CN110643861B - Heat-conducting aluminum alloy and preparation process thereof - Google Patents

Heat-conducting aluminum alloy and preparation process thereof Download PDF

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Publication number
CN110643861B
CN110643861B CN201910948708.2A CN201910948708A CN110643861B CN 110643861 B CN110643861 B CN 110643861B CN 201910948708 A CN201910948708 A CN 201910948708A CN 110643861 B CN110643861 B CN 110643861B
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alloy
heat
aluminum alloy
conducting
conducting aluminum
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CN110643861A (en
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梅轩朗
聂宝华
陈东初
罗铭强
聂德键
李辉
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Foshan University
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C21/00Alloys based on aluminium
    • C22C21/02Alloys based on aluminium with silicon as the next major constituent
    • C22C21/04Modified aluminium-silicon alloys
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C1/00Making alloys
    • C22C1/02Making alloys by melting
    • C22C1/026Alloys based on aluminium
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C1/00Making alloys
    • C22C1/02Making alloys by melting
    • C22C1/03Making alloys by melting using master alloys
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C1/00Making alloys
    • C22C1/06Making alloys with the use of special agents for refining or deoxidising

Abstract

The embodiment of the invention provides a heat-conducting aluminum alloy and a preparation process thereof, wherein the heat-conducting aluminum alloy has the strength of 190MPa at room temperature and the thermal expansion coefficient of 17.2 multiplied by 10 at 25-300 DEG C‑6‑1The thermal conductivity at 25-300 ℃ is 139.8W/(m.K), and the density is as low as 2.6g/cm3Solves the problem that the aluminum alloy in the prior art cannot simultaneously satisfy the low thermal expansion coefficient (alpha is 17.7 multiplied by 10)‑6‑1) Good heat-conducting performance (lambda is more than or equal to 100W/(m.K)) and low density (rho)<3g/cm3) The problem of the requirements of (2). The preparation process of the heat-conducting aluminum alloy provided by the embodiment of the invention has the advantages of simple steps, low equipment requirement and easiness in control of the production process.

