CN109105001B - End effector of bergamot pear picking robot and picking method - Google Patents

End effector of bergamot pear picking robot and picking method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN109105001B
CN109105001B CN201811216941.3A CN201811216941A CN109105001B CN 109105001 B CN109105001 B CN 109105001B CN 201811216941 A CN201811216941 A CN 201811216941A CN 109105001 B CN109105001 B CN 109105001B
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picking
servo motor
motor
pear
cambered surface
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CN109105001A (en
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马蓉
李俊杰
张垚鑫
郭昊生
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Shihezi University
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Shihezi University
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01DHARVESTING; MOWING
    • A01D46/00Picking of fruits, vegetables, hops, or the like; Devices for shaking trees or shrubs
    • A01D46/30Robotic devices for individually picking crops
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P60/00Technologies relating to agriculture, livestock or agroalimentary industries
    • Y02P60/12Technologies relating to agriculture, livestock or agroalimentary industries using renewable energies, e.g. solar water pumping

Abstract

The utility model provides a pear picking robot end effector and a pear picking method, wherein the pear picking robot end effector comprises a manipulator butt-joint disc which is in butt joint with a robot arm, a motor A shell in a transmission mechanism which is connected with the manipulator butt-joint disc, and four tool rests which are connected with a transmission mechanism connecting rod and a mounting bracket; the method comprises the steps of taking a point by a camera, fixing by a sucker, cutting by a cambered surface blade, retracting an arm, releasing bergamot pears and the like. The utility model not only improves the shearing efficiency, reduces the time consumption of the sensing mechanism for identifying and dividing the images of the fruit outline and the fruit stalks, ensures the precision and quality of picking operation, reduces the picking difficulty and improves the operation efficiency.

Description

End effector of bergamot pear picking robot and picking method
Technical Field
The utility model belongs to the field of agricultural machinery, and particularly relates to an end effector of a bergamot pear picking robot and a picking method.
Background
The Korla pear is native in Korla, wheel platform and garage areas in Xinjiang, has 1300 years of cultivation history, is a famous and excellent variety with extremely strong territories, and is one of the most excellent local pear varieties in the areas and even nationwide. The bergamot pears are distributed in all places of the south China, the kurla area is used as a main production area, the planting area is maximum, the quality is optimal, and the bergamot pears are one of main pillar industries of Xinjiang special fruits.
The bergamot pear is generally round oval or spindle-shaped and is small in fruit shape, and is mainly characterized by thin skin, crisp pulp, more fruit juice, no slag and fragrant fruit taste. The local common language is called 'the pear falls to the ground and falls to the beach of water', so the pear is very delicate and is extremely not resistant to mechanical damage. By 2017, the current planting area of the Korla bergamot pears reaches 100 mu, the annual yield is about 100 ten thousand tons, and the harvesting time of bergamot pear fruits has great influence on the yield, the quality and the storage characteristics.
The fruits are premature, small in size, low in yield, high in hardness, bad in taste and not storage-resistant; too late harvesting, reduced water content of the fruits, too high maturity and poor quality of the fruits, and is not suitable for long-distance transportation and long-term storage.
However, at present, the main mode of pear picking is manual picking, 9 months a year is the picking period of pear, and the picking cost of pear picking workers is between 0.8 yuan per kilogram and 0.9 yuan per kilogram. Because the bergamot pear tree body is big, most bergamot pears grow in the eminence, and the great manual work of people is picked and is caused the difficulty, and when high altitude hand plucks, the people can only be through climbing the tree or utilize the ladder to pick, and the slightly careless fruit can drop when picking, causes to pick the loss, and the people also has unsafe factor when picking in the high altitude in addition, and this is the reason that causes the high altitude bergamot pear to pick the expense to increase. In addition, the mature bergamot pear skin is thin and crisp, and is not suitable for large-scale mechanized harvesting, and the ordinary fruit picker is easy to cause the damage of bergamot pear skin in the picking process of bergamot pear fruits, and is easy to induce the growth of rotting bacteria and penicillium, so that the bergamot pear is accelerated to spoil and spread and be transmitted to surrounding undamaged bergamot pears.
Therefore, the manual picking has low picking efficiency, high difficulty, short time and high labor intensity, and increases the picking cost. In order to solve the problem of difficult pear picking, it is necessary to replace manual picking with an end effector suitable for pear picking.
