CN110561059A - Manufacturing process of ultrathin pinion blade - Google Patents

Manufacturing process of ultrathin pinion blade Download PDF

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Publication number
CN110561059A
CN110561059A CN201910794469.XA CN201910794469A CN110561059A CN 110561059 A CN110561059 A CN 110561059A CN 201910794469 A CN201910794469 A CN 201910794469A CN 110561059 A CN110561059 A CN 110561059A
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China
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grinding
blade
temperature
plane
furnace
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CN110561059B (en
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朱源
李云文
吴健
罗杰
陆少峰
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JIANGYIN DORSET PRECISION TOOLS Co Ltd
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JIANGYIN DORSET PRECISION TOOLS Co Ltd
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23PMETAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; COMBINED OPERATIONS; UNIVERSAL MACHINE TOOLS
    • B23P15/00Making specific metal objects by operations not covered by a single other subclass or a group in this subclass
    • B23P15/28Making specific metal objects by operations not covered by a single other subclass or a group in this subclass cutting tools
    • B23P15/38Making specific metal objects by operations not covered by a single other subclass or a group in this subclass cutting tools planing or slotting tools

Abstract

The invention relates to the technical field of manufacturing of gear shaping cutters, and discloses a manufacturing process of an ultra-thin gear shaping blade, which comprises the working procedures of forging and annealing a blank, lathing and grinding two end surfaces, finely lathing an excircle, grinding a plane, slowly-walking wire cutting an inner hole, grinding an inner hole, linearly cutting a key groove, cutting a slowly-walking wire cutting cylinder into a blade, finely-grinding a blade supporting surface, finely-grinding a blade front edge surface, grinding a tooth shape and a back angle, mirror-grinding a front blade surface, passivating a cutting edge and coating, which are sequentially arranged according to the manufacturing flow; in the working procedures of forging and annealing the blank, a plurality of blades are forged into a section of cylindrical blank; a demagnetization process is arranged between the process of turning and grinding the two end surfaces and the process of finish turning the excircle; and a heat treatment process, a stress relief process, a surface sand blasting process and a cold treatment process are sequentially arranged between the outer circle finish turning process and the plane grinding process. The invention improves the manufacturing quality of the ultrathin pinion blade.

Description

Manufacturing process of ultrathin pinion blade
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of manufacturing of gear shaping cutters, in particular to a manufacturing process of an ultrathin gear shaping blade.
Background
The gear shaper cutter is one of the most commonly used cutters for cutting the cylindrical gear, the gear shaper cutter can also cut out cylindrical gears cut out by any gear cutter, and the special purpose of the gear shaper cutter can be used for cutting step gears and gears with convex angles; cutting the internal gear; the continuous herringbone gear without the cutter grooves can be cut into any gear with the same modulus and the same pressure angle and different tooth numbers according to the meshing principle, and can be used for cutting standard gears and profile shifted gears, so that the domestic gear processing machine tool has the quantity, and the gear shaping machine accounts for one fourth. The pinion cutter for processing the small modulus relies on the processing characteristics of the pinion cutter, the market demand is more prominent, and the pinion cutter draws attention of relevant experts in the gear industry at home and abroad. High efficiency, high speed, high precision, economy and practicality are one of the current important development approaches.
As shown in fig. 4 and 5, the specially designed ultra-thin type slotting cutter comprises a supporting ring 21, a pressing ring 22 and an ultra-thin type slotting blade 30, and the key groove 24 of the cutter head is circumferentially positioned by a positioning key and fixed by a fastening screw. The thickness of the ultra-thin slotting blade is only 1.5 mm. Due to the arrangement of the supporting ring 21 and the pressing ring 22, the slotting cutter has the advantages of good precision maintenance, good cutting edge wear resistance, high blade replacement efficiency and the like. The ultrathin slotting cutter blade is free from repairing the tooth form 23 due to the thinness, the replacement efficiency is high, the cutter changing is free from debugging due to high precision and good consistency, and the dull cutter is free from complicated processes such as back coating, polishing and passivation due to thinness and material saving.
However, the thin thickness of the ultra-thin circular blade also brings process complexity, and particularly, the stress deformation in the machining and manufacturing process is difficult to control, thereby seriously affecting the yield of the ultra-thin gear shaping blade. Therefore, there is a need for improved technology to improve the quality of ultra-thin inserts in order to meet design and usage requirements.
