CN110814633B - Welding repair process for large-scale column nest and column cap mold - Google Patents

Welding repair process for large-scale column nest and column cap mold Download PDF

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Publication number
CN110814633B
CN110814633B CN201911043738.5A CN201911043738A CN110814633B CN 110814633 B CN110814633 B CN 110814633B CN 201911043738 A CN201911043738 A CN 201911043738A CN 110814633 B CN110814633 B CN 110814633B
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welding
die
mould
cavity
repair
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CN110814633A (en
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刘建军
邢宪东
李斌
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Shandong Chengtong Forging Co ltd
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Shandong Chengtong Forging Co ltd
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23PMETAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; COMBINED OPERATIONS; UNIVERSAL MACHINE TOOLS
    • B23P6/00Restoring or reconditioning objects

Abstract

The invention relates to a welding repair process for a large-scale column socket and column cap mould, which comprises the following steps: a. cleaning the mould, namely cleaning cracks, scales, fatigue layers and impurity materials in a mould cavity of the mould, and cleaning the opening degree which can enable welding rods or welding wires to be normally deposited; b. performing flaw detection, namely performing flaw detection operation on the to-be-welded surface of the cleaned die by adopting a nondestructive flaw detection technology; c. heating, wherein the mold is heated to 500-550 ℃ before welding; d. welding, namely, multiple layered welding is adopted, and the welding temperature is not lower than 300 ℃; e. tempering the die for at least two times after welding; f. finally cooling; slowly cooling the mould to room temperature in an air static environment; g. post-welding processing, namely processing and repairing the finally cooled die in a processing center; h. and after the post-welding machining is finished, tempering the die again.

Description

Welding repair process for large-scale column nest and column cap mold
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of die welding repair, in particular to a large-scale column socket and column cap die welding repair process.
Background
In the daily production of the machine manufacturing industry, the effect of the die is increasingly greater, the mass production is guaranteed by the die quality, along with the change of products of companies, the proportion of large die forgings occupied in the production is increasingly greater, the die manufacturing is a preorder link in the production process, the working hours are longer, the construction period of 2 months is generally needed, the whole die manufacturing link has various processes, the die manufacturing cost is high, the die production life is the existing production bottleneck, and the die can have the defects of fatigue layers, cracks and the like in the product production process.
For the defects of the die, the original process adopts a mode of settling the die surface, the die surface is manually ground to the size after local welding, but for a large die with the size of more than 800 x 500, a fatigue layer and deformation are large, the process cannot completely meet the existing production requirements, even if only local failure occurs, the whole die needs to be scrapped, the cost for remanufacturing the die is high, the manufacturing period is long, and therefore the research and development of the die repairing and remanufacturing process are problems which need to be solved urgently at present.
Disclosure of Invention
Aiming at the defects of the prior art, the invention provides a large-scale column socket column cap mould welding repair process, which can enable the original mould to meet the use requirement again after being repaired, thereby reducing the cost and shortening the production period.
The invention is realized by the following technical scheme, and provides a welding repair process for a large-scale column socket and column cap mould, which comprises the following steps:
a. cleaning the mould, namely cleaning cracks, scales, fatigue layers and impurity materials in a mould cavity of the mould, and cleaning the opening degree which can ensure the normal deposition of welding rods or welding wires so as to ensure the normal deposition of the welding rods or the welding wires;
b. performing flaw detection, namely performing flaw detection operation on the to-be-welded surface of the cleaned mould by adopting a nondestructive flaw detection technology, ensuring that a fatigue layer generated in the last production period of the mould is removed in place, and ensuring that no crack defect exists;
c. heating, namely heating the die before welding to enable the die to be heated to 500-550 ℃, wherein the heating time is calculated according to 1 hour per 25mm of thickness, and keeping the temperature of the die after heating;
d. welding, namely, multiple layered welding is adopted, the welding temperature is not lower than 300 ℃, the bottom layer is connected with the base body and is used as a transition layer, HRC25 hardness welding materials are adopted when the bottom layer is welded, the hardness of the welding materials is reduced, the connection effect with the base body is improved, and the welding thickness of the bottom layer is 5-10 mm;
the middle layer is a main stress layer, the hardness of the welding material is higher than that of the bottom layer and lower than that of the surface layer, so that the requirement of bearing the mold forming force is met, and meanwhile, fatigue cracks can be prevented, therefore, HRC35 hardness welding material is adopted during welding of the middle layer, and the welding thickness is 5-6 mm;
HRC45-55 hardness welding materials are adopted during welding of the uppermost layer, the welding thickness is 8-10 mm, so that the surface wear resistance is improved, the structural size of the molded surface is kept by high strength, deformation is avoided, and the size of a forged product is kept consistent;
through the combination of welding materials, the whole die cavity is filled by adopting an integral surfacing technology, so that the aim of repairing is fulfilled.