The utility model patent of application number 201621393947.4 discloses a fruit picking device suitable for bergamot pears, which is shown in fig. 1 and comprises a metal arch ring, a picking rod, an inner pocket net and an outer net bag, wherein the picking rod comprises an anti-slip sleeve, a sleeve rod and a telescopic rod; the metal arch ring is provided with a fruit handle grabbing groove, and a cotton metal arch ring jacket is arranged outside the metal arch ring; the inner net bag and the outer net bag are both connected with the cotton metal arch ring in an outer sleeve, the inner net bag is arranged in the outer net bag, and a buffer opening is formed in the lower end of the inner net bag; the lower end of the outer net bag is provided with a cotton rope hole, a cotton rope is arranged in the cotton rope hole, and a spring button is arranged on the cotton rope. The bergamot pear picking mode is that after the bergamot pear stems are grasped through the fruit stem fixing grooves, the sleeve rod is pulled to break the bergamot pear stems. The picking mode is extremely easy to damage fruits, and in addition, in the process of pulling the loop bar, great force can be generated on the branches, so that other fruits can shake, scraping damage can be generated with the branches, and even the fruits directly fall off.
The utility model of application number 201120127271.5 discloses an end effector of a spherical fruit picking robot, as shown in fig. 2, comprising a rotary motor assembly and an arcuate finger cutting assembly. The rotary motor is utilized to drive the four arc-shaped blades to rotationally cut fruit stalks at any positions in the middle through the coupling component. The picking method is reliable, low in motion control difficulty, low in cost and good in universality. However, when the arc finger cutting assembly works, fruits are not completely wrapped, if the fruit stalks are at the extreme ends of the actuator, the situation that the fruits cannot be cut can possibly occur, and when the four arc fingers are folded during the operation, the fruits in the space surrounded by the four arc fingers are not fixed, after the fruit stalks are cut, the fruits roll in the finger space, some fruits and vegetables with fragile and thin peel can be mechanically damaged (such as Korla pears, peaches, tomatoes and the like), so that long-distance transportation and long-term storage are inconvenient.
Application number 201710102179.5 discloses a grabbing and cutting integrated spherical fruit and vegetable picking robot end effector, which comprises an upper connecting plate, a lower connecting plate, a cutting disc knife, 4 flexible enveloping units and a flexible enveloping claw rotating mechanism as shown in fig. 3. The end effector is composed mainly of a servo motor, 4 flexible fingers and a cutting disc knife. The servo motor drives the actuator to move, so that the movement controllability of each component is enhanced, and the design of flexible fingers can reduce the damage of fruits and vegetables in the picking process to a certain extent. However, the grip strength and control are not ideal, and for some fruits and vegetables with different quality and size, too large grip strength can cause damage to fruits, too small grip strength can cause picking failure when the fruits and vegetables are not firmly picked, and the adjustability of the grip strength should be considered to achieve a more ideal effect. The cutting range of the cutting disc knife is limited, and a fruit stem cutting blind area exists. In addition, the end effector uses 4 servo motors, the whole structure and the control system are complex, the weight is large, and the picking precision can be influenced.
For the prior art of the Korla pear picking mode, the technical problems and disadvantages to be solved urgently mainly comprise the following aspects:
(1) The current pear picking mode is mainly still manual picking, the manual picking is low in picking efficiency, high in difficulty and high in labor intensity in a time period, and people can have unsafe factors when picking at high altitude;
(2) The appearance of the bergamot pear is in an irregular shape, so that the bergamot pear is difficult to grasp properly for most rigid paws;
(3) The mature bergamot pear peel is thin and crisp, the bergamot pear peel is easy to damage in the picking process, and rot bacteria and penicillium are easy to breed, so that the bergamot pear is accelerated to spoil and spread to the surrounding undamaged bergamot pear;
(4) Most end effectors and overhead fruit picking devices generally fall into three modes: pulling, grabbing kinking and cutting. The fruit is gripped and grabbed firstly by the design of pulling and torsion, then the action of manually kinking the fruit stalks is simulated by rotation, when the fruit is picked, the force for gripping the fruit is required to be strictly controlled, otherwise, the fruit is extremely easily damaged, and the situation that the fruit stalks are pulled, twisted or fall off during picking exists at the moment, so that the fruit stalks are inconvenient to store. The knife cutting and cutting-off type is mainly characterized in that a motor is used for driving a circular saw knife or a scissors to directly cut off the fruit stalks, the shearing range of the knife and the scissors is limited, and dead zones for cutting, shearing and cutting the fruit stalks exist.
Disclosure of Invention
The utility model aims to reduce the overall picking time of bergamot pears, improve the picking efficiency, reduce the labor intensity of workers and meet the picking requirement of bergamot pears, and provides an end effector which is compact in structure, high in efficiency, reliable, durable and intelligent.
