CN110737286B - Flat single-axis tracking support with adjustable inclination angle in north-south direction of photovoltaic module - Google Patents

Flat single-axis tracking support with adjustable inclination angle in north-south direction of photovoltaic module Download PDF

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Publication number
CN110737286B
CN110737286B CN201910782383.5A CN201910782383A CN110737286B CN 110737286 B CN110737286 B CN 110737286B CN 201910782383 A CN201910782383 A CN 201910782383A CN 110737286 B CN110737286 B CN 110737286B
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north
south
photovoltaic module
shaft
tracking system
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CN110737286A (en
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孙杏建
李天昊
陈雪良
张栋梁
楼巍
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PowerChina Huadong Engineering Corp Ltd
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PowerChina Huadong Engineering Corp Ltd
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G05CONTROLLING; REGULATING
    • G05DSYSTEMS FOR CONTROLLING OR REGULATING NON-ELECTRIC VARIABLES
    • G05D3/00Control of position or direction
    • G05D3/12Control of position or direction using feedback

Abstract

The invention provides a flat single-shaft tracking support capable of adjusting the inclination angle of a photovoltaic module in the north-south direction, which comprises an east-west tracking system and a south-north tracking system, wherein the east-west tracking system adopts a multi-row or single-row photovoltaic module tracking structure of a traditional flat single-shaft support; the north-south tracking system is fixed on a main shaft of the east-west tracking system, and the adjustment of the inclination angles of the plurality of groups of photovoltaic modules in the north-south direction is realized through a linkage device. The invention is suitable for areas with different latitudes, expands the application range of the traditional flat single shaft and the flat single shaft tracking bracket with the inclination angle, realizes the whole-course tracking of the solar incident angle within one day and one year, has the same effect as a double-shaft tracking bracket, improves the generating capacity, and reduces the cost compared with the double-shaft tracking bracket.

Description

Flat single-axis tracking support with adjustable inclination angle in north-south direction of photovoltaic module
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the field of photovoltaic power generation, and particularly relates to a flat single-shaft tracking support with a photovoltaic module capable of realizing conventional tracking in the east-west direction and adjustable inclination angle in the north-south direction.
Background
The mounting mode of the photovoltaic module mainly comprises a fixed mode and a tracking mode. Wherein, fixed can be subdivided into fixed and fixed adjustable the best inclination, and the tracking formula can be subdivided into flat single-axis tracking formula, oblique single-axis tracking formula and biax tracking formula.
In general, the tracking type support can track the change of the incident angle of the sun, and further can utilize more solar energy to improve the power generation capacity, and in recent years, the tracking type support technology is continuously improved, the cost is continuously reduced, and therefore the tracking type support is more and more widely applied, wherein the most common is a flat single-shaft tracking support.
The flat single-axis tracking support can track the change of the incident angle of the sun in one day, the installation mode is suitable for the area with the latitude lower than 30 degrees, and compared with an optimal inclination fixed support, the power generation amount can be improved by 20-30%. However, the traditional flat single-axis tracking support only allows the rotation in the east-west direction, and the change of the position in the north-south direction within one year of the sun cannot be considered. Therefore, to further improve the power generation output, forms such as tilt angle flat single axis, tilt single axis, and two axis tracking are generally used, and these forms are suitable for use in high and medium latitude areas.
The photovoltaic module with the inclination angle flat single shaft and the inclination single shaft tracking support has a small and fixed inclination angle in the north-south direction, cannot track the change of the incident angle of the sun in the north-south direction, and has limited improvement on the power generation capacity; the double-shaft tracking support can simultaneously track the change of incident angles in the east-west direction and the south-north direction of the sun, the generated energy is obviously improved, and the cost is relatively high.
Disclosure of Invention
Aiming at the problems, the invention provides a flat single-axis tracking support capable of adjusting the inclination angle of a photovoltaic module in the north-south direction. The technical scheme adopted by the invention is as follows:
the utility model provides a flat single-axis tracking support of photovoltaic module north-south direction inclination adjustable which characterized in that: the support comprises an east-west tracking system and a south-north tracking system, wherein the east-west tracking system adopts a multi-row or single-row photovoltaic module tracking structure of a traditional flat single-shaft support; the north-south tracking system is fixed on a main shaft of the east-west tracking system, and the adjustment of the inclination angles of the plurality of groups of photovoltaic modules in the north-south direction is realized through a linkage device.