e. After welding, carrying out tempering treatment on the die for at least two times, wherein the tempering time is calculated as 1 hour per 25mm thickness, and the one-time tempering time of the large die is not less than 12 hours so as to eliminate welding stress, achieve the toughness required by the die and the hardness of a cladding layer, improve the die strength and prolong the service life;
f. finally cooling; slowly cooling the die to room temperature in an air static environment, namely slowly cooling the weldment die in the air static environment to achieve a balanced microstructure and toughness, so that an optimal effect is achieved in the forging process;
g. after-welding processing, processing and repairing the finally cooled mould in a processing center, adopting a trial cutting method to carry out tool setting when a local mould cavity is repaired, adopting 0.01mm as a feeding unit, carrying out tool setting processing according to a reference required by a programming process when an integral mould cavity is repaired, adopting a tool bar and a clearance gauge to be matched for tool setting when the tool setting is carried out, and not allowing trial cutting for tool setting; when the cutter is machined, the condition of the cutter is closely noticed, the cutter is temporarily stopped to be checked, the blade is timely switched, and the cutter body is prevented from being damaged by the cutting edge.
h. After the post-welding machining is finished, the die is tempered again, so that the machining stress is eliminated, and the service life of the whole die can be prolonged.
In the step d, in the welding process, the bottom of the cavity is welded by using an anti-fatigue and anti-crack welding material, the original crack is welded to be 5mm above the root of the cavity R, 20mm below the surface of the bridge part of the cavity is welded by using a high-strength welding material, and the other cavity surfaces are welded by using a medium-high-strength welding material, so that the welding quality is ensured, and the use requirement of a large-sized mold is met.
And d, optimally knocking the welding bead for 2-3 times by using an air pick or a mechanical mode after the welding bead is finished each time in the welding process of the step d. The optimized scheme ensures that the cladding layer achieves the optimal crystal phase structure by knocking the welding track, and can prevent the weldment from shrinking along the central line in the cooling process.
As optimization, the mold is subjected to heat preservation after welding and before tempering treatment, the temperature of the heat preservation after welding is 500-550 ℃, the heat preservation time is calculated according to the time spent for 1 hour per 25mm of thickness, and a worker can calculate the heat preservation time according to the thickness of the mold.
And optimally, after the heat preservation after welding is finished, slowly cooling the die to room temperature in an air static environment. The slow cooling is to slowly cool the weldment mold in an air static environment so as to achieve balanced microstructure and toughness, thereby achieving the best effect in the forging process.
Preferably, during the final cooling in step f, the mold is coated with a heat insulating material. This optimization scheme is through using insulation material to carry out the cladding to the mould, has further reduced cooling rate to strengthen the slow cooling effect.
As optimization, in the step g, in the post-welding machining process, a 63R8 cutter is adopted for rough machining, a 0.5mm allowance is left on one side, the back cutting amount is 0.5mm, and the feeding speed per minute is 2500 mm; the semi-finishing adopts a 35R5 cutter, the allowance of 0.2mm is left on one side, the back cutting amount is 0.3mm, and the feed per minute is 2000 mm; the finish machining adopts a 25R5 cutter, the back cutting depth is 0.2mm, and the feed per minute is 2000 mm; and finally, corner cleaning processing is adopted, and the sizes are sequentially processed according to the R corner requirements of the actual molded surface.
The invention has the beneficial effects that: the whole mould cavity is filled by the integral surfacing technology, layered welding is adopted during welding, the purpose of welding repair is achieved through the combination of welding materials, and the repair firmness is improved; flaw detection operation is carried out on the die cavity by a nondestructive flaw detection technology, so that a fatigue layer generated in the last production period of the die is removed in place, no crack defect is ensured, and finally, the repaired strength is guaranteed; the welding stress of the die is eliminated by adopting a multi-tempering technology, so that the stress during welding and processing is completely eliminated, and the service life of the die is prolonged.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic view of the mold structure of the present invention;
shown in the figure:
1. the top layer, 2, the bottom layer, 3, the cavity surface, 4 and the middle layer.