The utility model adopts the following technical scheme:
an end effector of a pear picking robot comprises a manipulator butt joint disc 1, a transmission mechanism 2 and an actuating mechanism 3,
one end of the manipulator butt-joint disc 1 is connected with a mechanical handle of the robot, and the other end of the manipulator butt-joint disc is fixedly connected with a motor A shell 22 in the transmission mechanism 2 into a whole through bolts;
the tail end of a connecting rod 212 of the transmission mechanism 2 and a mounting bracket 213 are connected with a cutter rest 31 of the actuating mechanism 3 through a hinge, and a cambered surface cutter 32 for cutting fruit stalks is arranged on the cutter rest 31;
the actuator 3, the vacuum chuck 35 in the actuator 3 is connected with the top end of the mounting bracket 213 of the transmission mechanism 2 through the mounting flange 37.
According to the further technical scheme, in the transmission mechanism 2, a servo motor A21 is arranged in an inner cavity of a motor A shell 22, an O-shaped ring 26 is arranged on an end face of a motor shaft, a motor flange 23 is arranged on the end face of the motor A21 through a screw, the servo motor A21 is connected with a speed reducer 24 through a signal wire, the speed reducer 24 is arranged in a connecting shell 25, the connecting shell 25 is fixedly connected with a motor B shell 28 through a connecting plate 215 and a connecting screw 214, a servo motor B27 is arranged in the inner cavity of the motor B shell 28, a screw rod 210 is connected with the servo motor B27 through a coupler 29, a nut 211 is hinged with a connecting rod 212 through a mounting hole, and a mounting bracket 213 is fixedly connected with the motor B shell 28 through a connecting plate 215 and a connecting screw 214.
According to a further technical scheme, the nut 211 is provided with 4 mounting holes, and the 4 mounting holes are hinged with the small ends of the corresponding 4 connecting rods 212 respectively.
According to the further technical scheme, in the executing mechanism 3, a knife rest 31 is connected to the large end of a connecting rod 212 in a transmission mechanism 2 and a mounting hole of a mounting bracket 213 through a movable hinge, a cambered surface cutter 32 is connected with the knife rest 31 to form a shearing unit, a layer of rubber material 33 is adhered to the inner cavity of the cambered surface cutter 32, a vacuum chuck 34 is arranged at the head of a connecting pipe 36, a vent 35 is formed in the middle of the connecting pipe 36, one end of the mounting bracket 37 is connected with the mounting bracket 213 of the transmission mechanism 2, and the other end is connected with the connecting pipe 36.
The utility model further adopts the technical scheme that four knife rests 31 are connected to the large end of a connecting rod 212 of a transmission mechanism 2 and a mounting bracket 213 through a movable hinge, four cambered surface cutters (32 a, 32b, 32c and 32 d) are arranged on the four knife rests 31, and the four knife rests 31 and the four cambered surface cutters (32 a, 32b, 32c and 32 d) form a shearing unit.
The utility model further adopts the technical scheme that the utility model also comprises a sensing mechanism 4, wherein two magnetoelectric encoders 41 are respectively arranged on motor shafts of the servo motor A21 and the servo motor B27 and used for measuring the magnetic pole position, the rotation angle and the rotation speed of the servo motor; the electromagnetic switch B42 and the electromagnetic switch a44 are respectively fixed on the motor B shell 28 and the inner wall of the mounting bracket 213, the magnet block 43 is mounted on the nut 211, the electromagnetic switch B42, the electromagnetic switch a44 and the magnet block 43 are positioned on the same straight line in the vertical direction, a force sensor is adhered to one side, contacting fruits, of the inner cavities of the two cambered cutters (32 a, 32 c), an infrared sensor 47 is adhered to one side, contacting fruits, of the inner cavities of the other two cambered cutters (32B, 32 d), the vacuum pressure sensor 46 is mounted at a position close to the vacuum sucker 35 and used for monitoring the vacuum pressure value, ensuring that the sucker continuously achieves safe suction, a distance sensor 48 is mounted on the end face of the mounting bracket 213 and used for monitoring the distance between the actuator and the target, and the force sensor 45, the vacuum pressure sensor 46 and the distance sensor 48 all transmit signals to a control system of the robot.
