CN110924959B - Construction method of water-rich weak surrounding rock tunnel penetrating fault fracture zone - Google Patents

Construction method of water-rich weak surrounding rock tunnel penetrating fault fracture zone Download PDF

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Publication number
CN110924959B
CN110924959B CN201911258593.0A CN201911258593A CN110924959B CN 110924959 B CN110924959 B CN 110924959B CN 201911258593 A CN201911258593 A CN 201911258593A CN 110924959 B CN110924959 B CN 110924959B
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tunnel
hole
arch
excavation
grouting
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CN110924959A (en
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郭瑞
刘海松
王寅
李继光
惠树民
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Second Engineering Co Ltd of China Railway 20th Bureau Group Co Ltd
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Second Engineering Co Ltd of China Railway 20th Bureau Group Co Ltd
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D9/00Tunnels or galleries, with or without linings; Methods or apparatus for making thereof; Layout of tunnels or galleries
    • E21D9/04Driving tunnels or galleries through loose materials; Apparatus therefor not otherwise provided for
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D11/00Lining tunnels, galleries or other underground cavities, e.g. large underground chambers; Linings therefor; Making such linings in situ, e.g. by assembling
    • E21D11/04Lining with building materials
    • E21D11/10Lining with building materials with concrete cast in situ; Shuttering also lost shutterings, e.g. made of blocks, of metal plates or other equipment adapted therefor
    • E21D11/105Transport or application of concrete specially adapted for the lining of tunnels or galleries ; Backfilling the space between main building element and the surrounding rock, e.g. with concrete
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D11/00Lining tunnels, galleries or other underground cavities, e.g. large underground chambers; Linings therefor; Making such linings in situ, e.g. by assembling
    • E21D11/14Lining predominantly with metal
    • E21D11/18Arch members ; Network made of arch members ; Ring elements; Polygon elements; Polygon elements inside arches
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D11/00Lining tunnels, galleries or other underground cavities, e.g. large underground chambers; Linings therefor; Making such linings in situ, e.g. by assembling
    • E21D11/14Lining predominantly with metal
    • E21D11/28Longitudinal struts, i.e. longitudinal connections between adjoining arches
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D20/00Setting anchoring-bolts
    • E21D20/02Setting anchoring-bolts with provisions for grouting
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D21/00Anchoring-bolts for roof, floor in galleries or longwall working, or shaft-lining protection
    • E21D21/0026Anchoring-bolts for roof, floor in galleries or longwall working, or shaft-lining protection characterised by constructional features of the bolts
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D9/00Tunnels or galleries, with or without linings; Methods or apparatus for making thereof; Layout of tunnels or galleries
    • E21D9/14Layout of tunnels or galleries; Constructional features of tunnels or galleries, not otherwise provided for, e.g. portals, day-light attenuation at tunnel openings

Abstract

The invention discloses a construction method of a water-rich weak surrounding rock tunnel penetrating through a fault fracture zone, which is characterized in that a plurality of tunnel sections in a constructed tunnel are respectively constructed from back to front, and when any tunnel section is constructed, the construction method comprises the following steps: firstly, pipe shed advanced support; secondly, tunnel excavation and primary support: excavating and primary supporting of a hole body on the peripheral side of the upper part, excavating and primary supporting of a hole body in a reserved core soil area, excavating and primary supporting of a hole body excavated first and excavating and primary supporting of a hole body excavated later; and thirdly, secondary lining construction of the tunnel. The invention has reasonable design, simple and convenient construction and good use effect, adopts the self-drilling pipe shed to advance support the upper hole body before excavation and adopts a two-step method to excavate, thus effectively improving the construction efficiency; simultaneously, the whole reinforced structure of peripheral rock in hole and the tunnel primary support structure in the hole and tunnel secondary lining are connected and are formed the firm wholeness supporting system of structure, can effectively improve the tunnel structure steadiness, ensure later stage tunnel structure safety.

Description

Construction method of water-rich weak surrounding rock tunnel penetrating fault fracture zone
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of tunnel construction, and particularly relates to a construction method of a water-rich weak surrounding rock tunnel penetrating through a fault fracture zone.
Background
In recent years, in underground projects such as railway tunnels, highway tunnels, urban subways and the like which are being built and planned, soft rock tunnels (also called weak surrounding rock tunnels) account for a high proportion, the length and span of the tunnels are increasingly large, and a large number of tunnels are still in special geology, such as loess with a large pore structure, fully-weathered granite rich in water, fracture zones rich in water, debris flow strata, sandy gravel strata, loose accumulation bodies and the like. It is very difficult to construct large-section and large-span tunnels in the strata, and collapse phenomenon often occurs in the construction process. The fault fracture zone refers to a fracture zone which is formed by relatively moving two disks of a fault and mutually squeezing the two disks to fracture nearby rocks to form a fracture zone which is approximately parallel to a fault surface. The construction difficulty of the weak surrounding rock tunnel penetrating through the fault fracture zone is very high, particularly when the stratum is a water-rich stratum, the penetrated fault fracture zone is a water-rich fault zone, rock mass fracture provides more favorable conditions for occurrence and enrichment of underground water, and sudden surge phenomena such as tunnel debris flow, fragment flow and landslide are very easy to occur, so that extremely strong damage is brought to tunnel engineering, and the construction difficulty is very high. The debris flow is a sediment gravity flow with plastic rheological property and laminar flow state, and the support mechanism of the sediment is mainly determined by the plastic rheological property and is directly related to the yield strength of the sediment. Therefore, when the tunnel passes through the fault and is rich in underground water, most rock masses are clastic rocks, the stratum where the tunnel is located is a clastic flow stratum, and under the action of high water pressure, geological disasters such as water inrush (also called water inrush) and mud inrush (also called mud inrush) are extremely easy to burst on the tunnel face, so that the construction risk is high, the construction difficulty is high, and the construction progress is slow. The water inrush refers to a sudden and violent water inrush phenomenon in the tunnel, and the mud inrush refers to a sudden and violent mud inrush phenomenon in the tunnel.
In addition, when the water-rich weak surrounding rock tunnel crossing the fault fracture zone is excavated, a step method is adopted for excavation. The bench method is a construction method in which a section of the upper part of a tunnel (an upper bench) is excavated, a section of the lower part (a lower bench, also called an upper tunnel body of the tunnel) is excavated after the upper bench advances for a certain distance, and the upper bench and the lower bench move in parallel. When a step method is adopted to excavate a water-rich weak surrounding rock tunnel penetrating a stratum broken zone, due to the fact that the excavated section is divided into a plurality of blocks, the construction difficulty is large and the construction risk is high, particularly when the excavated section of the tunnel is large, the excavation difficulty is very large, large-area sinking of a vault is easily caused in the excavation process, and the method has the characteristics of being high in vault deformation rate after excavation, too large in sinking amount in a short time, side wall rib and arch frame distortion deformation invasion limit, tunnel collapse caused under serious conditions and the like.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to solve the technical problem that the defects in the prior art are overcome, and the invention provides the construction method of the water-rich weak surrounding rock tunnel penetrating through the fault fracture zone, which has the advantages of simple steps, reasonable design, simple and convenient construction and good use effect, wherein the upper tunnel body is supported in advance by adopting a self-drilling pipe shed before excavation and the two-step method is adopted for excavation, so that the tunnel construction efficiency can be effectively improved; the anchoring systems arranged on the left side and the right side of the lower portion of the upper tunnel body in the excavation process can reinforce surrounding rocks below a pipe shed supporting area, the self-drilling pipe shed and the anchoring systems are combined to form a tunnel peripheral rock integral reinforcing structure for integrally reinforcing the surrounding rocks outside the tunnel, and stability of the tunnel structure is guaranteed; and, the full section bearing structure fastening connection as an organic whole in anchor system and the tunnel primary supporting structure, with the peripheral rock overall reinforcement structure of hole and the tunnel primary supporting structure in the hole and the tunnel secondary lining be connected the firm wholeness supporting system of formation structure, can effectively improve the structure steadiness in rich water weak surrounding rock tunnel, ensure later stage tunnel structure safety.
In order to solve the technical problems, the invention adopts the technical scheme that: water-rich soft material crossing fault fracture zoneThe weak surrounding rock tunnel construction method is characterized by comprising the following steps: the tunnel supporting structure of the constructed tunnel comprises a tunnel forepoling structure for forepoling the constructed tunnel, a tunnel primary supporting structure for preliminary supporting the constructed tunnel and a tunnel secondary lining arranged on the inner side of the tunnel primary supporting structure, wherein the tunnel primary supporting structure and the tunnel secondary lining are full-section supporting structures for full-section supporting the tunnel hole of the constructed tunnel, and the tunnel secondary lining is a reinforced concrete lining; the cross-sectional area of the tunnel hole is more than 100m2The tunnel hole is divided into an upper hole body and a lower hole body which is positioned right below the upper hole body; the excavation height of the tunnel hole is more than 10m, the excavation height of the upper hole body is 6.5 m-8 m, and the excavation height of the lower hole body is 3.5 m-4.5 m; the upper hole body is divided into a reserved core soil area hole body and an upper peripheral side hole body positioned outside the reserved core soil area hole body, the lower hole body is divided into a left lower hole body and a right lower hole body, one lower hole body in the lower hole bodies is a first-excavated hole body, and the other lower hole body is a second-excavated hole body; the surrounding rock level of the tunnel hole is V level;
the constructed tunnel is divided into a plurality of tunnel sections from back to front along the longitudinal extension direction of the tunnel, and the length of each tunnel section is 28-34 m;
the tunnel advance support structure comprises a plurality of advance pipe shed support structures for performing advance support on the upper tunnel body from back to front along the longitudinal extension direction of the tunnel, the number of the advance pipe shed support structures is the same as the number of tunnel sections included in the constructed tunnel, each advance pipe shed support structure is positioned on the outer side of one tunnel section, and each tunnel section is subjected to advance support through one advance pipe shed support structure;
the length of each advance pipe shed supporting structure along the longitudinal extension direction of the tunnel is l, wherein l is b + c; b is the length of the tunnel section supported by the advanced pipe shed supporting structure, and the value range of b is 28-34 m; c is the supporting length of the front section of the pipe shed of the advance pipe shed supporting structure,theta is an internal friction angle of a surrounding rock mass of a tunnel section supported by the advanced pipe shed supporting structure, and h is the excavation height of an upper tunnel body;
each advance pipe shed supporting structure is a self-drilling pipe shed and comprises a plurality of pipe shed pipes which are drilled into a rock layer in front of the tunnel section face of a supported tunnel from back to front, the plurality of pipe shed pipes are distributed along the excavation contour line of the upper hole body from left to right, and the camber angle of each pipe shed pipe is 3 degrees; a plurality of pipe shed pipes in each advanced pipe shed supporting structure are uniformly distributed, the circumferential distance between the rear ends of two adjacent pipe shed pipes is 400-800 mm, the outer diameter of each pipe shed pipe is phi 70-80 mm, and the wall thickness of each pipe shed pipe is 13-18 mm;
each pipe shed pipe is a self-drilling pipe shed pipe, the self-drilling pipe shed pipe comprises a straight pipe body and a drill bit arranged at the front end of the straight pipe body, a plurality of grouting holes are formed in the drill bit in the circumferential direction, the straight pipe body is formed by assembling a plurality of pipe sections which are arranged on the same straight line from front to back, and each pipe section is a threaded steel pipe with external threads arranged on the outer wall from front to back; the cross section structures and the sizes of the pipe sections are the same, and two adjacent pipe sections are fastened and connected through a threaded connecting sleeve;
the tunnel primary supporting structure comprises a full-section supporting structure for performing full-section supporting on the tunnel, and an anchoring system is arranged on the outer side of the full-section supporting structure; the full-section supporting structure and the anchoring system are arranged along the longitudinal extension direction of the tunnel;
the full-section supporting structure comprises a plurality of profile steel arch frames for performing full-section supporting on the constructed tunnel and a plurality of arch frame connecting structures which are arranged from back to front along the longitudinal extension direction of the tunnel, the profile steel arch frames are identical in structure and are arranged from back to front along the longitudinal extension direction of the tunnel, the profile steel arch frames are uniformly arranged, and each profile steel arch frame is positioned on one tunnel cross section of the constructed tunnel;
the shape of each steel arch is the same as the shape of the cross section of the tunnel; each section steel arch comprises an arch wall steel arch for supporting an arch wall of the tunnel cave, a vertical temporary support column positioned in a hole body on the upper peripheral side and a tunnel inverted arch support arranged at the bottom of the inner side of the tunnel cave, the tunnel inverted arch support is positioned right below the arch wall steel arch and positioned on the same tunnel cross section, the left end of the tunnel inverted arch support is fixedly connected with the bottom of the left side of the arch wall steel arch, the right end of the tunnel inverted arch support is fixedly connected with the bottom of the right side of the arch wall steel arch, and the tunnel inverted arch support and the arch wall steel arch form a closed full-section support; the arch wall steel arch comprises an upper steel arch positioned in an upper peripheral side hole body and two side supports symmetrically distributed below the bottoms of the left side and the right side of the upper steel arch, and the two side supports are positioned in a lower hole body; the vertical temporary support column is supported right below the middle part of the upper steel arch frame, the top of the vertical temporary support column is fixedly connected with the middle part of the upper steel arch frame, a horizontal connecting plate used for connecting the vertical temporary support column is arranged on the bottom surface of the middle part of the upper steel arch frame, and the bottom of the vertical temporary support column is supported at the bottom of the inner side of the upper circumferential side hole body; the upper steel arch, the side support, the tunnel inverted arch support and the vertical temporary support column in each section steel arch are all positioned on the same tunnel cross section;
the structures of the arch frame connecting structures are the same, and the front and rear two adjacent steel arch frames are fastened and connected through one arch frame connecting structure; each arch frame connecting structure comprises a plurality of longitudinal connecting pieces connected between two front and rear adjacent arch wall steel arch frames, and the plurality of longitudinal connecting pieces are distributed on the same tunnel section along the arch wall excavation contour line of the constructed tunnel; each longitudinal connecting piece is a section steel which is horizontally arranged, and each longitudinal connecting piece is arranged along the longitudinal extension direction of the tunnel; longitudinal connecting pieces in two adjacent arch frame connecting structures are arranged in a staggered mode;
the anchoring system comprises a plurality of anchoring structures which are arranged from back to front along the longitudinal extension direction of the tunnel, one anchoring structure is arranged outside each upper steel arch, and the upper steel arch and the anchoring structure arranged outside each upper steel arch are arranged on the cross section of the same tunnel; each anchoring structure is uniformly distributed on the outer side of one upper steel arch, each anchoring structure comprises two anchoring groups which are symmetrically distributed on the left and right sides, and the two anchoring groups are respectively distributed on the left and right sides of the lower part of one upper steel arch; each anchoring group comprises a lower foot-locking anchor pipe and a plurality of upper foot-locking anchor rods arranged from top to bottom, the plurality of upper foot-locking anchor rods are positioned right above the lower foot-locking anchor pipe and are uniformly distributed on the same vertical surface, the upper foot-locking anchor rods and the lower foot-locking anchor pipes enter the rock stratum on the outer side of the tunnel hole from inside to outside and are gradually inclined downwards from inside to outside; the plurality of upper foot locking anchor rods are arranged in parallel, the included angle between each upper foot locking anchor rod and the horizontal plane is A1, and the value range of A1 is 25-35 degrees; the included angle between the lower lock pin anchor pipe and the horizontal plane is A2, and the value range of A2 is 38-45 degrees; the lower lock leg anchor pipe is a hollow self-advancing anchor rod and a grouting anchor rod, and the length of the lower lock leg anchor pipe is not less than 4 m; the upper locking pin anchor rod is a hollow grouting anchor rod, the lengths of the plurality of upper locking pin anchor rods are the same, and the lengths of the plurality of upper locking pin anchor rods are not less than 3 m; the inner ends of the upper foot-locking anchor rod and the lower foot-locking anchor pipe are fixed on the upper steel arch centering on the inner side of the upper foot-locking anchor rod and the lower foot-locking anchor pipe;
when the constructed tunnel is constructed, respectively constructing a plurality of tunnel sections in the constructed tunnel from back to front along the longitudinal extension direction of the tunnel, wherein the construction methods of the plurality of tunnel sections are the same; when constructing any one of the tunnel sections in the constructed tunnel, the method comprises the following steps:
step one, pipe shed advance support: constructing the advanced pipe shed supporting structure of the currently constructed tunnel section;
step two, tunnel excavation and primary support: excavating the currently constructed tunnel segment from back to front along the longitudinal extension direction of the tunnel, synchronously carrying out primary support on the tunnel hole formed by excavation in the excavation process, and obtaining a primary support structure of the tunnel formed by construction;
when tunnel excavation and preliminary bracing are carried out to the tunnel segment of being under construction at present, the process is as follows:
step A1, excavating the upper peripheral side cavity and performing primary support: excavating the upper peripheral side cavity of the currently constructed tunnel section from back to front along the longitudinal extension direction of the tunnel;
in the excavation process of the upper peripheral side hole body, performing primary support on the excavated and formed upper peripheral side hole body from back to front;
when the upper peripheral side hole body is initially supported, an upper steel arch is installed in the upper peripheral side hole body formed by excavation from back to front, one vertical temporary support column is installed under the middle of each upper steel arch, the bottom of each vertical temporary support column is supported at the inner bottom of the upper peripheral side hole body, and the upper steel arch installed in each upper steel arch is fixedly connected with one upper steel arch positioned on the rear side of the upper steel arch through a plurality of longitudinal connecting pieces; meanwhile, respectively constructing one anchoring group on the left side and the right side of the lower part of each installed upper steel arch from back to front;
in the step, the excavation surface of the upper peripheral side hole body is a vertical surface;
step A2, excavation and primary support of the reserved core soil area hole body: in the step A1, in the process of excavating the hole body on the peripheral side of the upper part, excavating the hole body of the reserved core soil area of the currently constructed tunnel segment from back to front along the longitudinal extension direction of the tunnel to obtain an upper hole body formed by excavation;
in the excavation process of the hole body of the reserved core soil area, the vertical temporary support columns which are in a suspended state after the excavation of the hole body of the reserved core soil area is completed are dismantled from back to front;
in the step, the excavation surface of the reserved core soil area hole body is positioned behind the excavation surface of the hole body on the peripheral side of the upper part, and the excavation surface of the reserved core soil area hole body is an inclined surface which is gradually inclined downwards from front to back;
step A3, firstly, excavating a tunnel body and performing primary support: in the step A2, in the process of excavating the hole body of the reserved core soil area, excavating the firstly-excavated hole body of the currently constructed tunnel segment from back to front along the longitudinal extension direction of the tunnel;
during the excavation process of the firstly excavated tunnel body, carrying out primary support on the firstly excavated tunnel body from back to front; when the pre-excavated hole body is initially supported, side supports are installed in the pre-excavated hole body formed by excavation from back to front, and each installed side support is fixedly connected with one side support located right behind the side support through a plurality of longitudinal connecting pieces;
in the step, the excavation surface of the hole body to be excavated firstly is positioned behind the excavation surface of the hole body of the reserved core soil area, and the excavation surface of the hole body to be excavated firstly is a vertical surface;
step A4, post-excavation hole excavation and primary support: in the step A3, in the process of excavating the firstly-excavated hole body, excavating the later-excavated hole body of the currently constructed tunnel segment from back to front along the longitudinal extension direction of the tunnel to obtain an excavated lower hole body;
in the process of excavating the rear excavation hole body, performing primary support on the lower hole body formed by excavation from back to front; when the lower hole body is initially supported, side supports are installed in the rear excavated hole body formed by excavation from back to front, and each installed side support is fixedly connected with one side support located right behind the side support through a plurality of longitudinal connecting pieces; meanwhile, a tunnel inverted arch support is arranged at the bottom of the lower hole body formed by excavation from back to front, and the arranged tunnel inverted arch support is fixedly connected with side supports arranged at the left side and the right side of the lower hole body into a whole;
in the step, the excavation surface of the post-excavation hole body is positioned behind the excavation surface of the pre-excavation hole body, and the excavation surface of the post-excavation hole body is an inclined surface which is gradually inclined downwards from front to back;
step three, tunnel secondary lining construction: and in the process of tunnel excavation and primary support in the second step, constructing the secondary tunnel lining of the currently constructed tunnel section from back to front along the longitudinal extension direction of the tunnel, and enabling the secondary tunnel lining to be positioned on the inner side of the constructed primary tunnel support structure.