Disclosure of Invention
in order to solve the problems, the invention provides a manufacturing process of an ultra-thin slotting blade, aiming at improving the manufacturing quality of the ultra-thin slotting blade. The specific technical scheme is as follows:
A manufacturing process of an ultra-thin slotting blade comprises the working procedures of forging and annealing a blank, turning and grinding two end faces, finely turning an outer circle, grinding a plane, slowly feeding a wire to cut an inner hole, grinding an inner hole, linearly cutting a key groove, slowly feeding a wire to cut a cylinder into a blade, finely grinding a supporting surface of the blade, finely grinding a front edge face of the blade, grinding a tooth shape and a back angle, mirror-grinding a front knife face, passivating a cutting edge and coating, which are sequentially arranged according to a manufacturing flow; in the working procedures of forging and annealing the blank, a plurality of blades are forged into a section of cylindrical blank; a demagnetization process is arranged between the process of turning and grinding the two end surfaces and the process of finish turning the excircle; and a heat treatment process, a stress relief process, a surface sand blasting process and a cold treatment process are sequentially arranged between the outer circle finish turning process and the plane grinding process.
The workpiece blank is machined and two end faces are ground, then demagnetization is carried out, the workpiece is placed in a vacuum furnace for heat treatment and stress removal after an excircle is finely turned, and then cold treatment is carried out, so that the quality of the blank can be comprehensively improved, and the deformation of subsequent machining is effectively reduced. The heat treatment is to quench and temper the precision semi-finished blank to HRC 65-67; the cold treatment is to place the workpiece in a liquid nitrogen cooling box, and carry out shaping treatment at the low temperature of-185 ℃ for 24 hours, thereby stabilizing the internal structure and reducing the deformation of subsequent working procedure processing.
Preferably, the plane grinding process comprises the processes of plane rough grinding, plane semi-fine grinding and plane non-magnetic fine grinding; the non-magnetic fine grinding of the plane adopts a circular grinder, a workpiece is placed on a non-magnetic circular grinder workbench, a plurality of strong magnetic stop blocks are arranged on the outer circle and the inner hole of the workpiece respectively along the circumferential direction, the bottom surfaces of the strong magnetic stop blocks are adsorbed on the workbench, and the side surfaces of the strong magnetic stop blocks lean against the outer circle surface and the inner hole surface of the flat workpiece for grinding.
The invention forges a plurality of blades into an integral piece, and after preprocessing, stress removal and cold treatment, a nonmagnetic grinding technology is adopted (the workpiece is ground in a free state, so that the original unevenness defect of the blades can be effectively eliminated), an aging treatment oil furnace is used for aging treatment between the grinding sub-procedures, so that the stress of the ground surface and the stress of a linear cutting slice are eliminated, a high-precision reference plane can be finely ground to serve as a reference for subsequent inner hole processing and slow-running wire slicing (the integral piece is linearly cut into a plurality of thin blades), and the stress in the workpiece is eliminated to the maximum extent through the reasonably arranged oil furnace aging treatment, so that the thin blades obtained by cutting with the slow-running wire have good flatness, and good guarantee is provided for the subsequent high-quality finish machining.
In the process of cutting the inner hole by the slow-walking wire, reasonable process parameters are set for ensuring the cutting quality of the slow-walking wire, and the position precision of two planes of the blade and the inner hole and the shape precision of the planes are ensured.
In the inner hole grinding process, the whole hole grinding technology is applied to vertical hole grinding, the inner hole is measured by adopting a high-resolution 1/1000 pneumatic measuring instrument, the size of the inner hole is retested by using a Zoller G3 detector, the size of the hole diameter and the geometric precision are ensured, and a foundation is laid for subsequent high-precision processing of tooth shapes.
In the invention, the slow wire cutting cylinder is a blade, namely, a plurality of workpieces processed after being forged are cut and divided into a plurality of ultrathin pinion blades by the slow wire cutting. During linear cutting, the perpendicularity of the inner hole and the plane, namely end jump, is strictly controlled.
Preferably, in the process of taking the slow-speed wire cutting cylinder as the blade, an internal expansion type elastic chuck is adopted for positioning and clamping; the internal expanding type elastic chuck comprises an expanding sleeve type positioning mandrel, a conical expanding disc and a compression screw, wherein a positioning expanding sleeve used for positioning an inner hole of a workpiece is arranged on the expanding sleeve type positioning mandrel, the inner hole of the positioning expanding sleeve is a conical hole, the positioning expanding sleeve is provided with an open slot along the axial direction, the outer conical surface of the conical expanding disc is matched with the conical hole of the positioning expanding sleeve, and the compression screw is used for compressing the conical expanding disc in the conical hole of the positioning expanding sleeve.