7. A method for picking bergamot pears by using an end effector of a bergamot pear picking robot, comprising the steps of:
step 1, checking the state of an end effector;
step 2, starting a robot to obtain a pear space coordinate position, and driving an end effector to move towards a target pear by a mechanical arm;
step 3, the distance sensor 48, the infrared sensor 47, the vacuum chuck 34 and the vacuum pressure sensor 46 in the sensing mechanism 4 work separately and cooperate, and meanwhile, the servo motor B27 is reversed to enable the end effector to be in a preparation state before shearing operation;
step 4, a servo motor B27 drives a cambered surface cutter in the actuating mechanism 3 to be closed, so that cutting of the target bergamot pear peduncles is completed; or the cambered surface cutter 32 is closed, the servo motor A21 is started to drive the screw rod 210 and the nut 211 of the transmission mechanism and the actuating mechanism to reciprocate, and the cutting of the target bergamot pear peduncles is completed;
step 5, the mechanical handle is retracted, an inner knife rest of the tail end execution is opened, the vacuum chuck 35 is inflated, and picked pear is placed in the collecting box;
and step 6, repeating the steps until picking is finished.
According to a further technical scheme of the utility model, the step 1 comprises the steps that the vacuum chuck is not opened, the tool rest 31 is closed, and the servo motor A21 and the servo motor B27 in the transmission mechanism 2 are in a static state.
According to a further technical scheme, the step 2 further comprises that the servo motor B27 drives the tool rest 31 to be in a maximum opening state in the moving process.
In the step 4, after the servo motor a21 starts operation, the motor shaft drives the transmission mechanism screw rod 210 and the execution mechanism nut 211 to reciprocate through the transmission of the waveform speed reducer 24, and the rotation angle degree is 45-180 degrees.
1. The utility model aims to mainly solve the defects and shortcomings of the existing Korla pear picking method, such as a manual pear picking mode, and has the advantages of low picking efficiency, high difficulty, short time, high labor intensity and unsafe factors when people pick the Korla pear at high altitude; in other modes, the end effector is used for picking the bergamot pears, in the picking process, fruit stem cutting dead areas often exist or mechanical damage is easily caused to the bergamot pears in the picking process, and long-distance transportation and long-term storage of the bergamot pears are inconvenient.
2. The utility model provides a bergamot pear picking robot and a bergamot pear picking method. The end effector of the device adopts 4 cambered surface cutters and a vacuum chuck as actuating mechanisms, and the cambered surface cutters can ensure dead-angle-free operation of fruit stem cutting after the chuck adsorbs and fixes fruits; the transmission mechanism rotates by virtue of two direct-current servo motors, so as to provide power for each device of the actuator; the sensing mechanism ensures that the actuator accurately approaches to the fruit to be adsorbed, monitors the operation state of the actuator in real time and accurately senses the operation environment. The actuator not only improves the shearing efficiency and reduces the time consumption of the sensing mechanism for identifying and dividing the images of the fruit outline and the fruit stalks, but also ensures the precision and quality of picking operation. The picking mode is reliable and safe, so that the picking difficulty is reduced, and the operation efficiency is improved.
The utility model has the beneficial effects that:
1. the utility model provides an end effector of a bergamot pear picking robot and a picking method, wherein the method is novel, the device structure is small and compact, the reliability is high, compared with the traditional manual picking, on one hand, the manual operation is saved, the picking efficiency is improved, the picking cost is reduced, and on the other hand, unsafe factors of people in high-altitude picking are avoided.
The end effector takes the whole bergamot pear fruit as a picking object, does not need to calibrate and identify the position of the bergamot pear fruit stalk, reduces the complexity of the device, eliminates the image identification of the sensing mechanism on the fruit contour and the fruit stalk, and simultaneously avoids the time consumption of segmentation in the cutting step;
2. the end effector device has reasonable structural design, can complete envelope grabbing of fruits, can complete parallel grabbing of the fruits, has low requirements on picking positions of the effector, and reduces the time for adjusting the positions in the picking process;
3. the actuating mechanism adopts the modes of adsorption fixation and cambered surface cutter cutting, can shear the fruit stalks in all directions, effectively avoids the existence of fruit stalk shearing dead zones, and improves the shearing success rate;
4. four cambered surface cutters in the actuating mechanism can form a closed space with large tolerance, so that the positioning precision of the mechanical arm can be properly reduced, and the successful picking rate of bergamot pears can be improved;
5. the end effector has the advantages of simple and compact structure, low cost and low control difficulty, and has certain universality for picking round fruits and vegetables.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram of a fruit picking device for bergamot pears in the prior art;
FIG. 2 is a schematic view of an end effector of a spherical fruit picking robot according to the background art;
fig. 3 is a schematic structural diagram of an end effector of a gripping and cutting integrated spherical fruit and vegetable picking robot in the background art;
fig. 4 is a schematic overall structure of an end effector of a bergamot pear picking robot provided in embodiment 1 of the present utility model;
fig. 5 is a schematic diagram of the internal structure of an end effector of a bergamot pear picking robot according to embodiment 1 of the present utility model.
