CN111043089B - Movable arm potential energy recycling and reusing system of mechanical hydraulic combined excavator - Google Patents

Movable arm potential energy recycling and reusing system of mechanical hydraulic combined excavator Download PDF

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Publication number
CN111043089B
CN111043089B CN201811183930.XA CN201811183930A CN111043089B CN 111043089 B CN111043089 B CN 111043089B CN 201811183930 A CN201811183930 A CN 201811183930A CN 111043089 B CN111043089 B CN 111043089B
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China
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movable arm
port
oil
reversing valve
valve
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CN111043089A (en
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孙金海
李建松
黎少辉
周波
张文婷
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Xuzhou College of Industrial Technology
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Xuzhou College of Industrial Technology
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F15FLUID-PRESSURE ACTUATORS; HYDRAULICS OR PNEUMATICS IN GENERAL
    • F15BSYSTEMS ACTING BY MEANS OF FLUIDS IN GENERAL; FLUID-PRESSURE ACTUATORS, e.g. SERVOMOTORS; DETAILS OF FLUID-PRESSURE SYSTEMS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F15B11/00Servomotor systems without provision for follow-up action; Circuits therefor
    • F15B11/08Servomotor systems without provision for follow-up action; Circuits therefor with only one servomotor
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F15FLUID-PRESSURE ACTUATORS; HYDRAULICS OR PNEUMATICS IN GENERAL
    • F15BSYSTEMS ACTING BY MEANS OF FLUIDS IN GENERAL; FLUID-PRESSURE ACTUATORS, e.g. SERVOMOTORS; DETAILS OF FLUID-PRESSURE SYSTEMS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F15B1/00Installations or systems with accumulators; Supply reservoir or sump assemblies
    • F15B1/02Installations or systems with accumulators
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F15FLUID-PRESSURE ACTUATORS; HYDRAULICS OR PNEUMATICS IN GENERAL
    • F15BSYSTEMS ACTING BY MEANS OF FLUIDS IN GENERAL; FLUID-PRESSURE ACTUATORS, e.g. SERVOMOTORS; DETAILS OF FLUID-PRESSURE SYSTEMS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F15B13/00Details of servomotor systems ; Valves for servomotor systems
    • F15B13/02Fluid distribution or supply devices characterised by their adaptation to the control of servomotors
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F15FLUID-PRESSURE ACTUATORS; HYDRAULICS OR PNEUMATICS IN GENERAL
    • F15BSYSTEMS ACTING BY MEANS OF FLUIDS IN GENERAL; FLUID-PRESSURE ACTUATORS, e.g. SERVOMOTORS; DETAILS OF FLUID-PRESSURE SYSTEMS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F15B13/00Details of servomotor systems ; Valves for servomotor systems
    • F15B13/02Fluid distribution or supply devices characterised by their adaptation to the control of servomotors
    • F15B13/027Check valves

Abstract

A movable arm potential energy recovery and reuse system of a mechanical hydraulic combined excavator is characterized in that one end of an arc-shaped rack is fixedly connected with the outer side of the lower part of a movable arm; one end of the transmission shaft is fixedly connected with the center of a pinion positioned at the upper part of the arc-shaped rack, and the other end of the transmission shaft is connected with the auxiliary hydraulic pump through a clutch and a transmission; the pinion is meshed with the arc-shaped rack; an oil outlet P of the auxiliary hydraulic pump is respectively connected with a port P of the second reversing valve, a port P of the first reversing valve and the energy accumulator through a third one-way valve; the port A of the first reversing valve is connected with the port P of the main reversing valve through a second one-way valve, the port P and the port T of the main reversing valve are respectively connected with an oil source and an oil tank through pipelines, and the first working oil port A and the second working oil port B of the main reversing valve are respectively connected with a rod cavity and a rodless cavity of the movable arm hydraulic cylinder through pipelines. The system can recover the gravitational potential energy of the movable arm, can recycle the recovered energy, can reduce the power requirement of the original system, and can improve the energy utilization efficiency of the system.

Description

Movable arm potential energy recycling and reusing system of mechanical hydraulic combined excavator
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of hydraulic transmission, and particularly relates to a potential energy recycling and reusing system for a movable arm of a mechanical hydraulic combined excavator.
Background
The hydraulic excavator is widely applied to various construction fields, has the defects of high oil consumption, low efficiency and the like, and is urgent in energy-saving research.
