CN111052940B - Picking method of fruit picking robot - Google Patents

Picking method of fruit picking robot Download PDF

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Publication number
CN111052940B
CN111052940B CN201911386548.3A CN201911386548A CN111052940B CN 111052940 B CN111052940 B CN 111052940B CN 201911386548 A CN201911386548 A CN 201911386548A CN 111052940 B CN111052940 B CN 111052940B
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picking
fruit
clamping
clamping plate
fruits
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CN111052940A (en
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李月芹
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Daguo Zhongqi Automation Equipment Shandong Co ltd
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Daguo Zhongqi Automation Equipment Shandong Co ltd
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01DHARVESTING; MOWING
    • A01D46/00Picking of fruits, vegetables, hops, or the like; Devices for shaking trees or shrubs
    • A01D46/30Robotic devices for individually picking crops
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01DHARVESTING; MOWING
    • A01D91/00Methods for harvesting agricultural products
    • A01D91/04Products growing above the soil

Abstract

The invention discloses a picking method of a fruit picking robot, belonging to the field of agricultural picking machinery, comprising the following steps: controlling the mechanical arm to move to be close to the picking area X so that the visual sensor acquires a clear image of the fruit target; judging whether the fruits are hard shell fruits or soft skin fruits according to the clear image of the fruit target; when the fruits are hard shell fruits, the rotating steering connecting piece is driven to rotate so that the belt clamping and picking mechanism is aligned to the picking area X; controlling the mechanical arm to drive the belt clamping and picking mechanism to continue to move towards the picking area X so that the vision sensor acquires a panoramic image of the picking area X; extracting all fruit targets in the panoramic image; dividing the picking area X into a plurality of fruit cluster areas according to the distance between the fruit targets, and determining the picking sequence of the fruit cluster areas; and (4) implementing the multi-fruit picking step according to the picking sequence of the fruit cluster area to finish the picking of all the fruit cluster areas. The invention can pick various fruits with less damage and high picking efficiency.

Description

Picking method of fruit picking robot
Technical Field
The invention relates to the field of agricultural picking machinery, in particular to a picking method of a fruit picking robot.
Background
At present, the manual picking still occupies a leading position in the fruit picking aspect, the picking labor intensity is high, and the working efficiency is low. Along with the development of the science and technology level, the novel fruit picking device is mature day by day, and the picking efficiency is greatly improved. For example, a fruit picker disclosed in CN201821918169.5 adopts a grasping type hand grip to match with a cutting edge at the end of the hand grip, so that picking of soft-skinned fruits such as mangoes can be realized, but when fruits with different volumes are encountered, the picking hand structure is fixed and the picking force is not adjustable, so that the fruits are easily scratched.
Picking device that uses in the existing market all is very single, and the commonality is poor, to the condition that needs to pick multiple type of fruit, need be equipped with a plurality of picking and hold the instrument with hand, and not only with high costs, it is troublesome to use moreover.
Disclosure of Invention
Therefore, the technical problem to be solved by the embodiments of the present invention is to overcome the defects of single picking tool and damage to fruits in the picking process in the prior art, thereby providing a picking method of a fruit picking robot.
The fruit picking robot picking method provided by the embodiment of the invention comprises the following steps:
s1, controlling the mechanical arm to move close to the picking area X so that the visual sensor acquires clear images of the fruit targets;
s2, judging whether the fruits are hard-shell fruits or soft-peel fruits according to the clear images of the fruit targets;
s3, when the fruits are hard shell fruits, the rotating steering connecting piece is driven to enable the belt clamping and picking mechanism to be aligned to the picking area X;
s4, controlling the mechanical arm to drive the belt clamping and picking mechanism to continue to move towards the picking area X, and enabling the vision sensor to acquire a panoramic image of the picking area X;
s5, extracting all fruit targets in the panoramic image;
s6, dividing the picking area X into a plurality of fruit cluster areas according to the distance between the fruit targets, and determining the picking sequence of the fruit cluster areas;
s7, carrying out multi-fruit picking steps according to the picking sequence of the fruit cluster areas, and finishing picking of all the fruit cluster areas.
Preferably, the picking step of the order multiorders comprises:
s7-1, extracting the boundary T of the fruit clusters in the fruit cluster area which is currently picked, and taking the graph surrounded by the boundary T as a boundary graph;
s7-2, calculating the position of the geometric center O of the boundary graph;
s7-3, determining a circumscribed rectangle S with the minimum area according to the position of the geometric center O, and obtaining the length and the position of the short side W of the circumscribed rectangle S;
s7-4, judging whether the length of the short side W is smaller than the maximum opening width of the belt clamping and picking mechanism or not;
s7-5, when the length of the short side W is smaller than the maximum opening width of the belt clamping and picking mechanism, controlling the mechanical arm to drive the belt clamping and picking mechanism to move so that the central axis Y of the belt clamping and picking mechanism passes through the geometric center O and is perpendicular to the short side W of the circumscribed rectangle S, and moving the end parts of the first clamping plate and the second clamping plate of the belt clamping and picking mechanism to the position of the short side W;
s7-6, controlling the first clamping plate driving motor to drive the first clamping plate to rotate and/or controlling the second clamping plate driving motor to drive the second clamping plate to rotate, so that the distance between the end parts of the first clamping plate and the second clamping plate is slightly larger than the length of the short side W;
s7-7, controlling the mechanical arm to drive the belt clamping and picking mechanism to move towards the fruit group along the central axis Y, and simultaneously driving the first clamping plate to rotate by the first clamping plate driving motor and/or driving the second clamping plate to rotate by the second clamping plate driving motor to enable the left belt and the right belt to tightly hold the fruit group;
s7-8, controlling the left driving motor to drive the left belt device to rotate and/or controlling the right driving motor to drive the right belt device to rotate, and finishing picking of the fruit clusters;
s7-9, conveying the picked fruits to a collecting vehicle.
