CN110865531B - Time interval measuring method and system based on nonlinear regression - Google Patents

Time interval measuring method and system based on nonlinear regression Download PDF

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CN110865531B
CN110865531B CN201911140191.0A CN201911140191A CN110865531B CN 110865531 B CN110865531 B CN 110865531B CN 201911140191 A CN201911140191 A CN 201911140191A CN 110865531 B CN110865531 B CN 110865531B
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signal
sine wave
damping
detected
time interval
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CN110865531A (en
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王海峰
张升康
王学运
王宏博
易航
王艺陶
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Beijing Institute of Radio Metrology and Measurement
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Beijing Institute of Radio Metrology and Measurement
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G04HOROLOGY
    • G04FTIME-INTERVAL MEASURING
    • G04F10/00Apparatus for measuring unknown time intervals by electric means
    • G04F10/02Apparatus for measuring unknown time intervals by electric means using oscillators with passive electric resonator, e.g. lumped LC

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Abstract

The invention discloses a time interval measuring method based on nonlinear regression, which comprises the following steps: a first signal to be detected enters the LC oscillator, and the first signal to be detected excites the capacitor charging and the inductor discharging of the LC oscillator to generate a damping sine wave signal; A/D conversion and sampling are carried out on the damping sine wave signal to generate a digital signal; performing nonlinear regression estimation on the digital signal to estimate the amplitude, frequency, phase and damping coefficient of the damping sine wave; carrying out the same processing on the second signal to be detected as the first signal to be detected so as to estimate the amplitude, frequency, phase and damping coefficient of a damping sine wave generated by excitation of the second signal to be detected; and performing correlation operation on the damping sine wave signal generated by the first signal to be tested and the damping sine wave signal generated by the second signal to be tested so as to estimate the time interval of the two damping sine wave signals. The technical scheme of the invention can eliminate the time interval measurement error caused by temperature change, and reduce the use complexity of the system.