The invention arranges the procedure of the supporting surface of the fine grinding blade and the procedure of the front edge surface of the fine grinding blade before the procedures of grinding the tooth shape and the back angle, thereby creating the most accurate processing reference of the blade, which is the key for ensuring the final manufacturing accuracy of the blade.
In the process of grinding the tooth profile and the back angle, the tooth profile and the back angle are roughly ground by a rough grinding wheel, the tooth profile and the back angle are semi-accurately ground by a semi-fine grinding wheel, and the tooth profile and the back angle are accurately ground by an accurate grinding wheel, so that the tooth surface is bright like a mirror, the precision is controlled to be R0.001 +/-0.005 mm according to the drawing and the technical conditions.
Considering that the mirror surface grinding front cutting edge surface is the basis and the determining factor of the service life of the blade, the invention arranges the oil furnace aging treatment between the tooth grinding and back angle process and the mirror surface grinding front cutting edge process, can remove the grinding stress, can avoid the deformation of the mirror surface grinding front cutting edge surface, thereby improving the final processing precision of the ultrathin slotting blade.
In the working procedures of blade edge passivation and coating, the blade is passivated to form a firm smooth cutting edge with an arc of R0.015 +/-0.002 mm, and the durability of the blade can be prolonged by 3-5 times. The coating of blade working face and blade is according to processing material and cutting quantity, selects the thickness of suitable kind of coating and coating to the durability of extension blade improves the life-span more than 2 times.
In the preferred scheme of the invention, in the blank forging and annealing working procedures, the annealing temperature is 850-900 ℃; the heat preservation is carried out for 6 hours, in the heat treatment stress removal procedure, the heat treatment stress removal temperature is 400-450 ℃, and the heat preservation is carried out for 12 hours; in the cold treatment process, the workpiece is placed in a liquid nitrogen cooling box to be subjected to cold treatment at the temperature of below 185 ℃ below zero, and the temperature is kept for 24 hours, so that the internal structure of the material is shaped, and the dimensional stability of the workpiece is improved.
among the above technological parameters, the annealing temperature after forging the blank is optimized from about 850 ℃ of the conventional heating temperature to 850-900 ℃, the heat preservation time is more than 6 hours, so that the blank has sufficient annealing structure, the crystal grains are refined, the structure stress is reduced, the shaft type annealing furnace with the fan is adopted, the upper furnace temperature and the lower furnace temperature are uniform, the temperature difference is reduced, and the annealing quality is ensured.
As a further optimization, in the process of grinding the plane, a circular table grinder is adopted to grind two planes of a workpiece, and the grinding plane comprises plane coarse grinding, plane semi-fine grinding and plane non-magnetic fine grinding; and low-temperature stress relief aging treatment procedures are respectively arranged between the plane rough grinding and the plane semi-fine grinding, between the plane semi-fine grinding and the plane non-magnetic fine grinding, between the slow-running wire cutting inner hole and the grinding inner hole, and between the grinding tooth shape and the rear angle as well as the mirror surface grinding front cutter face, and the low-temperature stress relief aging treatment is to place the workpiece in a low-temperature aging oil furnace and perform aging treatment at set heating temperature and heat preservation time.
As a further optimization, a low-temperature stress relief aging treatment process is arranged between the process of forming the slow-wire cutting cylinder into blades and the process of forming the supporting surface of the fine grinding cutter disc.
Preferably, the heating temperature set during the low-temperature stress relief aging treatment is 150-160 ℃, and the heat preservation time is 12 hours.
Compared with the conventional single-piece machining and manufacturing process of the thin blade, the process for multiple pieces of combined forging and then cutting into the thin blade in a linear mode has the advantages that the stress deformation of the workpiece is effectively controlled before slicing, and low-temperature stress relief aging treatment is carried out after the blade is formed by the aid of the slow-moving wire cutting cylinder, so that machining procedures are simplified, material utilization rate is improved, and machining accuracy and machining efficiency are improved.
As a further improvement, the low-temperature aging oil furnace is an ultrasonic enhanced low-temperature aging oil furnace, and the ultrasonic enhanced low-temperature aging oil furnace comprises a cylinder furnace body, a furnace body cover plate arranged at the upper end of the cylinder furnace body, a liquid oil heating pipe arranged in the cylinder furnace body, an object stage which is horizontally arranged in the cylinder furnace body and can float up and down and is used for placing a plurality of cutter heads in a vertically stacked manner, and an ultrasonic vibration device connected with the object stage, wherein the ultrasonic vibration device comprises an ultrasonic vibration head arranged at the lower end of the object stage, and an ultrasonic generator connected with the ultrasonic vibration head.