Detailed Description
In order to clearly illustrate the technical features of the present solution, the present solution is illustrated by the specific implementation in the following by taking fig. 1 as an example of a mold to be repaired.
A large-scale column nest column cap mould welding repair process fills up the whole mould cavity by adopting an integral surfacing technology, and the thickness of the weld repair is controlled between 20mm and 25mm, and the process specifically comprises the following steps:
a. and (3) cleaning the mould, namely cleaning cracks, scales, fatigue layers and all impurity materials in the mould cavity, and cleaning the opening degree which can ensure the normal deposition of the welding rod or the welding wire so as to ensure the normal deposition of the welding rod or the welding wire.
b. And (4) flaw detection, namely performing flaw detection operation on the to-be-welded surface of the cleaned mould by adopting a nondestructive flaw detection technology, ensuring that a fatigue layer generated in the last production period of the mould is removed in place, ensuring that no crack defect exists, and determining a welding repair process according to an inspection result, wherein the repair process comprises the steps of using the type and the number of welding materials and achieving the purpose of repair through the combination of the welding materials according to the condition of the mould.
c. Heating, namely heating the die before welding to ensure that the die is heated to 500-550 ℃, wherein the heating time is calculated according to 1 hour per 25mm of thickness, and preserving the heat of the die after the heating is finished.
d. And (3) welding, namely, multiple layered welding is adopted, the welding temperature is not lower than 300 ℃, and if the welding temperature is lower than the temperature, furnace charging and heating welding are required. The bottom layer is connected with the base body, welding materials made of HRC25 hardness and 725 materials are adopted when the bottom layer is welded, and the welding thickness is 5mm-10 mm. The bottommost layer is a transition layer, and a welding material with lower hardness is adopted, so that the fusion effect is improved. The middle layer is a main stress layer, the hardness of welding materials is higher than that of the bottommost layer and lower than that of the topmost layer, the requirement of bearing the forming force of the die is met, meanwhile, fatigue cracks can be prevented, the welding materials made of HRC35 hardness and 735 materials are adopted during welding, and the welding thickness is 5mm-6 mm. The uppermost layer is a surface wear-resistant layer, the structural size of the molded surface is required to have higher strength, the deformation is not easy to generate, and the size of a forged product is kept consistent, so that a welding material with HRC45-55 hardness and 745 material is adopted during welding, the welding thickness is 8-10 mm, and the machining allowance is 3-5 mm.
The weldment must ensure that the area to be welded is convenient for the welder to operate, sometimes the position of the weldment needs to be continuously adjusted during welding, but the center line of the cavity to be welded must be perpendicular to the ground. The short arc is used during welding to ensure that the welding wall is tightly fused with the welding material, and the welding wall is required to be within the sight of a welder.
In the welding process, the bottom of the cavity is welded by adopting an anti-fatigue and anti-crack welding material, the original crack part needs to be welded to be 5mm above the root of the cavity R, 20mm below the surface of the bridge part of the cavity, the cavity is welded by adopting a high-strength welding material, and the other cavity surfaces are welded by adopting a medium-high strength welding material. After each welding pass is finished, slag removal treatment is carried out, the welding pass is knocked for 2-3 times by using an air pick or a mechanical mode, knocking pressure is 0.5-0.8 Kg, welding stress is eliminated, welding crack defects are prevented, a cladding layer reaches an optimal crystalline phase structure, and shrinkage along a central line in a welding piece cooling process is prevented.
