor, so that the coal mining machine cannot surpass the transfer conveyor to cut coal, and the coal mining machine cannot cut coal across the head.
Disclosure of Invention
It is a primary object of the present disclosure to overcome at least one of the above-mentioned deficiencies of the prior art and to provide a coal mining system that enables heading-side tunneling.
Another primary object of the present disclosure is to overcome at least one of the above-mentioned drawbacks of the prior art and to provide a pillar-free auto-entry mining method capable of achieving machine-head-side entry.
In order to achieve the purpose, the following technical scheme is adopted in the disclosure:
according to one aspect of the present disclosure, a coal mining system is provided that includes a coal mining mechanism including a first scraper conveyor and a first shearer. The first face conveyor is configured to convey a first coal mining machine to a first face of the face conveyor. The coal mining system further comprises a machine head roadway forming mechanism, a transfer conveyor and a conveyor. The machine head lane forming mechanism comprises a second scraper conveyor and a second coal mining machine. The second scraper conveyor is arranged on one side of the head of the first scraper conveyor along a second direction and extends forwards, and the second direction is perpendicular to the first direction. The reversed loader is arranged on one side of the machine head of the first scraper conveyor, and the first scraper conveyor and the second scraper conveyor are respectively connected to the reversed loader. The conveyor is arranged in a second direction and connected to the reversed loader. Wherein the coal mining system is configured to be propelled in a second direction toward the face, and the second shearer is configured to mine a portion of the face on a nose side and cooperate with roof cutting to relieve into a roadway to form a nose entry gate as the coal mining system is propelled.
According to one embodiment of the present disclosure, the headboard entry gate extends in a second direction, and the extension direction of the headboard entry gate is the same as the advancing direction of the coal mining system.
According to one embodiment of the disclosure, the nose lane-forming mechanism further comprises a plurality of gangue blocking plates. And the plurality of waste rock blocking plates are sequentially laid on the side walls of the goaf of the machine head roadway gate way.
According to one embodiment of the disclosure, the waste rock blocking plate is provided with a plurality of reserved holes, and the reserved holes are configured for penetration of anchor rods and/or anchor cables.
According to one embodiment of the present disclosure, the head lane forming mechanism further comprises a second bracket. The second support is movably arranged in a space where the second scraper conveyor and the second coal mining machine are located, and the second support is configured to be synchronously pushed along with the second scraper conveyor so as to support a top plate and a bottom plate of the machine head roadway gate in the space where the second scraper conveyor and the second coal mining machine are located.
According to one embodiment of the disclosure, the second brackets are respectively provided with a bolter on two sides in the first direction.
According to one embodiment of the disclosure, the second support is provided with anchor cable drilling rigs on two sides in the first direction respectively.
According to one embodiment of the disclosure, the second bracket is provided with a lapping device which is configured to adjustably lay a protective net between the top of the second bracket and the bottom of the roof rock body.
According to one embodiment of the present disclosure, the nose lane forming mechanism further comprises an overtravel support. The ultra-rear support is movably arranged on the goaf side wall of the machine head entry gate roadway and supports the top plate and the bottom plate of the goaf side wall, and the ultra-rear support is configured to be synchronously pushed along with the second scraper machine so as to support the top plate and the bottom plate of the goaf side wall of the machine head entry roadway and provide a protective wall for the goaf side wall.
According to one embodiment of the present disclosure, the coal mining mechanism includes a first support movably supporting the first scraper and the roof and floor of the first shearer, the first support configured to advance in synchronization with the first scraper. The ultra-rear support comprises a top-cutting ultra-rear support and a waste rock blocking ultra-rear support. The top-cutting rear-exceeding support is adjacently arranged on the first support above the first scraper head. The gangue blocking rear support is arranged on one side, far away from the first support, of the top-cutting rear support.
According to one embodiment of the present disclosure, the roof cutting super rear bracket is provided with a slitting drill configured to drill a slitting bore to collapse a roof along a slitting plane.
According to one embodiment of the present disclosure, the gangue overrun rear support is provided with a jumbolter configured to perform bolting operations, or grouting and bolting operations by grouting a bolt.
According to one embodiment of the disclosure, the machine head lane forming mechanism further comprises a plurality of waste rock blocking plates, and the plurality of waste rock blocking plates are sequentially laid on the side walls of the goaf. Wherein, the super rear support is equipped with the side direction and supports the telescopic link, side direction support telescopic link one end connect in super rear support, the other end connect in the waste rock blocking board, support the telescopic link be configured into the telescopic support in between super rear support and the waste rock blocking board.
According to one embodiment of the disclosure, the first shearer is configured to mine and form an arc coal slope on the side, located on the tail, of the coal mining channel, and further form a tail gate roadway gate way on the basis of roof cutting pressure relief.
According to another aspect of the present disclosure, a pillar-free self-entry mining method is provided. The method comprises the following steps:
providing a coal mining system proposed by the present disclosure and described in the above embodiments;
synchronously propelling the coal mining mechanism and the machine head roadway forming mechanism of the coal mining system;
mining the working face of the coal seam to be mined by using the coal mining mechanism;
and simultaneously, mining the part of the working face, which is positioned on one side of the first scraper conveyor head, by using the head roadway forming mechanism, and forming a head roadway retaining gateway on the basis of roof cutting and pressure relief.
According to one embodiment of the present disclosure, the pillar-free self-entry mining method further includes the steps of:
and in the process of mining the working face of the coal seam to be mined by using the coal mining mechanism, mining the part of the coal mining channel, which is positioned on one side of the machine tail, by using the first coal mining machine of the coal mining mechanism, and forming the machine tail roadway retaining gateway by matching with roof cutting and pressure relief.
According to the technical scheme, the coal mining system and the pillar-free self-entry mining method based on the coal mining system have the advantages and positive effects that:
the disclosure provides a coal mining system, which can solve the problem of roadway formation at the side of a machine head. Meanwhile, by matching the related design of the method with other prior art schemes, bilateral entry retaining of the working face can be realized, the problem of non-roadway excavation in coal mining engineering is solved in a real sense, great potential safety hazards and huge investment caused by roadway excavation are eliminated, and the method has obvious safety benefits and economic benefits.
In one of the embodiments of the present disclosure, when mining is performed with a first shearer at a portion of a coal mining passage on one side of a machine tail to form a machine tail entry gate, the present disclosure enables simultaneous lane making at both the machine head and the machine tail at both sides. Therefore, any main roadway and gate way do not need to be tunneled in advance all the time at the beginning and the end of coal mining, the construction period of the shaft is shortened, the construction efficiency is improved, and the construction investment is reduced. Coal mining and roadway forming are carried out synchronously to replace excavation, so that the problem of excavation separation puzzling coal mines for a long time is solved, and the problem of continuous and tense mining is solved. The coal pillars are cancelled in the well building and working face exploitation processes, the resource extraction rate is improved, and the problem of over-concentration of the coal pillars stress for a long time is solved.