Preferably, the step of transporting the picked fruit into a collection vehicle comprises:
s7-9-1, controlling the mechanical arm to drive the belt clamping and picking mechanism to move so that the central axis Y of the belt clamping and picking mechanism is in the vertical direction;
s7-9-2, controlling the first clamping plate driving motor to drive the first clamping plate to rotate and/or controlling the second clamping plate driving motor to drive the second clamping plate to rotate, enabling the first clamping plate and the second clamping plate to be slowly opened at a certain angle, enabling picked fruits to enter the guide cylinder through the first opening and the through hole, and conveying the fruits into the collecting vehicle along the guide cylinder.
Preferably, the method further comprises the following steps:
s7-10, when the length of the short side W is larger than or equal to the maximum opening width of the belt clamping and picking mechanism, dividing the boundary graph into two parts at the geometric center O to obtain a first sub-boundary graph and a second sub-boundary graph, then respectively taking the first sub-boundary graph and the second sub-boundary graph as new boundary graphs, and returning to the step S7-2 to continue.
Preferably, the method further comprises the following steps:
s8, when the fruits are soft skin fruits, the rotating steering connecting piece is driven to enable the air bag clamping and picking mechanism to be aligned to the picking area X;
s9, controlling the mechanical arm to drive the air bag clamping and picking mechanism to continue to move towards the picking area X so that the vision sensor acquires a panoramic image of the picking area X;
s10, extracting all fruit targets in the panoramic image, and determining the picking sequence of a single fruit target;
s11, carrying out single fruit picking steps according to the picking sequence of the single fruit target, and finishing picking of all the fruit targets.
Preferably, the step of picking of the order monocarpus comprises:
s11-1, extracting the boundary of a single fruit target which is picked currently, and taking the graph surrounded by the boundary as a boundary graph;
s11-2, calculating the position of the geometric center of the boundary graph;
s11-3, determining a circumscribed rectangle with a minimum area according to the position of the geometric center, and obtaining the length and the position of the short side of the circumscribed rectangle;
s11-4, controlling the mechanical arm to drive the air bag clamping and picking mechanism to move so that the central axis of the air bag clamping and picking mechanism passes through the geometric center and is perpendicular to the short side of the external rectangle, and moving the end parts of the left shearing gripper and the right shearing gripper of the air bag clamping and picking mechanism to the position of the short side;
s11-5, controlling the left cutting hand grab and the right cutting hand grab to rotate, and enabling the distance between the end parts of the left cutting hand grab and the right cutting hand grab to be slightly larger than the length of the short edge;
s11-6, controlling the mechanical arm to drive the air bag clamping and picking mechanism to move along the central axis to a single fruit target, simultaneously controlling the left shearing hand grab and the right shearing hand grab to rotate continuously to enable the air bag to tend to hold the fruit target until the fruit target is cut by the cutting edge, controlling the left shearing hand grab and the right shearing hand grab to stop rotating after the fruit target is picked, and adjusting the inflation and deflation actions of the air bag in real time in the continuous rotation process to enable the pressure value measured by the pressure detection device to be in a set range all the time.
S11-7, controlling the mechanical arm to drive the air bag clamping and picking mechanism to convey picked fruits into a collecting vehicle.
The technical scheme of the embodiment of the invention has the following advantages:
1. the fruit picking robot picking method provided by the embodiment switches the clamping picking mechanism through the steering connecting piece according to different control of fruit types, if the hard-shell fruits adopt the belt clamping picking mechanism to pick the fruits in a pulling mode after the fruits are embraced, the soft-shell fruits adopt the air bag clamping picking mechanism to cut the fruits after the fruits are embraced, the damage to the fruits in the picking process is reduced, the application range is enlarged, the picking efficiency is improved, and the manufacturing cost is also reduced.
2. According to the fruit picking robot picking method provided by the embodiment, the fruit group area is divided, and the plurality of fruit targets which are close to each other are divided into the same fruit group area, so that the fruit targets can be picked at one time, and the picking efficiency is further improved.
Drawings
In order to more clearly illustrate the technical solutions in the embodiments of the present invention, the drawings used in the description of the embodiments will be briefly introduced below, and it is obvious that the drawings in the following description are some embodiments of the present invention, and it is obvious for those skilled in the art that other drawings can be obtained according to the drawings without creative efforts.
Fig. 1 is a schematic structural diagram of a fruit picking robot in embodiment 1 of the present invention;
fig. 2 is an assembly structure diagram of the belt clamping mechanism and the rotary connecting member in embodiment 1 of the present invention;
FIG. 3 is a schematic view of a hinge structure of the clamping plate in embodiment 1 of the present invention;
FIG. 4 is a schematic sectional view of a belt assembly according to embodiment 1 of the present invention;
fig. 5 is a schematic structural view of a first driving bolt in embodiment 1 of the present invention;
FIG. 6 is a schematic structural view of a right driving bolt in embodiment 1 of the present invention;
FIG. 7 is a schematic view of an assembly structure of a belt device and a clamping plate according to embodiment 1 of the present invention;
FIG. 8 is a schematic structural view of an air bag gripping and picking mechanism in embodiment 1 of the present invention;
fig. 9 is a schematic view of the structure of a drive rod in embodiment 1 of the present invention;
FIG. 10 is a schematic view of the guide cylinder in embodiment 1 of the present invention;
FIG. 11 is a schematic view of the position relationship between the belt clamping and picking mechanism and the fruit mass in embodiment 2 of the present invention;
fig. 12 is a flow chart of a picking process in example 2 of the present invention.
