CN111129589A - Ternary high-voltage lithium ion battery non-aqueous electrolyte and lithium ion battery thereof - Google Patents

Ternary high-voltage lithium ion battery non-aqueous electrolyte and lithium ion battery thereof Download PDF

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Publication number
CN111129589A
CN111129589A CN201911336258.8A CN201911336258A CN111129589A CN 111129589 A CN111129589 A CN 111129589A CN 201911336258 A CN201911336258 A CN 201911336258A CN 111129589 A CN111129589 A CN 111129589A
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ion battery
ternary
lithium ion
electrolyte
carbonate
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CN201911336258.8A
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Inventor
潘立宁
朱学全
黄慧聪
郭力
周小华
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Dongguan Shanshan Battery Materials Co Ltd
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Dongguan Shanshan Battery Materials Co Ltd
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M10/00Secondary cells; Manufacture thereof
    • H01M10/05Accumulators with non-aqueous electrolyte
    • H01M10/056Accumulators with non-aqueous electrolyte characterised by the materials used as electrolytes, e.g. mixed inorganic/organic electrolytes
    • H01M10/0564Accumulators with non-aqueous electrolyte characterised by the materials used as electrolytes, e.g. mixed inorganic/organic electrolytes the electrolyte being constituted of organic materials only
    • H01M10/0566Liquid materials
    • H01M10/0567Liquid materials characterised by the additives
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M10/00Secondary cells; Manufacture thereof
    • H01M10/05Accumulators with non-aqueous electrolyte
    • H01M10/052Li-accumulators
    • H01M10/0525Rocking-chair batteries, i.e. batteries with lithium insertion or intercalation in both electrodes; Lithium-ion batteries
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M2300/00Electrolytes
    • H01M2300/0017Non-aqueous electrolytes
    • H01M2300/0025Organic electrolyte
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E60/00Enabling technologies; Technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02E60/10Energy storage using batteries

Abstract

The invention discloses a ternary high-voltage lithium ion battery non-aqueous electrolyte, which comprises a non-aqueous organic solvent, electrolyte lithium salt and an additive, wherein the additive comprises 0.5-2.0% of pyridine boron trifluoride and 8.0-18.0% of other additives in percentage by mass in the electrolyte. The invention also discloses a lithium ion battery using the electrolyte. According to the invention, through the combined common action of the conventional additive and the novel additive PBF, the PBF can be reduced at the interface of the negative electrode material, so that an excellent and compact SEI film is formed, and the dynamic performance is improved. Meanwhile, the novel additive contains boron element which has unpaired hollow tracks, so that the additive can be combined with LiF on the passive film of the positive and negative electrode interfaces, LiF is dissolved, and the increase of battery impedance in the circulating process is reduced.