Description

Time interval measuring method and system based on nonlinear regression
Technical Field
The present invention relates to the field of time interval measurement. And more particularly, to a time interval measuring method and system based on nonlinear regression.
Background
The time interval measurement is widely applied to a plurality of fields of modern science and technology and the like, comprises precise time frequency transmission, radar, radio navigation positioning, communication, laser ranging, photon physics and the like, and is mainly used for accurately representing the time interval between two events. The time interval measurement generally converts two events into two electrical pulse signals which are easy to process, and the time difference between the two electrical pulses is obtained after the two electrical pulse signals are specially processed through a logic gate or an analog circuit and the like.
At present, time interval measuring methods at home and abroad comprise a direct counting method, an extension method, a time amplitude conversion method, a vernier method, a tapped delay line method, a differential delay line method, a time digital conversion method, a surface acoustic wave filter method and the like. In the former 7, the input electrical pulse signal is processed by hardware such as direct delay, latch and conversion through a circuit, and the system measurement resolution is limited. The surface acoustic wave filter method is high in measurement resolution, but poor in temperature stability adaptation, filter characteristics can change along with temperature changes, accordingly time intervals generate large errors, and continuous calibration is needed in the using process.
In view of the above, the present invention provides a time interval measurement method and system based on nonlinear regression, so as to alleviate the technical problems of the prior art in terms of measurement resolution and drift with temperature.
Disclosure of Invention
In order to solve the above technical problems, an object of the present invention is to provide a time interval measuring method and system based on nonlinear regression, so as to alleviate the problems in the prior art.
In a first aspect, the present invention provides a time interval measurement method based on nonlinear regression, including: a first to-be-detected signal enters the LC oscillator, and the first to-be-detected signal excites capacitor charging and inductor discharging of the LC oscillator to generate a damping sine wave signal; A/D conversion and sampling are carried out on the damping sine wave signal to generate a digital signal; performing nonlinear regression estimation on the digital signal to estimate the amplitude, frequency, phase and damping coefficient of the damping sine wave; carrying out the same processing on the second signal to be detected as the first signal to be detected so as to estimate the amplitude, frequency, phase and damping coefficient of a damping sine wave generated by excitation of the second signal to be detected; and performing correlation operation on the damping sine wave signal generated by the first signal to be detected and the damping sine wave signal generated by the second signal to be detected so as to estimate the time interval of the two damping sine wave signals.
Further, the time interval measurement of the first signal to be measured and the second signal to be measured is repeated to realize the continuous measurement of the signal time interval.
Preferably, the quality factor of the LC oscillator is smaller than a first threshold value, so that the amplitude of the damped sine wave decays to zero within a few hundred nanoseconds.
Preferably, the resonant frequency of the LC oscillator is greater than the second threshold to obtain a rich damped sinusoidal oscillation data.
Preferably, the frequency values of the samples take fractional values.
In a second aspect, the present invention further provides a time interval measuring system based on nonlinear regression, including: the LC oscillator generates a damping sine wave signal by capacitor charging and inductor discharging of the LC oscillator under the excitation of a signal to be detected; the sampling module is used for carrying out A/D conversion and sampling on the damping sine wave signal to generate a digital signal; the estimation module is used for carrying out nonlinear regression estimation on the digital signal so as to estimate the amplitude, the frequency, the phase and the damping coefficient of the damping sine wave; and the correlation operation module is used for performing correlation operation on the damping sine wave signal generated by the signal to be detected so as to estimate the time interval of the damping sine wave signal.
The invention has the following beneficial effects:
the technical scheme provided by the invention can have the following beneficial effects: and converting the pulse signal to generate a damped oscillation sine wave by using an LC oscillator as a time stretcher. The original signal is accurately recovered by utilizing a nonlinear regression estimation algorithm, so that the time interval measurement resolution is improved to reach the picosecond magnitude; meanwhile, the parameters of the LC oscillator can be accurately estimated in real time, and time interval measurement errors caused by temperature changes can be eliminated, so that the system measurement does not need complicated repeated calibration, and the use complexity of the time interval measurement system is reduced.
It is to be understood that both the foregoing general description and the following detailed description are exemplary and explanatory only and are not restrictive of the disclosure.
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In order to more clearly illustrate the embodiments of the present invention or the technical solutions in the prior art, the drawings used in the embodiments or the prior art descriptions will be briefly described below, and it is obvious that the drawings in the following description are one embodiment of the present invention, and other drawings can be obtained by those skilled in the art without creative efforts.
FIG. 1 is a flow chart of a time interval measurement method based on non-linear regression according to a first embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a signal transformation diagram of a time interval measurement method based on nonlinear regression according to a first embodiment of the present invention;
fig. 3 is a schematic structural diagram of a time interval measuring system based on nonlinear regression according to a second embodiment of the present invention.
Detailed Description
To make the objects, technical solutions and advantages of the embodiments of the present invention clearer, the technical solutions of the present invention will be clearly and completely described below with reference to the accompanying drawings, and the described embodiments are some, but not all embodiments of the present invention.
The first embodiment is as follows:
fig. 1 is a schematic flowchart of a time interval measurement method based on nonlinear regression according to a first embodiment of the present invention, and as shown in fig. 1, the method includes the following five steps.
Step S101: the signal to be measured enters an LC oscillator to generate a damping sine wave. Specifically, a first signal to be detected enters the LC oscillator, and the first signal to be detected excites the capacitor charging and inductor discharging of the LC oscillator to generate a damping sine wave signal. It should be noted that, since the time interval between two signals to be measured needs to be measured, two LC oscillators are required to process the two signals to be measured respectively. As shown in fig. 2, the first signal to be measured and the second signal to be measured are two pulse signals, and the two pulse signals respectively enter the LC oscillator to be excited to generate a damping sine wave.
In a preferred embodiment, the quality factor of the LC oscillator is smaller than a first threshold value, so that the amplitude of the damped sine wave decays to zero within a few hundred nanoseconds.
In another preferred embodiment, the resonant frequency of the LC oscillator is greater than a second threshold to obtain rich damped sinusoidal oscillation data. Therefore, the method can ensure that richer damped sine oscillation information is obtained by sampling in the process of hundreds of nanoseconds attenuation, so that the recovered damped sine wave before the original sampling is more accurate.
Step S102: and performing A/D conversion and sampling on the damping sine wave signal to generate a digital signal. The sampling rate was determined by adjustment experiments. As shown in fig. 2, the damped sine wave signal is a/D converted and sampled to generate a digital signal.
In a preferred embodiment, the frequency value of the samples adopts a decimal value, so that the problem that the phase of the sampled signal cannot traverse the phase of the original signal due to integral multiple sampling is avoided, and inherent time interval measurement deviation and resolution reduction are effectively prevented.
Step S103: and carrying out nonlinear regression estimation on the digital signal. Specifically, the sampled data is subjected to estimation of the amplitude, frequency, phase and damping coefficient of the damping sine wave by a least square method. It should be noted that, for the parameter to be estimated, the greater the number of sampling points of the system, the more advantageous the accuracy of estimating the parameter is.
Step S104: the time interval of the two damped sine wave signals is estimated. Specifically, a damping sine wave signal generated by the first signal to be measured and a damping sine wave signal generated by the second signal to be measured are subjected to correlation operation to estimate a time interval of the two damping sine wave signals.
It should be noted that the correlation operation is to calculate the similarity of two signals, which represents the relative distance between the two signals in time, so that the result of the correlation operation is the result of the time interval measurement.
Step S105: the signal time interval is measured continuously. Specifically, steps S101 to S104 are repeated to achieve continuous measurement of the signal time interval.
The second embodiment:
the embodiment of the present invention provides a time interval measurement system based on nonlinear regression, which is mainly used for executing the time interval measurement method based on nonlinear regression provided by the above contents of the embodiment of the present invention, and the following provides specific descriptions on the time interval measurement system based on nonlinear regression provided by the embodiment of the present invention.
Fig. 3 is a schematic structural diagram of a time interval measuring system based on nonlinear regression according to a second embodiment of the present invention. As shown in fig. 3, the time interval measuring system based on nonlinear regression includes an LC oscillator 201, a sampling module 202, an estimation module 203, and a correlation operation module 204.
And the LC oscillator 201 generates a damping sine wave signal by the capacitance charging and inductance discharging of the LC oscillator under the excitation of the signal to be measured.
And the sampling module 202 is used for carrying out A/D conversion and sampling on the damping sine wave signal to generate a digital signal.
And the estimation module 203 performs nonlinear regression estimation on the digital signal to estimate the amplitude, the frequency, the phase and the damping coefficient of the damping sine wave.
The correlation operation module 204 performs correlation operation on the damping sine wave signal generated by the signal to be detected to estimate a time interval of the damping sine wave signal.
Finally, it should be noted that: the above-mentioned embodiments are only specific embodiments of the present invention, which are used for illustrating the technical solutions of the present invention and not for limiting the same, and the protection scope of the present invention is not limited thereto, although the present invention is described in detail with reference to the foregoing embodiments, those skilled in the art should understand that: those skilled in the art can still make modifications or changes to the embodiments described in the foregoing embodiments, or make equivalent substitutions for some features, within the scope of the disclosure; such modifications, changes or substitutions do not depart from the spirit and scope of the embodiments of the present invention, and they should be construed as being included therein. Therefore, the protection scope of the present invention shall be subject to the protection scope of the claims.