Reference numerals:
11-a first clamping plate; 111-hinge through hole; 112-a first breach; 12-a first drive bolt; 121-bolt shank; 122-head of the bolt; 123-axial through hole; 124-positioning step; 13-a first clamping plate drive motor; 14-a first belt; 15-left drive wheel; 16-a left driven wheel; 17-a left drive wheel motor; 18-a copper sleeve; 21-a second clamping plate; 211-hinge through hole; 212-a second gap; 22-a second drive bolt; 221-bolt shank portion; 222 — head of bolt; 223-positioning step; 23-a second clamping plate drive motor; 24-a second belt; 25-right drive wheel; 26-right driven wheel; 27-right drive wheel motor; 3-an air bag clamping and picking mechanism; 31-a support frame; 311-a mount; 312-a planar support; 313-a guide slot; 32-left shear grip; 33-right cutting and grasping by hand; 34-a drive rod; 341-protrusions; 342-connecting vias; 343-a first end of a drive rod; 344-a second end of the drive rod; 35-a first link; 36-a second link; 37-air bag; 38-a blade edge; 4-a mechanical arm; 5-a steering linkage; 51-a through hole; 6, collecting vehicles; 7-a guide cylinder; 71-a flexible helical structure; 8-visual sensor.
Detailed Description
The technical solutions of the present invention will be described clearly and completely with reference to the accompanying drawings, and it should be understood that the described embodiments are some, but not all embodiments of the present invention. All other embodiments, which can be derived by a person skilled in the art from the embodiments given herein without making any creative effort, shall fall within the protection scope of the present invention.
In describing the present invention, it is to be understood that the terminology used herein is for the purpose of describing particular embodiments only and is not intended to be limiting of the invention. As used herein, the singular forms "a", "an" and "the" are intended to include the plural forms as well, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise. The terms "comprises" and/or "comprising," when used in this specification, are intended to specify the presence of stated features, integers, steps, operations, elements, and/or components, but do not preclude the presence or addition of one or more other features, integers, steps, operations, elements, components, and/or groups thereof. The term "and/or" includes any and all combinations of one or more of the associated listed items. The terms "center," "upper," "lower," "left," "right," "vertical," "horizontal," "inner," "outer," and the like are used in the orientation or positional relationship indicated in the drawings for convenience in describing the invention and for simplicity in description, and do not indicate or imply that the referenced device or element must have a particular orientation, be constructed and operated in a particular orientation, and are therefore not to be construed as limiting the invention. The terms "first," "second," and "third" are used for descriptive purposes only and are not to be construed as indicating or implying relative importance. The terms "mounted," "connected," and "coupled" are to be construed broadly and may, for example, be fixedly coupled, detachably coupled, or integrally coupled; can be mechanically or electrically connected; may be directly connected or indirectly connected through an intermediate. The specific meanings of the above terms in the present invention can be understood in specific cases to those skilled in the art.
In addition, the technical features involved in the different embodiments of the present invention described below may be combined with each other as long as they do not conflict with each other.
Example 1
The embodiment provides a fruit picking robot device, is applied to agricultural picking machinery field, as shown in fig. 1, includes: a clamping and picking mechanism, a mechanical arm 4, a steering connecting piece 5 and the like. The clamping and picking mechanism is used for picking fruits, and the clamping force of the clamping and picking mechanism can be adjusted according to the type and the size of the picked fruits, so that the condition that the fruits are damaged by clamping hands in the picking process is reduced; the mechanical arm 4 is mainly used for controlling the motion position of the tail end of the clamping and picking mechanism, has six degrees of freedom, and greatly increases the motion range of the clamping and picking mechanism, thereby increasing the fruit picking range; the front end at arm 4 is connected to 5 one ends that turn to the connecting piece, and the other end is connected with centre gripping plucking mechanism, turns to connecting piece 5 and is connected with different centre gripping plucking mechanism, when needs pluck different types of fruit, turns to the connecting piece and can switch different plucking mechanism according to the fruit type, and this kind of method of adding different plucking mechanism at the end of same arm has practiced thrift the cost, has increased fruit plucking robot's picking scope.
Preferably, as shown in fig. 2 and 3, the clamping and picking mechanism comprises a belt clamping and picking mechanism, the belt clamping and picking mechanism comprises a left belt assembly and a right belt assembly, specifically, the left belt assembly comprises a first clamping plate 11 and a left belt device, one end of the first clamping plate 11 is provided with a hinge through hole 111, the other end is provided with the left belt device, the right belt assembly comprises a second clamping plate 21 and a right belt device, one end of the second clamping plate 21 is provided with a hinge through hole 211, the other end is provided with the right belt device, specifically, the left belt assembly and the right belt assembly are nested with each other through the first clamping plate 11 and the second clamping plate 21, the clamping plates are hinged with each other through the hinge through holes 111 and the hinge through holes 211, the clamping structures which are nested and hinged with each other enable the clamping plates to be more stably opened and closed, and meanwhile, the clamping plates mainly provide mechanical support for the belt clamping and taking mechanism.
As shown in fig. 4, the left belt assembly further includes a first driving bolt 12 and a first clamping plate driving motor 13, as shown in fig. 5, the first driving bolt 12 is composed of a bolt head 122 and a bolt rod portion 121, in fig. 4, the bolt rod portion 121 passes through the hinge through hole 111 to fixedly connect the bolt head 122 with the first clamping plate 11, further, a portion of the bolt rod portion 121 close to the bolt head is sleeved with the first clamping plate 11 and is provided with a thread to increase friction resistance between the first driving bolt 12 and the first clamping plate 11, a tail end of the bolt rod portion 121 is rotatably connected with the second clamping plate 21, and a joint is sleeved with a copper sleeve 18 to increase wear resistance and avoid a situation that the first driving bolt 12 and the second clamping plate 21 are locked.