Drawings
Various objects, features and advantages of the present disclosure will become more apparent from the following detailed description of preferred embodiments thereof, when considered in conjunction with the accompanying drawings. The drawings are merely exemplary illustrations of the disclosure and are not necessarily drawn to scale. In the drawings, like reference characters designate the same or similar parts throughout the different views. Wherein:
FIG. 1 is a schematic view of a roadway layout system in a conventional N00 construction method;
FIG. 2 is a schematic illustration of a coal mining system according to an exemplary embodiment;
FIG. 3 is a schematic illustration of a coal mining system according to another exemplary embodiment;
FIG. 4 is a schematic structural view of a second bracket shown in accordance with an exemplary embodiment;
fig. 5 is a top view of the second bracket shown in fig. 4.
Wherein the reference numerals are as follows:
1. a coal mining channel;
2. a machine head is retained in a roadway and is crossheading;
3. a coal seam to be mined;
4. a mining pressure relief area;
5. a first shearer;
6. a second shearer;
7. a first scraper conveyor;
8. a handpiece power section;
9. a conveyor;
10. a second bracket;
11. a transition support;
12. an end bracket;
13. withdrawing the stent;
14. a top-cutting rear bracket;
15. a gangue blocking rear bracket;
16. a second scraper conveyor;
17. a machine tail entry retaining gate;
20. a working surface;
25. an air return downstroke passage;
26. a track descending passage;
27. a belt descending passage;
p1. first direction;
p2. second direction.
Detailed Description
Exemplary embodiments that embody features and advantages of the present disclosure are described in detail below in the specification. It is to be understood that the disclosure is capable of various modifications in various embodiments without departing from the scope of the disclosure, and that the description and drawings are to be regarded as illustrative in nature, and not as restrictive.
In the following description of various exemplary embodiments of the disclosure, reference is made to the accompanying drawings, which form a part hereof, and in which are shown by way of illustration various exemplary structures, systems, and steps in which aspects of the disclosure may be practiced. It is to be understood that other specific arrangements of parts, structures, example devices, systems, and steps may be utilized, and structural and functional modifications may be made without departing from the scope of the present disclosure. Also, while the terms "upper end," "lower end," "between," "side," and the like may be used in this specification to describe various example features and elements of the disclosure, these terms are used herein for convenience only, e.g., in accordance with the orientation of the examples set forth in the figures. Nothing in this specification should be construed as requiring a specific three dimensional orientation of structures in order to fall within the scope of this disclosure.
Referring to FIG. 2, a schematic diagram of a coal mining system capable of embodying the principles of the present disclosure is representatively illustrated in FIG. 2. In the exemplary embodiment, the coal mining system proposed by the present disclosure is described by taking an example applicable to the N00 construction method. Those skilled in the art will readily appreciate that many modifications, additions, substitutions, deletions, or other changes may be made to the specific embodiments described below in order to apply the coal mining system to other types of coal mining processes or other mining applications, and such changes are within the scope of the principles of the coal mining system as set forth in this disclosure.
As shown in fig. 2, in the present embodiment, the coal mining system proposed by the present disclosure mainly includes a coal mining mechanism, a machine head lane forming mechanism, a transfer conveyor, and a conveyor 9. For convenience of understanding, the left side of the first direction P1 in fig. 2 is the nose side, the right side is the tail side, and the upper side of the second direction P2 in fig. 2 is the front side, and the lower side is the rear side.
As shown in fig. 2, in the present embodiment, the coal mining mechanism mainly includes a first scraper conveyor 7 and a first shearer 5. In particular, the first scraper conveyor 7 is arranged in a first direction P1, which first direction P1 can be understood as a horizontal direction parallel to the working face 20 in the mine. The first shearer 5 is movably disposed on the first scraper conveyor 7 and is capable of mining coal at the face 20. Accordingly, the physical distribution route of coal during its mining by coal mining facilities is roughly: the first shearer 5 → the first scraper conveyor 7 → the transfer conveyor → the conveyor 9 → the ground.
As shown in fig. 2, in the present embodiment, the head alleyway mechanism mainly includes the second scraper conveyor 16 and the second shearer 6. Specifically, the second scraper conveyor 16 is arranged on the head side of the first scraper conveyor 7 in the second direction P2 and extends forward, the second direction P2 may be understood as a direction perpendicular to the working face 20, i.e., a horizontal direction perpendicular to the first direction P1, and the "forward" may be understood as a direction toward the working face 20, i.e., a direction in which the entire coal mining system is propelled. The second shearer 6 is capable of mining coal located on the nose side, and the second scraper conveyor 16 is capable of transporting coal mined by the second shearer 6 to the transfer conveyor. Accordingly, the material flow route of coal in the process of mining and tunneling by the head-end tunneling mechanism is roughly as follows: the second shearer 6 → the second flight conveyor 16 → the transfer conveyor → the conveyor 9 → the ground. In addition, it should be noted that the head end lane forming mechanism is advanced in spatial position (i.e. the head end lane forming mechanism is further advanced in the direction toward the working face relative to the coal mining mechanism) and the coal mining mechanism is operated at a certain distance, and the distance should meet the relevant regulations of the coal mine safety regulations. Note that, in the present embodiment, the second shearer 6 is provided separately from the second scraper conveyor 16, and is not movably provided on the second scraper conveyor 16. The second scraper conveyor 16 now only performs the function of transporting coal to the transfer conveyor and need not provide the function of moving the second shearer 6. In other embodiments, the second shearer 6 may be movably disposed on the second scraper conveyor 16 without being limited to the present embodiment. The second shearer 6 can flexibly select a suitable shearer type or model according to the relationship between the other second scraper conveyors 16, which is not limited to this embodiment.
As shown in fig. 2, in the present embodiment, the transfer machine is provided on the head side of the first scraper conveyor 7, and the first scraper conveyor 7 and the second scraper conveyor 16 are respectively attached to the transfer machine, that is, one head end of the first scraper conveyor 7 is attached to the transfer machine, and the rear end of the conveyor 9 of the second scraper conveyor 16 (i.e., one end of the second scraper conveyor 16 away from the work surface) is attached to the transfer machine. The conveyor 9 is arranged in the second direction P2 and overlaps the reversed loader, i.e. the front end (identical to the previously described "front") of the conveyor 9 overlaps the reversed loader. In addition, the conveyor 9 may preferably employ a belt conveyor 9.
In view of the above, the coal mining system proposed by the present disclosure is capable of advancing in the second direction P2. Wherein the coal mining mechanism is capable of mining coal of the face 20 (excluding the nose side portion) by the first shearer 5 during the advancing of the coal mining system. Meanwhile, the machine head lane forming mechanism can mine the part of the working face 20 on one side of the machine head through the second coal mining machine 6, and the machine head lane retaining gateway 2 is formed by combining a roof cutting pressure relief process (the coal mining mechanism and the machine head lane forming mechanism operate simultaneously). In the existing working face equipment arrangement system, a machine head power part 8 is arranged at the position of a working face machine head, the machine head power part 8 is connected with a scraper conveyor along the direction of a coal mining channel, and is connected with a belt conveyor along the direction of a roadway, the scraper conveyor, the machine head power part 8 and the belt conveyor jointly form a working face coal logistics system, the three are arranged approximately at a right angle in geometric shape, the machine head power part 8 is located at the position of an intersection point, and a coal cutter is installed on the scraper conveyor, so that the coal cutter cannot cut coal beyond the machine head power part 8, and the coal cutter at the machine head cannot cut coal to form a roadway. Through the design of this disclosure, this disclosure's coal mining system can solve the locomotive side entry problem in N00 worker method. Meanwhile, the related design of the method is matched with other prior technical schemes of an N00 construction method, so that bilateral entry retaining of the working face 20 can be realized, the problem of no tunnel excavation in coal mining engineering is solved in a real sense, the major potential safety hazard and huge investment brought by tunnel excavation are eliminated in a real sense, and the method has obvious safety benefit and economic benefit.