Furthermore, the support is suitable for various types of assemblies such as common assemblies, double-wave assemblies, double-sided power generation assemblies and the like, and the arrangement form of the assemblies is single-row or double-row. The number of the components mounted on each bracket is determined by the bearing capacity of the bracket and the driving capacity of a driving motor, and the components can be flexibly selected and generally do not exceed 90 blocks.
Furthermore, the north-south tracking system is positioned below the photovoltaic module or beside the photovoltaic module, so that the shielding module is avoided; the north-south tracking system rotates along with the main shaft of the east-west tracking system in the east-west direction.
Furthermore, the variation range of the inclination angle of the photovoltaic module in the south-north direction is-30 degrees, wherein the south direction is defined as positive and the north direction is defined as negative; for the support arranged in the northern hemisphere, the inclination angle mainly changes from 0 degrees to 30 degrees in the positive half zone, and for the support arranged in the southern hemisphere, the inclination angle mainly changes from-30 degrees to 0 degrees in the negative half zone; the adjustment of the inclination angle in the north-south direction takes one year as a period, and the adjustment frequency and the tracking precision are set according to requirements.
Furthermore, the north-south tracking system comprises a driving motor, a rotating shaft, a driving rod, a linkage rod and a driven rod, wherein a sensor is arranged in the driving motor and used for sensing the change of an incident angle within one year of the sun, the driving motor drives the driving shaft to rotate, the driving shaft drives the linkage rod, the linkage rod drives the driven rod, and the driven rod is connected with the rotating shaft of the photovoltaic module and further drives the photovoltaic module to rotate in a linkage manner.
Furthermore, the north-south tracking system has the functions of limiting, protecting and assisting in cleaning. The controller of the flat single-axis tracking carriage is configured to track the north-south orientation of the system: when the inclination angle of the south and north directions of the photovoltaic module is adjusted to a proper angle, the driving motor is automatically locked, and the module keeps the inclination angle of the south and north directions unchanged within a period of time and only rotates along with the east and west directions of the support. When the windy weather is met, the driving system in the north-south direction flattens the assembly, and the wind load is reduced to the maximum extent. When meeting in sleet weather, the actuating system of north-south direction inclines the subassembly, utilizes rainwater self-cleaning subassembly, prevents snow.
The invention has the beneficial effects that:
1. the device is suitable for areas with different latitudes, and the application range of the traditional flat single shaft and the flat single shaft tracking support with the inclination angle is expanded.
2. Through simple mechanical transmission, adjust photovoltaic module north-south direction inclination, combine existing east-west tracking technique, realized whole journey tracking to the angle of incidence of the sun one day, one year, the effect is equivalent to biax and trails the support, has improved the generated energy, nevertheless compares in biax and trails the support and has reduced the cost.
3. The adjustment of the inclination angle in the north-south direction is performed by taking one year as a period, the adjustment times are relatively less, the loss to a driving device is less, the service life is longer, and the maintenance is free or less.
4. The relationship of the south-north direction tracking system relative to the east-west direction tracking system makes the normal east-west direction tracking of the flat single-axis support unaffected even if the south-north direction tracking system fails temporarily. When the south-north direction can not be automatically tracked, the linkage rod can be manually adjusted to realize the adjustment of the inclination angle in the south-north direction.
Drawings
Fig. 1a, fig. 1b and fig. 1c are overall three-dimensional diagrams (photovoltaic module double-row arrangement) of an embodiment of the flat single-axis tracking bracket with the adjustable inclination angle in the north-south direction of the photovoltaic module. In fig. 1a, the east-west direction and the south-north direction of the photovoltaic module are both in a horizontal state; in fig. 1b, the east-west direction of the photovoltaic module is horizontal, and the north-south direction is inclined; in fig. 1c, the photovoltaic module is tilted in the east-west direction and in the north-south direction.