Fig. 1 is a schematic structural diagram of a boom system of a current general excavator. The end of the boom 100 is hinged to the turntable 200, the cylinder of the boom cylinder 300 is hinged to the turntable 200, and the piston rod end of the boom cylinder 300 is hinged to the middle of the boom 100. When the piston rod of the boom cylinder 300 performs a telescopic motion, the boom 100 is driven to perform a lifting and lowering operation. During the working process of the excavator, the movable arm frequently moves up and down, and a large amount of potential energy can be released during the descending process due to the fact that the working device and the load are large in mass. The vast majority of this energy is consumed at the main hydraulic valve orifice and converted to heat, which results in wasted energy and heating of the system, as well as reduced life of the hydraulic components. Therefore, the research on the potential energy recycling and reusing of the movable arm has important significance for prolonging the service life of equipment and improving the energy utilization rate.
Currently, research on recovery of potential energy of a boom of an excavator mainly focuses on both an electric type (electric energy storage) and a hydraulic type (hydraulic energy storage).
The electric power type mainly adopts a hydraulic motor and a generator as energy conversion elements, and a storage battery and a super capacitor as energy storage elements so as to realize energy conversion and recovery. When the system needs energy, the engine works in a motor mode, and drives the hydraulic pump/motor to work in a pump mode, so that hydraulic energy is output to the system. However, the time of the boom descending process is very short (3-6 s), and the energy value is large, so that the power is large. The prior art secondary battery is difficult to withstand such a large charge/discharge power. In addition, the deep charge-discharge life of the battery is short, about several thousand times. The super capacitor is very expensive and occupies a large space, so that the electric recycling is not practical.
The hydraulic energy recovery system takes an energy accumulator as an energy storage element. The basic working principle is that when the gravitational potential energy of the system is recovered, the gravitational potential energy is stored in the hydraulic accumulator in the form of high-pressure oil hydraulic pressure energy; when energy is needed in the system, the stored oil is released to enter the hydraulic system to work. The hydraulic recovery scheme utilizes the advantages of large power density of the energy accumulator, capability of absorbing pressure impact and the like, but the density of energy stored by the energy accumulator is low, if more energy needs to be stored, the energy accumulator with a larger volume is needed, and then the energy accumulator occupies a larger space, and the installation of the energy accumulator is also very inconvenient. In addition, the pressure of the accumulator can rise along with the increase of the stored oil, and the falling speed of the arm support is influenced.
To address the impact of accumulator pressure rise on the system, solutions have emerged that add hydraulic transformers as intermediate energy conversion elements. However, this will increase the manufacturing cost, and the efficiency of the hydraulic transformer is low, which will seriously affect the energy recovery efficiency of the system.
In both of the two modes, the gravitational potential energy in the boom lowering process is converted into pressure energy of oil by using the boom cylinder 100, and then the energy is recovered in different modes. Firstly, in the energy conversion process of the hydraulic cylinder, the friction between the piston and the cylinder barrel has certain energy loss. Second, the converted high-pressure oil also generates pressure loss and leakage loss during the flowing process. Thirdly, in the subsequent energy conversion step, the hydraulic motor (electric scheme) and the hydraulic transformer (hydraulic scheme) are inefficient. Both of these factors reduce the overall efficiency of the system.
Disclosure of Invention
Aiming at the problems in the prior art, the invention provides a movable arm potential energy recovery and recycling system of a mechanical hydraulic combined excavator, which can recover the gravitational potential energy of a movable arm, reduce the waste of energy, recycle the recovered energy when the system is needed to drive the lifting of the movable arm, reduce the power requirement of the original system and improve the utilization efficiency of the system energy.
In order to achieve the purpose, the invention provides a movable arm potential energy recycling and reusing system of a mechanical hydraulic combined excavator, which comprises a rotary table, a movable arm and a movable arm hydraulic cylinder, wherein the lower end and the middle part of the movable arm are respectively hinged with the rotary table and the end of a piston rod of the movable arm hydraulic cylinder, and the end of a cylinder barrel of the movable arm hydraulic cylinder is hinged on the rotary table;
the device also comprises an arc-shaped rack arranged at the upper part of the rotary table, a first support frame and a second support frame which are fixedly connected to the rotary table and a transmission shaft which is horizontally arranged;
the center of the arc-shaped rack is a hinged point of the movable arm and the rotary table, one end of the arc-shaped rack is fixedly connected with the outer side of the lower part of the movable arm, and the other end of the arc-shaped rack is not in contact with the upper surface of the rotary table when the movable arm reaches the highest state;
the transmission shaft is rotatably connected to the upper end of the first support frame, one end of the transmission shaft is fixedly connected with a pinion positioned on the upper part of the arc-shaped rack, the other end of the transmission shaft is connected with the input end of a speed changer fixedly arranged on the second support frame through a clutch, and the output end of the speed changer is connected with the auxiliary hydraulic pump; the pinion is meshed with the arc-shaped rack;
an oil suction port S of the auxiliary hydraulic pump is connected with an oil tank through a pipeline, an oil outlet P of the auxiliary hydraulic pump is respectively connected with a port P of the second reversing valve, a port P of the first reversing valve and an energy accumulator through a third one-way valve, and the energy accumulator is connected with a pressure sensor;
the port A of the second reversing valve is connected with the oil tank through a throttle valve; the port A of the first reversing valve is connected with the port P of the main reversing valve through a second one-way valve, the port P and the port T of the main reversing valve are respectively connected with an oil source and an oil tank through pipelines, a first one-way valve is arranged between the oil source and the port P of the main reversing valve, and a first working oil port A and a second working oil port B of the main reversing valve are respectively connected with a rod cavity and a rodless cavity of the movable arm hydraulic cylinder through pipelines.