The construction method of the water-rich weak surrounding rock tunnel penetrating through the fault fracture zone is characterized by comprising the following steps: the post-excavation hole body and the pre-excavation hole body are symmetrically arranged; the included angle between the excavation surface of the rear excavation hole body and the horizontal plane is 50-75 degrees, and the included angle between the excavation surface of the reserved core soil area hole body and the horizontal plane is 50-75 degrees.
The construction method of the water-rich weak surrounding rock tunnel penetrating through the fault fracture zone is characterized by comprising the following steps: a waterproof layer is arranged on the inner wall of the tunnel primary supporting structure, and the tunnel secondary lining is positioned on the inner side of the waterproof layer;
before the secondary lining construction of the tunnel in the third step, firstly, constructing a waterproof layer on the inner side of the constructed and molded primary tunnel supporting structure from back to front along the longitudinal extension direction of the tunnel;
and in the construction process of the waterproof layer from back to front, constructing the secondary lining of the tunnel from back to front along the longitudinal extension direction of the tunnel.
The construction method of the water-rich weak surrounding rock tunnel penetrating through the fault fracture zone is characterized by comprising the following steps: the area of the advanced pipe shed supporting structure arranged on the outer side of each tunnel section is an advanced supporting area, and the advanced supporting area is located above the anchoring system.
The construction method of the water-rich weak surrounding rock tunnel penetrating through the fault fracture zone is characterized by comprising the following steps: a reserved deformable cavity is reserved between the waterproof layer and the tunnel secondary lining, the cross section of the reserved deformable cavity is arched, and the thickness of the arch part of the reserved deformable cavity is 13-17 mm.
The construction method of the water-rich weak surrounding rock tunnel penetrating through the fault fracture zone is characterized by comprising the following steps: when the advanced pipe shed supporting structure of the currently constructed tunnel section is constructed in the first step, a plurality of pipe shed pipes in the advanced pipe shed supporting structure are constructed respectively, and the pipe shed pipes are constructed symmetrically from the vault to the left side and the right side;
the construction methods of a plurality of pipe shed pipes in the advanced pipe shed supporting structure are the same; when any one of the pipe shed pipes is constructed, drilling construction is carried out on the pipe shed pipe by using a drilling machine, and grouting equipment is adopted in the drilling process and grouting is synchronously carried out through the pipe shed pipe;
after all the pipe shed pipes in the advanced pipe shed supporting structure are constructed, performing secondary grouting on the pipe shed pipes by using grouting equipment, and after all the pipe shed pipes are subjected to secondary grouting, completing the construction process of the advanced pipe shed supporting structure;
when grouting is synchronously performed through the pipe shed pipe and secondary grouting is performed through the pipe shed pipe in the drilling process, the grouting liquid is cement paste.
The construction method of the water-rich weak surrounding rock tunnel penetrating through the fault fracture zone is characterized by comprising the following steps: the distance between two front and back adjacent profile steel arches is L, wherein the value range of L is 0.6 m-1.2 m;
the horizontal distance between the top of the excavation surface of the reserved core soil area hole body and the excavation surface of the upper peripheral side hole body in the step A2 is 2L-4L, the excavation surface of the firstly-excavated hole body and the bottom of the excavation surface of the reserved core soil area hole body in the step A3 are located on the same vertical plane, and the horizontal distance between the top of the excavation surface of the secondly-excavated hole body and the excavation surface of the firstly-excavated hole body in the step A4 is 2L-4L.
The construction method of the water-rich weak surrounding rock tunnel penetrating through the fault fracture zone is characterized by comprising the following steps: the tunnel primary support structure further comprises an arch wall primary support structure for primary support of an arch wall of the tunnel hole and an inverted arch primary support structure for primary support of the bottom of the tunnel hole, wherein the inverted arch primary support structure is positioned right below the arch wall primary support structure; the inverted arch primary support structure is an inverted arch concrete injection layer injected at the bottom of the tunnel hole, and the tunnel inverted arch support is fixed in the inverted arch concrete injection layer;
the arch wall primary supporting structure comprises an arch wall reinforcing mesh piece hung on the arch wall of the tunnel cave and an arch wall concrete spraying layer sprayed on the arch wall of the tunnel cave, the arch wall reinforcing mesh piece is fixed on the arch wall steel arch frame, and the arch wall reinforcing mesh piece, the arch wall steel arch frame and the horizontal connecting plate are all fixed in the arch wall concrete spraying layer; the arch wall concrete spraying layer is connected with the inverted arch concrete spraying layer below the arch wall concrete spraying layer into a whole;
the arch wall primary supporting structure further comprises a plurality of anchor rod groups which are arranged from back to front along the longitudinal extension direction of the tunnel, each anchor rod group is arranged on the outer side of one steel arch, and each anchor rod group and the steel arch positioned on the inner side of the anchor rod group are arranged on the cross section of the same tunnel; each anchor rod group comprises a plurality of grouting anchor rods for supporting the arch wall of the tunnel, and the plurality of grouting anchor rods are distributed along the excavation contour line of the arch wall of the tunnel; the grouting anchor rods of the front and rear adjacent anchor rod groups are arranged in a staggered manner; each grouting anchor rod enters the stratum outside the tunnel from inside to outside, and the inner end of each grouting anchor rod is fixed on the profile steel arch frame located on the inner side of the grouting anchor rod.
The construction method of the water-rich weak surrounding rock tunnel penetrating through the fault fracture zone is characterized by comprising the following steps: in the second step, in the process of excavating the current constructed tunnel segment from back to front along the longitudinal extension direction of the tunnel, when water burst and/or mud burst appear on the tunnel face, the tunnel face is treated by adopting a tunnel face plugging and grouting reinforcement method, and the process is as follows;
step B1, sand bag plugging: plugging the part of the tunnel face where water and/or mud burst occurs by using a sand bag;
step B2, sealing the tunnel face: constructing a tunnel face plugging structure, and plugging a tunnel face through the tunnel face plugging structure;
the tunnel face plugging structure comprises a grout stopping wall for plugging the digging face of the upper tunnel body and a lower plugging layer for plugging the digging face of the lower tunnel body, wherein the lower plugging layer is positioned behind the digging face of the lower tunnel body, the lower plugging layer is an un-excavated rock stratum positioned below the grout stopping wall or a backfill layer formed by backfilling of slag stones generated in the process of digging a constructed tunnel, the upper surface of the lower plugging layer is a horizontal plane, and the upper surface of the lower plugging layer and the bottom surface of the upper tunnel body are horizontally arranged; the grout stopping wall is a concrete wall which is vertically arranged and the thickness of the grout stopping wall is 1.8-2.5 m, the shape of the cross section of the grout stopping wall is the same as that of the cross section of the upper hole body, the grout stopping wall is divided into an upper wall body and a lower wall body which is positioned right below the upper wall body, the middle height of the upper wall body is h1, and the value range of h1 is 4.5-5.5 m; an upper backfill layer is arranged on the rear side of the lower wall body, the upper backfill layer is formed by backfilling slag stones generated in the process of excavating the constructed tunnel, and the upper surface of the upper backfill layer is a horizontal plane; the lower plugging layer and the upper backfill layer form a lower plugging structure, the rear end face of the lower plugging structure is a surface to be plugged, and the surface to be plugged is an inclined plane which gradually inclines downwards from front to back; a rear plugging layer is arranged on the surface to be plugged, and the rear plugging layer is a concrete spraying layer formed by spraying a layer of concrete on the surface to be plugged; an upper plugging layer is horizontally arranged at the upper part of the upper backfill layer, the upper surface of the upper plugging layer is flush with the upper surface of the lower wall body, and the upper plugging layer is a concrete layer formed by a layer of concrete poured on the upper backfill layer; the rear part of the upper blocking layer is connected with the upper part of the rear blocking layer, and the upper part of the upper blocking layer and the upper part of the rear blocking layer form an external blocking layer for blocking the lower blocking structure;
step B3, advance draining: constructing an underground water drainage structure, and draining underground water in a rock stratum in front of a tunnel face through the underground water drainage structure;
the underground water drainage structure comprises a plurality of drainage pipes which discharge underground water in a rock layer in front of the tunnel face of the constructed tunnel from front to back, the rear ends of the drainage pipes extend out to the rear of the rear blocking layer, and the front ends of the drainage pipes extend into the rock layer in front of the lower blocking layer after passing through the lower blocking layer; drainage holes for mounting drainage pipes are formed in the rock stratum in front of the lower blocking layer, the rear blocking layer and the lower blocking layer;
step B4, reinforcement of hole circumference in advance: constructing a hole periphery advanced reinforcing structure, and reinforcing a rock stratum in front of a tunnel face through the hole periphery advanced reinforcing structure;
the hole periphery advance reinforcing structure is a curtain grouting reinforcing structure formed by reinforcing a rock stratum in front of a tunnel face of a constructed tunnel through four groups of grouting holes, each group of grouting holes comprises a plurality of curtain grouting holes, and each curtain grouting hole is a grouting hole drilled into the rock stratum from back to front through the upper wall body;
the four groups of grouting holes are respectively an A group of grouting holes, a B group of grouting holes, a C group of grouting holes and a D group of grouting holes, the front ends of all curtain grouting holes in the A group of grouting holes, the B group of grouting holes and the C group of grouting holes are uniformly distributed on the same tunnel cross section, the tunnel cross section where the front end of each curtain grouting hole in the A group of grouting holes, the B group of grouting holes and the C group of grouting holes is located is a grouting front cross section, the horizontal distance between the grouting front cross section and the rear end face of the grout stopping wall is K1, and the value range of K1 is 28-32 m;
forming an outer side grouting reinforcement structure after grouting of all curtain grouting holes in the group A of grouting holes on the front grouting section, forming an intermediate grouting reinforcement structure after grouting of all curtain grouting holes in the group B of grouting holes on the front grouting section, and forming an inner side grouting reinforcement structure after grouting of all curtain grouting holes in the group C of grouting holes on the front grouting section; the outer side grouting reinforcement structure and the inner side grouting reinforcement structure are both arch reinforcement structures for integrally reinforcing surrounding rocks around the constructed tunnel, the outer side grouting reinforcement structure and the middle grouting reinforcement structure are connected into a whole, and the cross section shapes of the outer side grouting reinforcement structure and the middle grouting reinforcement structure are the same as the cross section shape of an arch wall of the constructed tunnel; the outer side grouting reinforcement structure is positioned on the outer side of an arch wall excavation contour line of the constructed tunnel, the distance between the vault of the outer side grouting reinforcement structure and the vault of the constructed tunnel is K3, and the value range of K3 is 4.5-5.5 m; the inner side grouting reinforcement structure is a reinforcement structure for integrally reinforcing a rock stratum of the area where the upper hole body is located, and the inner side grouting reinforcement structure and the middle grouting reinforcement structure are connected into a whole;
the front ends of all curtain grouting holes in the D groups of grouting holes are uniformly distributed on the same tunnel cross section, the tunnel cross section where the front end of each curtain grouting hole in the D groups of grouting holes is located is a grouting middle section, the horizontal distance between the grouting middle section and the rear end face of the grout stopping wall is K2, and the value range of K2 is 16-18 m;
after grouting is completed in all curtain grouting holes in the D groups of grouting holes in the grouting middle section, a middle grouting reinforcement structure is formed, the middle grouting reinforcement structure is an arch reinforcement structure for integrally reinforcing surrounding rocks on the periphery of the constructed tunnel, and the cross section shape of the middle grouting reinforcement structure is the same as that of an arch wall of the constructed tunnel; the middle grouting reinforcement structure is located on the outer side of an arch wall excavation contour line of the constructed tunnel, and the distance between the vault of the middle grouting reinforcement structure and the vault of the constructed tunnel is K2.
The construction method of the water-rich weak surrounding rock tunnel penetrating through the fault fracture zone is characterized by comprising the following steps: when the hole periphery is reinforced in advance in the step B4, a left arch foot advanced pipe shed and a right arch foot advanced pipe shed supporting structure are adopted to reinforce the outer rock stratum of the arch foot of the upper hole body;
the two arch foot forepoling shed supporting structures are symmetrically arranged;
each arch foot advanced pipe shed supporting structure is a self-drilling pipe shed and comprises a plurality of arch foot pipe shed pipes which are drilled into a rock stratum in front of the grout stop wall from back to front, the plurality of arch foot pipe shed pipes are arranged from top to bottom along an arch foot excavation contour line of the upper hole body, and the camber angle of each arch foot pipe shed pipe is 3-5 degrees; a plurality of arch foot pipe shed pipes in each arch foot advance pipe shed supporting structure are uniformly distributed, the circumferential distance between the rear ends of two adjacent arch foot pipe shed pipes is 55 cm-65 cmmm, the outer diameter of each arch foot pipe shed pipe is phi 70 mm-80 mm, and the wall thickness of each arch foot pipe shed pipe is 13 mm-18 mm; the length of the arch foot pipe shed pipe along the longitudinal extension direction of the tunnel is 6 m-9 m.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the following advantages:
1. the method has the advantages of simple steps, reasonable design, simple and convenient construction and lower input construction cost.