Fig. 2a and fig. 2b are partial top views of the flat single-axis tracking bracket with the adjustable inclination angle in the north-south direction of the photovoltaic module (the photovoltaic module is arranged in two rows). Wherein, fig. 2a is suitable for a double-sided power generation photovoltaic module, and fig. 2b is suitable for a non-double-sided power generation photovoltaic module.
Fig. 3a and 3b are side views of the flat single-axis tracking bracket with the inclination angle adjustable in the north-south direction of the photovoltaic module according to the direction a-a in fig. 2b (the photovoltaic module is arranged in two rows) in the embodiment of the present invention. In fig. 3a, the east-west rotation angle of the bracket is 0 °, and in fig. 3b, the east-west rotation angle is θ °.
Fig. 4a and 4B are side views of the flat single-axis tracking bracket with the adjustable inclination angle in the north-south direction of the photovoltaic module according to the embodiment of the invention in the direction B-B in fig. 2B (the photovoltaic module is arranged in two rows). In fig. 4a, the rotation angle of the photovoltaic module in the north-south direction is 0 °, and in fig. 4b, the rotation angle of the photovoltaic module in the north-south direction is β °.
Fig. 5a, 5b and 5c are overall three-dimensional views of another embodiment of the flat single-axis tracking support with the adjustable inclination angle in the north-south direction of the photovoltaic module according to the embodiment of the invention (photovoltaic module single-row arrangement). In fig. 5a, the east-west direction and the south-north direction of the photovoltaic module are both in a horizontal state; in fig. 5b, the east-west direction of the photovoltaic module is in a horizontal state, and the north-south direction is in an inclined state; in fig. 5c the photovoltaic module is tilted in both the east-west direction and the north-south direction.
Fig. 6 is a partial top view of the embodiment shown in fig. 5a (photovoltaic module single row arrangement).
Fig. 7a and 7b are both side views in the direction C-C of fig. 6 (photovoltaic module single row arrangement). In fig. 7a, the east-west rotation angle of the bracket is 0 °, and in fig. 7b, the east-west rotation angle is θ °.
Fig. 8a and 8b are both side views in the direction D-D of fig. 6 (photovoltaic module single row arrangement). In fig. 8a, the rotation angle of the photovoltaic module in the north-south direction is 0 °, and in fig. 8b, the rotation angle of the photovoltaic module in the north-south direction is β °.
Detailed Description
The invention is described in further detail below with reference to the figures and specific examples. The embodiment 1 is suitable for the case of a double row arrangement of photovoltaic modules, corresponding to fig. 1a, 1b, 1c, 2a, 2b, 3a, 3b, 4a, 4 b. Example 2 is applicable to the case of a single row arrangement of photovoltaic modules, corresponding to fig. 5a, 5b, 5c, 6, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8 b.
Example 1:
fig. 1a, fig. 1b and fig. 1c are schematic diagrams of a flat single-axis tracking support in three different states respectively, and photovoltaic modules are arranged in a 2 × 18 mode, in double rows, and 18 photovoltaic modules are arranged in each row, and the number of photovoltaic modules is 36. The bracket is suitable for all photovoltaic modules such as single-sided photovoltaic modules, double-sided photovoltaic modules and the like.
Reference is made to fig. 1a, 1b, 1c, 2a, 2b, 3a, 3b, 4a, 4 b.
For a flat single-shaft bracket, the flat single-shaft bracket comprises a vertical column 4 and a main shaft (main beam) 2, wherein the main shaft 2 is connected with a bearing fixed on the vertical column 4; to double row arrangement, flat single-axis device still is provided with both sides boundary beam 1, and boundary beam 1 and main shaft 2 connect as an organic wholely through many horizontal roof beams 3.