The motor cabinet of first grip block driving motor 13 is fixed on turning to connecting piece 5, the motor shaft passes axial through-hole 123 and cup joints with bolt pole portion 121, concretely, motor shaft is provided with the shaft coupling, the shaft coupling is with motor shaft and first drive bolt 12 fixed connection, make first grip block driving motor 13 drive first grip block 11 through first drive bolt 12 and be rotary motion, this kind of motor passes through the structural design of the first grip block 11 of drive bolt direct drive, transmission simple structure, make the rotation control of first grip block 11 get up more simply stable.
Similarly, as shown in fig. 4, the right belt assembly further includes a second driving bolt 22 and a second clamping plate driving motor 23, as shown in fig. 6, the second driving bolt 22 is composed of a bolt head 222 and a bolt rod 221, in fig. 4, the bolt rod 221 passes through the hinge through hole 111 to fixedly connect the bolt head 222 with the second clamping plate 21, further, a portion of the bolt rod 221 close to the bolt head is sleeved with the second clamping plate 21 and is provided with a thread to increase friction resistance between the second driving bolt 22 and the second clamping plate 21, a tail end of the bolt rod 221 is rotatably connected with the first clamping plate 11, and a copper sleeve 18 is sleeved at a connection position to increase wear resistance and avoid a situation that the second driving bolt 22 and the first clamping plate 11 are locked.
Further, the first drive bolt 12 is provided with a positioning step 124 and the second drive bolt 22 is provided with a positioning step 224 to achieve axial positioning of the copper sleeve 18.
The motor cabinet of second grip block driving motor 23 is fixed on turning to connecting piece 5, the motor shaft passes axial through-hole 223 and cup joints with bolt pole portion 221, specifically, motor shaft is provided with the shaft coupling, the shaft coupling is with motor shaft and second driving bolt 22 fixed connection, make second grip block driving motor 23 drive second grip block 21 through second driving bolt 22 and be rotary motion, this kind of motor passes through the structural design of driving bolt direct drive second grip block 21, transmission simple structure, the rotation control that makes second grip block 21 gets up more simply stably.
Furthermore, the clamping plate of the double-motor cooperative driving machine is opened and closed, so that the grabbing range of the manipulator can be enlarged, the control force can be accurately controlled, and the grabbing reliability is guaranteed.
Preferably, as shown in fig. 7, the left belt device includes a first pulley axially and vertically fixed to the inner sidewall of the first clamping plate 11 through a mounting hole on the inner sidewall of the first clamping plate 11, and a first belt 14 nested on the first pulley, and the first pulley is dispersedly disposed on the inner sidewall of the first clamping plate 11. The right belt device comprises a second belt pulley and a second belt 24 nested on the second belt pulley, the second belt pulley is axially and vertically fixed on the inner side wall of the second clamping plate 21 through a mounting hole in the inner side wall of the second clamping plate 21, and the second belt pulley is dispersedly arranged on the inner side wall of the second clamping plate 11. Furthermore, the shapes of the left belt device and the right belt device between the two clamping plates are combined to form a Y shape, the opening on the shape is large, and fruits can fall between the two belt devices more easily when being picked.
The left belt device and the right belt device are provided with at least one driving wheel for driving the belt to rotate.
Specifically, belt centre gripping mechanism mainly is to hard shell class fruit, and the belt relies on its self deformation and frictional force to carry fruit when plucking fruit, specifically, to take left belt subassembly as an example, and left driving motor 17 drives left drive wheel 15 and drives the belt and rotate to drive left from 16 rotations of driving wheel, and form the pulling force of plucking fruit with the clamp force of two grip blocks, pluck fruit from the fruit tree. Specifically, the first and second clamping plate driving motors 13 and 23 control the opening and closing angles of the left belt assembly and the right belt assembly according to the volume of the picked fruit so as to adjust the clamping force of the first clamping plate and the second clamping plate on the fruit. Furthermore, the belt is provided with a texture shape, so that the friction force between the belt and the fruit can be increased. When hard shell fruits are picked, the clamping force of the clamping plate and the hard shell fruits enable the flexible belt to generate slight deformation, the contact area of the clamping structure and the fruits is increased, and therefore the clamping is more stable.
Preferably, the left belt means is provided with a left drive motor 17; alternatively, the right belt assembly is provided with a right drive motor 27; alternatively, the left belt assembly is provided with a left drive wheel 15 and the right belt assembly is provided with a right drive wheel 25, the left drive wheel 15 and the right drive wheel 25 rotating in opposite directions.
Specifically, when only one left driving wheel 15 is provided on the left belt device, the left belt is a driving belt, the clamped fruit is driven to move downwards, and the right belt device only provides a supporting function; when only one right driving wheel 25 is arranged on the right belt device, the right belt is a driving belt and drives the clamped fruit to move downwards, and the left belt device only provides a supporting function; the structure of only providing one driving wheel, the control is relatively simple.
When the left and right belt assemblies are provided with both left and right drive wheels 15 and 25, as shown in the embodiment shown in fig. 7, the left and right drive wheels 15 and 25 rotate in opposite directions to ensure that the two belts move downward after gripping the fruit, breaking the fruit stem. The structure that sets up two drive wheels simultaneously for the fruit atress by the centre gripping is more stable, is difficult for the off tracking when picking.
Preferably, the clamping and picking mechanism further comprises an air bag clamping and picking mechanism 3. The air bag clamping and picking mechanism 3 is mainly used for picking soft-skinned fruits. Specifically, the air bag clamping and picking mechanism comprises: the supporting frame 31 is provided with a mounting seat 311, as shown in fig. 1, one end of the mounting seat 311 is connected with the steering link 5, as shown in fig. 8, the other end of the mounting seat is provided with a plane supporting part 312, and the surface of the plane supporting part 312 is provided with a linear guide groove 313.