The specific design and other preferred or alternative aspects of the major components of the coal mining system set forth in this disclosure will be illustrated with reference to the drawings.
As shown in fig. 2, in the present embodiment, the head entry gate 2 may preferably extend in the second direction P2. That is, the direction of extension of the headgate gateway 2 is substantially the same as the direction of propulsion of the coal mining system, i.e. the direction of extension of the headgate gateway 2 is substantially perpendicular to the working face 20.
As shown in fig. 2, in the present embodiment, the nose lane-making mechanism may also preferably include a plurality of spoilers. Wherein, a plurality of waste rock blocking plates are sequentially paved on the side walls of the goaf of the machine head roadway gate way 2. And, the waste rock blocking rear support 15 is installed with a lateral support telescopic rod, which can support a waste rock blocking plate.
Further, as shown in fig. 2, based on the design that the machine head lane forming mechanism includes a plurality of waste rock blocking plates laid on the side walls of the goaf, in the present embodiment, a plurality of reserved holes may be preferably formed in the waste rock blocking plates, and by using the reserved holes, anchor rods and/or anchor cables can be inserted, so as to provide a supporting function for the goaf pressure relief area 4 of the machine head lane gate way 2, that is, a supporting function for the waste rock walls. The design of the preformed holes can be realized by forming the preformed holes with the same number and positions on each waste rock blocking plate, forming the preformed holes on at least one of the plurality of waste rock blocking plates, and when the number of the waste rock blocking plates with the preformed holes is larger than one, the number or the positions of the preformed holes formed in each waste rock blocking plate are not limited to be the same, and the number or the positions of the preformed holes are not limited to be the same.
In addition, a plurality of anchor hole drilling machines can be arranged for the machine head lane forming mechanism, and the anchor cables or the anchor rods can be arranged at the top or the side of the machine head side lane keeping area by using the anchor hole drilling machines.
As shown in fig. 2, in the present embodiment, the coal mining mechanism may preferably include a set of first brackets movably disposed at positions of the coal mining tunnel 1 corresponding to the first scraper and the first shearer 5, the first brackets being capable of advancing synchronously with the first scraper (i.e., being capable of advancing synchronously with the coal mining system) to provide a support function for roof rock masses and bottom rock masses corresponding to the positions of the coal mining mechanism.
Further, as shown in fig. 2, based on the design that the coal mining mechanism includes the first bracket, in the present embodiment, the first bracket of the coal mining mechanism may adopt the bracket design for rock mass support in the existing N00 construction method, or may adopt the related design in the existing other coal mining construction method. For example, the first bracket may preferably include at least a retraction bracket 13, a transition bracket 11, and an end bracket 12. Specifically, the end bracket 12 corresponds to the position of the head of the first scraper, the retraction bracket 13 is supported on the coal mining channel 1, and the transition bracket 11 is located between the coal mining channel 1, the goaf pressure relief area 4 and the head entry gateway (i.e. entry area), i.e. may be between the end bracket 12 and the retraction bracket 13.
In addition, a plurality of common supports, which may be arranged corresponding to the position of the first scraper conveyor 7, may also preferably be arranged in the coal mining tunnel 1, which supports telescopically against the bottom and top rock masses.
Further, depending on the design of the first support including the transition support 11, the length of the transition support 11 may be selected to be approximately perpendicular to the coal mining channel 1, the rear portion of the transition support 11 may be located in the goaf 4, the front portion may be located in the coal mining channel 1, and the side faces are adjacent to the retraction support 13 and the end head support 12. Furthermore, the overall structure of the transition support 11 may be a support structure commonly used in the art for coal mining, such as a hydraulic column support, a support with a hinged leg combined with a hydraulic column, and the like, and the specific support form is not limited.
Further, based on the design that the first bracket includes the transition bracket 11, in the present embodiment, it may be preferable to install a slitting drill on the transition bracket 11, and a working groove is left on the top beam of the transition bracket 11. Accordingly, the top rock mass is longitudinally subjected to joint cutting operation along the boundary line of the machine head entry gate way 2 and the goaf pressure relief area 4 by using a joint cutting drilling machine so as to form the machine head entry gate way 2. Through above-mentioned design, usable joint-cutting rig forms a plurality of drilling along certain distance on the top rock mass, and later usable blasting or the device that expands breaks a plurality of drilling spalls into linear seam. Because the joint cutting drilling machine is arranged on the transition support 11 and a plurality of operation grooves are reserved on the transition support 11, joint cutting operation can be conveniently carried out from bottom to top.
Further, based on the design of the first support including the end support 12, and based on the design of the second support 10, at least one anchor drilling machine may be preferably installed on the second support 10 and the end support 12, and in this embodiment, two anchor drilling machines may be installed on the second support 10, and a working hole or a working groove is left on the top beam of the second support 10 and the end support 12. Accordingly, the specific configuration of the anchor drilling machines and the anchor drilling machines arranged on the end bracket 12 is that operation holes/operation grooves can be reserved on the top beam of the end bracket 12 selected according to support parameters, so that anchor holes can be drilled from bottom to top and anchor rods/cables can be installed conveniently. The plurality of anchor rod/cable drilling machines also comprise a lateral anchor hole drilling machine so as to facilitate the operation of drilling and installing the anchor rod/cable to the side part (goaf side wall) of the machine head roadway gate way 2. Furthermore, the overall structure of the head support 12 may be a support structure commonly used in the art for coal mining, such as a hydraulic column support, a support with a hinged leg combined with a hydraulic column, etc., and the specific support form is not limited.
Further, based on the design that the first support includes the retracting support 13, in the present embodiment, a plurality of retracting supports 13 may be arranged side by side to support the coal mining passage 1, and the retracting support 13 may be selected as a common support.
As shown in fig. 2, in the present embodiment, the head lane forming mechanism may also preferably include a second support 10. Specifically, the second support 10 is movably disposed at a position corresponding to the second scraper conveyor 16 and the second shearer 6, and the second support 10 can be synchronously advanced with the second scraper conveyor 16 (i.e., can be synchronously advanced with the coal mining system) to provide a support function for top and bottom rock masses corresponding to the position of the second scraper conveyor 16 of the head entry gate way 2.
Further, based on the design of the second bracket 10, in the present embodiment, both sides of the second bracket 10 in the first direction P1 may be preferably provided with a jumbolter, respectively.
Further, based on the design of the second bracket 10, in the present embodiment, both sides of the second bracket 10 in the first direction P1 may be respectively and preferably provided with anchor line drilling rigs.