According to the system, the arc-shaped rack is additionally arranged on the movable arm of the excavator, when the movable arm is lowered, the arc-shaped rack can drive the pinion to rotate, and then the transmission drives the auxiliary hydraulic pump to work, so that the potential energy of the movable arm is converted into the pressure energy of oil; meanwhile, an energy accumulator is arranged in the system, and oil discharged by the auxiliary hydraulic pump can be stored when the movable arm falls. When the movable arm is lifted, oil in the energy accumulator is released, and the oil and an oil source of the original system drive the movable arm to be lifted, so that the power requirement on the oil source of the original system is reduced, and the recycling of the recovered energy is realized.
Furthermore, in order to limit the highest working pressure of oil in the energy accumulator, an oil outlet of the third check valve is also connected with the oil tank through an overflow valve.
Further, in order to reduce the resistance in the transmission process, the transmission shaft is connected with the first support frame through a bearing.
The invention also provides a mechanical hydraulic combined type excavator movable arm potential energy recovery and reuse system, which comprises a rotary table, a movable arm and a movable arm hydraulic cylinder, wherein the lower end and the middle part of the movable arm are respectively hinged with the rotary table and the piston rod end of the movable arm hydraulic cylinder;
the device also comprises a first supporting frame and a second supporting frame which are fixed on the rotary table;
the rotary table is fixedly connected with a pair of connecting lug plates at positions corresponding to two sides of the lower end of the movable arm, the lower end of the movable arm is hinged to the pair of connecting lug plates through a pin shaft, the pin shaft is fixedly connected with the movable arm, and the pin shaft is rotatably connected with the pair of connecting lug plates;
an extension section at one end of the pin shaft rotatably penetrates through the upper end of the first support frame and then is connected with the input end of the speed changer through the clutch, the output end of the speed changer is connected with the auxiliary hydraulic pump, and the speed changer is fixedly arranged on the second support frame;
an oil suction port S of the auxiliary hydraulic pump is connected with an oil tank through a pipeline, an oil outlet P of the auxiliary hydraulic pump is respectively connected with a port P of the second reversing valve, a port P of the first reversing valve and an energy accumulator through a third one-way valve, and the energy accumulator is connected with a pressure sensor;
the port A of the second reversing valve is connected with the oil tank through a throttle valve; the port A of the first reversing valve is connected with the port P of the main reversing valve through a second one-way valve, the port P and the port T of the main reversing valve are respectively connected with an oil source and an oil tank through pipelines, a first one-way valve is arranged between the oil source and the port P of the main reversing valve, and a first working oil port A and a second working oil port B of the main reversing valve are respectively connected with a rod cavity and a rodless cavity of the movable arm hydraulic cylinder through pipelines.
The system enables the movable arm of the excavator to be fixedly connected with the pin shaft, when the movable arm is lowered, the rotation of the pin shaft drives the transmission to rotate, so that the auxiliary hydraulic pump is driven to work, and the potential energy of the movable arm is converted into the pressure energy of oil; meanwhile, an energy accumulator is arranged in the system, and oil discharged by the auxiliary hydraulic pump can be stored when the movable arm falls. When the movable arm is lifted, oil in the energy accumulator is released, and the oil and an oil source of the original system drive the movable arm to be lifted, so that the power requirement on the oil source of the original system is reduced, and the recycling of the recovered energy is realized.
Furthermore, in order to limit the highest working pressure of oil in the energy accumulator, an oil outlet of the third check valve is also connected with the oil tank through an overflow valve.
Furthermore, in order to reduce the resistance in the transmission process, the pin shaft is connected with the first support frame through a bearing.
Preferably, the pin shaft is connected with the movable arm through a key.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram of a prior art excavator;
FIG. 2 is a simplified schematic diagram of a prior art excavator boom hydraulic system;
FIG. 3 is a schematic structural diagram of one embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 4 is a schematic illustration of the transmission architecture of the present invention;
FIG. 5 is a hydraulic schematic relating to the present invention;
FIG. 6 is a schematic view of an exemplary prior art boom and turret articulation configuration;
fig. 7 is a schematic structural view of another embodiment of the present invention.