Description

Ternary high-voltage lithium ion battery non-aqueous electrolyte and lithium ion battery thereof
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of lithium ion batteries, in particular to a ternary high-voltage lithium ion battery non-aqueous electrolyte and a lithium ion battery thereof.
Background
The lithium ion battery has the advantages of high working voltage, high energy density, long service life, wide working temperature range, environmental friendliness and the like, and is widely applied to the fields of 3C digital products, electric tools, electric automobiles, aerospace and the like. In the 3C digital field, mobile electronic devices, particularly smart phones, have been rapidly developed in recent years toward lighter and thinner, and higher requirements are placed on the energy density of lithium ion batteries.
Compared with commercial lithium cobaltate materials, the ternary material has higher theoretical and actual gram capacity, and is more and more popular in the field of general rudder application. In order to increase the energy density of lithium ion batteries, a common measure is to increase the charge medium voltage of the positive electrode material, such as the voltage of the commercialized ternary material battery from 4.2V → 4.35V → 4.4V → 4.6V. However, the positive electrode material has certain defects under high voltage, for example, the high-voltage positive electrode active material has strong oxidizability in a lithium-deficient state, so that the electrolyte is easily oxidized and decomposed to generate a large amount of gas; in addition, the high-voltage positive active material is unstable in a lithium-deficient state, and is prone to side reactions, such as release of oxygen, dissolution of transition metal ions and the like, so that the transition metal ions are separated from crystals along with the reaction and enter the electrolyte to catalyze decomposition of the electrolyte and damage a passivation film of the active material, and meanwhile, the transition metal lithium ions can occupy a lithium ion migration channel of the passivation film on the surface of the negative electrode material to block migration of the lithium ions, so that the service life of the battery is influenced, and when the lithium ion battery is used in a high-temperature and high-pressure state, the negative influence is more obvious.
At present, the main method for solving the problems is to develop a new film forming additive, the new additive needs to form a passivation film on the interface of a positive electrode material and a negative electrode material through oxidation reduction, the formed passivation film is compact, good and elastic, can expand and contract along with the expansion and contraction of the positive electrode material and the negative electrode material in the charging and discharging processes instead of cracking, has a certain negative electrode film forming capacity, and can inhibit the reduction and decomposition of an electrolyte on the negative electrode interface, so that the electrochemical performance of the ternary high-voltage lithium ion battery is improved.
For example, chinese patent publication No. CN108878975A discloses an electrolyte and a secondary battery including the same. The electrolyte of this application comprises an organic solvent, an electrolyte salt and an additive comprising a pyridine-boron trifluoride complex compound and a halosilane. The defect is that the performance of the lithium ion battery is not obviously improved because the material has low film forming strength and can not completely form a film to cover the interface of a negative electrode material, thereby inhibiting the reaction of active sites on graphite and electrolyte.
Disclosure of Invention
Aiming at the defects of the prior art, the invention aims to provide a ternary high-voltage lithium ion battery non-aqueous electrolyte and a lithium ion battery thereof.
In order to achieve the purpose, the invention adopts the technical scheme that: a ternary high-voltage lithium ion battery non-aqueous electrolyte comprises a non-aqueous organic solvent, electrolyte lithium salt and an additive, wherein the additive comprises the following components in percentage by mass in the electrolyte:
0.5 to 2.0 percent of pyridine boron trifluoride
8.0-18.0% of other additives.
As a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the other additive is preferably one or more of 1, 3-Propane Sultone (PS), fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC), 1, 3-Propene Sultone (PST), Adiponitrile (ADN), ethylene glycol bis (propionitrile) ether (den), ethylene carbonate (VEC), vinyl sulfate (DTD), Succinonitrile (SN), Methylene Methanedisulfonate (MMDS), tris (trimethylsilane) borate (TMSB), tris (trimethylsilane) phosphate (TMSP), citraconic anhydride, 1-propyl phosphoric anhydride and triacrylate.
In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the electrolyte lithium salt is contained in the electrolyte in an amount of 15.0 to 20.0% by mass.
As a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the electrolyte lithium salt is a mixture of lithium hexafluorophosphate, lithium difluorosulfonimide and lithium difluorophosphate.
As a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the non-aqueous organic solvent is one or more of ethylene carbonate, propylene carbonate, diethyl carbonate, ethyl methyl carbonate, ethylene 1, 2-difluorocarbonate, bis (2,2, 2-trifluoroethyl) carbonate. The non-aqueous organic solvent is more preferably a mixture of ethylene carbonate, propylene carbonate, diethyl carbonate and ethyl methyl carbonate.
The invention also provides a ternary high-voltage lithium ion battery which comprises a battery cell formed by laminating or winding a positive plate, an isolating film and a negative plate, and a nonaqueous electrolyte of the ternary high-voltage lithium ion battery.