Further, based on the design of the second bracket 10, in the present embodiment, the second bracket 10 may preferably be provided with a net laying device capable of adjustably laying a protective net between the top of the second bracket 10 and the bottom surface of the top rock mass above it.
As shown in fig. 2, in the present embodiment, the head lane forming mechanism may also preferably include an overtravel support. Specifically, the super-rear support is movably arranged at a position, corresponding to the head roadway forming mechanism, of the coal mining channel 1, and the super-rear support can move forwards along with the coal mining channel 1, namely can move forwards along with the forward movement of the coal mining mechanism and the head roadway forming mechanism, so that a supporting function is provided for top rock masses and bottom rock masses at the position corresponding to the head roadway forming mechanism, and a side wall protection function is provided for a goaf side wall. The support can provide effects such as waste rock blocking, side protection and supporting of the machine head roadway gate way 2, functions such as roof cutting, waste rock blocking, grouting anchor rod beating and grouting behind the working face 20 are achieved, smooth collapse of the top plate of the goaf pressure relief area 4 is facilitated, strength and stability of the side wall of the goaf pressure relief area 4 are further improved through grouting, and good roadway retaining effect is guaranteed.
Further, as shown in fig. 2, the ultra-rear support may preferably include a roof cutting ultra-rear support 14 and a gangue stopping ultra-rear support 15 in the present embodiment based on the design in which the head-end roadway-forming mechanism includes the ultra-rear support, and based on the design in which the coal mining mechanism includes the first support. Specifically, the truncated-arch-shaped rear bracket 14 is disposed adjacent to the first bracket, i.e., for example, the truncated-arch-shaped rear bracket 14 is disposed adjacent to the head bracket 12. The gangue stopping rear support 15 is arranged on one side, far away from the first support, of the top-cutting rear support 14, namely in a spatial position, and the gangue stopping rear support 15 is arranged on the rear side of the top-cutting rear support 14.
Further, based on the design of the ultra-rear support including the top-cutting ultra-rear support 14, in the present embodiment, the top-cutting ultra-rear support 14 may be preferably provided with a slitting drill, which cooperates with the slitting drill in the transition support 11, so as to ensure that the whole system has sufficient top-cutting resistance and the top plate smoothly collapses along the slitting plane.
Further, based on the design in which the excess rear bracket includes the gangue excess rear bracket 15, the gangue excess rear bracket 15 may be preferably provided with a jumbolter in the present embodiment. Specifically, the jumbolter can perform bolting work to the gob side.
Further, based on the design that the machine head lane forming mechanism comprises the rear support and simultaneously based on the design that the machine head lane forming mechanism comprises a plurality of waste rock blocking plates, in the embodiment, the rear support can be preferably provided with a lateral support telescopic rod. Particularly, this side direction supports telescopic link one end and connects in super back support, and the other end is connected in the waste rock board, supports the telescopic link and can telescopically support between super back support and waste rock board.
As shown in fig. 3, in another exemplary embodiment of the present disclosure, the coal mining system proposed by the present disclosure may also preferably employ a double-sided roadway design. In the embodiment, the first shearer 5 can mine at the side of the coal mining channel 1 located at the machine tail and cooperate with roof cutting for pressure relief to form a machine tail roadway gate way 17, that is, the coal mining mechanism can also be used as or comprise a machine tail roadway forming mechanism, and the machine tail roadway forming is realized while the coal seam of the working face 20 is mined. In addition, by combining the design of the coal mining mechanism and the machine head roadway forming mechanism for cooperative propulsion, the coal mining mechanism can realize the function of machine head and machine tail bilateral roadway forming while mining the coal seam of the working face 20.
Specifically, as shown in fig. 3, the arrangement of the tail gate 17 and the head gate 2 is substantially the same and symmetrical. The coal mining machine is responsible for mining solid coal along the coal mining channel 1 and forming an arc coal side at the outer edge of the tail side. The machine tail entry gate way 17 is also an entry gate area, which is formed by cutting coal by the first coal mining machine 5, and is formed by entry gate operation in the later period.
In this embodiment, based on the design of double-side lane formation, part of the preferable solutions or alternatives in the above-mentioned embodiment of head-side lane formation may also be applied to the design of tail-side lane formation, specifically as follows:
preferably, as shown in fig. 3, in the present embodiment, the transition brackets 11 may be preferably arranged in two groups, one group being located on the nose side and the other group being located on the tail side. Wherein the side of the transition leg 11 at the tail side abuts against the edge of the gate 17 of the tail, corresponding to or similar to the specific design of the transition leg 11 at the nose side. The transition support 11 on the tail side telescopically supports the bottom rock mass and the top rock mass in the area where the transition support is located. The transition support 11 at the machine tail side can also be provided with a joint-cutting drilling machine, and the joint-cutting drilling machine is used for carrying out longitudinal joint-cutting operation on the top rock mass along the boundary line of the machine tail entry gate way 17 and the mining and pressure relief area 4 so as to form the machine tail entry gate way 17. Accordingly, a plurality of drill holes may be formed in the top rock mass along a distance using a lancing drill, and then the plurality of drill holes may be spalled into linear fractures using a blasting or spalling device. Here, it is selected to install the slitting drill on the transition support 11, and the transition support 11 is provided with a plurality of working grooves so as to perform the slitting work from bottom to top.
Preferably, as shown in fig. 3, in the present embodiment, the head cradle 12 may be preferably arranged in two sets, one set on the head side and the other set on the tail side. Corresponding to or similar to the specific design of the end bracket 12 at the machine head side, the front part of the end bracket 12 at the machine tail side is positioned in an overlapping area with the coal mining channel 1, the rear part is positioned in the machine tail roadway gate way 17, and the side surface can be tightly attached to the machine tail roadway gate way 17 to play anchor rods/cables and lay metal nets. A plurality of anchor cable drilling machines and anchor rod drilling machines can be arranged on the end bracket 12 at the tail side of the machine, and the specific configuration is selected according to support parameters. The top beam of the end bracket 12 may also be provided with a working hole/groove for drilling an anchor hole and installing an anchor rod/cable from bottom to top. The anchor rod/cable drilling machines also comprise a lateral anchor hole drilling machine so as to facilitate the operation of drilling and installing the anchor rod/cable to the side part of the machine tail roadway gate way 17.
Preferably, as shown in fig. 3, in the present embodiment, the ultra-rear brackets may be preferably arranged in two groups, one group being located on the nose side and the other group being located on the tail side. The rear-end support at the tail side of the machine may also include a top-cutting rear-end support 14 and a gangue-stopping rear-end support 15, corresponding to or similar to the specific design of the rear-end support at the nose side. The rear-end support of the machine tail side is positioned at the rear side of the transition support 11 of the machine tail side and the end support 12 of the machine tail side and positioned at the entry retaining side of the machine tail entry retaining gate way 17. The rear support at the tail side of the machine can move forwards along with the forward movement of the coal mining mechanism, and simultaneously, the gangue blocking, the side protection, the supporting and the like of the machine tail roadway gate way 17 are completed. The top-cutting rear-exceeding support 14 at the tail side of the machine can also be provided with a joint-cutting drilling machine which is matched with the joint-cutting drilling machine in the transition support 11 at the tail side of the machine so as to ensure that the top plate smoothly collapses along the joint-cutting surface. The gangue blocking rear support 15 on the tail side of the machine can be provided with a jumbolter, and a grouting anchor rod is constructed to the goaf roadway side through a gangue blocking plate anchor rod reserved hole. The lateral supporting telescopic rods can also be installed on the rear support at the tail side of the machine and support the waste rock blocking plate. It should be noted herein that the coal mining system illustrated in the drawings and described in the present specification is but one example of the wide variety of coal mining systems that can employ the principles of the present invention. It should be clearly understood that the principles of this invention are in no way limited to any of the details of the coal mining system or any of the components of the coal mining system shown in the drawings or described in this specification.