In the figure: 1. the hydraulic control system comprises an oil source, 100, a movable arm, 101, an arc-shaped rack, 2, a first one-way valve, 200, a rotary table, 201, a pin shaft, 202, a key, 3, a main reversing valve, 300, a movable arm hydraulic cylinder, 400, a pinion, 401, a transmission shaft, 402, a first support frame, 403, a bearing, 5, an oil tank, 500, a clutch, 6, an accumulator, 600, a transmission, 601, a second support frame, 7, an auxiliary hydraulic pump, 8, a first reversing valve, 9, an overflow valve, 10, a second one-way valve, 11, a pressure sensor, 12, a second reversing valve, 13, a throttle valve, 14, a third one-way valve, 15 and a connecting lug plate.
Detailed Description
The present invention will be further explained below.
Fig. 1 is a schematic view illustrating an assembly structure of a boom 100, a turntable 200, and a boom cylinder 300 in a conventional excavator, in which an end portion of the boom 100 is hinged to the turntable 200, a cylinder tube of the boom cylinder 300 is hinged to the turntable 200, and a piston rod end of the boom cylinder 300 is hinged to a middle portion of the boom 100. When the piston rod of the boom cylinder 300 performs a telescopic motion, the boom 100 is driven to perform a lifting and lowering operation.
Fig. 2 is a simplified schematic diagram of a prior art excavator boom hydraulic system. 1 is an oil source and provides high-pressure oil for the system. The check valve 2 ensures that high-pressure oil provided by the oil source can only flow to the main reversing valve 3 in a one-way mode. The main directional control valve 3 shown in fig. 2 is a three-position four-way electromagnetic directional control valve, which may be a three-position four-way valve or a three-position six-way valve in a practical hydraulic system. The reversing mode of the main reversing valve 3 can be electrically controlled, and can also be hydraulically controlled. When the electromagnet Y1a of the main directional control valve 3 is energized, the main directional control valve 3 operates at the right position, the oil supplied from the oil source 1 enters the rodless chamber of the boom cylinder 300 through the port P to the port B of the main directional control valve 3, and the oil in the rod chamber flows back to the oil tank 5 through the port a to the port T of the main directional control valve 3. The piston rod of the boom cylinder 300 extends, corresponding to the boom raising operation in fig. 1. When the electromagnet Y1B of the directional valve 3 is energized, the main directional valve 3 works at the left position, the oil supplied by the oil source 1 enters the rod chamber of the boom cylinder 300 through the port P to the port a of the main directional valve 3, and the oil in the rodless chamber flows back to the oil tank 5 through the port B to the port T of the main directional valve 3. The piston rod of the boom cylinder 300 is retracted, corresponding to the boom falling operation in fig. 1. Since the piston rod of the boom cylinder 300 applies a load such as the boom 100 at this time, the rod chamber pressure of the boom cylinder 300 is small, and the pressure of the non-rod chamber thereof is large. When the oil flowing out of the rodless chamber passes through the valve port of the main directional control valve 3, these pressures are consumed at the valve port, and thus much heat is generated.
A potential energy recycling and reusing system for a movable arm of a mechanical hydraulic combined excavator comprises a rotary table 200, a movable arm 100 and a movable arm hydraulic cylinder 300, wherein the lower end and the middle part of the movable arm 100 are respectively hinged with the rotary table 200 and the piston rod end of the movable arm hydraulic cylinder 300, and the cylinder end of the movable arm hydraulic cylinder 300 is hinged on the rotary table 200;
the device also comprises an arc-shaped rack 101 arranged at the upper part of the rotary table 200, a first supporting frame 402 and a second supporting frame 601 which are fixedly connected to the rotary table 200, and a transmission shaft 401 which is horizontally arranged;
the center of the arc-shaped rack 101 is a hinge point between the movable arm 100 and the turntable 200, one end of the arc-shaped rack 101 is fixedly connected with the outer side of the lower part of the movable arm 100, and the other end of the arc-shaped rack 101 is not in contact with the upper surface of the turntable 200 when the movable arm 100 reaches the highest state; the longer the arc-shaped rack 101 is away from the hinge point of the boom 100 and the turn table 200, but it is advantageous to select a transmission with a smaller speed-increasing ratio.
The transmission shaft 401 is rotatably connected to the upper end of the first support frame 402, one end of the transmission shaft 401 is fixedly connected with the pinion 400 positioned at the upper part of the arc-shaped rack 101, the other end of the transmission shaft 401 is connected with the input end of the transmission 600 fixedly arranged on the second support frame 601 through the clutch 500, and the output end of the transmission 600 is connected with the auxiliary hydraulic pump 7; the pinion 400 is meshed with the arc-shaped rack 101; the purpose of the transmission 600 is to match the rotational speed between the pinion 400 and the auxiliary hydraulic pump 7. The clutch 500 is used for controlling the on-off of the power connection between the transmission shaft 401 and the transmission 600, and is closed when power is on and separated when power is off. To simplify the electronic control system, the clutch 500 may be replaced with an overrunning clutch or a one-way bearing, etc.