The ternary high-voltage lithium ion battery can adopt various structures well known by the technical personnel in the field and is obtained by the conventional preparation technology in the field, such as packaging, laying aside, formation, aging, secondary packaging, capacity grading and the like. Preferably, the positive active material of the positive electrode sheet may be LiNi1-x-y-zCoxMnyAlzO2Wherein: x is more than or equal to 0 and less than or equal to 1, y is more than or equal to 0 and less than or equal to 1, z is more than or equal to 0 and less than or equal to 1, and x + y + z is more than or equal to 0 and less than or equal to 1, the negative active material of the negative plate can be artificial graphite, natural graphite, a silicon-carbon composite material compounded by SiOw and graphite, wherein w is more than 1 and less than 2.
The positive plate can be prepared by the following method:
the positive electrode active substance LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2, the conductive agent acetylene black and the adhesive polyvinylidene fluoride are mixed according to the mass ratio of 95.5: 2.5: 2, fully stirring and uniformly mixing in an N-methyl pyrrolidone solvent system, coating on an aluminum foil, drying and cold pressing to obtain a positive plate; the preparation method of the negative active material comprises the following steps: preparing negative active material artificial graphite, conductive agent acetylene black, binder styrene butadiene rubber and thickener carboxymethylcellulose sodium according to a mass ratio of 96: 2: 1: 1, fully stirring and uniformly mixing in a deionized water solvent system, coating on a copper foil, drying, and cold pressing to obtain the negative plate.
The pyridine boron trifluoride additive in the non-aqueous electrolyte of the ternary high-voltage lithium ion battery can be reduced at a negative electrode interface to form a passivation film, and the reduction potential is as follows: 1.5V vs Li +/Li, the B element in the material contains empty orbit, can combine with LiF on the negative pole interface, make the battery pole piece interfacial resistance not increase all the time in the cycle process, thus influence the battery performance, can also combine with LiF on the passive film of positive pole at the same time (LiF on the passive film of positive pole is a big reason to influence the battery performance).
The structural formula of the pyridine boron trifluoride (PBF) is as follows:
other additives selected in the ternary high-voltage lithium ion battery non-aqueous electrolyte can form an excellent interface protective film on the surface of an electrode, and the reaction of an electrode material and the electrolyte under high voltage is reduced, so that the microstructure of the electrode material is stabilized, and the cycle performance and the high-temperature performance of the high-voltage lithium ion battery are improved.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the advantages that: according to the invention, through the combined action of the other additives and the pyridine boron trifluoride additive which are combined uniquely, an SEI film can be formed on the surface of the cathode material, the reduction reaction of a solvent on a cathode interface is inhibited, the interface impedance can be reduced, and simultaneously the characteristics of the material can be utilized to dissolve LiF on the cathode passive film and the anode passive film, so that the battery impedance is reduced, and the cycle performance, the high-temperature storage performance and the low-temperature performance of the ternary high-voltage lithium ion battery are effectively improved.
Detailed Description
In order to make the objects, technical solutions and advantages of the present invention more clearly understood, the present invention is further described in detail with reference to the following examples, which are only for the purpose of explaining the present invention and are not intended to limit the present invention.
Example 1
Preparing an electrolyte:
according to the formula, Ethylene Carbonate (EC), Propylene Carbonate (PC), diethyl carbonate (DEC) and Ethyl Methyl Carbonate (EMC) are mixed in a glove box filled with argon according to the mass ratio of EC: PC: DEC: EMC 20: 10: 45: 25 to obtain a mixed solution, slowly adding a mixed lithium salt consisting of lithium hexafluorophosphate, lithium difluorosulfonimide and lithium difluorophosphate into the mixed solution, then adding boron trifluoride pyridine and other additives (a mixture of PS, FEC and PST), and uniformly stirring to obtain the lithium ion battery electrolyte. The mass percentage of the mixed lithium salt in the electrolyte is 15.5%, the mass percentage of the pyridine boron trifluoride in the electrolyte is 0.5%, the mass percentage of the PS in the electrolyte is 3.5%, the mass percentage of the PST in the electrolyte is 0.5%, and the mass percentage of the FEC in the electrolyte is 5.0%. The specific formulation is shown in table 1.
Examples 2 to 8
Examples 2-8 are also specific examples of electrolyte preparation, and the parameters and preparation method are the same as example 1 except for the parameters in Table 1. The electrolyte formulation is shown in table 1.
Comparative examples 1 to 4
In comparative examples 1 to 4, the parameters and preparation method were the same as in example 1 except for the parameters shown in Table 1. The electrolyte formulation is shown in table 1.
TABLE 1 composition ratios of the components of the electrolytes of examples 1-8 and comparative examples 1-4
Note: the content of each component in the lithium salt, the content of the pyridine boron trifluoride and the content of each component in other additives are all the mass percentage content in the electrolyte.
The proportion of each component in the nonaqueous organic solvent is mass ratio.
Lithium ion battery performance testing
Preparing a lithium ion battery:
mixing a positive electrode active substance LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2, a conductive agent acetylene black and a binder polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) according to a mass ratio of 95.5: 2.5: 2, fully stirring and uniformly mixing in an N-methyl pyrrolidone solvent system, coating on an aluminum foil, drying, and cold pressing to obtain the positive plate. Preparing negative active material artificial graphite, conductive agent acetylene black, binder Styrene Butadiene Rubber (SBR), and thickener carboxymethylcellulose sodium (CMC) according to a mass ratio of 96: 2: 1: 1, fully stirring and uniformly mixing in a deionized water solvent system, coating on a copper foil, drying, and cold pressing to obtain the negative plate. Polyethylene (PE) is used as a base film, and a nano aluminum oxide coating is coated on the base film to be used as an isolating film. And sequentially laminating the positive plate, the isolating membrane and the negative plate, winding the positive plate, the isolating membrane and the negative plate along the same direction to obtain a bare cell, placing the bare cell in an outer package, injecting the electrolyte prepared in the examples 1-8 and the comparative examples 1-4, and carrying out the procedures of packaging, standing at 45 ℃, high-temperature clamp formation, secondary packaging, capacity grading and the like to obtain the ternary high-voltage lithium ion battery.
The following performance tests were performed on the batteries of examples 1 to 8 and comparative examples 1 to 4, respectively, and the test results are shown in table 2.
(1) And (3) testing the normal-temperature cycle performance of the ternary high-voltage battery: and at the temperature of 25 ℃, charging the battery after capacity grading to 4.5V at a constant current and a constant voltage of 0.5C, stopping the current at 0.05C, then discharging to 3.0V at a constant current of 0.5C, and calculating the capacity retention rate of the 500 th cycle after performing charge/discharge for 500 cycles according to the cycle. The calculation formula is as follows:
the 500 th cycle capacity retention ratio (%) (500 th cycle discharge capacity/first cycle discharge capacity) × 100%.
(2) And (3) testing the constant-temperature storage gas production rate and the capacity residual rate of the ternary high-voltage battery at 60 ℃: firstly, the battery is charged and discharged for 1 time (4.5V-3.0V) in a 0.5C circulation mode at normal temperature, the discharge capacity C0 of the battery before storage is recorded, then the battery is charged to a full 4.5V state at constant current and constant voltage, the thickness V1 of the battery before high-temperature storage is tested by using a drainage method, then the battery is placed in a 60 ℃ incubator for storage for 7 days, the battery is taken out after storage is finished, the volume V2 of the battery after storage is tested after cooling for 8 hours, and the gas yield of the battery after the battery is stored for 7 days at the constant temperature of 60 ℃ is calculated; after the battery is cooled for 24 hours at room temperature, the constant current discharge is carried out on the battery to 3.0V again at 0.5C, the discharge capacity C1 after the battery is stored is recorded, and the capacity residual rate after the battery is stored for 7 days at the constant temperature of 60 ℃ is calculated, wherein the calculation formula is as follows:
after 7 days of storage at 60 ℃, the gas production rate of the battery is V2-V1;
after 7 days of constant temperature storage at 60 ℃, the capacity residual rate is C1/C0 x 100%.
(3) And (3) testing the 45 ℃ cycle performance of the ternary high-voltage battery: and at the temperature of 45 ℃, charging the battery with the capacity divided to 4.5V at a constant current and a constant voltage of 0.5C, stopping the current at 0.05C, then discharging the battery to 3.0V at a constant current of 0.5C, and circulating the battery according to the above steps, and calculating the capacity retention rate of the 300 th cycle after 300 cycles of charging/discharging. The calculation formula is as follows:
the 300 th cycle capacity retention (%) was (300 th cycle discharge capacity/first cycle discharge capacity) × 100%.
TABLE 2 results of cell performance test of examples 1-8 and comparative examples 1-4
As can be seen from table 2 comparing the results of the cell performance tests of examples 1-8 with comparative example 1: the pyridine boron trifluoride additive can obviously improve the cycle performance of the battery and the capacity retention rate after high-temperature storage, and shows that the additive can form a passive film on a cathode interface and has a dissolving effect on an unfavorable substance LiF on the cathode and anode passive films, so that the impedance of the battery cannot be greatly increased in the cycle process.
As shown in the electrochemical performance tests of examples 1-8 and comparative examples 2-3 in Table 2, the addition of boron trifluoride pyridine is too small, the passive film formed by the substances on the interface of the anode and cathode materials is not stable enough, and the addition of too much boron trifluoride pyridine causes the thickening of the passive film, the increase of impedance and the deterioration of the electrochemical performance of the ternary high-voltage lithium ion battery.
The electrochemical performance test result of the comparative example 4 shows that the nitrile additive has certain help for improving the performance of the ternary high-voltage lithium ion battery, but the substance cannot form a film by a positive electrode and a negative electrode, and the nitrile additive has the function of complexing metal ions, mainly cobalt ions, dissolved in the positive electrode material, so that the catalytic decomposition of the metal ions on the electrolyte is inhibited. Excessive addition of nitrile additives can cause an increase in electrolyte viscosity, which can have negative effects.
It will be understood by those skilled in the art that the foregoing is merely exemplary of the present invention, and is not intended to limit the invention to the particular forms disclosed, but on the contrary, the intention is to cover all modifications, equivalents, and alternatives falling within the spirit and scope of the invention as defined by the appended claims.