Claims (2)

1. A time interval measurement method based on nonlinear regression is characterized by comprising the following steps:
a first to-be-detected signal enters the LC oscillator, and the first to-be-detected signal excites capacitor charging and inductor discharging of the LC oscillator to generate a damping sine wave signal;
a quality factor of the LC oscillator is less than a first threshold to cause the amplitude of the damped sine wave to decay to zero within a few hundred nanoseconds;
the resonance frequency of the LC oscillator is greater than a second threshold value so as to obtain abundant damped sinusoidal oscillation data;
carrying out A/D conversion and sampling on the damping sine wave signal to generate a digital signal, wherein the sampling frequency value adopts a decimal value;
performing nonlinear regression estimation on the digital signal, and estimating the amplitude, the frequency, the phase and the damping coefficient of the damping sine wave by adopting a least square method;
carrying out the same processing on a second signal to be detected as the first signal to be detected so as to estimate the amplitude, frequency, phase and damping coefficient of a damping sine wave generated by excitation of the second signal to be detected;
performing correlation operation on the damping sine wave signal generated by the first signal to be detected and the damping sine wave signal generated by the second signal to be detected to obtain the similarity degree of the damping sine wave signal generated by the first signal to be detected and the damping sine wave signal generated by the second signal to be detected, wherein the similarity degree represents the relative distance between the two damping sine wave signals and is used as the time interval of the two damping sine wave signals;
and repeating the time interval measurement of the first signal to be measured and the second signal to be measured so as to realize the continuous measurement of the signal time interval.
2. A time interval measuring system to which the time interval measuring method of claim 1 is applied, comprising:
the LC oscillator is excited by a signal to be detected, and a capacitor of the LC oscillator is charged and an inductor of the LC oscillator is discharged to generate a damping sine wave signal;
the sampling module is used for carrying out A/D conversion and sampling on the damping sine wave signal to generate a digital signal;
the estimation module is used for carrying out nonlinear regression estimation on the digital signal so as to estimate the amplitude, the frequency, the phase and the damping coefficient of the damping sine wave;
and the correlation operation module is used for performing correlation operation on the damping sine wave signal generated by the signal to be detected so as to estimate the time interval of the damping sine wave signal.
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