An oil suction port S of the auxiliary hydraulic pump 7 is connected with the oil tank 5 through a pipeline, an oil outlet P of the auxiliary hydraulic pump is respectively connected with a port P of the second reversing valve 12, a port P of the first reversing valve 8 and the energy accumulator 6 through a third one-way valve 14, and the energy accumulator 6 is connected with a pressure sensor 11;
the port A of the second reversing valve 12 is connected with the oil tank 5 through a throttle valve 13; the port A of the first reversing valve 8 is connected with the port P of the main reversing valve 3 through the second one-way valve 10, the port P and the port T of the main reversing valve 3 are respectively connected with the oil source 1 and the oil tank 5 through pipelines, the first one-way valve 2 is arranged between the oil source 1 and the port P of the main reversing valve 3, and the first working oil port A and the second working oil port B of the main reversing valve 3 are respectively connected with the rod cavity and the rodless cavity of the movable arm hydraulic cylinder 300 through pipelines. The oil source 1 can provide high-pressure oil for a system and has an overpressure protection function.
The main reversing valve 3 is a three-position four-way electromagnetic reversing valve. In a practical hydraulic system, the valve may be a three-position, four-way valve or a three-position, six-way valve. The reversing mode of the main reversing valve 3 can be electrically controlled, and can also be hydraulically controlled.
The oil outlet of the third one-way valve 14 is also connected with the oil tank 5 through an overflow valve 9.
The transmission shaft 401 is connected with the first support frame 402 through a bearing 403.
A potential energy recycling and reusing system for a movable arm of a mechanical hydraulic combined excavator comprises a rotary table 200, a movable arm 100 and a movable arm hydraulic cylinder 300, wherein the lower end and the middle part of the movable arm 100 are respectively hinged with the rotary table 200 and the piston rod end of the movable arm hydraulic cylinder 300, and the cylinder end of the movable arm hydraulic cylinder 300 is hinged on the rotary table 200;
the device also comprises a first supporting frame 402 and a second supporting frame 601 which are fixed on the rotary table 200;
the turntable 200 is fixedly connected with a pair of connecting lug plates 15 at positions corresponding to two sides of the lower end of the movable arm 100, the lower end of the movable arm 100 is hinged on the pair of connecting lug plates 15 through a pin 201, the pin 201 is fixedly connected with the movable arm 100, and the pin 201 is rotatably connected with the pair of connecting lug plates 15;
an extension section at one end of a pin shaft 201 can rotatably penetrate through the upper end of the first support frame 402 and then is connected with the input end of a speed changer 600 through a clutch 500, the output end of the speed changer 600 is connected with an auxiliary hydraulic pump 7, and the speed changer 600 is fixedly arranged on the second support frame 601; the transmission 600 is a speed-increasing transmission, which may be a transmission with an adjustable transmission ratio or a transmission with a fixed transmission ratio.
An oil suction port S of the auxiliary hydraulic pump 7 is connected with the oil tank 5 through a pipeline, an oil outlet P of the auxiliary hydraulic pump is respectively connected with a port P of the second reversing valve 12, a port P of the first reversing valve 8 and the energy accumulator 6 through a third one-way valve 14, and the energy accumulator 6 is connected with a pressure sensor 11 in order to measure the pressure of oil in the energy accumulator;
the first directional valve 8 is a two-position two-way electromagnetic directional valve. When the electromagnet Y2 is not electrified, the port P is cut off from the port A; when the electromagnet Y2 is electrified, the port P and the port A are conducted.
The port A of the second reversing valve 12 is connected with the oil tank 5 through a throttle valve 13; the port A of the first reversing valve 8 is connected with the port P of the main reversing valve 3 through the second one-way valve 10, the port P and the port T of the main reversing valve 3 are respectively connected with the oil source 1 and the oil tank 5 through pipelines, the first one-way valve 2 is arranged between the oil source 1 and the port P of the main reversing valve 3, and the first working oil port A and the second working oil port B of the main reversing valve 3 are respectively connected with the rod cavity and the rodless cavity of the movable arm hydraulic cylinder 300 through pipelines.
The second directional valve 12 is a two-position two-way electromagnetic directional valve. When the electromagnet Y3 is not electrified, the port P is cut off from the port A; when the electromagnet Y2 is electrified, the port P and the port A are conducted.
The oil outlet of the third one-way valve 14 is also connected with the oil tank 5 through an overflow valve 9.