Description

Heat-conducting aluminum alloy and preparation process thereof
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of aluminum alloy, and particularly relates to a heat-conducting aluminum alloy and a preparation process thereof.
Background
Aluminum alloy is the most commonly used nonferrous alloy, and has the characteristics of abundant reserves, low cost, superior mechanical properties, suitability for casting and forming and the like, so that the aluminum alloy is widely applied to various mechanical production departments such as aerospace, automobiles, motorcycles, shipbuilding and the like.
With the rapid development of modern electronic information technology, the integration degree of electronic systems is higher and higher, which means that the complexity of the structure of components in various electronic devices and apparatuses is increasing. When the electronic device works, a part of electric energy is converted into heat energy, if the part of heat energy cannot be released in time, the temperature of the electronic device is inevitably increased, and further the failure rate of the electronic device is sharply increased along with the increase of the working temperature. Meanwhile, due to the development of integration, the heat generated by the packaged chip during working is greatly improved compared with the prior art, so that the chip is at a high working temperature for a long time, and the service life is seriously reduced.
In the process of using electronic products, electronic packaging materials are mostly base materials used for carrier parts and interconnection, and have the functions of sealing package, mechanical support, heat conduction and dissipation, signal transmission, shielding and the like. The conventional electronic packages are structurally roughly classified into a primary package, a secondary package, and a tertiary package. The first-level packaging refers to a process of fixing the chip and the lead on the electronic substrate; secondary packaging refers to the act of coupling components on an electronic substrate to one another; the three-level packaging is a process of assembling the chip and the whole body on the circuit board.
In order to ensure the use performance of electronic products, the packaging material at least has the following basic elements: (1) the low Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE) can be matched with the chip and the copper-clad plate so as to avoid damage caused by Thermal stress caused by overlarge CTE difference between the two when in work; (2) the heat-conducting material has good heat-conducting property (lambda is more than or equal to 100W/(m.K)), can timely dissipate a large amount of heat generated by components during working, protects the interior from failure due to overhigh temperature, and can be characterized by Thermal Conductivity (TC for short); (3) lower density (p)<3g/cm3) The density is as low as possible to ensure a light weight of the device. In the conventional metal packaging material, copper has excellent thermal conductivity (λ is 400W/(m · K)) and low thermal expansion coefficient (α is 17.7 × 10)-6-1) However, the density is too high, the cost is high, and the mass production is not facilitated. In the process of implementing the embodiments of the present application, the inventors of the present application found that the current aluminum alloy can only satisfy some of the above properties, and it is difficult to satisfy the above three requirements at the same time.
Disclosure of Invention
In order to solve the problem that the aluminum alloy in the prior art cannot simultaneously satisfy the low thermal expansion coefficient (alpha is 17.7 multiplied by 10)-6-1) Good heat-conducting performance (lambda is more than or equal to 100W/(m.K)) and low density (rho)<3g/cm3) It is an object of the embodiments of the present invention to provide a heat conductive aluminum alloy. The second objective of the embodiments of the present invention is to provide a preparation process of the above-mentioned heat-conductive aluminum alloy.
In order to achieve the purpose, the embodiment of the invention adopts the following technical scheme:
a heat-conducting aluminum alloy comprises the following components in percentage by mass:
Si:15~25%,
copper alloy solid solution: 0.5 to 2.5 percent,
modification of alloy: 0.1 to 0.5 percent,
the balance of Al is the components with the weight percentage of Al,
the copper alloy solid solution is Cu (Mg, Mn) alloy,
the metamorphic alloy comprises Al-RE alloy and Cu-10% P alloy.
The heat-conducting aluminum alloy has the strength of 190MPa at room temperature and the thermal expansion coefficient of 17.2 multiplied by 10 at 25-300 DEG C-6-1The thermal conductivity at 25-300 ℃ is 139.8W/(m.K), and the density is as low as 2.6g/cm3Solves the problem that the aluminum alloy in the prior art cannot simultaneously satisfy the low thermal expansion coefficient (alpha is 17.7 multiplied by 10)-6-1) Good heat-conducting performance (lambda is more than or equal to 100W/(m.K)) and low density (rho)<3g/cm3) The problem of the requirements of (2).