As shown in fig. 8, the left cutting hand grip 32 and the right cutting hand grip 33 are symmetrically disposed about the linear guide groove 313 in the plane of the parallel plane support 312 and are rotatably coupled to the supporting frame 31 through respective rotation shafts, which provide a rotation supporting point for the cutting hand grips, so that the left cutting hand grip 32 and the right cutting hand grip 33 are rotatably supported on the supporting frame 31. The inner walls of the left shearing hand grab 32 and the right shearing hand grab 33 are provided with inwards sunken arc-shaped grooves for bearing the air bags 37;
specifically, the driving device includes: the nut-driven reciprocating motion device comprises a driving connecting rod motor, a lead screw and a nut matched with the lead screw, wherein the driving connecting rod motor is fixed on a mounting seat 311, the lead screw is connected with a shaft of the driving connecting rod motor, the nut is sleeved on the lead screw and is driven by the motor to do linear reciprocating motion along the lead screw, meanwhile, a nut seat is sleeved outside the nut, and the nut seat does linear motion along with the nut. As shown in fig. 9, the driving rod 34 is fixedly sleeved on the nut seat through the connecting through hole 342, and meanwhile, a protrusion 341 which is matched with the linear guide groove 313 is arranged below the driving rod 34, the protrusion 341 is embedded in the linear guide groove 313 and reciprocates along the linear guide groove 313 under the driving of the motor, and the driving rod is more stably moved due to the nested structure of the protrusion 341 and the linear guide groove 313. Taking the driving of the left cutting gripper 32 as an example, one end of the first link 35 is rotatably connected to the left cutting gripper 32, and the other end is rotatably connected to the first end 343 of the driving rod 34, and the driving rod 34 drives the left cutting gripper 32 to move, so that the left cutting gripper 32 and the right cutting gripper 33 open and close.
The left cutting hand grab 32 and the right cutting hand grab 33 are driven by the motor to complete the opening and closing structure through the connecting rod, the transmission structure is simple, the variation range of the opening and closing angle is large, and the fruit cutter is more suitable for fruits with different volumes.
Specifically, a pressure detection device is arranged in the air bag 37 and used for detecting the force when the fruit is in contact with the air bag, so that the aim of adjusting the contact force is achieved by adjusting the inflation and deflation of the air bag in real time, and the fruit is prevented from being damaged due to too large contact force or falling off due to too small contact force. Wherein, as shown in fig. 8, the air bag 37 is installed in the arc-shaped groove, and the arc-shaped groove wraps up part of the outer wall of the air bag 37, so that the fruit can be ensured to be fully contacted with the air bag while providing supporting force for the deformation of the air bag, and the picking is more effective.
Preferably, the cutting end of the cutting finger grip is provided with a cutting edge 38.
Specifically, when the air bag 37 stably wraps the fruit, the cutting edge 38 cuts the fruit stem short, and the fruit picking is completed. The structure that this kind of gasbag and cutting edge cooperation were picked not only can reduce the damage of mechanical device to fruit, can guarantee simultaneously that it is higher to pick efficiency, and the process is more stable.
Preferably, the picking and collecting device is further included for transporting fruit picked by the picking jaw device.
Specifically, as shown in fig. 1, the picking and collecting device comprises a collecting vehicle 6 and a guide cylinder 7, one end of the guide cylinder 7 is connected with the collecting vehicle, the other end of the guide cylinder 7 is connected with the clamping and picking mechanism, the structure enables fruits to be directly conveyed to the collecting vehicle 6 through the guide cylinder 7 after being picked, and the load of the clamping and picking mechanism is reduced while the fruits are prevented from being accumulated. Further, the inner wall of the pipeline of the guide cylinder 7 is provided with a flexible spiral structure, as shown in fig. 10, the suit is provided with a spiral body made of rubber materials, so that fruits can be prevented from being collided with the guide cylinder wall to damage the fruits in the process of falling into the collecting vehicle 6 along the guide cylinder 7, the spiral structure enables the fruits to move in the guide cylinder 7 in a certain direction, and the fruits are prevented from being accumulated in the guide cylinder to block a channel.
Preferably, the first clamping plate 11 and the second clamping plate 21 are installed on the steering connecting piece 5, specifically, a through hole 51 is formed in the steering connecting piece 5, notches 112 and 212 are formed in the first clamping plate 11 and the second clamping plate 21 near the hinged end, projections of the two notches on the steering connecting piece 5 fall into the through hole 51, and the diameter of the through hole 51 is not larger than that of the guide cylinder 7.
Particularly, the fruit that the mechanism was taken in centre gripping falls into guide cylinder 7 through opening 112 and opening 212 through-hole 51, and opening 112 and opening 212 fall into through-hole 51 in turning to the projection on connecting piece 5, and the diameter of through-hole 51 is not more than the diameter of guide cylinder 7, can guarantee from opening 112 and opening 212 fruit that falls into can both get into guide cylinder 7 in, avoid the fruit of taking to scatter elsewhere, can effectual collection fruit.
Preferably, a visual sensor 8 is included, and particularly, as shown in fig. 1, the visual sensor 8 is arranged on the steering link 5, and further, the visual sensor is arranged between the two clamping mechanisms, so that the fruit can be identified more conveniently.
Above-mentioned fruit picking machine people is provided with clamping-force adjustable centre gripping and plucks mechanism: the belt clamping and picking mechanism and the air bag clamping and picking mechanism are arranged, and the structures are switched according to different types of fruits through the steering connecting piece, for example, hard-shell fruits adopt the belt clamping and picking mechanism to pick the fruits in a pulling mode after the fruits are embraced, and soft-shell fruits adopt the air bag clamping and picking mechanism to shear after the fruits are embraced. The robot can realize picking of different fruit types by directly converting the proper clamping mechanism, so that the application range is enlarged, and the manufacturing cost is reduced.