The pin 201 is connected with the first support frame 402 through a bearing 403.
The pin 201 is connected with the movable arm 100 through a key 202.
The working principle is as follows:
the working principle of the present invention will be further explained with reference to fig. 3 to 5.
First, swing arm lifting process (under the condition of no energy storage in the energy accumulator)
In the case where there is no energy stored in the accumulator 6, for example, when the vehicle is started for the first time after a long-time shutdown, the working principle of boom raising at this time is consistent with that of boom raising in the prior art.
After an electric control system (not shown) receives a boom lifting instruction, an electromagnet Y1a of the main directional control valve 3 is electrified, the main directional control valve 3 works at the right position, oil provided by the oil source 1 enters a rodless cavity of the boom hydraulic cylinder 300 through a port P to a port B of the main directional control valve 3, and oil in a rod cavity of the rod cavity flows back to the oil tank 5 through a port A to a port T of the main directional control valve 3. The piston rod of the boom cylinder 300 is extended, corresponding to the boom raising operation in fig. 2.
The arc-shaped rack 101 is driven by the movable arm 100 to move, and further, the pinion 400 and the transmission shaft 401 are driven to rotate freely. At this time, the clutch 500 is not engaged, and the connection between the transmission shaft 401 and the transmission 600 is disconnected, so that the auxiliary hydraulic pump 7 does not affect the boom movement. The resistance to the movement of the arc-shaped rack 101, the pinion 400 and the transmission shaft 401 is small, and the resistance to the movement of the boom is negligible.
Because the third check valve 14 is connected in series between the auxiliary hydraulic pump 7 and the accumulator 6, even if there is high-pressure oil in the accumulator 6, the oil does not push the auxiliary hydraulic pump 7 to rotate reversely.
Due to the second check valve 10, no matter whether the first directional control valve 8 is powered or not, all the oil of the oil source 1 is supplied to the main directional control valve 3 and does not enter the accumulator 6.
Secondly, a movable arm lowering process (movable arm potential energy recovery):
after an electric control system (not shown) receives an instruction of lowering the movable arm, the electromagnet Y1b of the main reversing valve 3 is electrified, the main reversing valve 3 works in the left position, and the clutch 500 is electrified and closed. Referring to fig. 3 and 4, the arc-shaped rack 101 moves along with the boom 100, rotates the pinion 400, and drives the auxiliary hydraulic pump 7 to rotate through the transmission shaft 401, the clutch 500, and the transmission 600. Referring to fig. 5, the oil discharged from the auxiliary hydraulic pump 7 is stored in the accumulator 6 through the third check valve 14. Meanwhile, the piston rod of the boom hydraulic cylinder 300 retracts under the gravity of the boom, the oil in the rodless cavity flows back to the oil tank 5 from the port B to the port T of the main directional control valve 3, and the oil provided by the oil source 1 enters the rod cavity of the boom hydraulic cylinder 300 from the port P to the port A of the main directional control valve 3 through the first check valve 2. By properly controlling the displacement of the auxiliary hydraulic pump 7, the resistance of the pinion 400 to the arc-shaped rack 101 can be adjusted to bear most of the load of the boom, and the load borne by the boom cylinder 300 is reduced. Therefore, the pressure in the rodless chamber of the boom cylinder 300 is small, and the energy consumed at the valve port of the main directional control valve 3 is small.
Therefore, a significant portion of the boom gravitational potential energy is converted to pressure energy for storage in the accumulator 6. The valve port of the main directional control valve 3 consumes little energy.
Thirdly, a movable arm lifting process (energy storage and reutilization of an energy accumulator):
the condition of the oil stored in the accumulator 6 can be known by the pressure sensor 11.
If a certain amount of pressure oil is stored in the energy accumulator 6, when the movable arm is lifted, the second reversing valve 8 is powered by an electric control system (not shown), the oil of the energy accumulator 6 passes through the first reversing valve 8 and the second one-way valve 10, then is converged with the oil provided by the oil source 1, and enters a rodless cavity of the movable arm hydraulic cylinder 300 through a port P to a port B of the main reversing valve 3 together, so that the movable arm 100 is lifted. This reduces the power requirement of the boom raising action on the oil source 1, reducing the power of the oil source 1. This enables the stored energy to be reused.
Four, movable arm digging
When the bucket of the excavator drops to contact the ground or hard rock, the boom 100 cannot fall by its own weight, and the electric control system (not shown) disconnects the clutch 500 to stop recovering the boom potential energy.