Referring to fig. 2b, if the power generation pv assembly is a non-double-sided power generation pv assembly 72, the boundary beam 1 and the main shaft 2 form a main frame support structure through a plurality of transverse beams 3, and the main frame structure can rotate around the main shaft 2 in the east-west direction, thereby realizing the function of a conventional flat single-axis tracking bracket. The boundary beam 1 and the main shaft 2 are provided with bearings of a south-north direction rotating shaft 52 of the photovoltaic module, the shaft 52 is connected with the bearings, and the photovoltaic module can rotate along the shaft 52 in the south-north direction to adjust the inclination angle in the south-north direction. Purlin 6 is connected with axle 52, and photovoltaic module 72 is placed on purlin 6, and is fixed through briquetting 8, links together photovoltaic module 72 and axle 52, and two rows of photovoltaic module 72 are preferably arranged one by one in the east-west direction and become the straight line, and like this, photovoltaic module on the collinear between two rows of photovoltaic module 72 can share a root axis 52, or connect it through the shaft joint ware to be convenient for link gear's the arrangement and adopt simpler and light structure to carry out the inclination linkage in the north-south direction and adjust.
Referring to fig. 3a, 3b, 4a and 4b, the present embodiment can achieve the function of adjusting the inclination angle of the photovoltaic module in the north-south direction in the east-west horizontal state or the inclined state. The driving motor of the east-west tracking system is not shown in the figure, but it is understood that the driving motor drives the main shaft 2 to rotate through a transmission mechanism such as a gear, a chain and the like, so as to adjust the inclination angle of the photovoltaic module 72 in the main frame supporting structure in the east-west direction and track the sun cyclically every day.
A driving motor 9 of the north-south tracking system is fixed at the lower part of a main shaft 2 and drives a driving shaft 10 oriented in the east-west direction to rotate, a driving rod 12 is connected with the driving shaft 10, and the driving shaft 10 drives the driving rod 12 to rotate. The drive shaft 10 is rotatably fixed to the transverse beam 3 by means of a fixing rod 11.
The linkage rod 13 oriented in the north-south direction is rotatably connected with the driving rod 12, the driving rod 12 drives the linkage rod 13 to move along the north-south direction, the shafts 52 of the photovoltaic modules in the two rows of photovoltaic modules are respectively connected with the driven rod 14, the driven rod 14 is rotatably connected with the linkage rod 13, the driven rod 14 is driven by the linkage rod 13 to rotate, the shafts 52 are driven to rotate, and the linkage adjusting function of the inclination angle of the photovoltaic modules in the north-south direction is achieved. The drive motor 9 and the drive shaft 10 of the north-south tracking system may be located at the end of the main frame support structure or at other locations of the main frame support structure.
The linkage structure shown in the above embodiment can drive the photovoltaic modules to adjust the inclination angle in the north-south direction through one motor or the motors with the number far less than that of the photovoltaic modules, and the linkage structure is light in weight and high in reliability. Those skilled in the art will appreciate that other linkage arrangements may be used in the present invention, such as by sprockets, gears, etc., but this embodiment is preferred in terms of cost and weight.
Referring to fig. 2a, if the power generating pv module is a double-sided power generating pv module 71, the double-sided power generating pv module 71 can be installed in an installation frame 710, and the installation frame is connected to a rotatable frame system formed by the side beams 1 and the main shaft 2 on both sides of the flat single-shaft device through a shaft 51. The driving and linkage of the north-south tracking system of the double-sided power generation photovoltaic module 71 is similar to that of the non-double-sided power generation photovoltaic module 72, and the shaft 51 is connected with the driven rod and is correspondingly linked.
The sensor is arranged in the driving motor.
The adjustment of the north-south inclination angle is performed in a one-year cycle, and the adjustment frequency and the tracking accuracy can be set as required, for example, the north-south inclination angle is adjusted once when the solar altitude changes by 5 ° at noon, and the adjustment accuracy is ± 1 °.
Example 2:
fig. 5a, 5b, and 5c are schematic diagrams of the flat single-axis tracking bracket respectively in three different states, and the photovoltaic modules are arranged in a 1 × 18 (single-row arrangement) manner, for a total of 18 blocks. The bracket is suitable for a non-double-sided power generation photovoltaic module.
Referring to fig. 6, 7a, 7b, 8a and 8b, the lower side beam 21, the main shaft 22 and the lower transverse beam 23 form a main frame supporting structure, the main shaft 22 is connected with a bearing fixed on the upright post 24, and the main frame structure can rotate around the main shaft 22 in the east-west direction, so that the function of the traditional flat single-shaft tracking bracket is realized. The drive motor of the east-west tracking system is not shown in the drawings, but it will be appreciated that the drive motor rotates the main shaft 22 through gears, chains, etc. to adjust the tilt angle of the photovoltaic modules 27 in the main frame support structure in the east-west direction to cyclically track the sun each day.