And (3) after welding and before tempering, performing postweld heat preservation on the die, wherein the postweld heat preservation temperature is 500-550 ℃, and the heat preservation time is calculated according to 1 hour per 25mm thickness, so as to prevent the cooling speed of the workpiece and the cladding layer from being too high. After the heat preservation is finished after the welding, the die is slowly cooled to the room temperature in the static air environment. The slow cooling is to slowly cool the weldment to room temperature in the static air environment, and the purpose of the slow cooling is to achieve balanced microstructure and toughness, so that the best effect is achieved in the forging process.
e. And (3) tempering the die twice after welding is finished so as to eliminate welding stress of the die and finally achieve the toughness and the hardness of a cladding layer required by the die, wherein the tempering time is calculated by 1 hour per 25mm of thickness, and the one-time tempering time of the large die is not less than 12 hours. Structural stress exists in the large-scale die in the last production cycle, the stress at the boundary fusion part is large due to the fact that multi-layer different welding materials are adopted for welding after welding, machining stress exists in the R corner of the die cavity after numerical control machining, two times of tempering operation are conducted after the die is welded to eliminate the welding stress, tempering treatment is conducted again after the machining operation is completed, the machining stress is eliminated, and the service life of the whole die can be prolonged.
f. Finally cooling; the mold is slowly cooled to room temperature in the static environment of air, and the mold is coated with a heat-insulating material during slow cooling so as to enhance the slow cooling effect.
g. And (3) post-welding processing, namely processing and repairing the finally cooled die in a processing center, modeling and programming the die cavity by adopting software such as computer CAD/CAM (computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing) and the like, processing the die cavity gradually in a numerical control machine, processing the die cavity according to the procedures of rough machining, semi-finish machining, finish machining and the like, and improving the surface finish of the die by combining a bench worker grinding process so as to reduce the surface stress of the die, facilitate metal flow filling and prolong the service life of the die.
In the specific processing, a trial cutting method is adopted for tool setting when a local die cavity is repaired, and 0.01mm is adopted as a feeding unit. When the integral die cavity is repaired, the tool is machined according to the reference required by the programming process, and the tool is matched with the cutter rod and the feeler gauge during tool setting, so that trial cutting of the tool is not allowed. The condition of the cutter is closely noticed in the machining process, the cutter is temporarily stopped to be checked in time, and the blade is switched in time to prevent the cutter body from being damaged by the cutting edge.
In the process of machining after welding, a 63R8 cutter is used for rough machining, a 0.5mm allowance is left on one side, the back cutting amount is 0.5mm, and the feed speed per minute is 2500 mm; the semi-finishing adopts a 35R5 cutter, the allowance of 0.2mm is left on one side, the back cutting amount is 0.3mm, and the feed per minute is 2000 mm; the finish machining adopts a 25R5 cutter, the back cutting depth is 0.2mm, and the feed per minute is 2000 mm; and finally, corner cleaning processing is adopted, and the sizes are sequentially processed according to the R corner requirements of the actual molded surface.
The processing surface with the matching requirement is processed in place according to the modeling size, and manual repair welding and grinding are not allowed; the mold cavity surface after welding has the defects of welding beading, welding slag and the like, and is cleaned up, only a welding layer is reserved, whether the dovetail surface has high points such as welding beading, splashing and the like or not is checked before processing, and the high point area is polished to remove burrs; in the processing process, the operation condition of the cutter is noticed at any time, the worn blade is replaced in time, the cutter is prevented from being damaged by residual welding beading, and a small boss is left in a cavity after the bottom surface cutting edge is broken; during repair, the whole large-deformation cavity falls by 2-3mm according to the deformation of the mold so as to level the deformation of the parting surface, and meanwhile, the lock catch gap needs to be repaired, and the upper mold and the lower mold are repaired simultaneously; polishing after processing, firstly ensuring the dimensional requirement of the die, and enabling the polishing not to damage the cavity surface, the cutting edge and the like of the die; removing the knife lines on the surface of the cavity to ensure that the surface of the cavity of the mold is smooth and clean; a cutter receiving table is not allowed, so that smooth demolding of the product is ensured; and after the upper die and the lower die are polished, the dies need to be assembled, the locking clearance of the upper die and the lower die is required to be uniform, the die parting surface needs to be screwed tightly for seaming, and the clearance of the periphery of the cutting edge of the trimming die needs to be uniform.
h. And after the post-welding machining is finished, tempering the die again to eliminate the surface machining stress.
Of course, the above description is not limited to the above examples, and the undescribed technical features of the present invention can be implemented by or using the prior art, and will not be described herein again; the above embodiments and drawings are only for illustrating the technical solutions of the present invention and not for limiting the present invention, and the present invention has been described in detail with reference to the preferred embodiments, it should be understood by those skilled in the art that changes, modifications, additions or substitutions within the spirit and scope of the present invention may be made by those skilled in the art without departing from the spirit of the present invention, and shall also fall within the scope of the claims of the present invention.