In the figure: 1-manipulator butt-joint trays;
2-a transmission mechanism; the motor comprises a motor A, a motor A shell, a motor flange, a speed reducer 24, a connecting shell 25, a ring 26-O, a motor B27, a motor B shell 28, a coupling 29, a screw 210, a nut 211, a connecting rod 212, a mounting bracket 213, a connecting screw 214 and a connecting block 215;
3-an actuator; 31-knife rest, 32-cambered surface cutters (32 a-cambered surface cutters a, 32 b-cambered surface cutters b, 32 c-cambered surface cutters c, 32 d-cambered surface cutters d), 33-rubber materials, 34-vacuum suction cups, 35-air vents, 36-connecting pipes and 37-mounting flanges;
4-a sensing mechanism; 41-magneto-electric encoder, 42-electromagnetic switch b, 43-magnet fast, 44-electromagnetic switch a, 45-force sensor, 46-vacuum pressure sensor, 47-photoelectric sensor, 48-distance sensor.
Detailed Description
For the purpose of making the objects, technical solutions and advantages of the present utility model more apparent, the technical solutions in the present utility model will be clearly and completely described below, and it is apparent that the described embodiments are some embodiments of the present utility model, but not all embodiments. All other embodiments, which can be made by those skilled in the art based on the embodiments of the utility model without making any inventive effort, are intended to be within the scope of the utility model.
The electromagnetic switch, as the name implies, is a switch controlled by an electromagnet, that is, a combination of the electromagnet and the switch. When the electromagnet coil is electrified, electromagnetic attraction force is generated, and when the movable iron core or the magnet is close to the movable iron core or the magnet, the contact is closed, so that a controlled circuit is connected.
Example 1
An end effector of a pear picking robot is composed of a manipulator butt joint disc 1, a transmission mechanism 2, an actuating mechanism 3 and a sensing mechanism.
The manipulator butt-joint disc 1 and the motor A shell 22 of the transmission mechanism 2 are fixedly connected through bolts.
In the transmission mechanism 2, a servo motor A21 is arranged in an inner cavity of a motor A shell 22, an O-shaped ring 26 is arranged on the end face of a motor shaft (namely, the O-shaped ring is arranged on the motor shaft), and a motor flange 23 is arranged on the end face of the servo motor A21 through screws; the servo motor A21 is connected with the speed reducer 24 through a signal wire, the speed reducer 24 is arranged in the connecting shell 25, and the connecting shell 25 is fixedly connected with the motor B shell 28 through a connecting plate 215 and a connecting screw 214; the servo motor B27 is arranged in the inner cavity of the motor B shell 28, and the screw rod 210 is connected with the servo motor B27 through the coupler 29; the four mounting holes of the nut 211 are respectively hinged with the small ends of four identical connecting rods 212, and the mounting bracket 213 is fixedly connected with the motor B shell 28 through a connecting plate 215 and a connecting screw 214. In the executing mechanism 3, four identical knife rests 31 are respectively connected to the large end of a connecting rod 212 in the transmission rotor 2 and the mounting hole of a mounting bracket 213 through movable hinges, four cambered surface cutters 32 (cambered surface cutters a32a, cambered surface cutters b32b, cambered surface cutters c32c and cambered surface cutters d32d in the four cambered surface cutters) are respectively connected with the four knife rests 31 to form a shearing unit, and a layer of rubber material 33 is adhered in the inner cavity of the cambered surface cutter 32; the vacuum chuck 34 is arranged at the head of the connecting pipe 36, and the middle part of the connecting pipe 36 is provided with a vent 35; the mounting flange 37 has one end connected to the connection tube 36 and the other end connected to the mounting bracket 213.
Two magneto-electric encoders 41 in the sensing mechanism 4 are respectively arranged on motor shafts of the servo motor A21 and the servo motor B27 and are used for measuring the magnetic pole position, the rotation angle and the rotation speed of the servo motor; the electromagnetic switch B24 and the electromagnetic switch a44 are respectively fixed on the inner cavity wall of the motor B shell 28 and the mounting bracket 213, the electromagnetic switch B42 is installed and fixed on the inner cavity wall of the motor B shell 28, the electromagnetic switch a44 is installed and fixed on the inner cavity wall of the mounting bracket 213, the magnet block 43 is installed on the nut 211, the electromagnetic switch B42, the electromagnetic switch a44 and the magnet block 43 are positioned on the same vertical axis, the electromagnetic switch is adopted to control the opening state of the knife rest by controlling the stopping of the motor, a force sensor 45 is adhered to one side, contacting fruits, of the inner cavity of the cambered surface cutter 32 (the cambered surface cutter a32a and the cambered surface cutter c32 c), and an infrared sensor 47 is adhered to one side, contacting fruits, of the inner cavity of the cambered surface cutter (the cambered surface cutter B32B and the cambered surface cutter d32 d); the vacuum pressure sensor 46 is mounted near (on the connecting pipe 36 connected with) the vacuum sucker 35 for monitoring the vacuum pressure value, and is used for monitoring the vacuum pressure value to ensure that the sucker continuously achieves safe suction; a distance sensor 48 for detecting the distance of the actuator with respect to the target fruit is mounted on the end surface of the mounting bracket 213.