Based on the above detailed exemplary description of the coal mining system proposed by the present disclosure, a pillar-free self-entry mining method that can be achieved by using the coal mining system proposed by the present disclosure will be described below. Specifically, the coal pillar-free self-entry mining method mainly comprises the following steps:
providing a coal mining system, wherein the coal mining system is the coal mining system provided by the disclosure and in the above embodiment;
a coal mining mechanism and a machine head roadway forming mechanism of the synchronous propelling coal mining system;
mining coal on a working face 20 of a coal seam 3 to be mined by using a coal mining mechanism;
meanwhile, a machine head lane forming mechanism is used for mining the part of the working face 20, which is positioned on one side of the machine head of the first scraper conveyor 7, and the machine head lane retaining gate way 2 is formed by combining top cutting and pressure relief.
Specifically, based on the main steps of the pillar-free self-entry mining method provided by the present disclosure, the specific operation process using the coal mining system and the mining method provided by the present disclosure substantially includes: the coal mining mechanism and the machine head roadway forming mechanism cut coal to enable the working face 20 to be pushed → the coal mining channel 1 to move forwards → the transition support 11, the end support 12, the top cutting super-rear support 14, the gangue blocking super-rear support 15 and the withdrawal support 13 to move forwards along with the forward movement of the coal mining channel 11 → a joint cutting drilling machine is used for carrying out longitudinal joint cutting operation on a top rock mass along the boundary line of the machine head roadway retaining gate 2 and the goaf pressure relief area 4, the joint cutting drilling machine is used for forming a plurality of drill holes on the top rock mass along a certain distance, then the plurality of drill holes can be fractured into linear seams through a blasting or expanding device, the goaf top rock mass continuously fractures under the action of self mine pressure to form a goaf pressure relief area 4 → the goaf pressure relief area 4 enables the overlying rock to be self-stable under the action of self-expansibility of.
Further, during the coal cutting process of the machine head lane forming mechanism, the working face 20 is gradually pushed forward by the second coal mining machine 6, the second support 10 is continuously moved forward, and during the forward movement, a plurality of rows (for example, two rows) of anchor rods are drilled upwards by the installed anchor rod/cable drilling machine to support the roof.
The cooperation mode of the head roadway forming mechanism and the coal mining mechanism can be, for example: the first shearer 5 and the second shearer 6 cut coal → the first carriage (e.g., the transition carriage 11, the head carriage 12, the retraction carriage 13) and the second carriage 10 move carriage → push the first scraper conveyor 7 and the second scraper conveyor 16.
Further, before the second bracket 10 is advanced, a mesh-laying device may be used to lay a protective mesh (e.g., a metal mesh) between the top of the second bracket 10 and the bottom of the roof.
Further, before the transition support 11 is moved, the slitting operation and the lapping operation of the top plate are completed.
Further, before the top-cutting beyond-the-rear-bracket 14 is moved, the top-plate cutting operation is completed.
Further, the bolting/rigging and netting of the roof panel is completed before the end bracket 12 is moved.
Referring to fig. 4 and 5, a specific exemplary illustration of the second support 10 of the coal mining system of the present disclosure will now be described.
Referring to fig. 4, a schematic view of the structure of the second bracket is representatively illustrated. In this exemplary embodiment, the second stent 10 is a long span stent. The long span support can be used in a coal mining system applied to the N00 construction method, such as the coal mining system proposed by the present disclosure. The coal mining system generally includes a shearer (i.e., a second shearer in this specification), a scraper conveyor (i.e., a second scraper conveyor in this specification), and a reversed loader, which are respectively disposed at a feeding end and a discharging end of the second scraper conveyor. Referring to fig. 5, a top view of the second bracket 10 (top beam not shown) is representatively illustrated in fig. 5. The structure, connection mode and functional relationship of the main components of the second bracket 10 (i.e., the long span bracket) will be described in detail below with reference to the above drawings.
As shown in fig. 4 and 5, in the present embodiment, the second bracket 10 includes at least two sets of bracket assemblies 110 and a driving mechanism. Specifically, two sets of support assemblies 110 are respectively disposed on two sides of the second scraper conveyor 16, and each set of support assemblies 110 at least includes a base 111, a top beam 112 and a support. Wherein, the top beam 112 is arranged above the base 111 in a lifting way. The support member is telescopically supported between the base 111 and the top beam 112. The driving mechanism is connected to each support member in a transmission manner, and the driving mechanism can be used for respectively driving each support member to extend and retract so as to push and pull the top beam 112 to ascend and descend relative to the base 111. Through the design, the second support 10 can be matched with a tunneling gate way at the head end, and because the front end of the second support 10 can be connected with coal mining machines such as a mining machine, the second support 10 not only solves the problem of the placement space of the head power part 8, but also can tunnel the gate way at the head matching end, so that the coal mining system can meet the requirement that a tunnel is not dug on an N00 working face.
Preferably, as shown in fig. 4 and 5, in the present embodiment, each set of the bracket assemblies 110 may preferably include a plurality of supports, and the plurality of supports of each set of the bracket assemblies 110 may preferably be arranged at intervals in the conveying direction of the second scraper conveyor 16. In other embodiments, when the support assembly 110 includes a plurality of supports, the plurality of supports are not limited to being spaced along the conveying direction of the second scraper conveyor 16, for example, the plurality of supports may also be spaced along a horizontal direction perpendicular or oblique to the conveying direction of the second scraper conveyor 16, and is not limited to this embodiment.
Further, as shown in fig. 4 and 5, based on the design that each set of bracket assembly 110 includes a plurality of supporting members, in the present embodiment, the number of supporting members included in the two sets of bracket assemblies 110 may preferably be the same. In other embodiments, the two sets of bracket assemblies 110 may include different numbers of supporting members. Moreover, the number of the supporting members included in the two sets of supporting members 110 is not limited in this embodiment, and one of the supporting members may be one, and the other supporting member may be multiple.
Further, as shown in fig. 4 and 5, each set of bracket assemblies 110 may preferably include three supports in the present embodiment, based on a design in which each set of bracket assemblies 110 includes a plurality of supports. In other embodiments, when the bracket assembly 110 includes a plurality of supporting members, the number of the supporting members may also be two, four, five or more than six, and is not limited in this embodiment.
Preferably, as shown in fig. 4, in the present embodiment, the support member may preferably be a hydraulic cylinder column 113. In other embodiments, the supporting member may also be used to lift or support a workpiece, such as a multi-stage cylinder, and the like, which is not limited to the embodiment.