2. The tunnel advance support structure is reasonable in design, simple and convenient to construct and high in construction efficiency, the length of each pipe shed advance support structure in the longitudinal extension direction of the tunnel is about 30m, the tunnel advance support construction progress of a fault fracture zone stratum can be effectively accelerated, the construction period is saved, and the construction cost is reduced.
3. The pipe shed advance support structure stably supports the upper hole body within 150 degrees, so that the stability of the tunnel structure can be effectively improved; the pipe shed advance support structure is a self-drilling pipe shed, disturbance to surrounding rocks on the peripheral side is small, the advance support effect is good, and in the construction of the stratum tunnel in the fault fracture zone, the pipe shed advance support has the function of reinforcing the surrounding rocks, so that rock pieces are prevented from falling off, and the stability and the construction safety of the tunnel are ensured; simultaneously, restriction country rock is further not hard up, prevents that the country rock excessively warp and the roof excessively sinks, for the later stage secondary construction of strutting creates the advantage, adopts from boring formula pipe shed carries out the advance reinforcement back to rich water weak country rock tunnel, has following advantage: firstly, the self-drilling pipe shed can effectively improve the rock mass property of surrounding rocks and reduce the plastic deformation and creep deformation of soft rocks; the self-advancing pipe shed is used as a long pipe shed integrating grouting, drilling and supporting, the surrounding rock in the plastic loosening ring in front of the tunnel face is effectively cemented by full grouting, the properties of the surrounding rock are changed, and the plastic deformation and creep deformation of the surrounding rock after tunnel excavation are reduced; secondly, the self-drilling pipe shed can effectively improve the property of the plastic loosening ring surrounding rock to form a common bearing system; because the self-advancing pipe shed performs synchronous grouting in the drilling process, the grouting coverage is better, the grout fully cements the pipe shed body and the loose surrounding rock, strengthens the surrounding rock strength of the whole plastic area, effectively improves the self-bearing capacity of the loose surrounding rock and realizes the control of deformation and settlement to a certain extent; and thirdly, the self-drilling pipe shed utilizes the characteristics of high rigidity and high strength of the shed frame system, the effective control of the surrounding rock pre-convergence deformation in front of the tunnel face is realized in the pre-supporting stage, the primary support, the effective cementation of the pipe shed body and the surrounding rock are realized through grouting, the integral shed frame system is formed, and the pre-convergence deformation of the surrounding rock in front of the tunnel face is further effectively controlled.
4. The shaped steel bow member that adopts structural design is reasonable, processing and prop up and establish portably and excellent in use effect, all be provided with a vertical temporary support post under the middle part of every pin arch wall steel bow member, stabilize the support to the tunnel vault before tunnel arch wall preliminary bracing structure construction is accomplished, effectively strengthen the support intensity and the effect of strutting of tunnel vault, tunnel vault takes place to warp before effectively preventing tunnel arch wall preliminary bracing structure construction from accomplishing, sink the scheduling problem, further ensure tunnel structure stability, especially to large cross section tunnel, the result of use is better.
5. The arch center connecting structure is reasonable in design, convenient to machine and connect and good in using effect, the front and rear two adjacent steel arch frames are connected by the aid of the plurality of sections, longitudinal connecting strength between the two adjacent steel arch frames can be effectively enhanced, the steel arch frames are connected to form a longitudinal supporting structure with a stable structure, axial external force of a tunnel can be effectively resisted, supporting strength of primary support of the tunnel can be effectively enhanced, the problems that the primary support of the tunnel deforms and topples over due to excessive longitudinal deformation are solved, and three-dimensional constraint capacity of the primary support of the constructed and formed tunnel is effectively enhanced. In addition, the longitudinal supporting structure formed by connecting the plurality of steel arches can bear the axial external force of the tunnel and the vibration caused by blasting at the initial erection stage, so that the strength of the whole longitudinal supporting structure is effectively improved.
6. The multiple steel arches are fixedly connected into a whole through the arch connecting structure, the arch wall steel arch of each steel arch comprises an upper steel arch positioned in the upper peripheral side tunnel body and two side supports symmetrically distributed below the bottoms of the left side and the right side of the upper steel arch, so that the primary support of the upper tunnel body is not influenced by the primary support construction in the lower tunnel body, the primary support process of the tunnel upper tunnel body is carried out before the lower tunnel body is excavated, the tunnel hole is not yet comprehensively excavated at the moment, the support stability of the primary support structure in the tunnel upper tunnel body is further ensured, the primary support process of the upper tunnel body is easier to carry out, the support is more powerful, and the tunnel construction safety is facilitated.
7. The adopted full-section supporting structure is reasonable in design, simple and convenient to construct and good in using effect, a plurality of sections of steel are adopted to connect two front and back adjacent steel arches, and meanwhile, a vertical temporary supporting column is arranged below the top of each steel arch, so that the serious potential safety quality hazards that primary support cracking sinks and invades secondary lining clearance, steel frame distortion deformation, sprayed concrete dropping blocks and the like caused by surrounding rock loose accumulation pressure in a fault broken zone can be effectively avoided, and the construction safety is guaranteed.
8. The adopted anchoring system has reasonable structural design, simple and convenient construction and good use effect, the two anchoring groups are respectively arranged at the left side and the right side of the lower part of the upper steel arch frame, and after the excavation of the upper peripheral side hole body is finished, the two anchoring groups can be respectively constructed, so that the peripheral rock at the peripheral side of the tunnel can be timely and quickly grouted and reinforced, the deformation of the tunnel can be limited at the highest speed, and the structural stability of the tunnel can be further ensured; in addition, the two anchoring groups can directly and quickly reinforce the surrounding rocks on the side of the maximum excavation position of the tunnel from top to bottom, so that the overall stability of the tunnel can be effectively ensured; in addition, after the surrounding rocks at the maximum excavation position of the tunnel are effectively reinforced from top to bottom, the lower hole body does not need to be provided with the locking anchor rods, the primary support progress of the lower hole body can be effectively accelerated, the construction period is saved, and therefore the primary support of the tunnel hole can be timely and quickly sealed, the stability and integrity of the primary support structure for construction and forming can be further ensured, and the stability of the tunnel structure is further ensured.
9. The adopted tunnel supporting structure has good use effect and high practical value, the upper tunnel body of the water-rich weak surrounding rock tunnel is subjected to advanced support by adopting the self-drilling type pipe shed before excavation, the surrounding rock below the supporting area of the pipe shed can be reinforced by the anchoring systems arranged on the left side and the right side of the lower part of the upper tunnel body, and the self-drilling type pipe shed and the anchoring systems are combined to form the whole reinforcing structure of the surrounding rock outside the tunnel, so that the stability of the tunnel structure is ensured; and, the full section bearing structure fastening connection as an organic whole in anchor system and the tunnel primary supporting structure, with the peripheral rock overall reinforcement structure of hole and the tunnel primary supporting structure in the hole and the tunnel secondary lining be connected the firm wholeness supporting system of formation structure, can effectively improve the structure steadiness in rich water weak surrounding rock tunnel, ensure later stage tunnel structure safety.
Meanwhile, a full-section supporting structure formed by connecting a plurality of steel arches through an arch connecting structure consisting of a plurality of sections is adopted in the tunnel primary supporting structure to stably support the tunnel, so that the axial external force of the tunnel can be effectively resisted, the supporting strength of the primary support of the tunnel can be effectively enhanced, the problems of deformation, toppling and the like of the tunnel primary supporting structure due to excessive longitudinal deformation are prevented, and the three-dimensional constraint capacity of the constructed and formed tunnel primary supporting structure is effectively enhanced; moreover, a vertical temporary support column is arranged below the top of each steel arch frame, so that the stability of the vault can be effectively ensured, and the vault can be effectively limited from sinking; meanwhile, the anchoring system connected with the full-section supporting structure into a whole is adopted to effectively reinforce the peripheral rock of the tunnel, so that an integral supporting system with a stable structure is formed, primary supporting deformation can be effectively avoided, and the stability of primary supporting can be effectively guaranteed.
10. The adopted tunnel face plugging and grouting reinforcement method is reasonable in design, simple and convenient to construct and good in using effect, the tunnel face is plugged through the tunnel face plugging structure, then the curtain grouting reinforcement is carried out on the rock layer in front of the tunnel face through the hole surrounding advanced reinforcement structure, meanwhile, underground water in the rock layer in front of the tunnel face of the constructed tunnel is discharged in time through the underground water drainage structure, the problem of water burst and mud burst of the tunnel in the debris flow stratum can be effectively solved, the stability of the tunnel structure is ensured, and the construction risk is reduced.
11. The two-step excavation method is adopted to excavate the constructed tunnel, the tunnel is divided into a reserved core soil area hole body, an upper peripheral side hole body and a left lower hole body and a right lower hole body to be excavated respectively, and the tunnel excavation process can be completed simply, conveniently and quickly. Meanwhile, the excavation surface shapes and the position relations of the reserved core soil area hole body, the upper portion peripheral side hole body and the left and right lower portion hole bodies are accurately limited, the structural stability of the tunnel hole in the tunnel excavation process is guaranteed, safety accidents such as tunnel deformation and collapse caused by too many partitions of the tunnel hole, unreasonable partitions, unreasonable design of the distance between the front excavation surface and the rear excavation surface and the like are prevented, and therefore the excavation process of the water-rich soft surrounding rock tunnel penetrating through the fault fracture zone is simple, convenient, rapid and smooth.
12. The construction is simple and convenient, the use effect is good, the tunnel is divided into a reserved core soil area hole body, an upper peripheral side hole body and a left lower hole body and a right lower hole body for respectively excavating, and the tunnel excavating process can be simply, conveniently and quickly completed; before the tunnel upper step is subjected to full-section excavation, the profile steel arch support process of the tunnel upper hole body can be completed, and the stable structure of the tunnel upper hole body is ensured; simultaneously, can effectively accelerate the closure time of tunnel primary support structure to adopt the firm full section bearing structure of structure, can ensure the structure steadiness in construction shaping tunnel hole. Although the two-step excavation method is large in excavation area, the tunnel supporting structure with reasonable structural design can be used for stably supporting the tunnel in the excavation process, the excavation surface shapes and the position relations of the reserved core soil area hole body, the upper peripheral side hole body and the left and right lower part hole bodies are accurately limited, so that the safety of tunnel excavation construction and the stability of surrounding rocks and supporting can be completely guaranteed, the initial support closing time is earlier, and the deformation of the surrounding rocks is favorably controlled.
In conclusion, the method has the advantages of simple steps, reasonable design, simple and convenient construction and good use effect, adopts the self-drilling pipe shed to advance support the upper hole body before excavation and adopts a two-step method to excavate, and can effectively improve the tunnel construction efficiency; the anchoring systems arranged on the left side and the right side of the lower portion of the upper tunnel body in the excavation process can reinforce surrounding rocks below a pipe shed supporting area, the self-drilling pipe shed and the anchoring systems are combined to form a tunnel peripheral rock integral reinforcing structure for integrally reinforcing the surrounding rocks outside the tunnel, and stability of the tunnel structure is guaranteed; and, the full section bearing structure fastening connection as an organic whole in anchor system and the tunnel primary supporting structure, with the peripheral rock overall reinforcement structure of hole and the tunnel primary supporting structure in the hole and the tunnel secondary lining be connected the firm wholeness supporting system of formation structure, can effectively improve the structure steadiness in rich water weak surrounding rock tunnel, ensure later stage tunnel structure safety.
The technical solution of the present invention is further described in detail by the accompanying drawings and embodiments.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a block diagram of the process flow of the present invention.
Fig. 2 is a schematic cross-sectional structure view of the tunnel supporting structure of the present invention.
Fig. 3 is a schematic cross-sectional structure view of the leading-tube shed supporting structure of the present invention.
Fig. 4 is a schematic longitudinal sectional view of the forepoling roof support structure of the present invention.
FIG. 5 is a schematic diagram of the cross-sectional layout position of the steel arch and the anchoring system of the present invention.
FIG. 6 is a schematic view of the longitudinal connection state of the full-face support structure of the present invention.
FIG. 7 is a schematic view of the layout position of the steel arch in the tunnel according to the present invention.
Fig. 8 is a partially enlarged schematic view of a portion a of fig. 7.
Fig. 9 is a schematic longitudinal sectional view of the tunnel supporting structure of the present invention.
Fig. 10 is a schematic cross-sectional structure diagram of the tunnel face blocking structure and the hole periphery advance reinforcing structure of the present invention.
Fig. 11 is a schematic longitudinal sectional view of the tunnel face plugging structure and the hole periphery advanced reinforcement structure according to the present invention.
FIG. 12 is a schematic view of a curtain grouting reinforcement structure on a section before grouting.
FIG. 13 is a schematic view of the curtain grouting reinforcement structure on the middle section of the grouting of the invention.
Fig. 14 is a schematic view of the arrangement position of the drainage pipe and the arch foot forepoling support structure.
Fig. 15 is a schematic cross-sectional structure of the tunnel according to the present invention.
Description of reference numerals:
1, constructing a tunnel; 1-1, reserving a hole body in a core soil area;
1-2-upper peripheral side hole body; 1-3-lower cavity; 1-4-lower blocking layer;
1-5-upper hole body; 1-6-lower hole body; 2-tunnel inverted arch support;
3-longitudinal connecting piece; 4-upper steel arch centering; 5-side support;
6-vertical temporary support columns; 7, horizontal connecting plates; 8, horizontal base plate;
9-lower lock pin anchor pipe; 10, locking a foot anchor rod; 11-grouting anchor rod;
11-1-a first excavation surface; 11-2-second excavation face; 11-3, a third excavation surface;
11-4, a fourth excavation surface; 12-arch wall concrete spraying layer;
13-an inverted arch concrete injection layer; 14, secondary lining of the tunnel; 15-waterproof layer;
16-pipe shed pipe; 17-reserving a deformation cavity; 18-a tunnel section;
20-grouting front section; 21-grouting the middle section; 22-grout stopping wall;
23 — upper backfill layer; 24-rear blocking layer; 25-upper blocking layer;
26-curtain grouting holes; 27-a drain pipe; 28-arch foot pipe shed pipe.