It may also be necessary to actively dig downward with the boom 100, even when insufficient excavator force is encountered. In this case, the main directional control valve 3 electromagnet Y1a is energized, and operates in the right position, and the rod chamber of the boom cylinder 300 is filled with oil, but the retraction force (the maximum working pressure of the oil source multiplied by the area of the rod chamber) of the cylinder 300 is not sufficient to overcome the resistance of the load. At this time, the operator presses a function button on a control handle (not shown, connected to the electronic control system), and if the pressure of the oil in the accumulator 6 detected by the pressure sensor 11 is higher than the highest pressure of the system oil source 1, the electronic control system (not shown) energizes the first direction valve 8, so that the clutch 500 is engaged. The high-pressure oil in the accumulator 6 enters the rod cavity of the hydraulic cylinder 300 from the port P to the port A of the main reversing valve 3 through the first reversing valve 8, the second one-way valve 10 and the second reversing valve. Because the pressure of the oil in the accumulator 6 is high, the hydraulic cylinder 300 can drive the boom to generate a larger excavating force. This is the boost condition.
If the pressure of the oil in the accumulator 6, as detected by the pressure sensor 11, is lower than the maximum pressure of the system oil supply 1, the electronic control system (not shown) will not respond. Meanwhile, the information that the boosting excavation cannot be provided can be displayed on the display of the excavator.
After the excavator stops working, for example, after the operator goes to work, the second directional control valve 12 should be powered up by a related button (not shown). Oil in the energy accumulator 6 flows to the port A through the port P of the second reversing valve 12, and flows back to the oil tank 5 through the throttle valve 13, so that the energy accumulator 6 is unloaded. This avoids the risk of the accumulator 6 accidentally storing a large amount of pressure oil. The throttle valve 13 can prevent the phenomenon that the service life of the energy accumulator 6 is shortened and the liquid level of the oil in the oil tank 5 fluctuates too fast due to overlarge flow when the oil in the energy accumulator 6 is released.
Alternatively, the second directional valve 12 may use a function of communicating the normal position port P with the port a. When the power is supplied, the port P and the port A are closed, and the energy accumulator 6 is disconnected from the oil tank 5.
As a simplified configuration, the auxiliary hydraulic pump 7 may be a fixed displacement pump.
When using the variable displacement pump, attention must be paid to the fact that the displacement of the variable displacement pump cannot be too small, and damage or reduction of the service life caused by overhigh rotating speed is prevented.
Second embodiment:
fig. 6 shows a typical structure in which the excavator boom 100 is hinged to the turn table 200 in the related art. As shown in fig. 6, when the boom 100 rotates around the pin 201, the pin 201 does not rotate along with the boom 100.
As a second embodiment of the present patent, a key slot is formed at the hinge point of the boom 100, and a key slot is formed on the pin 201, so that the boom 100 and the pin 201 are connected by a key 202, see fig. 7. This eliminates the need for the arcuate rack 101 and pinion 400 of the first embodiment. This is advantageous for reducing the volume of the apparatus.
When the boom 100 rotates around the pin 201, the pin 201 rotates synchronously. At this time, the pin 201 replaces the transmission shaft 401 in fig. 4, and can output power to the outside. In fig. 7, the pin 201 drives the auxiliary hydraulic pump 7 to work through the clutch 500 and the transmission 600.
Fig. 7 shows the manner of the flat key connection. For the purpose of improving the performance, a spline or the like may be used.
The movable arm 100 and the pin 201 are integrated by welding, flange connection, and the like, which is also an alternative.
Further, the clutch 500 may be replaced with a one-way bearing. When the boom 100 is lifted, the transmission shaft 401 does not drive the auxiliary hydraulic pump 7 to operate through the transmission 600. When the boom 100 is lowered, the transmission shaft 401 is connected to the transmission 600 to drive the auxiliary hydraulic pump 7 to operate.