In a single row arrangement, the photovoltaic modules 27 are directly above the main shaft 22, and a support structure is provided on the main frame support structure, to which the north-south tilt adjustment rotation shaft 36 of the photovoltaic modules 27 is connected.
The driving motors 29 of the north-south tracking system are fixed on the lower edge beam 21 through fixing rods 30, the number of the driving motors 29 is two, the driving motors are symmetrically arranged and move synchronously, the driving shaft 25 is located between the two driving motors 29, and the driving shaft 25 is also a north-south inclination angle adjusting rotating shaft of the photovoltaic module 27. The north-south inclination angle adjusting rotation shaft 36 of the photovoltaic module 27 is located between the support rods 32, and is connected to a bearing fixed to the upper ends of the support rods 32, and the lower ends of the support rods 32 are supported on the lower edge beam 21. A support rod 31 is arranged in the middle of the driving shaft 25 and the shaft 36 to ensure the stability during axial rotation, and the support rod 31 is connected with the main shaft 22. The purlins 26 are connected with the driving shafts 25 or the shafts 36, and the photovoltaic modules 27 are placed on the purlins 26 and fixed through the pressing blocks 28.
The function of linkage regulation photovoltaic module north-south direction inclination can be realized to this embodiment when horizontal state of east-west direction or tilt state. The driving motor 29 drives the driving shaft 25 to rotate, the upper end of the driving rod 33 is connected with the driving shaft 25, and the driving shaft 25 drives the driving rod 33 to rotate. The linkage rod 34 oriented in the north-south direction is located below the photovoltaic module, the linkage rod 34 is connected with the driving rod 33 in a rotating mode, the driving rod 33 drives the linkage rod 34 to move along the north-south direction, the upper end of the driven rod 35 is connected with the shaft 36, the lower end of the driven rod 35 is connected with the linkage rod 34 in a rotating mode, the driven rod 35 is driven to rotate by the movement of the linkage rod 34 and further drives the shaft 36 to rotate, and the function of adjusting the inclination angle of the photovoltaic module in the north-south direction is achieved. The drive motor 29, drive shaft 25 of the north-south tracking system may be located at the end of the main frame support structure or at other locations on the main frame support structure.
For single-row photovoltaic modules, as mentioned above, the linkage structure can drive the photovoltaic modules to adjust the inclination angle in the north-south direction through the motors of which the number is far less than that of the photovoltaic modules, and the linkage structure is light in weight and high in reliability. Those skilled in the art will appreciate that other linkage arrangements may be used in the present invention, such as by sprockets, gears, etc., but this embodiment is preferred in terms of cost and weight.
The sensor is arranged in the driving motor.
The adjustment of the north-south inclination angle is performed in a one-year cycle, and the adjustment frequency and the tracking accuracy can be set as required, for example, the north-south inclination angle is adjusted once when the solar altitude changes by 5 ° at noon, and the adjustment accuracy is ± 1 °.