Detailed Description
As shown in fig. 1, the construction method of the water-rich weak surrounding rock tunnel penetrating through the fault fracture zone includes that the tunnel supporting structure of the constructed tunnel 1 includes a tunnel advance supporting structure for advance supporting of the constructed tunnel 1, a tunnel primary supporting structure for primary supporting of the constructed tunnel 1 and a tunnel secondary lining 14 arranged on the inner side of the tunnel primary supporting structure, the tunnel primary supporting structure and the tunnel secondary lining 14 are full-section supporting structures for full-section supporting of the tunnel hole of the constructed tunnel 1, and the tunnel secondary lining 14 is a reinforced concrete lining; the cross-sectional area of the tunnel hole is more than 100m2See fig. 2, 3 for details; referring to fig. 15, the tunnel is divided into an upper tunnel body 1-5 and a lower tunnel body 1-6 located right below the upper tunnel body 1-5; the excavation height of the tunnel hole is more than 10m, the excavation height of the upper hole body 1 is 6.5 m-8 m, and the excavation height of the lower hole bodies 1-6 is 3.5 m-4.5 m; the upper hole body 1-5 is divided into a reserved core soil area hole body 1-1 and an upper peripheral side hole body 1-2 positioned outside the reserved core soil area hole body 1-1, and the lower hole bodyThe hole body 1-6 is divided into a left lower hole body 1-3 and a right lower hole body 1-3, one lower hole body 1-3 in the lower hole bodies 1-6 is an excavated hole body firstly, and the other lower hole body 1-3 is an excavated hole body later; the surrounding rock level of the tunnel hole is V level;
the constructed tunnel 1 is divided into a plurality of tunnel sections 18 from back to front along the longitudinal extension direction of the tunnel, and the length of each tunnel section 18 is 28-34 m;
with reference to fig. 3 and 4, the tunnel advance supporting structure includes a plurality of advance pipe shed supporting structures for advance supporting the upper tunnel body from back to front along the longitudinal extension direction of the tunnel, the number of the advance pipe shed supporting structures is the same as the number of the tunnel sections 18 included in the constructed tunnel 1, each advance pipe shed supporting structure is located outside one of the tunnel sections 18, and each tunnel section 18 is advance supported by one of the advance pipe shed supporting structures;
the length of each advance pipe shed supporting structure along the longitudinal extension direction of the tunnel is l, wherein l is b + c; b is the length of the tunnel section 18 supported by the advanced pipe shed supporting structure, and the value range of b is 28-34 m; c is the supporting length of the front section of the pipe shed of the advance pipe shed supporting structure,theta is an internal friction angle of a surrounding rock mass of the tunnel section 18 supported by the advanced pipe shed supporting structure, and h is the excavation height of the upper tunnel body 1-5; the overlapping length between the advanced pipe shed supporting structure and one advanced pipe shed supporting structure positioned in front of the advanced pipe shed supporting structure is equal to c;
each advance pipe shed supporting structure is a self-drilling pipe shed and comprises a plurality of pipe shed pipes 16 which are drilled into a rock layer in front of the face of a supported tunnel section 18 from back to front, the plurality of pipe shed pipes 16 are arranged along the excavation contour line of the upper hole body from left to right, and the camber angle of each pipe shed pipe 16 is 3 degrees; the multiple pipe shed pipes 16 in each advance pipe shed supporting structure are uniformly distributed, the circumferential distance between the rear ends of two adjacent pipe shed pipes 16 is 400-800 mm, the outer diameter of each pipe shed pipe 16 is phi 70-80 mm, and the wall thickness of each pipe shed pipe is 13-18 mm;
each pipe shed pipe 16 is a self-drilling pipe shed pipe, the self-drilling pipe shed pipe comprises a straight pipe body and a drill bit arranged at the front end of the straight pipe body, a plurality of grouting holes are formed in the drill bit along the circumferential direction, the straight pipe body is formed by assembling a plurality of pipe sections which are arranged on the same straight line from front to back, and each pipe section is a threaded steel pipe with external threads arranged on the outer wall from front to back; the cross section structures and the sizes of the pipe sections are the same, and two adjacent pipe sections are fastened and connected through a threaded connecting sleeve;
the tunnel primary supporting structure comprises a full-section supporting structure for performing full-section supporting on the tunnel, and an anchoring system is arranged on the outer side of the full-section supporting structure; the full-section supporting structure and the anchoring system are arranged along the longitudinal extension direction of the tunnel;
as shown in fig. 5, the full-section supporting structure includes a plurality of steel arches for full-section supporting the constructed tunnel 1 and a plurality of arch connecting structures arranged from back to front along the longitudinal extension direction of the tunnel, the plurality of steel arches are all the same in structure and arranged from back to front along the longitudinal extension direction of the tunnel, the plurality of steel arches are uniformly arranged, and each steel arch is located on one tunnel cross section of the constructed tunnel 1;
with reference to fig. 6 and 7, the shape of each steel arch is the same as the cross-sectional shape of the tunnel; each section steel arch comprises an arch wall steel arch for supporting an arch wall of the tunnel hole, a vertical temporary support column 6 positioned in a hole body 1-2 on the peripheral side of the upper part and a tunnel inverted arch support 2 arranged at the bottom of the inner side of the tunnel hole, wherein the tunnel inverted arch support 2 is positioned right below the arch wall steel arch and positioned on the cross section of the same tunnel, the left end of the tunnel inverted arch support 2 is fixedly connected with the bottom of the left side of the arch wall steel arch, the right end of the tunnel inverted arch support 2 is fixedly connected with the bottom of the right side of the arch wall steel arch, and the tunnel inverted arch support 2 and the arch wall steel arch form a closed full-section support; referring to fig. 8, the arch wall steel arch comprises an upper steel arch 4 located in an upper peripheral side cavity 1-2 and two side supports 5 symmetrically arranged below the bottoms of the left and right sides of the upper steel arch 4, wherein the two side supports 5 are located in a lower cavity 1-6; the vertical temporary support column 6 is supported under the middle part of the upper steel arch frame 4, the top of the vertical temporary support column 6 is fixedly connected with the middle part of the upper steel arch frame 4, a horizontal connecting plate 7 used for connecting the vertical temporary support column 6 is arranged on the bottom surface of the middle part of the upper steel arch frame 4, and the bottom of the vertical temporary support column 6 is supported at the bottom of the inner side of the upper peripheral side hole body 1-2; the upper steel arch 4, the side support 5, the tunnel inverted arch support 2 and the vertical temporary support column 6 in each steel arch are all positioned on the same tunnel cross section;
the structures of the arch frame connecting structures are the same, and the front and rear two adjacent steel arch frames are fastened and connected through one arch frame connecting structure; each arch frame connecting structure comprises a plurality of longitudinal connecting pieces 3 connected between two front and rear adjacent arch wall steel arch frames, and the plurality of longitudinal connecting pieces 3 are distributed on the same tunnel section along the arch wall excavation contour line of the constructed tunnel 1; each longitudinal connecting piece 3 is a section steel which is horizontally arranged, and each longitudinal connecting piece 3 is arranged along the longitudinal extension direction of the tunnel; longitudinal connecting pieces 3 in two adjacent arch frame connecting structures are arranged in a staggered mode;
the anchoring system comprises a plurality of anchoring structures which are arranged from back to front along the longitudinal extension direction of the tunnel, one anchoring structure is arranged at the outer side of each upper steel arch 4, and each upper steel arch 4 and the anchoring structure arranged at the outer side of each upper steel arch are arranged on the cross section of the same tunnel; each anchoring structure is uniformly distributed on the outer side of one upper steel arch 4 and comprises two anchoring groups which are symmetrically distributed on the left and right sides, and the two anchoring groups are respectively distributed on the left and right sides of the lower part of one upper steel arch 4; each anchoring group comprises a lower foot-locking anchor pipe 9 and a plurality of upper foot-locking anchor rods 10 arranged from top to bottom, the plurality of upper foot-locking anchor rods 10 are positioned right above the lower foot-locking anchor pipe 9 and are uniformly distributed on the same vertical surface, the upper foot-locking anchor rods 10 and the lower foot-locking anchor pipes 9 enter a rock stratum on the outer side of the tunnel hole from inside to outside and are gradually inclined downwards from inside to outside; the plurality of upper foot-locking anchor rods 10 are arranged in parallel, the included angle between each upper foot-locking anchor rod 10 and the horizontal plane is A1, and the value range of A1 is 25-35 degrees; the included angle between the lower lock pin anchor pipe 9 and the horizontal plane is A2, and the value range of A2 is 38-45 degrees; the lower lock leg anchor pipe 9 is a hollow self-advancing anchor rod and a grouting anchor rod, and the length of the lower lock leg anchor pipe 9 is not less than 4 m; the upper foot-locking anchor rods 10 are hollow grouting anchor rods, and the length of each of the upper foot-locking anchor rods 10 is the same and is not less than 3 m; the inner ends of the upper foot-locking anchor rod 10 and the lower foot-locking anchor pipe 9 are fixed on the upper steel arch frame 4 positioned on the inner side of the upper foot-locking anchor rod;
when the constructed tunnel 1 is constructed, respectively constructing a plurality of tunnel sections 18 in the constructed tunnel 1 from back to front along the longitudinal extension direction of the tunnel, wherein the construction methods of the plurality of tunnel sections 18 are the same; in the construction of any one of said tunnel sections 18 in the constructed tunnel 1, the following steps are included:
step one, pipe shed advance support: constructing the advanced pipe shed supporting structure of the currently constructed tunnel section 18;
step two, tunnel excavation and primary support: excavating the currently constructed tunnel segment 18 from back to front along the longitudinal extension direction of the tunnel, synchronously carrying out primary support on the tunnel hole formed by excavation in the excavation process, and obtaining a primary support structure of the tunnel formed by construction;
when the tunnel excavation and primary support are carried out on the currently constructed tunnel segment 18, the process is as follows:
step A1, excavating the upper peripheral side cavity and performing primary support: excavating the upper peripheral side hole body 1-2 of the currently constructed tunnel section 18 from back to front along the longitudinal extension direction of the tunnel;
in the excavation process of the upper peripheral side hole body 1-2, performing primary support on the excavated and formed upper peripheral side hole body 1-2 from back to front;
when the upper peripheral side hole body 1-2 is initially supported, an upper steel arch 4 is installed in the upper peripheral side hole body 1-2 formed by excavation from back to front, one vertical temporary support column 6 is installed right below the middle part of each upper steel arch 4, the bottom of each vertical temporary support column 6 is supported at the inner bottom of the upper peripheral side hole body 1-2, and the upper steel arch 4 installed in each upper is fixedly connected with one upper steel arch 4 positioned at the rear side of the upper steel arch through a plurality of longitudinal connecting pieces 3; meanwhile, respectively constructing one anchoring group on the left side and the right side of the lower part of each installed upper steel arch 4 from back to front;
in the step, the excavation surface of the upper peripheral side hole body 1-2 is a vertical surface;
step A2, excavation and primary support of the reserved core soil area hole body: in the step A1, in the process of excavating the upper peripheral side hole body 1-2, excavating the reserved core soil area hole body 1-1 of the currently constructed tunnel segment 18 from back to front along the longitudinal extension direction of the tunnel to obtain an upper hole body 1-5 formed by excavation;
in the excavation process of the hole body 1-1 in the reserved core soil area, the vertical temporary support column 6 in a suspended state after the excavation of the hole body 1-1 in the reserved core soil area is completed is dismantled from back to front;
in the step, the excavation surface of the reserved core soil area hole body 1-1 is positioned behind the excavation surface of the upper peripheral side hole body 1-2, and the excavation surface of the reserved core soil area hole body 1-1 is an inclined surface which is gradually inclined downwards from front to back;
step A3, firstly, excavating a tunnel body and performing primary support: in the step A2, in the process of excavating the hole body 1-1 of the reserved core soil area, excavating the firstly-excavated hole body of the currently constructed tunnel segment 18 from back to front along the longitudinal extension direction of the tunnel;
during the excavation process of the firstly excavated tunnel body, carrying out primary support on the firstly excavated tunnel body from back to front; when the pre-excavated hole body is initially supported, side supports 5 are installed in the pre-excavated hole body formed by excavation from back to front, and each installed side support 5 is fixedly connected with one side support 5 positioned right behind the side support through a plurality of longitudinal connecting pieces 3;
in the step, the excavation surface of the hole body to be excavated firstly is positioned behind the excavation surface of the hole body 1-1 of the reserved core soil area, and the excavation surface of the hole body to be excavated firstly is a vertical surface;
step A4, post-excavation hole excavation and primary support: in the step A3, in the process of excavating the firstly-excavated hole body, excavating the later-excavated hole body of the currently constructed tunnel segment 18 from back to front along the longitudinal extension direction of the tunnel to obtain an excavated lower hole body 1-6;
in the process of excavating the rear excavation hole body, performing primary support on the lower hole body 1-6 formed by excavation from back to front; when the lower hole bodies 1-6 are initially supported, side supports 5 are installed in the rear excavated hole body formed by excavation from back to front, and each installed side support 5 is fixedly connected with one side support 5 positioned right behind the side support through a plurality of longitudinal connecting pieces 3; meanwhile, a tunnel inverted arch support 2 is arranged at the bottom of the lower hole body 1-6 which is formed by excavation from back to front, and the arranged tunnel inverted arch support 2 is fixedly connected with side supports 5 arranged at the left side and the right side of the lower hole body 1-6 into a whole;
in the step, the excavation surface of the post-excavation hole body is positioned behind the excavation surface of the pre-excavation hole body, and the excavation surface of the post-excavation hole body is an inclined surface which is gradually inclined downwards from front to back;
step three, tunnel secondary lining construction: and in the process of tunnel excavation and primary support in the second step, constructing the tunnel secondary lining 14 of the currently constructed tunnel section 18 from back to front along the longitudinal extension direction of the tunnel, and enabling the tunnel secondary lining 14 to be located on the inner side of the constructed primary support structure of the tunnel.
In this embodiment, the excavation width of the constructed tunnel 1 is 17.38m and the excavation height thereof is 11.5 m. The excavation height of the upper hole body 1-1 is 7 m.
Wherein, the pipe wall of each pipe section of the pipe shed pipes 16 is a closed pipe wall, so that the pipe body of each pipe shed pipe 16 has no hole.
As shown in fig. 2, in this embodiment, the area outside each tunnel segment 18 where the advanced pipe shed supporting structure is laid is a advance supporting area, and the advance supporting area is located above the anchoring system.
In this embodiment, the central angle of the advance support zone is a, where a is 150 °.
A waterproof layer 15 is arranged on the inner wall of the tunnel primary supporting structure, and the tunnel secondary lining 14 is positioned on the inner side of the waterproof layer 15;
before the secondary lining construction of the tunnel in the third step, firstly, constructing a waterproof layer 15 on the inner side of the constructed and molded primary tunnel supporting structure along the longitudinal extension direction of the tunnel from back to front;
in the process of constructing the waterproof layer 15 from the rear to the front, the tunnel secondary lining 14 is constructed from the rear to the front in the longitudinal extension direction of the tunnel.
In this embodiment, the waterproof layer 15 is formed by laying waterproof boards on the inner wall of the primary tunnel supporting structure. And, in order to further enhance the waterproof effect, a layer of geotextile is laid on the inner wall of the waterproof layer 15.
In order to ensure the stability of the tunnel structure, a reserved deformation cavity 17 is reserved between the waterproof layer 15 and the tunnel secondary lining 14, the cross section of the reserved deformation cavity 17 is arched, and the thickness of the arch part is 13-17 mm. The reserved deformation cavity 17 is a reserved deformation area of the tunnel primary support structure.
The thickness of the tunnel primary supporting structure is 28 mm-35 mm, and the thickness of the tunnel secondary lining 14 is 45 mm-55 mm. In this embodiment, the thickness of the primary tunnel supporting structure is 31mm, and the thickness of the secondary tunnel lining 14 is 50 mm. During actual construction, the thicknesses of the primary tunnel supporting structure and the secondary tunnel lining 14 can be respectively and correspondingly adjusted according to specific requirements.
Referring to fig. 4, the lengths of the plurality of pipe-shed pipes 16 in each leading-pipe-shed supporting structure are the same, and the length of each pipe-shed pipe 16 is l', whereinl is the longitudinal extension of the advance pipe shed supporting structure where the pipe shed 16 is positioned along the tunnelThe length in the extending direction, a is the exposed length of the rear end of the pipe shed pipe and the length of the rear end section of the pipe shed pipe 16 located at the rear side of the supported tunnel section 18, and the value range of a is 20 cm-50 cm. In actual construction, the reference "a" is determined according to the thickness of the guide frame for guiding each tube plant pipe 16 in the advanced tube plant support structure.
In this embodiment, c is not less than 3 m. During actual construction, the value of c can be adjusted correspondingly according to specific requirements.
In the embodiment, the two anchoring groups are respectively arranged at the left side and the right side of the lower part of one upper steel arch frame 4, so that after the excavation of the upper peripheral side hole body 1-2 is completed, the two anchoring groups can be respectively constructed, the peripheral side rock of the tunnel can be timely and rapidly grouted and reinforced, the deformation of the tunnel can be limited at the highest speed, and the structural stability of the tunnel can be further ensured; and the construction process of the two anchoring groups does not influence the primary supporting process of the upper hole body 1-5, so that the primary supporting process of the upper hole body 1-5 can be directly and quickly carried out after the excavation of the upper peripheral side hole body 1-2 is finished, the stability of the primary support of the tunnel can be further ensured, the construction efficiency can be effectively improved, and the construction period can be shortened.
The maximum excavation position of the tunnel hole is positioned in the upper hole body 1-5, in order to ensure the stability of the tunnel structure, two anchoring groups are adopted to carry out grouting reinforcement on surrounding rocks outside the upper hole body 1-5, and the stability of the upper hole body 1-5 is ensured; on the other hand, the two anchoring groups are respectively arranged on the left side and the right side of the lower part of the upper steel arch frame 4, so that the construction is simple and convenient, the inner ends of the upper foot-locking anchor rod 10 and the lower foot-locking anchor pipe 9 are both positioned above the maximum excavation position of the tunnel hole, and the anchoring positions of the two anchoring groups are positioned above the maximum excavation position of the tunnel hole; in addition, after the surrounding rocks at the maximum excavation position of the tunnel are effectively reinforced from top to bottom, the lower tunnel bodies 1-6 do not need to be provided with locking anchor rods, so that the primary support progress of the lower tunnel bodies 1-6 can be effectively accelerated, the primary support of the tunnel can be timely and quickly sealed, the stability and integrity of the construction and forming primary support structure can be further ensured, and the stability of the tunnel structure is further ensured.