Further, as shown in fig. 4 and 5, based on the design of the support member selected as the hydraulic cylinder upright 113, in the present embodiment, the driving mechanism may preferably be a driving cylinder 114, and the driving cylinder 114 may be respectively communicated with each hydraulic cylinder upright 113 through an oil path to respectively supply hydraulic oil to each hydraulic cylinder upright 113, that is, to serve as a power source for the hydraulic cylinder upright 113.
Preferably, as shown in fig. 4, in the present embodiment, the base 111 may preferably be provided with two lower hinge points 1111, and the two lower hinge points 1111 are arranged at intervals substantially along the conveying direction of the second scraper conveyor 16. Correspondingly, the middle of the top beam 112 may be preferably provided with an upper hinge point 1121, and the orthographic projection pattern of the upper hinge point 1121 on the base 111 falls approximately between the two lower hinge points 1111. On the basis, the base 111 can be unfolded or folded through the two lower hinge points 1111, the top beam 112 can be unfolded or folded through the upper hinge point 1121, and the unfolding and folding of the base 111 and the top beam 112 are linked through the connection of the support members. Accordingly, each set of bracket assemblies 110 can be unfolded and folded by the linked unfolding and folding of the base 111 and the top beam 112, and can be converted between the unfolded state and the folded state by the extension and contraction of the supporting members. Through the design, the second support 10 can be folded when needing to be transported, stored or adjusted and unfolded at a proper working position, so that the space occupation of the second support 10 in a non-working state is reduced, and the mobility and the convenience of the second support 10 in arrangement are improved. In other embodiments, other numbers of lower hinge points 1111 and upper hinge points 1121 may be disposed on the base 111 and the top beam 112, respectively, so as to achieve the corresponding unfolding and folding of the base 111 and the top beam 112. Alternatively, the base 111 and the top beam 112 may not be provided with the lower hinge point 1111 and the upper hinge point 1121, that is, the second bracket 10 may not be unfolded and folded by the base 111 and the top beam 112 to achieve the overall unfolding and folding functions, or may be achieved by other mechanisms, which is not limited to the embodiment.
Further, as shown in fig. 4, based on the design of the base 111 and the top beam 112 corresponding to the conversion between the unfolded state and the folded state, in the present embodiment, a linkage mechanism may be preferably connected between the base 111 and the top beam 112, and the linkage mechanism may provide a function of connecting and guiding the base 111 and the top beam 112 when the bracket assembly 110 is converted between the unfolded state and the folded state. In other embodiments, other mechanisms of the sampling head may be connected between the top beam 112 and the base 111 to provide the connecting and guiding functions instead of the above-mentioned link mechanism, or the above-mentioned additional structures may not be provided, which is not limited by the present embodiment.
Further, as shown in fig. 4, based on the design of the link mechanism connected between the base plate 111 and the top beam 112, in the present embodiment, the link mechanism may preferably include a first link mechanism 1151 and a second link mechanism 1152. Wherein a first linkage 1151 is coupled between the front end of the top beam 112 and the front end of the base 111, and a second linkage 1152 is coupled between the rear end of the top beam 112 and the rear end of the base 111. Specifically, the first link mechanism 1151 may preferably be in the form of a link such as a two-link, a three-link, or a four-link, and the first link mechanism 1151 and the second link mechanism 1152 shown in this embodiment are in the form of a two-link, that is, the link mechanism is in the form of a four-link overall.
Preferably, as shown in fig. 4 and 5, in the present embodiment, the second scraper conveyor 16 may preferably include a conveyor belt 161 and a coal scraper 162. Specifically, the conveyor belt 161 is disposed between two sets of rack assemblies 110 of the second rack 10. The coal shoveling plate 162 is connected to the feeding end of the conveyor belt 161, a planetary gear 1621 is provided on the coal shoveling plate 162, and the coal shoveling plate 162 is configured to convey the rocks mined by the second coal mining machine 6 to the conveyor belt 161 via the planetary gear 1621. The discharge end of the conveyor belt 161 is connected to a reversed loader. Based on the above-mentioned design of the coal mining system and the pillar-free auto-roadway mining method proposed by the present disclosure, other preferred or alternative aspects of the coal mining system or the mining method using the same will be exemplified below.
In the present embodiment, the second coal mining machine 6 may preferably employ a short-wall coal cutting device such as a continuous miner, a heading machine, a small shearer, or the like. Particularly, the short-wall coal cutting device can realize the coal cutting of the coal bed in the range of the roadway on the machine head side. At the same time, the second scraper conveyor 16 can transport the coal cut by the short-wall coal cutting device to the reversed loader; the long-span support has larger span, can support the machine head side roadway space formed by cutting coal, and is responsible for laying nets, anchoring rods and cable operation. Both the short wall coal cutting apparatus and the second face conveyor 16 operate under the shield of the long span support. The depth of cut of the short-walled coal cutting device can preferably be matched to the depth of cut of the first extraction machine 5 of the working surface 20, and the rack moving process of the long-span support is coordinated with the rack moving process of the first support of the working surface 20. During the working process of the machine head lane forming mechanism, the operation can be carried out in a mode of firstly moving the support (long span type support) and then pushing the support (second scraper conveyor 16), so that the idle-top operation is avoided. The short wall coal cutting apparatus and the second scraper conveyor 16 move simultaneously.
In the embodiment, the coal mining mechanism performs coal mining operation in the coal mining channel 1, and the coal mining mechanism and the machine head roadway forming mechanism operate in a coordinated manner, and the specific relationship is as follows: the first shearer 5 (e.g., shearer loader) and the second shearer 6 (e.g., short wall coal cutter) cut coal → the first and second supports 10 move → push the first and second flight conveyors 7, 16. The tail end of the coal mining channel 1 is communicated with the end entry retaining area, the head end of the coal mining channel 1 is communicated with the head end entry retaining area and the head end entry retaining area (the head end entry retaining area refers to the part cut by the shortwall coal cutting device, the entry retaining area refers to the tunnel retained by the roof cutting pressure relief technology on the rear side of the entry retaining area), the head end entry retaining area and the tail end entry retaining area are basically parallel to the mining direction of the coal mining mechanism, and the area defined by the coal mining channel 1, the head end entry retaining area and the tail end entry retaining area is a mining empty pressure relief area 4. The mining area 4 is formed behind the first support due to the mine pressure in the mining process of the working face, the mining area 4 is automatically formed behind the working face under the action of the pressure on the mine, and the goaf caving has periodicity, namely the periodic incoming pressure. Generally, only the first face requires heading-side heading, and since the second face and the subsequent faces can use the lane left by the previous face, the subsequent faces can be mined by a method such as 110 or N00, and heading-side heading is not required. The transition support 11, the end support 12, the super-rear support and the withdrawing support 13 telescopically support the bottom rock mass and the top rock mass of the region. The multiple groups of the super-rear supports are arranged in the machine head entry retaining area, and the multiple groups of the super-rear supports are sequentially arranged along the machine head entry retaining area. The withdrawal carriage 13 supports the coal mining channel 1. The machine head roadway forming mechanism and the coal mining mechanism simultaneously mine forwards, the coal mining channel 1 is pushed forwards, and the second support 10, the first supports (such as the transition support 11, the end support 12 and the retracting support 13) and the ultra-rear support move forwards along with the coal mining channel 1. And a joint cutting drilling machine is used for carrying out longitudinal joint cutting operation on the top rock mass along the boundary line of the machine head entry retaining area and the mining and emptying pressure relief area 4. The top rock mass collapses to form a mined-out pressure relief area 4.