A method of picking bergamot pears using a bergamot pear picking robot end effector, comprising:
step a, in the initial state, the vacuum chuck 46 in the end effector actuating mechanism 3 is not opened, the four tool holders are in a closed state, and the servo motor A21 and the servo motor B27 in the transmission mechanism are also in a static state;
and b, when the robot starts to work, a worker starts the picking robot, a CCD (charge coupled device) binocular camera on the robot is used for collecting image information of the bergamot pears, processing analysis is performed (the processing analysis and the CCD binocular camera are on the carrier robot, the processing analysis and the CCD binocular camera control the operation flow of the end effector on the robot), and the space position coordinates of the bergamot pears are obtained through graphic processing.
The mechanical arm is driven to drive the end effector to move towards the direction of the target pear, in the moving process, the servo motor B27 starts to work, the nut 211 in the screw-nut mechanism is in a retracted state, the nut 211 drives the four tool holders 31 to be in an open state through the connecting rod 212, when the magnet block 43 positioned on the nut is positioned under the electromagnetic switch B42 on the shell of the motor B, the corresponding electromagnetic switch is triggered, the servo motor B27 stops rotating, and the tool holders 31 are in a maximum open state;
step c, the sensing mechanism starts working, the distance sensor 48 detects the relative position of the actuator and the target bergamot pear in the moving process, and when the infrared sensor 47 detects that the target bergamot pear enters the shearing range of the end actuator, the sensing mechanism senses that the end actuator reaches the working position and controls the mechanical handle to stop moving.
After the movement is stopped, the vacuum sucker 34 in the actuating mechanism 3 starts to work, and the vacuum equipment is started to suck, so that negative air pressure is generated in the sucker, and the pear with picking is firmly adsorbed. Wherein, the vacuum pressure sensor 46 in the sensing mechanism 4 is connected with the vacuum chuck 35 close to the chuck end, the vacuum pressure sensor 46 monitors the vacuum pressure value in real time, and the vacuum chuck is ensured to continuously reach the safe suction force, so that the shearing operation can be started. The servo motor B27 rotates reversely, the screw nut performs return motion, and the nut 211 is in an overhanging state at the moment.
Step d, when the target fruit is smaller than the closed space formed by closing the cambered surface cutters 32, the nuts 211 drive the connecting rods 212 to move so that the four cutter holders are closed, the cambered surface cutters 32 are closed along with the cutter holders 31 so as to cut off the target bergamot fruit stalks, the shearing operation is completed, when the magnet blocks 43 arranged on the nuts 211 are positioned under the electromagnetic switches a44 arranged on the mounting brackets 213, the corresponding electromagnetic switches are triggered, when the nuts 211 in the transmission mechanism 2 are positioned at the overhanging limit position, the servo motor B27 stops rotating, the cutter holders 31 in the execution mechanism 3 are completely closed, and the four cambered surface cutters 32 are closed so as to form the closed space;
and e, when the target fruit is larger than a closed space formed by closing the cambered surface cutter 32, in order to avoid the damage to the fruit caused by overlarge force of the inner wall of the cambered surface cutter 32 to contact the fruit, the force sensor 45 on the inner wall of the cambered surface cutter 32 acquires the contact force of each inner wall, when the force sensor 45 on the contact surface reaches the set grabbing force, a signal is fed back to the servo motor B27, the servo motor B27 stops rotating, at the moment, the servo motor A21 starts operation, and the motor rotating shaft carries out reciprocating rotation through the transmission of the waveform speed reducer 24, and carries out reciprocating rotation with the screw nut transmission mechanism and the actuating mechanism 3, wherein the rotation degree is 45-180 degrees, and the rotating angle can be adjusted according to specific conditions.
In general, the cambered surface cutter 32 can perform secondary rotation cutting on the uncut bergamot pear stems, and when the bergamot pear stems cannot be cut by the cambered surface during rotation, picking operation can be performed by clamping and reciprocating torsion of the fruits through the knife rest 31, so that cutting quality is ensured, and picking efficiency is improved.