The ultrasonic enhanced low-temperature aging oil furnace has a composite destressing function of low-temperature aging destressing and ultrasonic vibration destressing, and through the synergistic effect of the two functions, on one hand, the thoroughness of destressing can be greatly improved, on the other hand, the destressing efficiency is also greatly improved, so that the cutter head destressing time is greatly shortened, and the cutter head manufacturing period is greatly shortened.
Preferably, the lower extreme of objective table is connected with the corrugated metal pipe that downwardly extending set up, just corrugated metal pipe's lower extreme with the bottom of cylinder furnace body is connected and the oil-free space of the inside liquid oil of cylinder furnace body is separated in corrugated metal pipe's inside formation, the ultrasonic vibration head is located in the oil-free space, the objective table passes through corrugated metal pipe realizes the unsteady from top to bottom in the cylinder furnace body.
Preferably, the lower end of the objective table is further provided with a support frame, an electric push rod is vertically arranged between the support frame and the bottom of the cylindrical furnace body, a flexible rubber buffer block is connected to a telescopic head of the electric push rod, and the electric push rod upwards props against the support frame through the flexible rubber buffer block; and a plurality of limiting stop levers of which the number is used for limiting the cutter head are arranged at the periphery of the upper end surface of the objective table.
When the ultrasonic enhancement type low-temperature aging oil furnace works, the cutter discs are stacked on the objective table, the cutter discs and the objective table are immersed in low-heat liquid oil together, the objective table generates ultrasonic vibration under the action of the ultrasonic vibration device, and the grinding stress on the surfaces of the cutter discs is released in an accelerating mode through the synergistic effect of the destressing of the low-heat liquid oil and the destressing of the ultrasonic vibration, so that the destressing aging effect is good, and the speed is high.
According to the ultrasonic enhanced low-temperature aging oil furnace, the electric push rod is arranged below the object stage, so that when a workpiece is placed and taken, the object stage can be lifted through the electric push rod, and operation is facilitated.
Preferably, the ultrasonic vibration head of the ultrasonic enhanced low-temperature aging oil furnace is installed and connected at the lower end of the object stage according to one of the following three ways: one of the mounting and connecting modes is that the ultrasonic vibration head is mounted on the end face of the lower end of the objective table; the second mounting connection mode is that the ultrasonic vibration head is mounted on a support frame at the lower end of the objective table; and the third mounting connection mode is that the ultrasonic vibration head is mounted between the support frame at the lower end of the objective table and the flexible rubber buffer block.
In the invention, the ultrasonic vibration head comprises an ultrasonic transducer and an ultrasonic amplitude transformer connected to the ultrasonic transducer, wherein the ultrasonic transducer is connected to the ultrasonic generator.
Preferably, in the low-temperature stress relief aging treatment process, when the cutter head is aged by using the ultrasonic enhanced low-temperature aging oil furnace, the heating temperature of the low-temperature stress relief aging treatment is set to be 150-160 ℃, and the heat preservation time of the low-temperature stress relief aging treatment is set to be shortened to be 4-6 hours.
In the invention, a temperature controller is arranged in a cylinder furnace body of the ultrasonic enhanced low-temperature aging oil furnace.
In the invention, the lower end of the oil-free space part positioned in the metal corrugated pipe is communicated with the outside air (the bottom of the cylindrical furnace body is provided with the communicating hole) so as to reduce the working temperature of the ultrasonic vibration head and the electric push rod and improve the working reliability of the ultrasonic vibration head and the electric push rod.
after the ultra-thin pinion blade is manufactured, the size, the geometric shape, the form and position tolerance and the like of the blade are comprehensively detected. The main technical indexes of the blade are measured by adopting a Clinberg gear detection center and a Zoll cutter detection center.
The invention has the beneficial effects that:
Firstly, according to the manufacturing process of the ultrathin slotting blade, the workpiece blank is subjected to turning and two-end surface grinding, then demagnetization is carried out, the workpiece is placed in a vacuum furnace after the outer circle is finely turned, heat treatment and stress removal are carried out, and then cold treatment is carried out, so that the quality of the blank can be comprehensively improved, and the deformation of subsequent processing is effectively reduced.