The above embodiment is merely a preferred embodiment of the present invention, and those skilled in the art will understand that modifications or substitutions of technical solutions or parameters in the embodiment can be made without departing from the principle and essence of the present invention, and all of them shall be covered by the protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (5)

1. The utility model provides a flat single-axis tracking support of photovoltaic module north-south direction inclination adjustable which characterized in that: the support comprises an east-west tracking system and a south-north tracking system, wherein the east-west tracking system adopts a multi-row or single-row photovoltaic module tracking structure of a traditional flat single-shaft support; the north-south tracking system is fixed on a main shaft of the east-west tracking system, and the adjustment of the inclination angles of the plurality of groups of photovoltaic modules in the north-south direction is realized through a linkage device;
the power generation photovoltaic module is a non-double-sided power generation photovoltaic module, the edge beam and the main shaft form a main frame supporting structure through a plurality of transverse beams, and the main frame structure can rotate around the main shaft in the east-west direction, so that the function of a traditional flat single-shaft tracking support is realized; the boundary beam and the main shaft are provided with bearings of a south-north direction rotating shaft of the photovoltaic module, the south-north direction rotating shaft is connected with the bearings, and the photovoltaic module can rotate in the south-north direction along the south-north direction rotating shaft to adjust a south-north direction inclination angle; the purlins are connected with the rotation shafts in the south and north directions, the photovoltaic modules are placed on the purlins and fixed through pressing blocks, the photovoltaic modules are connected with the rotation shafts in the south and north directions, the two rows of photovoltaic modules are arranged in a straight line in the east and west directions one by one, and the photovoltaic modules on the same straight line between the two rows of photovoltaic modules share one rotation shaft in the south and north directions or are connected through a shaft coupler;
a driving motor of the north-south tracking system is fixed at the lower part of the main shaft and drives a driving shaft oriented in the east-west direction to rotate, the driving shaft is connected with the driving shaft, and the driving shaft drives the driving shaft to rotate; the driving shaft is rotatably fixed on the transverse beam through a fixing rod;
the linkage rod oriented in the north-south direction is rotationally connected with the driving rod, the driving rod drives the linkage rod to move along the north-south direction, a rotation shaft in the north-south direction of each photovoltaic module in the two rows of photovoltaic modules is respectively connected with the driven rod, the driven rod is rotationally connected with the linkage rod, the motion of the linkage rod drives the driven rod to rotate and further drives the rotation shaft in the north-south direction to rotate, and the linkage adjusting function of the inclination angle in the north-south direction of the photovoltaic modules is realized; the driving motor and the driving shaft in the north-south tracking system are positioned at the end part of the main frame supporting structure or positioned at other positions of the main frame supporting structure;
the controller-to-north tracking system of the flat single-axis tracking mount is configured to: when the inclination angle of the photovoltaic module in the south-north direction is adjusted to a proper angle, a driving motor of the tracking system in the south-north direction is automatically locked, and the photovoltaic module keeps the inclination angle of the south-north direction unchanged and only rotates along the main shaft of the tracking system in the east-west direction within a period of time; when the weather is strong wind, the driving motor of the north-south tracking system lays the photovoltaic module flat, and the wind load is reduced to the maximum extent; when meeting rainy and snowy weather, the south-north direction tracking system inclines the photovoltaic module, and the photovoltaic module is automatically cleaned by rainwater to prevent accumulated snow.
2. The flat single-axis tracking support with the adjustable inclination angle in the north-south direction of the photovoltaic module according to claim 1, is characterized in that: the arrangement form of the photovoltaic modules is single row or double rows.
3. The flat single-axis tracking support with the adjustable inclination angle in the north-south direction of the photovoltaic module according to claim 1, is characterized in that: the north-south tracking system is positioned below the photovoltaic module or beside the photovoltaic module to avoid shielding the module; the north-south tracking system rotates along with the main shaft of the east-west tracking system in the east-west direction.
4. The flat single-axis tracking support with the adjustable inclination angle in the north-south direction of the photovoltaic module as claimed in claim 1, is characterized in that: the variation range of the inclination angle of the photovoltaic module in the south-north direction is-30 degrees to-30 degrees, wherein the south direction is defined as positive and the north direction is defined as negative; for the bracket arranged in the northern hemisphere, the inclination angle changes from 0 degree to 30 degrees in a positive half area, and for the bracket arranged in the southern hemisphere, the inclination angle changes from-30 degrees to 0 degrees in a negative half area; the inclination angle adjustment in the north-south direction is performed in a one-year cycle.
5. The flat single-axis tracking support with the adjustable inclination angle in the north-south direction of the photovoltaic module as claimed in claim 1, is characterized in that: the north-south direction tracking system comprises a driving motor, a rotating shaft, a driving rod, a linkage rod and a driven rod, wherein a sensor is arranged in the driving motor and used for sensing the change of an incident angle within one year of the sun, the driving motor drives a driving shaft to rotate, the driving shaft drives the linkage rod, the linkage rod drives the driven rod, and the driven rod is connected with the rotating shaft of the photovoltaic module and further drives the photovoltaic module to rotate in a linkage manner.
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