Claims (7)

1. A potential energy recycling and reusing system for a movable arm of a mechanical hydraulic combined excavator comprises a rotary table (200), the movable arm (100) and a movable arm hydraulic cylinder (300), wherein the lower end and the middle part of the movable arm (100) are respectively hinged with the rotary table (200) and the piston rod end of the movable arm hydraulic cylinder (300), and the cylinder barrel end of the movable arm hydraulic cylinder (300) is hinged on the rotary table (200);
the device is characterized by further comprising an arc-shaped rack (101) arranged at the upper part of the rotary table (200), a first support frame (402) and a second support frame (601) which are fixedly connected to the rotary table (200), and a transmission shaft (401) which is horizontally arranged;
the circle center of the arc-shaped rack (101) is a hinged point of the movable arm (100) and the rotary table (200), one end of the arc-shaped rack is fixedly connected with the outer side of the lower part of the movable arm (100), and the other end of the arc-shaped rack (101) is not in contact with the upper surface of the rotary table (200) when the movable arm (100) reaches the highest state;
the transmission shaft (401) is rotatably connected to the upper end of the first support frame (402), one end of the transmission shaft (401) is fixedly connected with a pinion (400) positioned at the upper part of the arc-shaped rack (101), the other end of the transmission shaft (401) is connected with the input end of a transmission (600) fixedly installed on the second support frame (601) through a clutch (500), and the output end of the transmission (600) is connected with an auxiliary hydraulic pump (7); the pinion (400) is meshed with the arc-shaped rack (101);
an oil suction port S of the auxiliary hydraulic pump (7) is connected with the oil tank (5) through a pipeline, an oil outlet P of the auxiliary hydraulic pump is respectively connected with a port P of the second reversing valve (12), a port P of the first reversing valve (8) and the energy accumulator (6) through a third one-way valve (14), and the energy accumulator (6) is connected with a pressure sensor (11);
the port A of the second reversing valve (12) is connected with the oil tank (5) through a throttle valve (13); an opening A of the first reversing valve (8) is connected with an opening P of the main reversing valve (3) through a second one-way valve (10), the opening P and an opening T of the main reversing valve (3) are respectively connected with the oil source (1) and the oil tank (5) through pipelines, a first one-way valve (2) is arranged between the oil source (1) and the opening P of the main reversing valve (3), and a first working oil port A and a second working oil port B of the main reversing valve (3) are respectively connected with a rod cavity and a rodless cavity of the movable arm hydraulic cylinder (300) through pipelines.
2. The system for recovering and recycling potential energy of the movable arm of the mechanical hydraulic compound excavator as claimed in claim 1, wherein an oil outlet of the third check valve (14) is further connected with an oil tank (5) through an overflow valve (9).
3. The system for recovering and recycling potential energy of a boom of a mechanical hydraulic compound excavator as claimed in claim 1 or 2, wherein the transmission shaft (401) is connected with the first support frame (402) through a bearing (403).
4. A potential energy recycling and reusing system for a movable arm of a mechanical hydraulic combined excavator comprises a rotary table (200), the movable arm (100) and a movable arm hydraulic cylinder (300), wherein the lower end and the middle part of the movable arm (100) are respectively hinged with the rotary table (200) and the piston rod end of the movable arm hydraulic cylinder (300), and the cylinder barrel end of the movable arm hydraulic cylinder (300) is hinged on the rotary table (200);
the device is characterized by further comprising a first supporting frame (402) and a second supporting frame (601) which are fixed on the rotary table (200);
the rotary table (200) is fixedly connected with a pair of connecting lug plates (15) at positions corresponding to two sides of the lower end of the movable arm (100), the lower end of the movable arm (100) is hinged to the pair of connecting lug plates (15) through a pin shaft (201), the pin shaft (201) is fixedly connected with the movable arm (100), and the pin shaft (201) is rotatably connected with the pair of connecting lug plates (15);
an extension section at one end of a pin shaft (201) rotatably penetrates through the upper end of a first support frame (402) and then is connected with the input end of a speed changer (600) through a clutch (500), the output end of the speed changer (600) is connected with an auxiliary hydraulic pump (7), and the speed changer (600) is fixedly installed on a second support frame (601);
an oil suction port S of the auxiliary hydraulic pump (7) is connected with the oil tank (5) through a pipeline, an oil outlet P of the auxiliary hydraulic pump is respectively connected with a port P of the second reversing valve (12), a port P of the first reversing valve (8) and the energy accumulator (6) through a third one-way valve (14), and the energy accumulator (6) is connected with a pressure sensor (11);
the port A of the second reversing valve (12) is connected with the oil tank (5) through a throttle valve (13); an opening A of the first reversing valve (8) is connected with an opening P of the main reversing valve (3) through a second one-way valve (10), the opening P and an opening T of the main reversing valve (3) are respectively connected with the oil source (1) and the oil tank (5) through pipelines, a first one-way valve (2) is arranged between the oil source (1) and the opening P of the main reversing valve (3), and a first working oil port A and a second working oil port B of the main reversing valve (3) are respectively connected with a rod cavity and a rodless cavity of the movable arm hydraulic cylinder (300) through pipelines.
5. The system for recovering and recycling potential energy of the movable arm of the mechanical hydraulic compound excavator as claimed in claim 4, wherein an oil outlet of the third check valve (14) is further connected with the oil tank (5) through an overflow valve (9).
6. The system for recovering and recycling potential energy of a boom of a mechanical hydraulic compound excavator as claimed in claim 4 or 5, wherein the pin (201) is connected with the first support frame (402) through a bearing (403).
7. The system for recovering and recycling potential energy of the movable arm of the mechanical hydraulic compound excavator as claimed in claim 6, wherein the pin shaft (201) is connected with the movable arm (100) through a key (202).
CN201811183930.XA 2018-10-11 2018-10-11 Movable arm potential energy recycling and reusing system of mechanical hydraulic combined excavator Active CN111043089B (en)

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