And f, after the executing mechanism of the end effector completes the sucking and shearing operation of the target terminal bud bergamot pear, the control system of the robot drives the mechanical arm to drive the end effector to reach the fruit collecting box, the servo motor B27 is reversed again, the four tool rests 31 are in an open state, and meanwhile, the vacuum chuck device is stably inflated into the vacuum chuck 35, so that the negative air pressure in the vacuum chuck 35 is changed into zero air pressure or slightly positive air pressure, the vacuum chuck 35 is separated from the sucking operation of the target bergamot pear, the bergamot pear is placed into the fruit collecting box, and the bergamot pear picking operation is completed.
The further technical scheme is that the above operation process is repeatedly executed, after the condition that the pears marked in the visual field range of the CCD camera are all picked is known, the mechanical arm drives the end effector to move to an initial reset state, the picking robot starts to collect information of the next pear picking operation area, and the whole picking process is executed until all pear picking operations are completed.
(1) According to the end effector of the bergamot pear picking robot, which is designed by the utility model, the shearing unit in the end effector is designed into a picking mode of omnibearing cutting by four cambered cutters, two modes of cutting fruit stalks are available for fruits with different sizes, when the fruits are smaller than a closed space formed by closing the cambered cutters, the cambered cutters are closed to cut off target bergamot pear fruit stalks, and when the target fruits are larger than the closed space formed by closing the cambered cutters, the cambered cutters can carry out secondary rotary cutting on the bergamot pear fruit stalks, so that the cutting quality is ensured, and the picking efficiency is improved;
(2) The grabbing unit in the actuating mechanism adopts the mode that vacuum chuck adsorbs fixedly, vacuum chuck adsorbs the fruit and can guarantee that fruit stalk is when shearing and the fixed of fruit after shearing, can not lead to the fact mechanical damage because of the rocking of fruit, the cambered surface cutter intracavity adopts one deck rubber material, avoided the rigid contact of paw to the fruit, reduce the extrusion to the fruit, in addition in order to avoid the too big damage fruit of the power of cambered surface cutter inner wall contact fruit, the force sensor implementation monitoring on the cambered surface cutter inner wall obtains the contact force of each inner wall, when the force sensor of contact surface reaches the grabbing force of settlement, the knife rest stops to be closed, realize the moderate grabbing of fruit and cut, the maximized avoid picking the process to lead to the fact mechanical damage to the fruit.
Finally, it should be noted that: the above embodiments are only for illustrating the technical solution of the present utility model, and are not limiting; although the utility model has been described in detail with reference to the foregoing embodiments, it will be understood by those of ordinary skill in the art that: the technical scheme described in the foregoing embodiments can be modified or some technical features thereof can be replaced by equivalents; such modifications and substitutions do not depart from the spirit and scope of the technical solutions of the embodiments of the present utility model.

Claims (3)

1. An end effector of a pear picking robot comprises a manipulator butt joint disc (1), a transmission mechanism (2) and an actuating mechanism (3), and is characterized in that,
one end of the manipulator butt-joint disc (1) is connected with a mechanical handle of the robot, and the other end of the manipulator butt-joint disc is fixedly connected with a motor A shell (22) in the transmission mechanism (2) into a whole through a bolt;
the tail end of a connecting rod (212) of the transmission mechanism (2) and the mounting bracket (213) are connected with a cutter rest (31) of the actuating mechanism (3) through a hinge, and a cambered surface cutter (32) for cutting fruit stalks is arranged on the cutter rest (31);
the vacuum chuck (34) in the actuating mechanism (3) is connected with the top end of the mounting bracket (213) of the transmission mechanism (2) through a mounting flange (37);
in the actuating mechanism (3), a knife rest (31) is connected to the large end of a connecting rod (212) in a transmission mechanism (2) and a mounting hole of a mounting bracket (213) through a movable hinge, a cambered surface cutter (32) is connected with the knife rest (31) to form a shearing unit, a layer of rubber material (33) is adhered to the inner cavity of the cambered surface cutter (32), a vacuum chuck (34) is mounted at the head of a connecting pipe (36), a vent (35) is formed in the middle of the connecting pipe (36), one end of the mounting bracket (213) is connected with the mounting bracket (213) of the transmission mechanism (2), and the other end of the mounting bracket is connected with the connecting pipe (36); the four knife rest (31) are connected to the large end of a connecting rod (212) of the transmission mechanism (2) and the mounting bracket (213) through a movable hinge, four cambered surface cutters (32) are arranged on the four knife rest (31), and the four knife rest (31) and the four cambered surface cutters (32) form a shearing unit;