In this embodiment, the upper foot-locking anchor rod 10 and the lower foot-locking anchor pipe 9 are both upper steel arch foot-locking anchor rods, and the vertical distance between the inner ends of the upper steel arch foot-locking anchor rods and the bottoms of the upper hole bodies 1 to 5 is 0.8m to 1.8 m.
In this embodiment, the length of the upper lock pin anchor rod 10 is 3.5m, and the length of the lower lock pin anchor tube 9 is 5 m.
During actual construction, the lengths of the upper foot-locking anchor rod 10 and the lower foot-locking anchor pipe 9 and the vertical distance between the inner end of the upper steel arch foot-locking anchor rod and the bottom of the upper hole body 1-5 can be correspondingly adjusted according to specific requirements.
In this embodiment, the upper cavern body 1-5 is excavated by reserving core soil in the middle, and the clearance height of the top surface of the core soil in the upper cavern body 1-5 is 1.5m to 1.8 m. During actual construction, the top surface clearance height of the core soil in the upper hole body 1-5 can be correspondingly adjusted according to specific requirements. And the bottom of the vertical temporary support column 6 is supported on the top surface of the core soil in the upper hole body 1-5.
In this embodiment, the tunnel preliminary bracing structure further includes an arch wall preliminary bracing structure for preliminary bracing an arch wall of the tunnel cave and an inverted arch preliminary bracing structure for preliminary bracing a bottom of the tunnel cave, and the inverted arch preliminary bracing structure is located right below the arch wall preliminary bracing structure; the inverted arch primary support structure is characterized in that the inverted arch primary support structure is an inverted arch concrete injection layer 13 injected at the bottom of the tunnel hole, and the tunnel inverted arch support 2 is fixed in the inverted arch concrete injection layer 13.
The preliminary bracing structure of the arch wall comprises an arch wall reinforcing mesh piece hung on the arch wall of the tunnel cave and an arch wall concrete spraying layer 12 sprayed on the arch wall of the tunnel cave, wherein the arch wall reinforcing mesh piece is fixed on the arch wall steel arch, and the arch wall reinforcing mesh piece, the arch wall steel arch and the horizontal connecting plate 7 are all fixed in the arch wall concrete spraying layer 12; the arch wall concrete spraying layer 12 and an inverted arch concrete spraying layer 13 positioned below the arch wall concrete spraying layer are connected into a whole.
In order to further enhance the supporting effect, the preliminary supporting structure of the arch wall further comprises a plurality of anchor rod groups which are arranged from back to front along the longitudinal extension direction of the tunnel, each anchor rod group is arranged outside one steel arch, and each anchor rod group and the steel arch positioned at the inner side of the anchor rod group are arranged on the cross section of the same tunnel; each anchor rod group comprises a plurality of grouting anchor rods 11 for supporting the arch wall of the tunnel, and the plurality of grouting anchor rods 11 are distributed along the excavation contour line of the arch wall of the tunnel; the grouting anchor rods 11 of the front and the back adjacent two anchor rod groups are arranged in a staggered manner; each grouting anchor rod 11 enters the stratum outside the tunnel from inside to outside, and the inner end of each grouting anchor rod 11 is fixed on the profile steel arch frame positioned on the inner side of the grouting anchor rod. During actual construction, it is right through a plurality of stock group is right not only the hunch portion in tunnel hole is strutted, and is right simultaneously the left and right sides side wall in tunnel hole is strutted respectively, forms one right the slip casting supporting construction that tunnel hole arch wall carries out full-face and struts further improves tunnel construction's steadiness to be in effective reinforcement of tunnel hole arch wall outside country rock.
In this embodiment, the length of the grouting bolt 11 is 4 m. During actual construction, the length of the grouting anchor rod 11 can be adjusted correspondingly according to specific requirements.
When the tunnel construction is actually carried out, particularly under the geological conditions of weak surrounding rocks, the following three conditions are easy to occur:
firstly, under the condition of weak surrounding rock, tunnel excavation easily causes large loose deformation of the surrounding rock, so that the load on a primary supporting structure is increased, and meanwhile, because the bearing capacity of primary supporting arches and basement foundations of the tunnel under the condition of the weak surrounding rock is low, if the stratum water content is large and the arch footing is accumulated, the arches and the basement are easily subjected to large settlement deformation along with the increase of the load on the primary supporting of the tunnel;
secondly, in the field construction process of the tunnel, when the step method or the subsection excavation method is adopted for excavation construction, the arch and the wall foot are difficult to reserve original rock soil with certain thickness according to the rules of highway tunnel construction technical rules (JTG/TF60.2009), so that the primary support of the arch and the wall foot cannot fall on the firmer original rock soil to cause support sinking, and the condition is difficult to grasp in construction and is particularly difficult to tunnel excavation by a drilling and blasting method and a mechanical excavation method;
and thirdly, in the step method operation of the weak surrounding rock tunnel, the lower step horse mouth (or inverted arch) is excavated, so that the primary support of the upper step (or the whole arch and the wall part) is always in a suspended state within a certain range, and the primary support is converted into a cantilever beam structure from the original hingeless arch (primary statically indeterminate structure), so that the bearing capacity of the support is reduced. If the construction is slightly improper, the excavation length of the jaw (or the inverted arch) is not well controlled, the surrounding rock is poor, even the two sides of the jaw (or the inverted arch) are excavated simultaneously, so that the arch feet (wall feet) on two sides of the same section of the primary support are suspended simultaneously, the primary support becomes an unstable structure at the moment, the bearing capacity is greatly reduced, the primary support at the position is greatly sunk and moved freely, the relaxation range of the surrounding rock is further enlarged, the surrounding rock condition is worsened, and the tunnel deformation is aggravated.
In the embodiment, the anchoring systems are positioned outside the upper tunnel bodies 1 to 5, so that the three problems can be effectively solved, one lower foot-locking anchor pipe 9 and a plurality of upper foot-locking anchor rods 10 arranged from top to bottom are adopted in each anchoring group of the anchoring systems to perform multiple reinforcement on surrounding rocks outside the left and right side arch feet of the upper steel arch frame 4, the unstable condition of the surrounding rocks on the outer peripheral side of the tunnel is radically solved, the stability of a tunnel structure can be ensured, the foundation bearing capacity at the supporting positions of the left and right side arch feet of the upper steel arch frame 4 under the condition of weak surrounding rocks is greatly improved, and the left and right side arch feet of the upper steel arch frame 4 can be effectively prevented from settling and deforming; and moreover, the tunnel supporting structure in the upper hole body 1-5 is more stable, and the condition that the tunnel supporting structure in the upper hole body 1-5 is suspended and unstable is avoided.
And the tail ends (namely the inner ends) of the lower foot-locking anchor pipe 9 and the upper foot-locking anchor rod 10 are fixedly connected with a full-section supporting structure with a stable structure into a whole, so that the integrity of the primary support of the tunnel can be further enhanced, and the bearing capacity of the primary support is fully exerted. The lower foot-locking anchor pipe 9 and the upper foot-locking anchor rod 10 can both play a good supporting role, and have the functions of simply, conveniently and quickly reinforcing surrounding rocks on the periphery, performing advanced support on a tunnel and the like. Simultaneously, lock foot anchor pipe 9 down and lock foot anchor rod 10 and upper portion steel bow member 4 fastening connection back, also can further restrict sinking of shaped steel bow member and whole preliminary bracing to can effectively prevent the preliminary bracing to tunnel headroom direction displacement, and then the full play preliminary bracing bearing effect, increase the country rock self stabilization time.
During actual construction, the longitudinal connecting piece 3 is channel steel or I-steel.
In this embodiment, the longitudinal connecting member 3 is an i-steel, and the web of the longitudinal connecting member 3 is vertically arranged and arranged along the longitudinal extension direction of the tunnel.
For simple and convenient processing, the upper steel arch frame 4, the side support 5 and the tunnel inverted arch support 2 are all formed by bending an I-shaped steel. And the web plates of the upper steel arch 4, the side bracket 5 and the tunnel inverted arch bracket 2 are all vertically arranged.
When two front and rear adjacent steel arches are connected, the longitudinal connecting pieces 3 are connected between the webs of the two front and rear adjacent steel arches, so that the connection is simple and firm. In this embodiment, the longitudinal connecting member 3 is fixedly connected with the steel arch frame in a welding manner.
Many trusses shaped steel bow member fastening connection forms a firm, reliable vertical bearing structure of structure, has avoided sinking because the bow member that vertical bearing structure is unstable arouses in broken country rock, can effectively guarantee the vertical stability that the shaped steel bow member supported has further strengthened preliminary bracing's whole steadiness.
In order to ensure the stable support, the distance between two front and back adjacent shaped steel arches is L, wherein the value range of L is 0.6 m-1.2 m. In this example, L is 0.8 m. During actual construction, the value of L can be correspondingly adjusted according to specific requirements.
In this embodiment, the plurality of longitudinal connecting members 3 in each arch connecting structure are uniformly arranged.
The circumferential distance between two adjacent longitudinal connecting pieces 3 in each arch center connecting structure is 0.8-1.2 m. In this embodiment, the circumferential distance between two adjacent longitudinal connecting members 3 in each arch connecting structure is 1 m. During actual construction, the circumferential distance between two adjacent longitudinal connecting pieces 3 in each arch connecting structure can be correspondingly adjusted according to specific requirements.
To ensure the supporting strength, the horizontal connecting plate 7 is a steel plate and is welded and fixed on the middle bottom surface of the upper steel arch frame 4. In this embodiment, the horizontal connecting plate 7 is welded and fixed on the bottom surface of the middle part of the upper steel arch frame 4. After the vertical temporary support columns 6 are dismantled, the horizontal connecting plates 7 do not need to be dismantled, labor and time are saved, and the horizontal connecting plates 7 can effectively enhance the supporting strength of the middle of the upper steel arch frame 4. Meanwhile, the vertical temporary support columns 6 are stably connected and firmly supported by the horizontal connecting plates 7.
For simple and convenient connection, the vertical temporary support columns 6 are connected with the horizontal connecting plates 7 through connecting bolts or fixedly connected in a welding mode. In this embodiment, the vertical temporary supporting columns 6 and the horizontal connecting plates 7 are fixedly connected in a welding manner. When the vertical temporary support columns 6 are dismantled, only the connecting welding seams between the vertical temporary support columns 6 and the horizontal connecting plates 7 need to be cut by cutting equipment.
Meanwhile, the bottom of the vertical temporary support column 6 is provided with a horizontal base plate 8. And, the vertical temporary support column 6 is shaped steel. In this embodiment, horizontal backing plate 8 is straight steel sheet, can ensure that vertical temporary support post 6 steadily supports to can avoid in the broken country rock because vertical temporary support post 6 that the basement is weak arouses supports insecure, cause the bow member to sink the scheduling problem, guaranteed the stability of strutting preliminary tunnel preliminary bracing structure.
In this embodiment, the vertical temporary support columns 6 are square steel pipes. And the vertical temporary support columns 6 are fixedly connected with the horizontal base plate 8 in a welding mode.
During actual construction, the lower hole body 1-6 is formed after lower step excavation is performed on the constructed tunnel 1, and the upper hole body 1-5 is formed after upper step excavation is performed on the constructed tunnel 1. When the upper step excavation is carried out on the currently constructed tunnel segment 18, a reserved core soil excavation method (specifically, a mode of reserving core soil in the middle) is adopted for excavation, firstly, excavation is carried out on the upper peripheral side hole body 1-2 from back to front, then, excavation is carried out on the reserved core soil area hole body 1-1 from back to front, the excavation surface of the reserved core soil area hole body 1-1 is positioned behind the upper peripheral side hole body 1-2, after the excavation of the upper peripheral side hole body 1-2 is completed, the upper steel arch frame 4 can be directly supported, and the supported upper steel arch frame 4 and the upper steel arch frame 4 positioned on the rear side of the upper steel arch frame 4 are stably connected through a plurality of longitudinal connecting pieces 3, so that the supporting strength and the supporting effect of the upper peripheral side hole body 1-2 are ensured; and after the excavation of the upper peripheral side hole body 1-2 is finished, the anchoring group can be constructed, and the primary supporting process of the upper hole body 1-5 is correspondingly finished, while the excavation progress of the reserved core soil area hole body 1-1 does not cause any influence on the primary supporting progress of the upper hole body 1-5, so that the primary supporting of the upper hole body 1-5 is not influenced by the excavation construction in the reserved core soil area hole body 1-1 and the lower hole body 1-6, and the primary supporting process of the upper hole body 1-5 is carried out before the excavation of the reserved core soil area hole body 1-1 and the lower hole body 1-6, at the moment, the excavation of the tunnel hole is finished only by the upper peripheral side hole body 1-2, therefore, the supporting and stabilizing performance of the primary supporting structure in the upper hole body 1-5 is further ensured, and the primary supporting process of the upper hole body 1-5 is easier to carry out, and meanwhile, the support is more powerful, and the safety of tunnel construction is better facilitated.
In addition, in order to further ensure the supporting strength, before the hole body 1-1 of the reserved core soil area is excavated, a vertical temporary supporting column 6 is also required to be arranged right below the middle part of the upper steel arch frame 4, so that the structural stability of the upper hole body 1-5 is further improved; meanwhile, more safety guarantees are provided for subsequent excavation. And in the excavation process of the hole body 1-1 of the reserved core soil area from back to front, the temporary support column 6 is dismantled from back to front.
As can be seen from the above, in the process of excavating the upper circumferential side hole body 1-2 from back to front, the upper steel arch frame 4 is synchronously installed in the upper circumferential side hole body 1-2 from back to front, and the upper circumferential side hole body 1-2 is synchronously anchored and supported by the anchor net in the process of excavating the upper circumferential side hole body 1-2 from back to front, so that the excavating and primary supporting construction processes of the upper hole body 1-5 are completed.
In addition, in the process of excavating the upper hole body 1-5 from back to front, the lower hole body 1-6 is synchronously excavated from back to front; in the process of excavating the lower hole bodies 1-6 from back to front, respectively carrying out net-spraying support on the left and right sides of the lower hole bodies 1-6 formed by excavating from back to front, and in the process of net-spraying support, respectively installing lateral supports 5 on the left and right sides of the lower hole bodies 1-3 formed by excavating from back to front synchronously, and enabling each lateral support 5 to be fixedly connected with an upper steel arch frame 4 positioned above the lateral support into a whole; meanwhile, a tunnel inverted arch support 2 is arranged at the bottom of the lower hole body 1-6 from back to front, and the arranged tunnel inverted arch support 2 is fixedly connected with side supports 5 arranged at the left side and the right side of the lower hole body 1-6 into a whole; in the installation process of the tunnel inverted arch support 2, a layer of concrete is synchronously sprayed from back to front at the bottom of the tunnel hole 1 to form an inverted arch concrete spraying layer 13, the tunnel inverted arch support 2 is fixed in the inverted arch concrete spraying layer 13, and the excavation and primary support construction processes of the lower hole bodies 1-3 are completed.
And in the process of excavating the lower hole bodies 1-3 from back to front, constructing a waterproof layer 15 on the inner wall of the tunnel primary support structure formed by construction from back to front, and constructing a tunnel secondary lining 14 on the inner side of the waterproof layer 15.
In practical construction, in the step a2, the horizontal distance between the top of the excavation surface of the reserved core soil area hole body 1-1 and the excavation surface of the upper peripheral side hole body 1-2 is 2L to 4L, in the step A3, the excavation surface of the first excavation hole body and the bottom of the excavation surface of the reserved core soil area hole body 1-1 are located on the same vertical surface, and in the step a4, the horizontal distance between the top of the excavation surface of the later excavation hole body and the excavation surface of the first excavation hole body is 2L to 4L. Therefore, the safety and reliability of the excavation process can be further ensured.
As shown in fig. 9, the excavation surface of the upper peripheral side hole body 1-2 is a first excavation surface 11-1, the excavation surface of the reserved core soil area hole body 1-1 is a second excavation surface 11-2, the excavation surface of the first excavation hole body is a third excavation surface 11-3, and the excavation surface of the later excavation hole body is a fourth excavation surface 11-4.
During actual construction, the front end face of the inverted arch concrete spraying layer 10 is located behind the excavation face of the rear excavation hole body, and the distance between the front end face of the inverted arch concrete spraying layer 10 and the bottom of the excavation face of the rear excavation hole body is not larger than 10 m. And the distance between the front end surface of the inverted arch concrete spraying layer 10 and the bottom of the excavation surface of the rear excavation cavity body is not more than 5L.