Claims (7)

1. A welding repair process for a large column socket and column cap mould is characterized by comprising the following steps:
a. cleaning the mould, namely cleaning cracks, scales, fatigue layers and impurity materials in a mould cavity of the mould, and cleaning the opening degree which can enable welding rods or welding wires to be normally deposited;
b. performing flaw detection, namely performing flaw detection operation on the to-be-welded surface of the cleaned mould by adopting a nondestructive flaw detection technology, ensuring that a fatigue layer generated in the last production period of the mould is removed in place, and ensuring that no crack defect exists;
c. heating, namely heating the die before welding to enable the die to be heated to 500-550 ℃, wherein the heating time is calculated according to 1 hour per 25mm of thickness, and keeping the temperature of the die after heating;
d. welding, namely, multiple layered welding is adopted, the welding temperature is not lower than 300 ℃, the bottom layer is connected with the substrate, HRC25 hardness welding materials are adopted when the bottom layer is welded, and the welding thickness is 5mm-10 mm; HRC35 hard welding materials are adopted during welding of the middle layer, and the welding thickness is 5mm-6 mm; HRC45-55 hardness welding materials are adopted during welding of the uppermost layer, and the welding thickness is 8-10 mm;
e. tempering the die at least twice after welding, wherein the tempering time is calculated as 1 hour per 25mm thickness, and the one-time tempering time of the large die is not less than 12 hours;
f. finally cooling; slowly cooling the mould to room temperature in an air static environment;
g. after-welding processing, processing and repairing the finally cooled mould in a processing center, adopting a trial cutting method to carry out tool setting when a local mould cavity is repaired, adopting 0.01mm as a feeding unit, carrying out tool setting processing according to a reference required by a programming process when an integral mould cavity is repaired, adopting a tool bar and a clearance gauge to be matched for tool setting when the tool setting is carried out, and not allowing trial cutting for tool setting; during repair, the whole large-deformation cavity falls by 2-3mm according to the deformation of the mold so as to level the deformation of the parting surface, and meanwhile, the lock catch gap needs to be repaired, and the upper mold and the lower mold are repaired simultaneously;
h. and after the post-welding machining is finished, tempering the die again.
2. The large-scale column socket and column cap mold welding repair process according to claim 1, characterized in that: in the welding process of the step d, the bottom of the cavity is welded by adopting an anti-fatigue and anti-crack welding material, the original crack part needs to be welded to be 5mm above the root of the cavity R, 20mm below the surface of the bridge part of the cavity, the high-strength welding material is adopted for welding, and the other cavity surfaces are welded by adopting a medium-high strength welding material.
3. The large-scale column socket and column cap mold welding repair process according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that: and d, knocking the welding bead for 2-3 times by using an air pick or a mechanical mode in the welding process of the step d after the welding bead is finished each time.
4. The large-scale column socket and column cap mold welding repair process according to claim 1, characterized in that: and (3) after welding and before tempering, performing postweld heat preservation on the die, wherein the postweld heat preservation temperature is 500-550 ℃, and the heat preservation time is calculated according to 1 hour for every 25mm of thickness.
5. The large-scale column socket and column cap mold welding repair process according to claim 4, characterized in that: after the heat preservation is finished after the welding, the die is slowly cooled to the room temperature in the static air environment.
6. The large-scale column socket and column cap mold welding repair process according to claim 1, characterized in that: and f, coating the die by using a heat insulation material in the final cooling process of the step f.
7. The large-scale column socket and column cap mold welding repair process according to claim 1, characterized in that: step g, in the post-welding machining process, a 63R8 cutter is adopted for rough machining, a 0.5mm allowance is reserved on one side, the back cutting amount is 0.5mm, and the feed speed per minute is 2500 mm; the semi-finishing adopts a 35R5 cutter, the allowance of 0.2mm is left on one side, the back cutting amount is 0.3mm, and the feed per minute is 2000 mm; the finish machining adopts a 25R5 cutter, the back cutting depth is 0.2mm, and the feed per minute is 2000 mm; and finally, corner cleaning processing is adopted, and the sizes are sequentially processed according to the R corner requirements of the actual molded surface.
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