Secondly, the manufacturing process of the ultra-thin type slotting blade of the invention comprises the steps of forging a plurality of blades into an integral piece, after preprocessing, stress removing and cold treatment, the non-magnetic grinding technology is adopted (workpieces are ground in a free state, the original unevenness defect of the blade can be effectively eliminated), an aging stress removal oil furnace is used for aging treatment between the grinding sub-procedures, the stress of the grinding surface and the stress of the linear cutting slice are eliminated, thereby being capable of finely grinding a high-precision reference plane as a reference for subsequent inner hole processing and slow wire cutting (cutting an integral piece into a plurality of thin blades) processing, and because the internal stress of the workpiece is eliminated to the maximum extent through the reasonable arrangement of the stress relief aging treatment of the oil furnace, and the thin blade obtained by cutting through the slow-feeding wire has good flatness, and provides good guarantee for subsequent further high-quality finish machining.
Thirdly, compared with the conventional single-piece machining and manufacturing process of the thin blade, the process of adopting multiple pieces of combined forging and then cutting the thin blade in a linear mode effectively controls the stress deformation of the workpiece before slicing, and carries out low-temperature stress relief aging treatment after the blade is formed by adding a slow-moving wire cutting cylinder, so that the manufacturing process has the advantages of simplifying the machining process, improving the material utilization rate and improving the machining precision and the machining efficiency.
Fourthly, the manufacturing process of the ultrathin slotting cutter blade arranges the procedure of the supporting surface of the fine grinding cutter blade and the procedure of the front edge surface of the fine grinding cutter blade before the procedures of grinding the tooth shape and the back angle, thereby creating the most accurate processing reference of the cutter blade, which is the key for ensuring the final manufacturing accuracy of the cutter blade.
Fifthly, according to the manufacturing process of the ultrathin slotting blade, stress relief treatment by an oil furnace is arranged between the tooth grinding and back angle process and the mirror surface grinding front cutter face process, so that grinding stress can be removed, deformation of the mirror surface grinding front cutter face can be avoided, and the final machining precision of the ultrathin slotting blade is improved.
Sixthly, in the manufacturing process of the ultrathin slotting blade, the annealing temperature of the forged blank is optimized from the conventional heating temperature of about 850 ℃ to be increased to 850-900 ℃, the heat preservation time is longer than 6 hours, so that the annealing structure is sufficient, grains are refined, the structure stress is reduced, a well type annealing furnace with a fan is adopted, the upper furnace temperature and the lower furnace temperature are uniform, and the temperature difference is reduced to ensure the annealing quality.
seventh, the manufacturing process of the ultra-thin slotting cutter blade of the invention, the ultrasonic enhanced low temperature aging oil furnace adopted has the composite destressing function of low temperature aging destressing and ultrasonic vibration destressing, through the synergistic effect of the two, on one hand, the thoroughness of destressing can be greatly improved, on the other hand, the destressing efficiency is also greatly improved, so that the time of cutter head destressing is greatly shortened, and the manufacturing period of the cutter head is also greatly shortened.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a process flow diagram of a process for manufacturing an ultra-thin toothed cutting insert according to the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a schematic view of a planar non-magnetic precision ground workpiece;
FIG. 3 is a schematic view of an internal expanding collet for use with a slow-running wire cutting blade;
FIG. 4 is a schematic view of the assembled structure of the slotting cutter;
FIG. 5 is a schematic view of the ultra-thin toothed cutting insert of FIG. 4;
Fig. 6 is a schematic structural diagram of an ultrasonic enhanced low-temperature aging oil furnace.
In the figure: 1. the device comprises a cylinder type furnace body, 2, a furnace body cover plate, 3, a liquid oil heating pipe, 4, a cutter head, 5, an objective table, 6, an ultrasonic vibration device, 7, an ultrasonic vibration head, 8, an ultrasonic generator, 9, a metal corrugated pipe, 10, an oil-free space, 11, a support frame, 12, an electric push rod, 13, a flexible rubber buffer block, 14, a limiting stop lever, 15, an ultrasonic transducer, 16, an ultrasonic amplitude transformer, 17, a temperature controller, 18, liquid oil, 19 and a support plate;
In the figure: 20. the gear shaper connector comprises a gear shaper connector 21, a support ring 22, a compression ring 23, a tooth form 24, a key groove 25, an expansion sleeve type positioning mandrel 26, a conical expansion disc 27, a compression screw 28, an open slot 29, a positioning expansion sleeve 30, an ultra-thin gear shaping blade 31, a circular grinder workbench 32 and a strong magnetic stop block.