In this embodiment, the distance between the front end surface of the inverted arch concrete injection layer 10 and the bottom of the excavation surface of the rear excavation cavity is 3L. During actual construction, the distance between the front end surface of the inverted arch concrete spraying layer 10 and the bottom of the excavation surface of the rear excavation cavity body can be correspondingly adjusted according to specific requirements.
Because the distance between the front end surface of the inverted arch concrete spraying layer 10 and the bottom of the excavation surface of the rear excavation hole body is smaller, the construction progress of the inverted arch primary support structure is basically consistent with the excavation progress of the rear excavation hole body, the inverted arch primary support structure can be simply, conveniently and quickly constructed, and the structural stability of the lower hole body 1-6 is ensured.
In this embodiment, the front end surface of the arch wall concrete spray layer 9 is located behind the front end surface of the inverted arch concrete spray layer 10. And the distance between the front end surfaces of the arch wall concrete injection layers 9 and the front end surfaces of the inverted arch concrete injection layers 10 is not more than 10m, so that the primary tunnel supporting structure of the constructed tunnel 1 can be quickly closed.
In this embodiment, an included angle between the excavation surface of the rear excavation hole body and the horizontal plane is 50 to 75 °, and an included angle between the excavation surface of the reserved core soil region hole body 1-1 and the horizontal plane is 50 to 75 °. And the excavation surface of the rear excavation hole body and the excavation surface of the reserved core soil area hole body 1-1 are arranged in parallel and level.
In this embodiment, the post-excavation hole body and the pre-excavation hole body are symmetrically arranged. Therefore, the post-excavation hole body and the pre-excavation hole body have larger construction space, so that the side support 5 is simple, convenient and timely to support, and the stability of the tunnel structure can be ensured.
In this embodiment, in the first step, when the advanced pipe roof support structure of the currently constructed tunnel segment 18 is constructed, a plurality of pipe roof pipes 16 in the advanced pipe roof support structure are constructed respectively, and the pipe roof pipes 16 are constructed symmetrically from the arch top to the left and right sides;
the construction methods of the plurality of pipe shed pipes 16 in the advanced pipe shed supporting structure are the same; when any one of the pipe shed pipes 16 is constructed, drilling construction is carried out on the pipe shed pipe 16 by using a drilling machine, and grouting equipment is adopted in the drilling process and is synchronously carried out through the pipe shed pipe 16;
after all the pipe shed pipes 16 in the advanced pipe shed supporting structure are constructed, performing secondary grouting on the pipe shed pipes 16 by using grouting equipment, and completing the construction process of the advanced pipe shed supporting structure after all the pipe shed pipes 16 are subjected to secondary grouting;
during the drilling process, when grouting is synchronously performed through the pipe shed pipe 16 and secondary grouting is performed through the pipe shed pipe 16, the grouting liquid is cement paste.
In the first step, before the construction of the forepoling support structure of the currently constructed tunnel section 18, a drilling machine working platform is built, specifically, waste slag is backfilled in front of a tunnel face and is heightened, and the drilling machine working platform is formed by compaction and leveling. When the pipe shed pipe 16 is actually drilled, grouting is carried out simultaneously in the drilling process, when the drilling of each pipe section is completed, the pump is stopped, the next pipe section is connected with the drilling machine after being connected, the next pipe section is drilled, the grouting is continuously completed, and the construction is carried out in sequence until all the pipe sections of the pipe shed pipe 16 are drilled. In order to obtain a better grouting effect and fully exert the supporting capability of the shed frame system, after the construction of a plurality of the tube shed tubes 16 in the advanced tube shed supporting structure is completed, secondary high-pressure grouting is respectively carried out on each tube shed tube 16.
From the above, when a water-rich weak surrounding rock tunnel penetrating through a fault fracture zone is constructed, although the deformation of the surrounding rock and the primary support can be theoretically reduced by adopting a three-step method, the actual construction primary support is often closed for a long time and cannot achieve an ideal effect. When the two-step method is adopted for excavation, although the excavation area is large, after comprehensive measures such as advancing by adopting the pipe shed advance supporting structure, longitudinally connecting and reinforcing the arch frame connecting structure consisting of a plurality of sections of steel, carrying out centralized anchoring by adopting two groups of anchoring groups and the like are carried out, the deformation of the primary support can be effectively reduced, the safety and the reliability of the tunnel construction process can be ensured, the construction effect can be effectively improved, the construction risk can be reduced, the construction safety and the stability of surrounding rocks and supporting can be completely ensured, and the closing time of the primary support is earlier, so that the deformation of the surrounding rocks can be favorably controlled.
In this embodiment, the tunnel secondary lining 14 includes an arch wall secondary lining and an inverted arch secondary lining located directly below the arch wall secondary lining, and the front end surface of the inverted arch secondary lining is flush with the front end surface of the inverted arch concrete injection layer 10. Therefore, the construction progress of the inverted arch secondary lining is the same as that of the tunnel inverted arch primary support structure, the stability of the tunnel bottom structure can be further ensured, and the construction efficiency can be further improved.
In the second step, in the excavation process of the currently constructed tunnel segment 18 from back to front along the longitudinal extension direction of the tunnel, when water burst and/or mud burst appear on the tunnel face, the tunnel face is treated by adopting a tunnel face plugging and grouting reinforcement method, and the process is as follows;
step B1, sand bag plugging: plugging the part of the tunnel face where water and/or mud burst occurs by using a sand bag;
step B2, sealing the tunnel face: constructing a tunnel face plugging structure, and plugging a tunnel face through the tunnel face plugging structure;
as shown in fig. 10 and 11, the tunnel face plugging structure includes a grout stopping wall 22 for plugging the excavated surface of the upper tunnel body 1-5 and a lower plugging layer 1-4 for plugging the excavated surface of the lower tunnel body 1-6, the lower plugging layer 1-4 is located behind the excavated surface of the lower tunnel body 1-6, the lower plugging layer 1-4 is an unearthed rock stratum located below the grout stopping wall 22 or a backfill layer formed by backfilling slag stones generated in the excavation process of the constructed tunnel 1, the upper surface of the lower plugging layer 1-4 is a horizontal plane, and the upper surface of the lower plugging layer 1-4 is horizontally arranged with the bottom surface of the upper tunnel body 1-5; the grout stopping wall 22 is a concrete wall which is vertically arranged, the thickness of the grout stopping wall is 1.8-2.5 m, the cross section of the grout stopping wall 22 is the same as that of the upper hole body 1-5, the grout stopping wall 22 is divided into an upper wall body and a lower wall body which is positioned right below the upper wall body, the middle height of the upper wall body is h1, and the value range of h1 is 4.5-5.5 m; an upper backfill layer 23 is arranged on the rear side of the lower wall body, the upper backfill layer 23 is formed by backfilling slag generated in the excavation process of the constructed tunnel 1, and the upper surface of the upper backfill layer 23 is a horizontal plane; the lower plugging layers 1-4 and the upper backfill layer 23 form a lower plugging structure, the rear end face of the lower plugging structure is a surface to be plugged, and the surface to be plugged is an inclined plane gradually inclined downwards from front to back; a rear plugging layer 24 is arranged on the surface to be plugged, and the rear plugging layer 24 is a concrete spraying layer formed by spraying a layer of concrete on the surface to be plugged; an upper plugging layer 25 is tiled on the upper part of the upper backfill layer 23, the upper plugging layer 25 is horizontally arranged, the upper surface of the upper plugging layer 25 is flush with the upper surface of the lower wall body, and the upper plugging layer 25 is a concrete layer formed by pouring concrete on the upper backfill layer 23; the rear part of the upper blocking layer 25 is connected with the upper part of the rear blocking layer 24, and the upper blocking layer and the rear blocking layer form an external blocking layer for blocking the lower blocking structure;
step B3, advance draining: constructing an underground water drainage structure, and draining underground water in a rock stratum in front of a tunnel face through the underground water drainage structure;
referring to fig. 14, the underground water drainage structure comprises a plurality of drainage pipes 27 for draining underground water in a rock stratum in front of a tunnel face of the constructed tunnel 1 from front to back, the rear ends of the drainage pipes 27 extend out to the rear of the rear blocking layer 24, and the front ends of the drainage pipes 27 extend into the rock stratum in front of the lower blocking layer 1-4 after passing through the lower blocking layer 1-4; drainage holes for installing drainage pipes 27 are formed in the rock stratum in front of the lower blocking layer 1-4, the rear blocking layer 24 and the lower blocking layer 1-4;
step B4, reinforcement of hole circumference in advance: constructing a hole periphery advanced reinforcing structure, and reinforcing a rock stratum in front of a tunnel face through the hole periphery advanced reinforcing structure;
the hole periphery advanced reinforcing structure is a curtain grouting reinforcing structure formed by reinforcing a rock stratum in front of a tunnel face of a constructed tunnel 1 through four groups of grouting holes, each group of grouting holes comprises a plurality of curtain grouting holes 26, and each curtain grouting hole 26 is a grouting hole drilled into the rock stratum from back to front through the upper wall body;
the four groups of grouting holes are respectively an A group of grouting holes, a B group of grouting holes, a C group of grouting holes and a D group of grouting holes, the front ends of all curtain grouting holes 26 in the A group of grouting holes, the B group of grouting holes and the C group of grouting holes are uniformly distributed on the same tunnel cross section, the tunnel cross section where the front end of each curtain grouting hole 26 in the A group of grouting holes, the B group of grouting holes and the C group of grouting holes is located is a grouting front section 20, the horizontal distance between the grouting front section 20 and the rear end face of the grout stopping wall 22 is K1, and the value range of K1 is 28-32 m;
with reference to fig. 12, after the grouting is completed for all the curtain grouting holes 26 in the group a grouting holes on the pre-grouting section 20, an outer grouting reinforcement structure is formed, after the grouting is completed for all the curtain grouting holes 26 in the group B grouting holes on the pre-grouting section 20, an intermediate grouting reinforcement structure is formed, and after the grouting is completed for all the curtain grouting holes 26 in the group C grouting holes on the pre-grouting section 20, an inner grouting reinforcement structure is formed; the outer side grouting reinforcement structure and the inner side grouting reinforcement structure are both arch-shaped reinforcement structures for integrally reinforcing surrounding rocks on the peripheral side of the constructed tunnel 1, the outer side grouting reinforcement structure and the middle grouting reinforcement structure are connected into a whole, and the cross section shapes of the outer side grouting reinforcement structure and the middle grouting reinforcement structure are the same as the cross section shape of an arch wall of the constructed tunnel 1; the outer side grouting reinforcement structure is positioned on the outer side of an arch wall excavation contour line of the constructed tunnel 1, the distance between the vault of the outer side grouting reinforcement structure and the vault of the constructed tunnel 1 is K3, and the value range of K3 is 4.5-5.5 m; the inner side grouting reinforcement structure is a reinforcement structure for integrally reinforcing a rock stratum of the region where the upper hole body 1-5 is located, and the inner side grouting reinforcement structure and the middle grouting reinforcement structure are connected into a whole;
the front ends of all curtain grouting holes 26 in the D groups of grouting holes are uniformly distributed on the same tunnel cross section, the tunnel cross section where the front end of each curtain grouting hole 26 in the D groups of grouting holes is located is a grouting middle section 21, the horizontal distance between the grouting middle section 21 and the rear end face of the grout stopping wall 22 is K2, and the value range of K2 is 16-18 m;
with reference to fig. 14, after grouting all the curtain grouting holes 26 in the D groups of grouting holes on the grouting middle section 21, forming a middle grouting reinforcement structure, where the middle grouting reinforcement structure is an arch reinforcement structure that integrally reinforces the surrounding rocks around the constructed tunnel 1, and the cross-sectional shape of the middle grouting reinforcement structure is the same as the cross-sectional shape of the arch wall of the constructed tunnel 1; the middle grouting reinforcement structure is located on the outer side of an arch wall excavation contour line of the constructed tunnel 1, and the distance between the vault of the middle grouting reinforcement structure and the vault of the constructed tunnel 1 is K2.
In this embodiment, the thickness of the grout stopping wall 22 is 2m, and h1 is 5 m.
During actual construction, the thickness of the grout stopping wall 22 and the value of h1 can be adjusted correspondingly according to specific needs.
In this embodiment, K1 ═ 30m, K2 ═ 17m, and K3 ═ 5 m.
During actual construction, the values of K1, K2 and K3 can be adjusted correspondingly according to specific requirements.
In this embodiment, the thickness of the upper blocking layer 25 is 18cm to 22 cm. During actual construction, the upper plugging layer 25 can be adjusted accordingly according to specific needs. Also, the upper plugging layer 25 may serve as a drilling platform for drilling the four sets of curtain grouting holes 26. In actual construction, a drilling machine for drilling the curtain grouting holes 26 is mounted on the drilling platform, so that the operation is simple and convenient, and construction is convenient.
As shown in fig. 10, the group a curtain grouting holes include a plurality of first grouting holes arranged along an arc line C1 and two second grouting holes symmetrically arranged left and right, rear ends of the plurality of first grouting holes are uniformly arranged on the arc line C1 along a circumferential direction, and rear ends of the two second grouting holes and rear ends of two first grouting holes located at the lowermost position among the plurality of first grouting holes are uniformly arranged on the same horizontal straight line L1;
the group D of grouting holes comprise a plurality of third grouting holes distributed along an arc line C1 and two fourth grouting holes symmetrically distributed left and right, the rear ends of the plurality of third grouting holes are uniformly distributed on the arc line C1 along the circumferential direction, each third grouting hole is positioned between two adjacent first grouting holes, and one third grouting hole is uniformly distributed between two adjacent first grouting holes; the rear ends of the two fourth grouting holes are positioned on a horizontal straight line L1;
the group B of grouting holes comprise a plurality of fifth grouting holes distributed along an arc line C2 and two sixth grouting holes symmetrically distributed left and right, the rear ends of the fifth grouting holes are uniformly distributed on the arc line C2 along the circumferential direction, and the rear ends of the two sixth grouting holes and the rear ends of the two fifth grouting holes positioned at the lowest position in the fifth grouting holes are uniformly distributed on a horizontal straight line L1;
the group C of grouting holes comprise a plurality of seventh grouting holes distributed along an arc line C3, a plurality of eighth grouting holes distributed from left to right and ninth grouting holes symmetrically distributed from left to right, the rear ends of the seventh grouting holes are uniformly distributed on the arc line C3 along the circumferential direction, and the rear ends of the eighth grouting holes and the rear ends of two of the seventh grouting holes positioned at the lowest position in the seventh grouting holes are uniformly distributed on the same horizontal straight line L2; the rear ends of the two ninth grouting holes are arranged between the circular arc line C3 and the horizontal straight line L2; all the curtain grouting holes 26 on the horizontal straight line L2 are uniformly distributed;
the total number of the curtain grouting holes 26 on the horizontal straight line L1 is 10, and 5 curtain grouting holes 26 are respectively distributed on the left side and the right side of the horizontal straight line L1; the 5 curtain grouting holes 26 positioned on the left side of the horizontal straight line L1 are respectively a first grouting hole, a fifth grouting hole, a fourth grouting hole, a second grouting hole and a sixth grouting hole;
the horizontal straight line L2 is located above the horizontal straight line L1, the circular arc line C1 is located on the inner side of an excavation contour line C1 of the upper hole body 1-5, the circular arc line C1, the circular arc line C2 and the circular arc line C3 are arranged from outside to inside, and the circle centers of the circular arc line C1, the circular arc line C2, the circular arc line C3 and the excavation contour line C1 of the upper hole body 1-5 are all circle centers O.
With reference to fig. 1, 12, and 14, in this embodiment, the number of the first grouting holes is 13, the number of the third grouting holes is 12, the number of the fifth grouting holes is 10, the number of the seventh grouting holes is 7, and the number of the eighth grouting holes is 3.
The number of the 13 first grouting holes is A2, A3, A4, A5, A6, A7, A8, A9, A10, A11, A12, A13 and A14 from left to right, and the number of the two second grouting holes is A1 and A15;
the numbers of the 12 third grouting holes are respectively D2, D3, D4, D5, D6, D7, D8, D5, D9, D10, D11, D12 and D13 from left to right, and the numbers of the left and right fourth grouting holes are respectively D1 and D14;
the numbers of the 10 fifth grouting holes are B2, B3, B4, B5, B6, B7, B8, B9, B10 and B11 from left to right respectively, and the numbers of the left and right fifth grouting holes are B1 and B12 respectively;
the number of the 7 seventh grouting holes is C1, C2, C3, C4, C5, C6 and C7 from left to right, the number of the 3 eighth grouting holes is C8, C9 and C10 from left to right, and the number of the two ninth grouting holes is C11 and C12 from left to right.