Above-mentioned fruit picking machine people, centre gripping is plucked the built-in belt device and the gasbag structure that has buffer function of mechanism, and the grip block cooperation of outside realizes that the picking force is controllable, this kind with fruit contact after real-time deformation structure increase with the area of contact of fruit, make fruit be difficult for the landing when plucking, it is more stable to pluck the process, and the gasbag software structure of adoption is difficult for damaging fruit when plucking soft skin class fruit.
Above-mentioned fruit picking robot is provided with the guide cylinder, and is provided with flexible helical structure in the guide cylinder, and this kind of structure plays the effect of direction at the process that fruit fell into the collection vehicle, reduces the load that the mechanism was taken in the centre gripping when avoiding fruit to pile up, and the flexible structure setting reduces the condition that guide cylinder wall collided fruit to reduce the fruit damage.
Example 2
The present embodiment provides a picking method by a fruit picking robot, which can be applied to the fruit picking robot in embodiment 1, as shown in fig. 12, and includes the following steps:
s1, controlling the mechanical arm 4 to move close to the picking area X so that the visual sensor 8 acquires clear images of the fruit targets;
s2, judging whether the fruits are hard-shell fruits or soft-peel fruits according to the clear images of the fruit targets; when the fruit is a hard shell fruit, the step goes to S3; when the fruit is soft-skinned, the process goes to S8;
s3, driving the rotary steering connecting piece 5 to make the belt clamping and picking mechanism aim at the picking area X;
s4, controlling the mechanical arm 4 to drive the belt clamping and picking mechanism to continue to move towards the picking area X, so that the vision sensor 8 acquires a panoramic image of the picking area X;
s5, extracting all fruit targets in the panoramic image;
s6, dividing the picking area X into a plurality of fruit cluster areas according to the distance between the fruit targets, and determining the picking sequence of the fruit cluster areas; when the distance between the two fruit targets is greater than a distance threshold, dividing the two fruit targets into different fruit group areas, and when the distance between the two fruit targets is less than or equal to the distance threshold, dividing the two fruit targets into the same fruit group area; the distance threshold value can be set according to parameters such as fruit types, sizes, shapes and the like; the number of the fruits in the fruit group can be one or more than two;
s7, multiple fruit picking steps are carried out according to the picking sequence of the fruit cluster areas to finish picking of all the fruit cluster areas, the multiple fruit picking steps can pick one hard shell type fruit at a time and can also pick a plurality of hard shell type fruits at a time, and the multiple fruit picking steps comprise:
s7-1, extracting the boundary T of the fruit clusters in the fruit cluster area which is currently picked, and taking the graph surrounded by the boundary T as a boundary graph; as shown in fig. 11, the boundary of the fruit cluster is shown only schematically as T (for clarity, the boundary is shown as a front plan view of the visual sensor 8, and the actual epithelial band clamping and picking mechanism vertically passes through the front plan view along the central axis Y and the intersection point is the geometric center O); the boundary extraction method can adopt a method of 8 fields for extracting the boundary of the image target, and the like;
s7-2, calculating the position of the geometric center O of the boundary graph; preferably, the center position of the minimum circumcircle of the boundary graph can be used as the geometric center position of the boundary graph;
s7-3, determining a circumscribed rectangle S with the minimum area according to the position of the geometric center O, and obtaining the length and the position of the short side W of the circumscribed rectangle S;
s7-4, judging whether the length of the short side W is smaller than the maximum opening width of the belt clamping and picking mechanism or not; the maximum opening width is the maximum distance which can be reached by the opening of the end parts of the first clamping plate and the second clamping plate of the belt clamping and picking mechanism when the first clamping plate and the second clamping plate are opened to the maximum included angle; when the length of the short side W is smaller than the maximum opening width of the belt clamping and picking mechanism, S7-5 is carried out; when the length of the short side W is larger than or equal to the maximum opening width of the belt clamping and picking mechanism, S7-10 is carried out;
s7-5, controlling the mechanical arm 4 to drive the belt clamping and picking mechanism to move so that the central axis Y of the belt clamping and picking mechanism passes through the geometric center O and is perpendicular to the short side W of the circumscribed rectangle S, and moving the end parts of the first clamping plate 11 and the second clamping plate 21 of the belt clamping and picking mechanism to the position of the short side W; by aligning the central axis with the geometric center, fruit deviation, slippage and the like during clamping are avoided, the clamping success rate is improved, and the picking efficiency is further improved;
s7-6, controlling the first clamping plate driving motor 13 to drive the first clamping plate 11 to rotate and/or controlling the second clamping plate driving motor 23 to drive the second clamping plate 21 to rotate, so that the distance between the end parts of the first clamping plate 11 and the second clamping plate 21 is slightly larger than the length of the short side W;
s7-7, controlling the mechanical arm 4 to drive the belt clamping and picking mechanism to move towards the fruit group along the central axis Y, and simultaneously driving the first clamping plate 11 to rotate by the first clamping plate driving motor 13 and/or driving the second clamping plate 21 to rotate by the second clamping plate driving motor 23 to enable the left belt and the right belt to tightly hold the fruit group;
s7-8, controlling the left driving motor 17 to drive the left belt device to rotate and/or controlling the right driving motor 27 to drive the right belt device to rotate, and picking up the fruit clusters under the action of the belt drag force;
s7-9, conveying the picked fruits to a collecting vehicle 6; specifically, the method comprises the following steps:
s7-9-1, controlling the mechanical arm 4 to drive the belt clamping and picking mechanism to move so that the central axis Y of the belt clamping and picking mechanism is in the vertical direction;
s7-9-2, controlling the first clamping plate driving motor 13 to drive the first clamping plate 11 to rotate and/or the second clamping plate driving motor 23 to drive the second clamping plate 21 to rotate, enabling the first clamping plate 11 and the second clamping plate 21 to be slowly opened at a certain angle, enabling the fruit group tightly held between the left belt and the right belt to naturally fall down, enabling the picked fruit to enter the guide cylinder 7 through the first notch 112 and the through hole 51, and conveying the fruit into the collecting vehicle 6 along the guide cylinder 7.