Claims (7)

1. The non-aqueous electrolyte of the ternary high-voltage lithium ion battery comprises a non-aqueous organic solvent, electrolyte lithium salt and an additive, and is characterized in that the additive comprises the following components in percentage by mass in the electrolyte:
0.5 to 2.0 percent of pyridine boron trifluoride
8.0-18.0% of other additives.
2. The nonaqueous electrolyte solution for ternary high-voltage lithium-ion batteries according to claim 1, wherein the other additive is one or more of 1, 3-propane sultone, fluoroethylene carbonate, 1, 3-propene sultone, adiponitrile, ethylene glycol bis (propionitrile) ether, ethylene carbonate, succinonitrile, 1, 4-dicyano-2-butene, methylene methanedisulfonate, vinyl sulfate, tris (trimethylsilane) borate, tris (trimethylsilane) phosphate, citraconic anhydride, 1-propylphosphoric anhydride and triacrylate.
3. The nonaqueous electrolyte solution for a ternary high-voltage lithium ion battery according to claim 1, wherein the mass percentage of the electrolyte lithium salt in the electrolyte solution is 15.0-20.0%.
4. The nonaqueous electrolyte solution for a ternary high-voltage lithium-ion battery according to claim 1, wherein the electrolyte lithium salt is a mixture of lithium hexafluorophosphate, lithium difluorosulfonimide and lithium difluorophosphate.
5. The nonaqueous electrolyte solution for the ternary high-voltage lithium ion battery of claim 1, wherein the nonaqueous organic solvent is one or more of ethylene carbonate, propylene carbonate, diethyl carbonate, ethyl methyl carbonate, 1, 2-difluoroethylene carbonate, and bis (2,2, 2-trifluoroethyl) carbonate.
6. The nonaqueous electrolyte solution for a ternary high-voltage lithium ion battery according to claim 5, wherein the nonaqueous organic solvent is a mixture of ethylene carbonate, propylene carbonate, diethyl carbonate and ethyl methyl carbonate.
7. A ternary high-voltage lithium ion battery, characterized in that the ternary high-voltage lithium ion battery comprises a battery cell formed by laminating or winding a positive plate, a separation film and a negative plate, and the nonaqueous electrolyte of the ternary high-voltage lithium ion battery of any one of claims 1 to 6.
CN201911336258.8A 2019-12-23 2019-12-23 Ternary high-voltage lithium ion battery non-aqueous electrolyte and lithium ion battery thereof Pending CN111129589A (en)

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