In this embodiment, an included angle between the surface to be plugged and the horizontal plane is 30 to 45 degrees.
In order to further reinforce the arch springing of the upper step of the constructed tunnel 1 and effectively reinforce the loose surrounding rock of the arch springing, when the advanced reinforcement is carried out around the tunnel in the step B4, the supporting structures of the left and right arch springing advanced pipe sheds are adopted to reinforce the rock stratum outside the arch springing of the upper tunnel body 1-5;
the two arch foot forepoling shed supporting structures are symmetrically arranged;
with reference to fig. 14, each of the arch foot advance pipe shed supporting structures is a self-drilling pipe shed and comprises a plurality of arch foot pipe shed pipes 28 which are drilled into a rock layer in front of the grout stop wall 22 from back to front, the plurality of arch foot pipe shed pipes 28 are arranged from top to bottom along arch foot excavation contour lines of the upper tunnel body 1-5, and the camber angle of each arch foot pipe shed pipe 28 is 3-5 degrees; a plurality of arch foot pipe shed pipes 28 in each arch foot advance pipe shed supporting structure are uniformly distributed, the circumferential distance between the rear ends of two adjacent arch foot pipe shed pipes 28 is 55 cm-65 cmmm, the outer diameter of each arch foot pipe shed pipe 28 is phi 70 mm-phi 80mm, and the wall thickness of each arch foot pipe shed pipe 28 is 13 mm-18 mm; the length of the arch foot pipe shed pipe 28 along the longitudinal extension direction of the tunnel is 6 m-9 m.
In this embodiment, the camber angle of each of the arch pin pipe shed pipes 28 is 3 °, the circumferential distance between the rear ends of two adjacent arch pin pipe shed pipes 28 is 60cmmm, the outer diameter of each of the arch pin pipe shed pipes 28 is phi 76mm, and the wall thickness of each of the arch pin pipe shed pipes is 15 mm.
During actual construction, the camber angle of the arch pin pipe shed pipes 28, the circumferential distance between the rear ends of two adjacent arch pin pipe shed pipes 28, and the outer diameter and the wall thickness of each arch pin pipe shed pipe 28 can be adjusted correspondingly according to specific requirements.
During actual construction, the grout stopping wall 22 is constructed firstly; after the construction of the grout stopping wall 22 is completed, constructing the lower plugging structure, and constructing an upper plugging layer 25 and a rear plugging layer 24; then constructing the underground water drainage structure; and after the underground water drainage structure is constructed, constructing the hole surrounding advanced reinforcement structure according to a conventional curtain grouting method.
From the above, when a water-rich weak surrounding rock tunnel penetrating through a fault fracture zone is constructed, although the deformation of the surrounding rock and the primary support can be theoretically reduced by adopting a three-step method, the actual construction primary support is often closed for a long time and cannot achieve an ideal effect. When the two-step method is adopted for excavation, although the excavation area is large, after comprehensive measures such as advancing by adopting the pipe shed advance supporting structure, longitudinally connecting and reinforcing the arch frame connecting structure consisting of a plurality of sections of steel, carrying out centralized anchoring by adopting two groups of anchoring groups and the like are carried out, the deformation of the primary support can be effectively reduced, the safety and the reliability of the tunnel construction process can be ensured, the construction effect can be effectively improved, the construction risk can be reduced, the construction safety and the stability of surrounding rocks and supporting can be completely ensured, and the closing time of the primary support is earlier, so that the deformation of the surrounding rocks can be favorably controlled.
In this embodiment, the reinforcement length of the hole periphery advanced reinforcement structure is 30m, the grouting reinforcement range is 5m outside the excavation contour line, the periphery is to the arch springing, and the tunnel face is 8.5m below the arch crown.
In the embodiment, when grouting reinforcement is performed through the four groups of curtain grouting holes 26, the injected grout is cement-water glass double-grout, the cement-water glass double-grout is formed by uniformly mixing cement paste and water glass, and the volume ratio of the cement paste to the water glass is 1: 1; the water-cement ratio (w: c) of the cement paste is (0.8-1) to 1.
In practical use, when grouting reinforcement is performed through the four curtain grouting holes 26, the injected grout can also be ordinary portland cement single grout, i.e. pure cement grout.
In this embodiment, when the four curtain grouting holes 26 are used for grouting reinforcement, the grouting diffusion radius of each curtain grouting hole 26 is 2m, the grouting termination final pressure is 3.0 to 5.0MPa, and the grouting speed is 20 to 70L/min. During actual construction, the grouting diffusion radius, the grouting termination final pressure and the grouting speed of each curtain grouting hole 26 can be adjusted correspondingly according to specific requirements.
When grouting reinforcement is performed through the four groups of curtain grouting holes 26, the grouting sequence is performed according to the sequence of first peripheral hole, then middle hole, and first shallow hole, then deep hole, and hole jumping operation is performed. And, according to the volume of gushing water and confirm the segmentation length, the principle of segmentation length is: no hole collapse and water inflow amount of not more than 10m in the drilling process3The length of the per hour time segment is 10m, the slight hole collapse and the water inflow are more than 10m3H is not more than 30m3The length of the/h time division section is 5m, the hole collapse is serious andthe water inflow is more than 30mm3And at the time of/h, immediately stopping drilling to implement grouting, wherein the grouting ending pressure is 3-5 MPa.
The above description is only a preferred embodiment of the present invention, and is not intended to limit the present invention, and all simple modifications, changes and equivalent structural changes made to the above embodiment according to the technical spirit of the present invention still fall within the protection scope of the technical solution of the present invention.

Claims (10)

1. A construction method of a water-rich weak surrounding rock tunnel penetrating through a fault fracture zone is characterized by comprising the following steps: the tunnel supporting structure of the constructed tunnel (1) comprises a tunnel advance supporting structure for advance supporting of the constructed tunnel (1), a tunnel primary supporting structure for primary supporting of the constructed tunnel (1) and a tunnel secondary lining (14) arranged on the inner side of the tunnel primary supporting structure, wherein the tunnel primary supporting structure and the tunnel secondary lining (14) are full-section supporting structures for full-section supporting of a tunnel hole of the constructed tunnel (1), and the tunnel secondary lining (14) is a reinforced concrete lining; the cross-sectional area of the tunnel hole is more than 100m2The tunnel hole is divided into an upper hole body (1-5) and a lower hole body (1-6) which is positioned right below the upper hole body (1-5); the excavation height of the tunnel hole is more than 10m, the excavation height of the upper hole body is 6.5 m-8 m, and the excavation height of the lower hole body (1-6) is 3.5 m-4.5 m; the upper hole body (1-5) is divided into a reserved core soil area hole body (1-1) and an upper circumferential side hole body (1-2) positioned on the outer side of the reserved core soil area hole body (1-1), the lower hole body (1-6) is divided into a left lower hole body and a right lower hole body (1-3), one lower hole body (1-3) in the lower hole bodies (1-6) is an excavation hole body firstly, and the other lower hole body (1-3) is an excavation hole body later; the surrounding rock level of the tunnel hole is V level;
the constructed tunnel (1) is divided into a plurality of tunnel sections (18) from back to front along the longitudinal extension direction of the tunnel, and the length of each tunnel section (18) is 28-34 m;
the tunnel advance support structure comprises a plurality of advance pipe shed support structures for advance support of the upper tunnel body from back to front along the longitudinal extension direction of the tunnel, the number of the advance pipe shed support structures is the same as the number of tunnel sections (18) included in the constructed tunnel (1), each advance pipe shed support structure is positioned on the outer side of one tunnel section (18), and each tunnel section (18) is advance supported through one advance pipe shed support structure;
the length of each advance pipe shed supporting structure along the longitudinal extension direction of the tunnel is l, wherein l is b + c; b is the length of a tunnel section (18) supported by the advanced pipe shed supporting structure, and the value range of b is 28-34 m; c is the supporting length of the front section of the pipe shed of the advance pipe shed supporting structure, theta is an internal friction angle of a surrounding rock mass of a tunnel section (18) supported by the advanced pipe shed supporting structure, and h is the excavation height of the upper tunnel body (1-5);
each advance pipe shed supporting structure is a self-drilling pipe shed and comprises a plurality of pipe shed pipes (16) which are drilled into a rock layer in front of the tunnel face of a supported tunnel section (18) from back to front, the plurality of pipe shed pipes (16) are distributed along the excavation contour line of the upper hole body from left to right, and the camber angle of each pipe shed pipe (16) is 3 degrees; a plurality of pipe shed pipes (16) in each advance pipe shed supporting structure are uniformly distributed, the circumferential distance between the rear ends of two adjacent pipe shed pipes (16) is 400-800 mm, the outer diameter of each pipe shed pipe (16) is phi 70-80 mm, and the wall thickness of each pipe shed pipe is 13-18 mm;
each pipe shed pipe (16) is a self-drilling pipe shed pipe, the self-drilling pipe shed pipe comprises a straight pipe body and a drill bit arranged at the front end of the straight pipe body, a plurality of grouting holes are formed in the drill bit in the circumferential direction, the straight pipe body is formed by assembling a plurality of pipe sections which are arranged on the same straight line from front to back, and each pipe section is a threaded steel pipe with external threads arranged on the outer wall from front to back; the cross section structures and the sizes of the pipe sections are the same, and two adjacent pipe sections are fastened and connected through a threaded connecting sleeve;
the tunnel primary supporting structure comprises a full-section supporting structure for performing full-section supporting on the tunnel, and an anchoring system is arranged on the outer side of the full-section supporting structure; the full-section supporting structure and the anchoring system are arranged along the longitudinal extension direction of the tunnel;
the full-section supporting structure comprises a plurality of section steel arch frames for performing full-section supporting on the constructed tunnel (1) and a plurality of arch frame connecting structures which are arranged from back to front along the longitudinal extension direction of the tunnel, the plurality of section steel arch frames are all the same in structure and are arranged from back to front along the longitudinal extension direction of the tunnel, the plurality of section steel arch frames are uniformly arranged, and each section steel arch frame is positioned on one tunnel cross section of the constructed tunnel (1);
the shape of each steel arch is the same as the shape of the cross section of the tunnel; each section steel arch comprises an arch wall steel arch for supporting an arch wall of the tunnel cave, a vertical temporary support column (6) located in a hole body (1-2) on the peripheral side of the upper portion and a tunnel inverted arch support (2) arranged at the bottom of the inner side of the tunnel cave, the tunnel inverted arch support (2) is located right below the arch wall steel arch and located on the cross section of the same tunnel, the left end of the tunnel inverted arch support (2) is fixedly connected with the bottom of the left side of the arch wall steel arch, the right end of the tunnel inverted arch support (2) is fixedly connected with the bottom of the right side of the arch wall steel arch, and the tunnel inverted arch support (2) and the arch wall steel arch form a closed full-section support; the arch wall steel arch comprises an upper steel arch (4) and two side supports (5), wherein the upper steel arch (4) is positioned in the upper peripheral side hole bodies (1-2), the two side supports (5) are symmetrically distributed below the bottoms of the left side and the right side of the upper steel arch (4), and the two side supports (5) are positioned in the lower hole bodies (1-6); the vertical temporary support column (6) is supported under the middle part of the upper steel arch (4), the top of the vertical temporary support column (6) is fixedly connected with the middle part of the upper steel arch (4), a horizontal connecting plate (7) used for connecting the vertical temporary support column (6) is arranged on the bottom surface of the middle part of the upper steel arch (4), and the bottom of the vertical temporary support column (6) is supported at the bottom of the inner side of the upper peripheral side hole body (1-2); the upper steel arch (4), the side support (5), the tunnel inverted arch support (2) and the vertical temporary support column (6) of each section steel arch are all positioned on the same tunnel cross section;
the structures of the arch frame connecting structures are the same, and the front and rear two adjacent steel arch frames are fastened and connected through one arch frame connecting structure; each arch frame connecting structure comprises a plurality of longitudinal connecting pieces (3) connected between two front and rear adjacent arch wall steel arch frames, and the plurality of longitudinal connecting pieces (3) are distributed on the same tunnel section along the arch wall excavation contour line of the constructed tunnel (1); each longitudinal connecting piece (3) is a section steel which is horizontally arranged, and each longitudinal connecting piece (3) is arranged along the longitudinal extension direction of the tunnel; longitudinal connecting pieces (3) in two adjacent arch center connecting structures are arranged in a staggered manner;
the anchoring system comprises a plurality of anchoring structures which are arranged from back to front along the longitudinal extension direction of the tunnel, one anchoring structure is arranged at the outer side of each upper steel arch (4), and the upper steel arch (4) and the anchoring structure arranged at the outer side of the upper steel arch are arranged on the cross section of the same tunnel; each anchoring structure is uniformly distributed on the outer side of one upper steel arch (4), each anchoring structure comprises two anchoring groups which are symmetrically distributed on the left and right, and the two anchoring groups are respectively distributed on the left and right sides of the lower part of one upper steel arch (4); each anchoring group comprises a lower foot-locking anchor pipe (9) and a plurality of upper foot-locking anchor rods (10) arranged from top to bottom, the plurality of upper foot-locking anchor rods (10) are positioned right above the lower foot-locking anchor pipe (9) and are uniformly distributed on the same vertical surface, the upper foot-locking anchor rods (10) and the lower foot-locking anchor pipes (9) enter a rock stratum on the outer side of the tunnel hole from inside to outside and are gradually inclined downwards from inside to outside; the plurality of upper pin-locking anchor rods (10) are arranged in parallel, the included angle between each upper pin-locking anchor rod and the horizontal plane is A1, and the value range of A1 is 25-35 degrees; the included angle between the lower lock pin anchor pipe (9) and the horizontal plane is A2, and the value range of A2 is 38-45 degrees; the lower lock leg anchor pipe (9) is a hollow self-advancing anchor rod and a grouting anchor rod, and the length of the lower lock leg anchor pipe (9) is not less than 4 m; the upper foot-locking anchor rods (10) are hollow grouting anchor rods, and the length of each of the upper foot-locking anchor rods (10) is the same and is not less than 3 m; the inner ends of the upper foot-locking anchor rod (10) and the lower foot-locking anchor pipe (9) are fixed on the upper steel arch frame (4) positioned on the inner side of the upper foot-locking anchor rod and the lower foot-locking anchor pipe;
when the constructed tunnel (1) is constructed, a plurality of tunnel sections (18) in the constructed tunnel (1) are constructed respectively from back to front along the longitudinal extension direction of the tunnel, and the construction methods of the plurality of tunnel sections (18) are the same; -upon construction of any one of said tunnel sections (18) in a constructed tunnel (1), comprising the steps of:
step one, pipe shed advance support: constructing the forepoling support structure of the currently constructed tunnel section (18);
step two, tunnel excavation and primary support: excavating a currently constructed tunnel segment (18) from back to front along the longitudinal extension direction of the tunnel, synchronously performing primary support on the tunnel hole formed by excavation in the excavation process, and obtaining a primary support structure of the tunnel formed by construction;
when the tunnel excavation and primary support are carried out on the currently constructed tunnel segment (18), the process is as follows:
step A1, excavating the upper peripheral side cavity and performing primary support: excavating the upper peripheral side hole body (1-2) of the currently constructed tunnel segment (18) from back to front along the longitudinal extension direction of the tunnel;
in the excavation process of the upper peripheral side hole body (1-2), performing primary support on the excavated upper peripheral side hole body (1-2) from back to front;
when the upper peripheral side hole body (1-2) is initially supported, an upper steel arch (4) is installed in the upper peripheral side hole body (1-2) formed by excavation from back to front, one vertical temporary support column (6) is installed under the middle of each upper steel arch (4), the bottom of each vertical temporary support column (6) is supported at the inner bottom of the upper peripheral side hole body (1-2), and the upper steel arch (4) installed in each upper is fixedly connected with one upper steel arch (4) located on the rear side of the upper steel arch through a plurality of longitudinal connecting pieces (3); meanwhile, the left side and the right side of the lower part of each installed upper steel arch (4) are respectively provided with one anchoring group from back to front;
in the step, the excavation surface of the upper peripheral side hole body (1-2) is a vertical surface;
step A2, excavation and primary support of the reserved core soil area hole body: in the step A1, in the process of excavating the upper peripheral side hole body (1-2), excavating the reserved core soil area hole body (1-1) of the currently constructed tunnel segment (18) from back to front along the longitudinal extension direction of the tunnel to obtain an upper hole body (1-5) formed by excavation;
in the excavation process of the reserved core soil area hole body (1-1), dismantling a vertical temporary support column (6) which is in a suspended state after the excavation of the reserved core soil area hole body (1-1) is completed from back to front;
in the step, the excavation surface of the reserved core soil area hole body (1-1) is positioned behind the excavation surface of the upper peripheral side hole body (1-2), and the excavation surface of the reserved core soil area hole body (1-1) is an inclined surface which is gradually inclined downwards from front to back;
step A3, firstly, excavating a tunnel body and performing primary support: in the step A2, in the process of excavating the hole body (1-1) of the reserved core soil area, excavating the firstly-excavated hole body of the currently constructed tunnel segment (18) from back to front along the longitudinal extension direction of the tunnel;
during the excavation process of the firstly excavated tunnel body, carrying out primary support on the firstly excavated tunnel body from back to front; when the pre-excavated hole body is initially supported, side supports (5) are installed in the pre-excavated hole body formed by excavation from back to front, and each installed side support (5) is fixedly connected with one side support (5) located right behind the side support through a plurality of longitudinal connecting pieces (3);
in the step, the excavation surface of the hole body to be excavated firstly is positioned behind the excavation surface of the hole body (1-1) of the reserved core soil area, and the excavation surface of the hole body to be excavated firstly is a vertical surface;
step A4, post-excavation hole excavation and primary support: in the step A3, in the process of excavating the firstly-excavated hole body, excavating the secondly-excavated hole body of the currently constructed tunnel segment (18) from back to front along the longitudinal extension direction of the tunnel to obtain an excavated lower hole body (1-6);
in the process of excavating the rear excavation hole body, performing primary support on the lower hole body (1-6) formed by excavation from back to front; when the lower hole bodies (1-6) are initially supported, side supports (5) are installed in the rear excavated hole body formed by excavation from back to front, and each installed side support (5) is fixedly connected with one side support (5) located right behind the side support through a plurality of longitudinal connecting pieces (3); meanwhile, a tunnel inverted arch support (2) is arranged at the bottom of the lower hole body (1-6) which is formed by excavation from back to front, and the arranged tunnel inverted arch support (2) is fixedly connected with side supports (5) arranged at the left side and the right side of the lower hole body (1-6) into a whole;
in the step, the excavation surface of the post-excavation hole body is positioned behind the excavation surface of the pre-excavation hole body, and the excavation surface of the post-excavation hole body is an inclined surface which is gradually inclined downwards from front to back;
step three, tunnel secondary lining construction: and in the process of tunnel excavation and primary support in the second step, constructing the tunnel secondary lining (14) of the currently constructed tunnel section (18) from back to front along the longitudinal extension direction of the tunnel, and enabling the tunnel secondary lining (14) to be located on the inner side of the constructed tunnel primary support structure.