S7-10, dividing the boundary graph into two at the geometric center O to obtain a first sub-boundary graph and a second sub-boundary graph, then respectively taking the first sub-boundary graph and the second sub-boundary graph as new boundary graphs, and returning to the step S7-2 to continue. By further subdividing the boundary graph, fruit group division more suitable for the size of the belt clamping picking mechanism is obtained, the success rate during picking is further improved, unsuccessful picking due to overlarge volume is avoided, and picking efficiency is further improved.
S8, driving the rotating steering connecting piece 5 to make the air bag clamping and picking mechanism aim at the picking area X;
s9, controlling the mechanical arm 4 to drive the air bag clamping and picking mechanism to continue to move towards the picking area X so that the vision sensor 8 acquires a panoramic image of the picking area X;
s10, extracting all fruit targets in the panoramic image, and determining the picking sequence of a single fruit target; the single fruit target can be a soft-skin fruit, and can also be a bunch of soft-skin fruits such as grapes and cherry tomatoes;
s11, carrying out single fruit picking steps according to the picking sequence of the single fruit target to finish picking of all the fruit targets, wherein the single fruit picking steps comprise:
s11-1, extracting the boundary of a single fruit target which is picked currently, and taking the graph surrounded by the boundary as a boundary graph;
s11-2, calculating the position of the geometric center of the boundary graph; preferably, the center position of the minimum circumcircle of the boundary graph can be used as the geometric center position of the boundary graph;
s11-3, determining a circumscribed rectangle with a minimum area according to the position of the geometric center, and obtaining the length and the position of the short side of the circumscribed rectangle;
s11-4, controlling the mechanical arm 4 to drive the air bag clamping and picking mechanism to move so that the central axis of the air bag clamping and picking mechanism passes through the geometric center and is perpendicular to the short side of the external rectangle, and moving the end parts of the left shearing hand gripper 32 and the right shearing hand gripper 33 of the air bag clamping and picking mechanism to the short side positions; by aligning the central axis with the geometric center, fruit deviation, slippage and the like during clamping are avoided, the clamping success rate is improved, and the picking efficiency is further improved;
s11-5, controlling the left cutting hand grab 32 and the right cutting hand grab 33 to rotate, and enabling the distance between the end parts of the left cutting hand grab 32 and the right cutting hand grab 33 to be slightly larger than the length of the short side;
s11-6, controlling the mechanical arm 4 to drive the air bag clamping and picking mechanism to move along the central axis to a single fruit target, simultaneously controlling the left shearing hand gripper 32 and the right shearing hand gripper 33 to rotate continuously to enable the air bag to tend to cling to the fruit target to move until the fruit target is picked after the knife edge 38 cuts the fruit target, controlling the left shearing hand gripper 32 and the right shearing hand gripper 33 to stop rotating, and adjusting the inflation and deflation actions of the air bag in real time in the continuous rotation process to enable the pressure value measured by the pressure detection device to be in a set range all the time; the fruit target is easy to fall off due to too low pressure, and the fruit target is easy to damage due to too high pressure;
the step of S11-6, which is to adjust the inflation and deflation of the air bag in real time during the continuous rotation process so that the pressure value measured by the pressure detection device is always within the set range, includes:
s11-6-1, acquiring a pressure value measured by the pressure detection device in real time;
s11-6-2, judging whether the pressure value is larger than or equal to the maximum pressure threshold value; the maximum pressure threshold can be set according to parameters such as the type, size and volume of the fruit; when the pressure value is larger than or equal to the maximum pressure threshold value, the step is carried out to S11-6-3; when the pressure value is smaller than the maximum pressure threshold value, the step S11-6-4 is carried out;
s11-6-3, the air bag of the left cutting grab 32 and/or the air bag of the right cutting grab 33 deflate;
s11-6-4, judging whether the pressure value is smaller than the minimum pressure threshold value or not; the minimum pressure threshold can be set according to parameters such as the type, size, volume, weight and the like of the fruits; when the pressure value is smaller than the pressure minimum threshold value, the step S11-6-5 is carried out; when the pressure value is larger than or equal to the pressure minimum threshold value, maintaining the current situation;
s11-6-5, the air bag of the left shear hand grab 32 and/or the air bag of the right shear hand grab 33.
S11-7, controlling the mechanical arm 4 to drive the air bag clamping and picking mechanism to convey the picked fruits into the collecting vehicle 6.
According to the picking method of the fruit picking robot, the clamping picking mechanisms are switched through the steering connecting pieces according to different control of fruit types, if hard-shell fruits pick fruits in a mode that the belt clamping picking mechanisms are used for holding and pulling the hard-shell fruits, soft-shell fruits in a mode that the air bag clamping picking mechanisms are used for holding and shearing the soft-shell fruits, damage to the fruits in the picking process is reduced, the application range is enlarged, the picking efficiency is improved, and meanwhile, the manufacturing cost is also reduced. By dividing the fruit cluster area, a plurality of fruit targets which are close to each other are divided in the same fruit cluster area, so that the fruit targets can be picked at one time, and the picking efficiency is further improved.
It should be understood that the above examples are only for clarity of illustration and are not intended to limit the embodiments. Other variations and modifications will be apparent to persons skilled in the art in light of the above description. And are neither required nor exhaustive of all embodiments. And obvious variations or modifications therefrom are within the scope of the invention.