In another exemplary embodiment of the present disclosure, the pillar-free self-entry mining method proposed by the present disclosure may also preferably employ a double-sided entry design. In the embodiment, during the process of mining coal on the working face 20 of the coal seam 3 by using the first coal mining machine 5 of the coal mining mechanism, the first coal mining machine 5 can be used for mining on the part of the coal mining channel 1 on the machine tail side and combining roof cutting pressure relief to form the machine tail roadway gate way 17.
Based on the above exemplary description of the pillar-free self-entry mining method proposed by the present disclosure, the entire mining process can be roughly divided into coal mining operation, entry retaining operation, and support operation based on the pillar-free self-entry mining method. The mining process based on the present disclosure will be described in detail below.
The coal mining operation generally includes: simultaneously cutting coal with the first shearer 5 and the second shearer 6 → simultaneously carrying coal with the first scraper conveyor 7 and the second scraper conveyor 16 → transferring with the transfer conveyor → carrying coal with the conveyor 9.
The entry retaining work substantially includes: slitting with the transition leg 11 and slitting with the truncated posterior leg 14. A plurality of drill holes may be formed in the top rock mass along a distance using a lancing drill and then fractured into linear joints using a blasting or expansion device. Here, the slitting device is selected to be mounted on the transition bracket 11, and the transition bracket 11 is provided with a plurality of working grooves so as to perform the slitting work from bottom to top.
The supporting work substantially includes: on the nose side, the long-span support is used for supporting the front side of the nose of the working face 20, two rows of anchor rods/cables are arranged at the position, and a metal net is laid before the frame moving. And the transition support 11 is used for supporting the top and bottom plates at the position to prevent gangue from falling into the coal mining channel 1 and the machine head roadway gate way 2. The end brackets 12 are used to make up the bolts/cables and to support the area roof and floor. And supporting the roadway retaining side top bottom plate by using the top-cutting super rear support 14. And the gangue blocking plate supports the entry retaining area to prevent gangue in the entry retaining area from falling into the machine head entry retaining gate 2. The coal mining channel 1 is supported by the retracting bracket 13, the transition bracket 11 and the end bracket 12. And on the tail side, a top bottom plate is supported by using a transition support 11, so that gangue is prevented from falling into the coal mining channel 1 and the tail roadway gate way 17, and a metal mesh is laid. The end bracket 12 is used to anchor/rope and support the top and bottom plates of the area, and a metal net is laid before the frame is moved. And supporting the roadway retaining side top bottom plate by using the top-cutting super rear support 14. And a waste rock blocking plate is used for supporting the entry retaining area, so that waste rocks in the entry retaining area are prevented from falling into the machine tail entry retaining gate chute 17.
In summary, the operation flow of the present disclosure is substantially: the second coal mining machine 6 and the first coal mining machine 5 simultaneously cut coal, the first scraper conveyor 7 and the second scraper conveyor 16 carry coal, the reversed loader is reversed, the conveyor goes out coal → the transition support 11 is cut in a seam, the top cutting of the super rear support 14 is carried out, the long span type support is used for drilling the anchor rod/cable, the end support 12 is used for drilling the anchor rod/cable → the coal mining channel 1 and the working face 20 are pushed forwards at the front side, moving the support system → carrying out longitudinal joint cutting operation on the top rock mass along the boundary line of the machine head entry gate way 2 and the goaf pressure relief area 4 by using a joint cutting drilling machine, forming a plurality of drill holes on the top rock mass along a certain distance by using the joint cutting drilling machine, and then expanding and cracking the plurality of drill holes into linear joints → the goaf top rock mass continuously collapses under the action of self mine pressure to form the goaf pressure relief area 4 → the goaf pressure relief area 4 enables the overlying strata to be self-stabilized under the action of self rock crushing and swelling property.
It should be noted here that the pillar-less auto-entry mining method illustrated in the drawings and described in the present specification is only one example of many types of mining methods that can employ the principles of the present invention. It should be clearly understood that the principles of the present invention are in no way limited to any details or any steps of the pillar-free auto-entry mining method shown in the drawings or described in the specification.
In summary, the present disclosure provides a coal mining system, which becomes a novel equipment arrangement coal mining system through the arrangement of a machine head roadway forming mechanism, and is characterized in that a set of equipment is arranged on the side of a working face machine head, so as to realize the advanced mining of the machine head and realize the mining and the mining. The coal mining system provided by the present disclosure can solve the problem of head-side roadway in a mining method such as the N00 method. Meanwhile, the method can realize bilateral entry retaining of the working face, really solves the problem of no-entry tunneling in coal mining engineering, really eliminates major potential safety hazard and huge investment caused by entry tunneling, and has obvious safety benefit and economic benefit. In light of the above, the current N00 construction method realizes the working face super-machine tail coal cutting roadway formation, the problems of machine head roadway formation and roadway retention are not solved, and for the first mining face, a boundary main roadway still needs to be tunneled as an upper gateway of the first mining face. According to the technical scheme, the coal mining system provided by the disclosure has the advantages that: (1) the technical problems of working face machine head roadway forming and roadway retaining are solved, the mining of any working face is realized, the upper and lower crossroads do not need to be tunneled in advance, and the coal mining, the roadway forming and the roadway retaining can be performed cooperatively; (2) the machine head lane forming mechanism comprises a short-wall coal cutting device, a machine head scraper conveyor and a second support (such as a long-span support), the equipment arrangement is simple, and the system is reliable; (3) the working surface is reserved along with mining, mining and reserving integration is realized, the mine pressure display is weakened in time and space, and the mine pressure is reduced beneficially.
Specifically, through the relevant design of this disclosure, can make the aircraft nose become the lane problem and solve. On the basis, the roadway retaining device can realize bilateral roadway retaining of the working face by matching with patent ZL 106168131A, can really solve the problem of roadway-free tunneling in coal mining engineering, really eliminates important potential safety hazards and huge investment caused by roadway tunneling, and has obvious safety benefit and economic benefit. The present disclosure can solve the above problems in a manner that a short wall coal mining device, a long span type support, and a nose scraper conveyor are matched. Moreover, by adopting the related design of the disclosure and matching with patent ZL 106168131A, after the coal mine shaft and the main connecting roadway are tunneled, the first mining face mining can be immediately realized without tunneling a large roadway. Furthermore, the technology is an important supplement for realizing roadway-free tunneling of the whole mine except for the shaft, once the technology is applied to practice, the function of roadway retaining on two sides of a working face is realized by matching with a patent ZL 106168131A, so that after the shaft of the mine is formed, the organization and production of the working face can be arranged immediately, the working procedure of developing a large roadway under the coal mine is eliminated, the boundary large roadway which is tunneled in advance is not needed to be used as a working face crossheading, and the technology has remarkable economic and social values.