2. The construction method of the water-rich weak surrounding rock tunnel crossing the fault fracture zone according to claim 1, characterized in that: the post-excavation hole body and the pre-excavation hole body are symmetrically arranged; the included angle between the excavation surface of the rear excavation hole body and the horizontal plane is 50-75 degrees, and the included angle between the excavation surface of the reserved core soil area hole body (1-1) and the horizontal plane is 50-75 degrees.
3. The method for constructing a water-rich weak surrounding rock tunnel crossing a fault-fractured zone according to claim 1 or 2, wherein: a waterproof layer (15) is arranged on the inner wall of the tunnel primary supporting structure, and the tunnel secondary lining (14) is positioned on the inner side of the waterproof layer (15);
before the secondary lining construction of the tunnel in the third step, a waterproof layer (15) is constructed on the inner side of the constructed and molded primary tunnel supporting structure from back to front along the longitudinal extension direction of the tunnel;
and in the process of constructing the waterproof layer (15) from back to front, constructing the secondary lining (14) of the tunnel from back to front along the longitudinal extension direction of the tunnel.
4. The method for constructing a water-rich weak surrounding rock tunnel crossing a fault-fractured zone according to claim 1 or 2, wherein: the area of the advanced pipe shed supporting structure arranged on the outer side of each tunnel section (18) is an advanced supporting area, and the advanced supporting area is located above the anchoring system.
5. The construction method of the water-rich weak surrounding rock tunnel crossing the fault fracture zone according to claim 3, characterized in that: a reserved deformation cavity (17) is reserved between the waterproof layer (15) and the tunnel secondary lining (14), the cross section of the reserved deformation cavity (17) is arched, and the thickness of the arch part of the reserved deformation cavity is 13-17 mm.
6. The method for constructing a water-rich weak surrounding rock tunnel crossing a fault-fractured zone according to claim 1 or 2, wherein: when the advanced pipe shed supporting structure of the currently constructed tunnel segment (18) is constructed in the first step, a plurality of pipe shed pipes (16) in the advanced pipe shed supporting structure are constructed respectively, and the pipe shed pipes (16) are constructed symmetrically from the vault to the left and right sides;
the construction methods of a plurality of the pipe shed pipes (16) in the advanced pipe shed supporting structure are the same; when any one of the pipe shed pipes (16) is constructed, drilling construction is carried out on the pipe shed pipe (16) by using a drilling machine, and grouting equipment is adopted in the drilling process and grouting is synchronously carried out through the pipe shed pipe (16);
after all the pipe shed pipes (16) in the advanced pipe shed supporting structure are constructed, adopting grouting equipment to perform secondary grouting on all the pipe shed pipes (16), and completing the construction process of the advanced pipe shed supporting structure after all the pipe shed pipes (16) are subjected to secondary grouting;
when grouting is synchronously performed through the pipe shed pipe (16) and secondary grouting is performed through the pipe shed pipe (16) in the drilling process, the grouting liquid is cement paste.
7. The method for constructing a water-rich weak surrounding rock tunnel crossing a fault-fractured zone according to claim 1 or 2, wherein: the distance between two front and back adjacent profile steel arches is L, wherein the value range of L is 0.6 m-1.2 m;
the horizontal distance between the top of the excavation surface of the reserved core soil area hole body (1-1) and the excavation surface of the upper peripheral side hole body (1-2) in the step A2 is 2L-4L, the excavation surface of the first excavation hole body and the bottom of the excavation surface of the reserved core soil area hole body (1-1) in the step A3 are located on the same vertical surface, and the horizontal distance between the top of the excavation surface of the later excavation hole body and the excavation surface of the first excavation hole body in the step A4 is 2L-4L.
8. The method for constructing a water-rich weak surrounding rock tunnel crossing a fault-fractured zone according to claim 1 or 2, wherein: the tunnel primary support structure further comprises an arch wall primary support structure for primary support of an arch wall of the tunnel hole and an inverted arch primary support structure for primary support of the bottom of the tunnel hole, wherein the inverted arch primary support structure is positioned right below the arch wall primary support structure; the inverted arch primary support structure is an inverted arch concrete injection layer (13) injected at the bottom of the tunnel, and the tunnel inverted arch support (2) is fixed in the inverted arch concrete injection layer (13);
the arch wall primary supporting structure comprises an arch wall reinforcing steel net piece hung on the arch wall of the tunnel cave and an arch wall concrete spraying layer (12) sprayed on the arch wall of the tunnel cave, wherein the arch wall reinforcing steel net piece is fixed on the arch wall steel arch centering, and the arch wall reinforcing steel net piece, the arch wall steel arch centering and the horizontal connecting plate (7) are all fixed in the arch wall concrete spraying layer (12); the arch wall concrete spraying layer (12) is connected with an inverted arch concrete spraying layer (13) positioned below the arch wall concrete spraying layer into a whole;
the arch wall primary supporting structure further comprises a plurality of anchor rod groups which are arranged from back to front along the longitudinal extension direction of the tunnel, each anchor rod group is arranged on the outer side of one steel arch, and each anchor rod group and the steel arch positioned on the inner side of the anchor rod group are arranged on the cross section of the same tunnel; each anchor rod group comprises a plurality of grouting anchor rods (11) for supporting the arch wall of the tunnel, and the plurality of grouting anchor rods (11) are arranged along the excavation contour line of the arch wall of the tunnel; the grouting anchor rods (11) of the front and rear adjacent two anchor rod groups are arranged in a staggered manner; every slip casting stock (11) all gets into from interior to exterior in the stratum outside the tunnel hole, every the inner of slip casting stock (11) all is fixed and is located its inboard on the shaped steel bow member.
9. The method for constructing a water-rich weak surrounding rock tunnel crossing a fault-fractured zone according to claim 1 or 2, wherein: in the second step, in the excavation process of the currently constructed tunnel segment (18) from back to front along the longitudinal extension direction of the tunnel, when water burst and/or mud burst appear on the tunnel face, the tunnel face is treated by adopting a tunnel face plugging and grouting reinforcement method, and the process is as follows;
step B1, sand bag plugging: plugging the part of the tunnel face where water and/or mud burst occurs by using a sand bag;
step B2, sealing the tunnel face: constructing a tunnel face plugging structure, and plugging a tunnel face through the tunnel face plugging structure;
the tunnel face plugging structure comprises a grout stopping wall (22) for plugging the digging face of an upper tunnel body (1-5) and a lower plugging layer (1-4) for plugging the digging face of a lower tunnel body (1-6), the lower plugging layer (1-4) is positioned behind the digging face of the lower tunnel body (1-6), the lower plugging layer (1-4) is an unearthed rock stratum positioned below the grout stopping wall (22) or a backfill layer formed by backfilling slag stones generated in the digging process of a constructed tunnel (1), the upper surface of the lower plugging layer (1-4) is a horizontal plane, and the upper surface of the lower plugging layer and the bottom surface of the upper tunnel body (1-5) are horizontally arranged; the grout stopping wall (22) is a concrete wall which is vertically arranged, the thickness of the grout stopping wall is 1.8-2.5 m, the cross section of the grout stopping wall (22) is the same as that of the upper hole body (1-5), the grout stopping wall (22) is divided into an upper wall body and a lower wall body which is positioned right below the upper wall body, the middle height of the upper wall body is h1, and the value range of h1 is 4.5-5.5 m; an upper backfill layer (23) is arranged on the rear side of the lower wall body, the upper backfill layer (23) is formed by backfilling slag generated in the excavation process of the constructed tunnel (1), and the upper surface of the upper backfill layer (23) is a horizontal plane; the lower plugging layers (1-4) and the upper backfill layer (23) form a lower plugging structure, the rear end face of the lower plugging structure is a surface to be plugged, and the surface to be plugged is an inclined plane which gradually inclines downwards from front to back; a rear plugging layer (24) is arranged on the surface to be plugged, and the rear plugging layer (24) is a concrete spraying layer formed by spraying a layer of concrete on the surface to be plugged; an upper plugging layer (25) is flatly laid on the upper part of the upper backfill layer (23), the upper plugging layer (25) is horizontally arranged, the upper surface of the upper plugging layer is flush with the upper surface of the lower wall body, and the upper plugging layer (25) is a concrete layer formed by pouring concrete on the upper backfill layer (23); the rear part of the upper blocking layer (25) is connected with the upper part of the rear blocking layer (24) and the upper part and the rear blocking layer form an external blocking layer for blocking the lower blocking structure;
step B3, advance draining: constructing an underground water drainage structure, and draining underground water in a rock stratum in front of a tunnel face through the underground water drainage structure;
the underground water drainage structure comprises a plurality of drainage pipes (27) which discharge underground water in a rock stratum in front of a tunnel face of the constructed tunnel (1) from front to back, the rear ends of the drainage pipes (27) extend out to the rear of the rear blocking layer (24), and the front ends of the drainage pipes (27) extend into the rock stratum in front of the lower blocking layer (1-4) after passing through the lower blocking layer (1-4); drainage holes for installing drainage pipes (27) are formed in the rock stratum in front of the lower blocking layer (1-4), the rear blocking layer (24) and the lower blocking layer (1-4);
step B4, reinforcement of hole circumference in advance: constructing a hole periphery advanced reinforcing structure, and reinforcing a rock stratum in front of a tunnel face through the hole periphery advanced reinforcing structure;
the hole periphery advanced reinforcing structure is a curtain grouting reinforcing structure formed by reinforcing a rock stratum in front of a tunnel face of a constructed tunnel (1) through four groups of grouting holes, each group of grouting holes comprises a plurality of curtain grouting holes (26), and each curtain grouting hole (26) is a grouting hole drilled into the rock stratum from back to front through the upper wall body;
the four groups of grouting holes are respectively an A group of grouting holes, a B group of grouting holes, a C group of grouting holes and a D group of grouting holes, the front ends of all curtain grouting holes (26) in the A group of grouting holes, the B group of grouting holes and the C group of grouting holes are uniformly distributed on the same tunnel cross section, the tunnel cross section where the front end of each curtain grouting hole (26) in the A group of grouting holes, the B group of grouting holes and the C group of grouting holes is located is a grouting front section (20), the horizontal distance between the grouting front section (20) and the rear end face of a grout stopping wall (22) is K1, and the value range of K1 is 28-32 m;
forming an outer side grouting reinforcement structure after grouting of all curtain grouting holes (26) in the group A of grouting holes in the grouting front section (20), forming an intermediate grouting reinforcement structure after grouting of all curtain grouting holes (26) in the group B of grouting holes in the grouting front section (20), and forming an inner side grouting reinforcement structure after grouting of all curtain grouting holes (26) in the group C of grouting holes in the grouting front section (20); the outer side grouting reinforcement structure and the inner side grouting reinforcement structure are both arch-shaped reinforcement structures for integrally reinforcing surrounding rocks on the peripheral side of the constructed tunnel (1), the outer side grouting reinforcement structure and the middle grouting reinforcement structure are connected into a whole, and the cross section shapes of the outer side grouting reinforcement structure and the middle grouting reinforcement structure are the same as the cross section shape of an arch wall of the constructed tunnel (1); the outer side grouting reinforcement structure is positioned on the outer side of an arch wall excavation contour line of the constructed tunnel (1), the distance between the arch crown of the outer side grouting reinforcement structure and the arch crown of the constructed tunnel (1) is K3, and the value range of K3 is 4.5-5.5 m; the inner side grouting reinforcement structure is a reinforcement structure for integrally reinforcing a rock stratum of the region where the upper hole body (1-5) is located, and the inner side grouting reinforcement structure and the middle grouting reinforcement structure are connected into a whole;
the front ends of all curtain grouting holes (26) in the D groups of grouting holes are uniformly distributed on the same cross section of the tunnel, the cross section of the tunnel where the front end of each curtain grouting hole (26) in the D groups of grouting holes is located is a grouting middle section (21), the horizontal distance between the grouting middle section (21) and the rear end face of the grout stopping wall (22) is K2, and the value range of K2 is 16-18 m;
after grouting is completed in all curtain grouting holes (26) in the D groups of grouting holes in the grouting middle section (21), a middle grouting reinforcement structure is formed, the middle grouting reinforcement structure is an arch reinforcement structure for integrally reinforcing surrounding rocks on the peripheral side of the constructed tunnel (1), and the cross section shape of the middle grouting reinforcement structure is the same as that of an arch wall of the constructed tunnel (1); the middle grouting reinforcement structure is located on the outer side of an arch wall excavation contour line of the constructed tunnel (1), and the distance between the vault of the middle grouting reinforcement structure and the vault of the constructed tunnel (1) is K2.
10. The method for constructing a water-rich weak surrounding rock tunnel penetrating through a fault fracture zone according to claim 9, wherein: when the hole periphery is reinforced in advance in the step B4, the rock stratum outside the arch springing of the upper hole body (1-5) is reinforced by adopting a left arch springing advance pipe shed supporting structure and a right arch springing advance pipe shed supporting structure;
the two arch foot forepoling shed supporting structures are symmetrically arranged;
each arch foot advance pipe shed supporting structure is a self-drilling pipe shed and comprises a plurality of arch foot pipe shed pipes (28) which are drilled into a rock layer in front of a grout stop wall (22) from back to front, the plurality of arch foot pipe shed pipes (28) are arranged from top to bottom along arch foot excavation contour lines of an upper hole body (1-5), and the outer inclination angle of each arch foot pipe shed pipe (28) is 3-5 degrees; a plurality of arch foot pipe shed pipes (28) in each arch foot advance pipe shed supporting structure are uniformly distributed, the circumferential distance between the rear ends of two adjacent arch foot pipe shed pipes (28) is 55 cm-65 cm mm, the outer diameter of each arch foot pipe shed pipe (28) is phi 70 mm-phi 80mm, and the wall thickness of each arch foot pipe shed pipe is 13 mm-18 mm; the length of the arch foot pipe shed pipe (28) along the longitudinal extension direction of the tunnel is 6-9 m.
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