In the above heat conductive aluminum alloy, a sufficient amount of the low expansion alloy element Si is a prerequisite to ensure a low thermal expansion coefficient. Cu can form CuAl in Al matrix2In particular CuAl after solution treatment2Can be completely dissolved in the alpha solid solution to increase the supersaturation degree, thereby improving the mechanical property of the alloy after the solution heat treatment. Since the addition of Cu causes the alloy density to become large, the corrosion resistance to decrease, and the coefficient of linear expansion of the alloy to increase, the Cu content of the alloy tends to decrease in the case where the strength satisfies the use condition. Mg is an indispensable element for Si-Al alloy, the solubility of Mg in alpha-Al is 15% at 450 ℃, the atomic radius of Mg is 13% larger than that of Al, therefore, a large amount of Mg generates a large amount of lattice distortion after being dissolved in the alpha-Al, so that the mechanical property is improved, meanwhile, Mg can form an Mg2Si phase with Si, and the dispersion strengthening effect is achieved after heat treatment. The addition amount of Mn in the Al-Si alloy is small, but the addition of a small amount of Mn can play a role in solid solution strengthening. The metamorphic alloy comprises Al-RE alloy and Cu-10% P alloy. P forms AlP compound with Al in the alloy and can play a role in heterogeneous nucleationThereby refining the primary silicon.
In the above-described heat-conductive aluminum alloy, regarding the addition of Mg, Mn and Cu, if Cu, Mg and Mn are added in sequence independently, errors and accumulation of impurity elements are caused in the form of each weighing and stepwise addition, and errors and accumulation of impurity elements are not caused in the form of solid solution.
Preferably, in the Cu (Mg, Mn) alloy, the mass ratio of Mg to Mn is 1: (1-3).
Preferably, in the Al-RE alloy, the mass ratio of Al and RE elements is 6: 1.
further preferably, the RE element comprises 60 wt% Ce, 35 wt% La and 5 wt% Tm.
A preparation process of a heat-conducting aluminum alloy comprises the following steps:
s1: melting Si and Al to form a Si-Al melt;
s2: heating the Si-Al melt obtained in the step S1 for the first time, and adding the copper alloy solid solution to form a mixed melt;
s3: and (5) adding the modified alloy into the mixed melt in the step S2, heating for the second time, and performing modification treatment to obtain the heat-conducting aluminum alloy.
In the preparation process, Si and Al are melted firstly, and the melting can be carried out in an SG-5-12 type crucible resistance furnace, and the crucible is a cast iron crucible. In the step S3, the modified alloy is added in two steps, firstly, Al-RE alloy is added, then Cu-10% P alloy is added, the content of P in the Cu-10% P alloy is 10% of the mass of Cu, then the temperature is raised at the heating rate of 2 ℃/min, and then the temperature is kept for 10-15 min.
Preferably, the temperature of the first temperature rise is 800-820 ℃.
Preferably, the temperature of the second temperature rise is 830-850 ℃.
Preferably, the rate of the second temperature rise is 2 ℃/min.
Preferably, the preparation process further comprises refining the above mixed melt after step S2.
Further preferably, the refining temperature is 820-830 ℃, and the refining time is 10-15 min.
And during refining, adding a covering agent on the surface of the melt, introducing Ar for refining, and finally slagging off and standing to ensure that all bubbles in the melt float out.
The embodiment of the invention has the beneficial effects
1. The heat-conducting aluminum alloy provided by the embodiment of the invention has the strength of 190MPa at room temperature and the thermal expansion coefficient of 17.2 multiplied by 10 at 25-300 DEG C-6-1The thermal conductivity at 25-300 ℃ is 139.8W/(m.K), and the density is as low as 2.6g/cm3Solves the problem that the aluminum alloy in the prior art cannot simultaneously satisfy the low thermal expansion coefficient (alpha is 17.7 multiplied by 10)-6-1) Good heat-conducting performance (lambda is more than or equal to 100W/(m.K)) and low density (rho)<3g/cm3) The problem of the requirements of (a);
2. in the heat-conducting aluminum alloy provided by the embodiment of the invention, sufficient low-expansion alloy element Si ensures low thermal expansion coefficient, and Cu can form CuAl in an Al matrix2In particular CuAl after solution treatment2Can be completely dissolved in the alpha solid solution to increase the supersaturation, thereby improving the mechanical property of the alloy after the solution heat treatment;
in the heat-conducting aluminum alloy provided by the embodiment of the invention, the solubility of Mg in alpha-Al is 15% at 450 ℃, and the atomic radius of Mg is 13% larger than that of Al, so that a large amount of Mg generates a large amount of lattice distortion after being dissolved in the alpha-Al, thereby further improving the mechanical property, and meanwhile, the Mg can form Mg with Si2The Si phase plays a role in dispersion strengthening after being subjected to heat treatment;
4. in the heat-conducting aluminum alloy provided by the embodiment of the invention, the modified alloy comprises Al-RE alloy and Cu-10% P alloy, and P and Al form an AlP compound in the alloy, so that the function of heterogeneous nucleation can be achieved, and the primary crystal silicon is refined.
5. The preparation process of the heat-conducting aluminum alloy provided by the embodiment of the invention has the advantages of simple steps, low equipment requirement and easiness in control of the production process.
Detailed Description
The embodiment of the invention provides a heat-conducting aluminum alloy and a preparation process thereof, wherein the heat-conducting aluminum alloyThe alloy has the strength of 190MPa at room temperature and the thermal expansion coefficient of 17.2 multiplied by 10 at 25-300 DEG C-6-1The thermal conductivity at 25-300 ℃ is 139.8W/(m.K), and the density is as low as 2.6g/cm3Solves the problem that the aluminum alloy in the prior art cannot simultaneously satisfy the low thermal expansion coefficient (alpha is 17.7 multiplied by 10)-6-1) Good heat-conducting performance (lambda is more than or equal to 100W/(m.K)) and low density (rho)<3g/cm3) The problem of the requirements of (2).