when the target fruit is smaller than a closed space formed by closing the cambered surface cutters (32), the nuts (211) drive the connecting rods (212) to move so that the four cutter holders are closed, and the cambered surface cutters (32) are closed along with the cutter holders (31) to cut off the target bergamot pear peduncles, so that the shearing operation is completed; or when the target fruit is larger than the closed space formed by closing the cambered surface cutter (32), starting the servo motor A (21) to drive the screw rod (210) and the nut (211) of the transmission mechanism and the execution mechanism to twist reciprocally, so as to finish the separation of the target bergamot pear fruit stalks and the fruit branches;
in the transmission mechanism (2), a servo motor A (21) is arranged in an inner cavity of a motor A shell (22), an O-shaped ring (26) is arranged on an end face of a motor shaft, a motor flange (23) is arranged on the end face of the motor shaft of the servo motor A (21) through a screw, the servo motor A (21) is connected with a speed reducer (24) through a signal wire, the speed reducer (24) is arranged in a connecting shell (25), the connecting shell (25) is fixedly connected with a motor B shell (28) through a connecting plate (215) and a connecting screw (214), a servo motor B (27) is arranged in the inner cavity of the motor B shell (28), a screw rod (210) is connected with the servo motor B (27) through a coupler (29), a nut (211) is hinged with a connecting rod (212) through a mounting hole, and a mounting bracket (213) is fixedly connected with the motor B shell (28) through the connecting plate (215) and the connecting screw (214);
the nut (211) is provided with 4 mounting holes, and the 4 mounting holes are respectively hinged with the small ends of the corresponding 4 connecting rods (212);
the sensor also comprises a sensing mechanism (4), wherein two magnetoelectric encoders (41) are respectively arranged on motor shafts of the servo motor A (21) and the servo motor B (27) and used for measuring the magnetic pole position, the rotation angle and the rotation speed of the servo motor; the electromagnetic switch B (42) and the electromagnetic switch a (44) are respectively fixed on the inner walls of the motor B shell (28) and the mounting bracket (213), the magnet block (43) is mounted on the nut (211), the electromagnetic switch B (42), the electromagnetic switch a (44) and the magnet block (43) are positioned on the same straight line in the vertical direction, one side, which is contacted with fruits, of the inner cavities of the two cambered cutters (32) is stuck with the force sensor (45), one side, which is contacted with fruits, of the inner cavities of the other two cambered cutters (32) is stuck with the infrared sensor (47), the vacuum pressure sensor (46) is mounted at a position close to the vacuum sucker (34) for monitoring the vacuum pressure value, ensuring that the sucker continuously reaches the safe suction force, the end face of the mounting bracket (213) is provided with the distance sensor (48) for monitoring the distance between the executor and the target, and the force sensor (45), the vacuum pressure sensor (46) and the distance sensor (48) all transmit signals to a control system of the robot.
2. A method of picking bergamot pears using the bergamot pear picking robot end effector of claim 1, comprising:
step 1, checking the state of an end effector;
step 2, starting a robot to obtain a pear space coordinate position, and driving an end effector to move towards a target pear by a mechanical arm;
step 3, a distance sensor (48), an infrared sensor (47), a vacuum chuck (34) and a vacuum pressure sensor (46) in the sensing mechanism (4) are separated and cooperate, and a servo motor B (27) is reversed at the same time, so that the end effector is in a preparation state before shearing operation;
step 4, a servo motor B (27) drives a cambered surface cutter in the actuating mechanism (3) to be closed, so that cutting off of target bergamot fruit stalks is completed; or the cambered surface cutter (32) is closed, the servo motor A (21) is started to drive the screw rod (210) and the nut (211) of the transmission mechanism and the execution mechanism to reciprocate, and the cutting of the target bergamot fruit stems is completed;
step 5, the mechanical handle is retracted, an inner knife rest of the tail end execution is opened, a vacuum chuck (34) is inflated, and picked pear is placed in a collecting box;
step 6, repeating the steps until picking is finished;
the step 1 comprises the steps that the vacuum chuck is not opened, the tool rest (31) is closed, and the servo motor A (21) and the servo motor B (27) in the transmission mechanism (2) are in a static state;
in the step 4, after the servo motor A (21) starts operation, the motor rotating shaft drives the transmission mechanism screw rod (210) and the execution mechanism nut (211) to reciprocate through the transmission of the speed reducer (24), and the rotation angle degree is in the range of 45-180 degrees.
3. The method for picking pear by using the end effector of the pear picking robot according to claim 2, wherein the step 2 further includes that the servo motor B (27) drives the knife rest (31) to be in a maximum open state during the movement.
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