In addition, the related design of the disclosure is suitable for an equipment system for the machine head side lane forming of the coal-pillar-free self-lane forming N00 construction method, so that the basic requirements of the machine head side lane forming of the coal-pillar-free self-lane forming N00 construction method are met, the equipment system is matched with the patent ZL 106168131A, the upper and lower crossheading does not need to be tunneled in advance for the mining of any working face, and the cooperative operation of coal mining, lane forming and lane retaining can be realized.
Further, when a machine tail roadway-retaining gate way is formed by mining at a part of the coal mining channel located at one side of the machine tail by using the first coal mining machine, the present disclosure enables double-sided simultaneous roadway formation at the machine head and at the machine tail. Therefore, any crossheading does not need to be tunneled in advance all the time at the beginning and the end of coal mining. Coal mining and roadway forming are carried out synchronously to replace excavation, so that the problem of excavation separation puzzling coal mines for a long time is solved, and the problem of continuous and tense mining is solved. The coal pillar is cancelled in the working face mining process, the resource mining rate is improved, and the problem of over-concentration of the coal pillar stress for a long time is solved.
Exemplary embodiments of the coal mining system and the pillar-free auto-roadway mining method based on the coal mining system proposed by the present disclosure are described and/or illustrated in detail above. Embodiments of the disclosure are not limited to the specific embodiments described herein, but rather, components and/or steps of each embodiment may be utilized independently and separately from other components and/or steps described herein. Each component and/or step of one embodiment can also be used in combination with other components and/or steps of other embodiments. When introducing elements/components/etc. described and/or illustrated herein, the articles "a," "an," and "the" are intended to mean that there are one or more of the elements/components/etc. The terms "comprising," "including," and "having" are intended to be inclusive and mean that there may be additional elements/components/etc. other than the listed elements/components/etc. Furthermore, the terms "first" and "second" and the like in the claims and the description are used merely as labels, and are not numerical limitations of their objects.
While the coal mining system and pillar-less auto-entry mining method based thereon set forth in the present disclosure have been described in terms of various specific embodiments, those skilled in the art will recognize that the practice of the disclosure can be practiced with modification within the spirit and scope of the claims.

Claims (16)

1. A coal mining system comprising a coal mining mechanism including a first scraper conveyor and a first shearer, the first scraper conveyor arranged in a first direction, the first shearer movably disposed on the first scraper conveyor and configured to mine a face forward of the first scraper conveyor; characterized in that, the coal mining system still includes:
aircraft nose becomes lane mechanism includes:
a second scraper conveyor arranged on one side of the head of the first scraper conveyor along a second direction and extending forwards, wherein the second direction is perpendicular to the first direction; and
a second shearer;
the reversed loader is arranged on one side of the machine head of the first scraper conveyor, and the first scraper conveyor and the second scraper conveyor are respectively connected to the reversed loader; and
a conveyor arranged in a second direction and connected to the reversed loader;
wherein the coal mining system is configured to be propelled in a second direction toward the face, and the second shearer is configured to mine a portion of the face on a nose side and cooperate with roof cutting to relieve into a roadway to form a nose entry gate as the coal mining system is propelled.
2. The coal mining system of claim 1, wherein the headdrift gate extends in a second direction, the headdrift gate extending in a same direction as a direction of propulsion of the coal mining system.
3. The coal mining system of claim 1, wherein the head-end roadway-forming mechanism further comprises:
and the plurality of waste rock blocking plates are sequentially laid on the side walls of the goaf of the machine head roadway gate way.
4. The coal mining system of claim 3, wherein the mine spoil barrier defines a plurality of preformed holes configured for passage of anchor rods and/or anchor lines therethrough.
5. The coal mining system of claim 1, wherein the head-end roadway-forming mechanism further comprises:
the second support is movably arranged in a space where the second scraper conveyor and the second coal mining machine are located, and the second support is configured to synchronously advance along with the second scraper conveyor so as to support a top plate and a bottom plate of the machine head roadway gate in the space where the second scraper conveyor and the second coal mining machine are located.
6. The coal mining system of claim 5, wherein the second brackets are provided with bolting machines on both sides in the first direction, respectively.
7. The coal mining system of claim 5, wherein the second support is provided with a tendon drilling rig on each side in the first direction.
8. The coal mining system of claim 5, wherein the second support is provided with a mesh-laying device configured to adjustably lay a protective mesh between the top of the second support and the bottom of the roof rock mass.
9. The coal mining system of claim 1, wherein the head-end roadway-forming mechanism further comprises:
and the rear support is movably arranged on the goaf side wall of the machine head entry gate roadway and supports the top plate and the bottom plate of the goaf side wall, and the rear support is configured to be synchronously pushed along with the second scraper machine so as to support the top plate and the bottom plate of the goaf side wall of the machine head entry gate roadway and provide a protective wall for the goaf side wall.
10. The coal mining system of claim 9, wherein the coal mining mechanism includes a first support movably supporting the first scraper and a roof and floor of the first shearer, the first support configured to advance synchronously with the first scraper; wherein the ultra-rear bracket comprises:
the top-cutting rear-exceeding bracket is adjacently arranged on the first bracket positioned above the first scraper machine head; and
and the gangue blocking rear support is arranged on one side of the top cutting rear support, which is far away from the first support.
11. The coal mining system of claim 10, wherein the roof cutting sub-frame is provided with a kerf drilling machine configured to drill a kerf drilling hole to cause roof caving along a kerf plane.
12. The coal mining system of claim 10, wherein the gangue overrun backup frame is provided with a jumbolter configured to perform bolting operations, or grouting and bolting operations by grouting bolts.
13. The coal mining system of claim 9, wherein the head roadway forming mechanism further comprises a plurality of waste rock blocking plates, and the plurality of waste rock blocking plates are sequentially laid on the side walls of the goaf; wherein, the super rear support is equipped with the side direction and supports the telescopic link, side direction support telescopic link one end connect in super rear support, the other end connect in the waste rock blocking board, support the telescopic link be configured into the telescopic support in between super rear support and the waste rock blocking board.
14. The coal mining system of any one of claims 1 to 13, wherein the first shearer is configured to mine and form an arc-shaped coal slope on a side of the coal mining channel at the tail end, and further form a tail gate roadway gate way on the basis of roof cutting pressure relief.
15. A coal pillar-free self-entry mining method is characterized by comprising the following steps:
providing a coal mining system, wherein the coal mining system is the coal mining system of any one of claims 1-13;
synchronously propelling the coal mining mechanism and the machine head roadway forming mechanism of the coal mining system;
mining the working face of the coal seam to be mined by using the coal mining mechanism;
and simultaneously, mining the part of the working face, which is positioned on one side of the first scraper conveyor head, by using the head roadway forming mechanism, and forming a head roadway retaining gateway on the basis of roof cutting and pressure relief.
16. The pillar-free self-entry mining method according to claim 15, further comprising the steps of:
and in the process of mining the working face of the coal seam to be mined by using the coal mining mechanism, mining the part of the coal mining channel, which is positioned on one side of the machine tail, by using the first coal mining machine of the coal mining mechanism, and forming the machine tail roadway retaining gateway by matching with roof cutting and pressure relief.
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