Claims (5)

1. A fruit picking robot picking method is characterized by comprising the following steps:
s1, controlling the mechanical arm to move close to the picking area X so that the visual sensor acquires clear images of the fruit targets;
s2, judging whether the fruits are hard-shell fruits or soft-peel fruits according to the clear images of the fruit targets;
s3, when the fruits are hard shell fruits, the rotating steering connecting piece is driven to enable the belt clamping and picking mechanism to be aligned to the picking area X;
s4, controlling the mechanical arm to drive the belt clamping and picking mechanism to continue to move towards the picking area X, and enabling the vision sensor to acquire a panoramic image of the picking area X;
s5, extracting all fruit targets in the panoramic image;
s6, dividing the picking area X into a plurality of fruit cluster areas according to the distance between the fruit targets, and determining the picking sequence of the fruit cluster areas;
s7, carrying out a multi-fruit picking step according to the picking sequence of the fruit cluster areas to finish picking of all the fruit cluster areas;
the picking steps of the multiple fruit meshes comprise:
s7-1, extracting the boundary T of the fruit clusters in the fruit cluster area which is currently picked, and taking the graph surrounded by the boundary T as a boundary graph;
s7-2, calculating the position of the geometric center O of the boundary graph;
s7-3, determining a circumscribed rectangle S with the minimum area according to the position of the geometric center O, and obtaining the length and the position of the short side W of the circumscribed rectangle S;
s7-4, judging whether the length of the short side W is smaller than the maximum opening width of the belt clamping and picking mechanism or not;
s7-5, when the length of the short side W is smaller than the maximum opening width of the belt clamping and picking mechanism, controlling the mechanical arm to drive the belt clamping and picking mechanism to move so that the central axis Y of the belt clamping and picking mechanism passes through the geometric center O and is perpendicular to the short side W of the circumscribed rectangle S, and moving the end parts of the first clamping plate and the second clamping plate of the belt clamping and picking mechanism to the position of the short side W;
s7-6, controlling the first clamping plate driving motor to drive the first clamping plate to rotate and/or controlling the second clamping plate driving motor to drive the second clamping plate to rotate, so that the distance between the end parts of the first clamping plate and the second clamping plate is slightly larger than the length of the short side W;
s7-7, controlling the mechanical arm to drive the belt clamping and picking mechanism to move towards the fruit group along the central axis Y, and simultaneously driving the first clamping plate to rotate by the first clamping plate driving motor and/or driving the second clamping plate to rotate by the second clamping plate driving motor to enable the left belt and the right belt to tightly hold the fruit group;
s7-8, controlling the left driving motor to drive the left belt device to rotate and/or controlling the right driving motor to drive the right belt device to rotate, and finishing picking of the fruit clusters;
s7-9, conveying the picked fruits to a collecting vehicle.
2. The method of claim 1, wherein the step of transporting the extracted fruit into a collection cart comprises:
s7-9-1, controlling the mechanical arm to drive the belt clamping and picking mechanism to move so that the central axis Y of the belt clamping and picking mechanism is in the vertical direction;
s7-9-2, controlling the first clamping plate driving motor to drive the first clamping plate to rotate and/or controlling the second clamping plate driving motor to drive the second clamping plate to rotate, enabling the first clamping plate and the second clamping plate to be slowly opened at a certain angle, enabling picked fruits to enter the guide cylinder through the first opening and the through hole, and conveying the fruits into the collecting vehicle along the guide cylinder.
3. The method of claim 1, further comprising the steps of:
s7-10, when the length of the short side W is larger than or equal to the maximum opening width of the belt clamping and picking mechanism, dividing the boundary graph into two parts at the geometric center O to obtain a first sub-boundary graph and a second sub-boundary graph, then respectively taking the first sub-boundary graph and the second sub-boundary graph as new boundary graphs, and returning to the step S7-2 to continue.
4. A method according to any of claims 1-3, further comprising the step of:
s8, when the fruits are soft skin fruits, the rotating steering connecting piece is driven to enable the air bag clamping and picking mechanism to be aligned to the picking area X;
s9, controlling the mechanical arm to drive the air bag clamping and picking mechanism to continue to move towards the picking area X so that the vision sensor acquires a panoramic image of the picking area X;
s10, extracting all fruit targets in the panoramic image, and determining the picking sequence of a single fruit target;
s11, carrying out single fruit picking steps according to the picking sequence of the single fruit target, and finishing picking of all the fruit targets.
5. The method of claim 4, wherein the step of picking of the order monogynes comprises:
s11-1, extracting the boundary of a single fruit target which is picked currently, and taking the graph surrounded by the boundary as a boundary graph;
s11-2, calculating the position of the geometric center of the boundary graph;
s11-3, determining a circumscribed rectangle with a minimum area according to the position of the geometric center, and obtaining the length and the position of the short side of the circumscribed rectangle;
s11-4, controlling the mechanical arm to drive the air bag clamping and picking mechanism to move so that the central axis of the air bag clamping and picking mechanism passes through the geometric center and is perpendicular to the short side of the external rectangle, and moving the end parts of the left shearing gripper and the right shearing gripper of the air bag clamping and picking mechanism to the position of the short side;
s11-5, controlling the left cutting hand grab and the right cutting hand grab to rotate, and enabling the distance between the end parts of the left cutting hand grab and the right cutting hand grab to be slightly larger than the length of the short edge;
s11-6, controlling the mechanical arm to drive the air bag clamping and picking mechanism to move along the central axis towards a single fruit target, simultaneously controlling the left shearing hand grab and the right shearing hand grab to rotate continuously to enable the air bag to tend to tightly hold the fruit target until the fruit target is picked after being cut by the cutting edge, controlling the left shearing hand grab and the right shearing hand grab to stop rotating, and adjusting the inflation and deflation actions of the air bag in real time in the continuous rotation process to enable the pressure value measured by the pressure detection device to be always within a set range;
s11-7, controlling the mechanical arm to drive the air bag clamping and picking mechanism to convey picked fruits into a collecting vehicle.
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