In order to better understand the above technical solutions, the above technical solutions will be described in detail with reference to specific embodiments.
Example 1
The embodiment provides a heat-conducting aluminum alloy which comprises the following components in percentage by mass:
15% of Si, 0.5% of copper alloy solid solution, 0.1% of modified alloy and the balance of Al, wherein the copper alloy solid solution is Cu (Mg, Mn) alloy, and the modified alloy comprises Al-RE alloy and Cu-10% of P alloy.
In the Cu (Mg, Mn) alloy, the mass ratio of Mg to Mn is 1: 1.
in the Al-RE alloy, the mass ratio of Al to RE elements is 6: 1. the RE element comprises 60 wt% Ce, 35 wt% La and 5 wt% Tm.
Example 2
The embodiment provides a heat-conducting aluminum alloy which comprises the following components in percentage by mass:
25% of Si, 2.5% of copper alloy solid solution, 0.5% of modified alloy and the balance of Al, wherein the copper alloy solid solution is Cu (Mg, Mn) alloy, and the modified alloy comprises Al-RE alloy and Cu-10% P alloy.
In the Cu (Mg, Mn) alloy, the mass ratio of Mg to Mn is 1: 3.
in the Al-RE alloy, the mass ratio of Al to RE elements is 6: 1. the RE element comprises 60 wt% Ce, 35 wt% La and 5 wt% Tm.
Example 3
The embodiment provides a heat-conducting aluminum alloy which comprises the following components in percentage by mass:
20% of Si, 1.5% of copper alloy solid solution, 0.3% of modified alloy and the balance of Al, wherein the copper alloy solid solution is Cu (Mg, Mn) alloy, and the modified alloy comprises Al-RE alloy and Cu-10% P alloy.
In the Cu (Mg, Mn) alloy, the mass ratio of Mg to Mn is 1: 2.
in the Al-RE alloy, the mass ratio of Al to RE elements is 6: 1. the RE element comprises 60 wt% Ce, 35 wt% La and 5 wt% Tm.
Example 4
A preparation process of a heat-conducting aluminum alloy comprises the following steps:
s1: melting Si and Al to form a Si-Al melt;
s2: heating the Si-Al melt obtained in the step S1 for the first time, and adding a copper alloy solid solution to form a mixed melt;
s3: and (5) adding modified alloy into the mixed melt in the step S2, heating for the second time, and performing modification treatment to obtain the heat-conducting aluminum alloy.
In the preparation process, Si and Al are melted firstly, and the melting can be carried out in an SG-5-12 type crucible resistance furnace, and the crucible is a cast iron crucible. In the step S3, the modified alloy is added in two steps, firstly, Al-RE alloy is added, then Cu-10% P alloy is added, the content of P in the Cu-10% P alloy is 10% of the mass of Cu, then the temperature is raised at the heating rate of 2 ℃/min, and then the temperature is kept for 10-15 min.
The temperature of the first temperature rise is 800-820 ℃.
The temperature of the second temperature rise is 830-850 ℃. The rate of the second temperature rise is 2 ℃/min.
Example 5
A preparation process of a heat-conducting aluminum alloy comprises the following steps:
s1: melting Si and Al to form a Si-Al melt;
s2: heating the Si-Al melt obtained in the step S1 for the first time, and adding a copper alloy solid solution to form a mixed melt;
s3: refining the mixed melt of the step S2 to obtain a refined melt;
s4: and (5) adding modified alloy into the refined melt in the step S3, heating for the second time, and performing modification treatment to obtain the heat-conducting aluminum alloy.
The temperature of the first temperature rise is 800-820 ℃.
The temperature of the second temperature rise is 830-850 ℃. The rate of the second temperature rise is 2 ℃/min.
The refining temperature is 820-830 ℃, and the refining time is 10-15 min. And during refining, adding a covering agent on the surface of the melt, introducing Ar for refining, and finally slagging off and standing to ensure that all bubbles in the melt float out.
Comparative example 1
The embodiment provides a heat-conducting aluminum alloy which comprises the following components in percentage by mass:
15% of Si, 0.5% of copper alloy solid solution, 0.1% of modified alloy and the balance of Al, wherein the copper alloy solid solution is Cu (Mg, Mn) alloy, and the modified alloy comprises Al-RE alloy and Cu-10% of P alloy.
In the Cu (Mg, Mn) alloy, the mass ratio of Mg to Mn is 1: 1.
in the Al-RE alloy, the mass ratio of Al to RE elements is 6: 1. the RE element comprises 60 wt% Ce and 40 wt% La.
Comparative example 2
The embodiment provides a heat-conducting aluminum alloy which comprises the following components in percentage by mass:
15% of Si, 0.5% of copper alloy solid solution, 0.1% of modified alloy and the balance of Al, wherein the copper alloy solid solution is Cu (Mg, Mn) alloy, and the modified alloy comprises Al-RE alloy and Cu-10% of P alloy.
In the Cu (Mg, Mn) alloy, the mass ratio of Mg to Mn is 1: 1.
in the Al-RE alloy, the mass ratio of Al to RE elements is 6: 1. the RE element comprises 60 wt% Ce and 40 wt% Tm.
Example of detection
According to the heat-conducting aluminum alloys provided in the embodiments 1 to 3 and the comparative examples 1 to 2, 5 aluminum alloys were prepared by the preparation process provided in the embodiment 4, and the tensile strength, the thermal expansion coefficient, the thermal conductivity and the density of the 5 aluminum alloys were measured.
Wherein, the tensile strength test standard is GB/T228, and the equipment is a universal tester.
Coefficient of thermal expansion on DIL402C equipmentThe measurement was carried out with a sample size ofThe testing environment is protected by argon, the measuring temperature interval is 25-100 ℃ at room temperature, and the heating rate is 10 ℃/min.
In the measurement of thermal conductivity, an aluminum alloy is processed intoThe thermal diffusivity was measured on a LFA-427 model laser thermal analyzer. The results are shown in Table 1.
TABLE 1 test results

Claims (3)

1. The heat-conducting aluminum alloy is characterized by being prepared from the following components in percentage by mass:
Si:15~25 %,
copper alloy solid solution: 0.5 to 2.5 percent,
modification of alloy: 0.1 to 0.5 percent,
the balance of Al is the components with the weight percentage of Al,
the copper alloy solid solution is Cu (Mg, Mn) alloy,
the modified alloy comprises Al-RE alloy and Cu-10% P alloy;
in the Cu (Mg, Mn) alloy, the mass ratio of Mg to Mn is 1: (1-3);
in the Al-RE alloy, the mass ratio of Al to RE elements is 6: 1;
the preparation process of the heat-conducting aluminum alloy comprises the following steps:
s1: melting Si and Al to form a Si-Al melt;
s2: heating the Si-Al melt obtained in the step S1 for the first time, and adding the copper alloy solid solution to form a mixed melt;
s3: adding the modified alloy into the mixed melt in the step S2, heating for the second time, and performing modification treatment to obtain the heat-conducting aluminum alloy;
the temperature of the first temperature rise is 800-820 ℃;
the temperature of the second temperature rise is 830-850 ℃;
the rate of the second temperature rise is 2 ℃/min.
2. The thermally conductive aluminum alloy of claim 1, wherein the RE element comprises 60 wt.% Ce, 35 wt.% La, and 5 wt.% Tm.
3. The heat-conducting aluminum alloy according to claim 1, wherein the preparation process further comprises refining the mixed melt after step S2, wherein the refining temperature is 820-830 ℃, and the refining time is 10-15 min.
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Citations (8)

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JPH02129338A (en) * 1988-11-08 1990-05-17 Mitsubishi Heavy Ind Ltd Wear-resistant aluminum alloy
SU1611966A1 (en) * 1987-12-04 1990-12-07 Украинский научно-исследовательский институт специальных сталей, сплавов и ферросплавов Aluminium-base alloy for treating steel
CN1651586A (en) * 2005-03-09 2005-08-10 沈阳工业大学 Abrasion resistant, heat resistant high silicone aluminium alloy and its shaping technology
CN101503773A (en) * 2009-03-11 2009-08-12 华中科技大学 Heat resisting low expansion silumin and preparation thereof
CN101709414A (en) * 2009-11-10 2010-05-19 中国兵器工业第五二研究所 High silicon gradient composite aluminum alloy cylinder sleeve material and preparation method thereof
CN106967905A (en) * 2017-03-14 2017-07-21 郭和谦 A kind of preparation method of low bulk high temperature aluminium alloys layered electronic encapsulating material
CN109487129A (en) * 2018-12-19 2019-03-19 江苏豪然喷射成形合金有限公司 A kind of very-high performance silico-aluminum and preparation method thereof
CN109609813A (en) * 2018-12-19 2019-04-12 江苏豪然喷射成形合金有限公司 A kind of System of Silica/Aluminum Microparticle alloy and preparation method thereof

Patent Citations (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
SU1611966A1 (en) * 1987-12-04 1990-12-07 Украинский научно-исследовательский институт специальных сталей, сплавов и ферросплавов Aluminium-base alloy for treating steel
JPH02129338A (en) * 1988-11-08 1990-05-17 Mitsubishi Heavy Ind Ltd Wear-resistant aluminum alloy
CN1651586A (en) * 2005-03-09 2005-08-10 沈阳工业大学 Abrasion resistant, heat resistant high silicone aluminium alloy and its shaping technology
CN101503773A (en) * 2009-03-11 2009-08-12 华中科技大学 Heat resisting low expansion silumin and preparation thereof
CN101709414A (en) * 2009-11-10 2010-05-19 中国兵器工业第五二研究所 High silicon gradient composite aluminum alloy cylinder sleeve material and preparation method thereof
CN106967905A (en) * 2017-03-14 2017-07-21 郭和谦 A kind of preparation method of low bulk high temperature aluminium alloys layered electronic encapsulating material
CN109487129A (en) * 2018-12-19 2019-03-19 江苏豪然喷射成形合金有限公司 A kind of very-high performance silico-aluminum and preparation method thereof
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