Detailed Description
The following description of the embodiments of the present invention will be made with reference to the accompanying drawings. The following examples are only for illustrating the technical solutions of the present invention more clearly, and the protection scope of the present invention is not limited thereby.
Fig. 1 to 6 show an embodiment of a manufacturing process of an ultra-thin slotting blade according to the present invention, which includes the steps of forging and annealing a blank, lathing and grinding two end faces, finely lathing an outer circle, grinding a plane, slowly running wire cutting an inner hole, grinding an inner hole, linearly cutting a key groove, slowly running wire cutting a cylinder into a blade, finely grinding a blade support surface, finely grinding a blade front edge face, grinding a tooth form and a back angle, mirror grinding a front edge face, passivating a cutting edge and coating, which are sequentially arranged according to a manufacturing flow; in the working procedures of forging and annealing the blank, a plurality of blades are forged into a section of cylindrical blank; a demagnetization process is arranged between the process of turning and grinding the two end surfaces and the process of finish turning the excircle; and a heat treatment process, a stress relief process, a surface sand blasting process and a cold treatment process are sequentially arranged between the outer circle finish turning process and the plane grinding process.
The workpiece blank is machined and two end faces are ground, then demagnetization is carried out, the workpiece is placed in a vacuum furnace for heat treatment and stress removal after an excircle is finely turned, and then cold treatment is carried out, so that the quality of the blank can be comprehensively improved, and the deformation of subsequent machining is effectively reduced. The heat treatment is to quench and temper the precision semi-finished blank to HRC 65-67; the cold treatment is to place the workpiece in a liquid nitrogen cooling box, and carry out shaping treatment at the low temperature of-185 ℃ for 24 hours, thereby stabilizing the internal structure and reducing the deformation of subsequent working procedure processing.
Preferably, the plane grinding process comprises the processes of plane rough grinding, plane semi-fine grinding and plane non-magnetic fine grinding; the planar non-magnetic fine grinding adopts a circular grinder, a workpiece is placed on a non-magnetic circular grinder workbench 31, a plurality of strong magnetic stoppers 32 are arranged on the outer circle and the inner hole of the workpiece respectively along the circumferential direction, the bottom surfaces of the strong magnetic stoppers 32 are adsorbed on the workbench 31, and the side surfaces of the strong magnetic stoppers 32 lean against the outer circle surface and the inner hole surface of the flat workpiece for grinding.
In the embodiment, a plurality of blades are forged into an integral piece, and after preprocessing, stress removal and cold treatment, a nonmagnetic grinding technology is adopted (workpieces are ground in a free state, the original defect of unevenness of the blades can be effectively eliminated), an aging treatment oil furnace is used for aging treatment between the grinding sub-procedures in a matching manner, and the stress of the ground surface and the stress of a linear cutting slice are eliminated, so that a high-precision reference plane can be finely ground to serve as a reference for subsequent inner hole machining and slow-running wire slicing (an integral piece is subjected to linear cutting into a plurality of thin blades), and the stress in the workpieces is eliminated to the maximum extent through the reasonably arranged aging treatment of the oil furnace, so that the thin blades obtained by the slow-running wire cutting have good flatness, and good guarantee is provided for subsequent high-quality finish machining.
In the process of cutting the inner hole by the slow-walking wire, reasonable process parameters are formulated for ensuring the cutting quality of the slow-walking wire, and the position precision of two planes of the blade and the inner hole and the shape precision of the planes are ensured.
In the inner hole grinding process, the whole hole grinding technology is applied to vertical hole grinding, the inner hole is measured by a high-resolution 1/1000 pneumatic measuring instrument, the size of the inner hole is retested by a Zoller G3 detector, the size of the hole diameter and the geometric precision are ensured, and a foundation is laid for subsequent high-precision processing of tooth shapes.
In this embodiment, the slow wire cutting cylinder is a blade, that is, a plurality of workpieces processed after being forged are divided into a plurality of ultrathin slotting blades by slow wire cutting. During linear cutting, the perpendicularity of the inner hole and the plane, namely end jump, is strictly controlled.
Preferably, in the process of taking the slow-speed wire cutting cylinder as the blade, an internal expansion type elastic chuck is adopted for positioning and clamping; the internal expanding type elastic chuck comprises an expanding sleeve type positioning mandrel 25, a conical expanding disc 26 and a compression screw 27, wherein a positioning expanding sleeve 29 used for positioning an inner hole of a workpiece is arranged on the expanding sleeve type positioning mandrel 25, the inner hole of the positioning expanding sleeve 29 is a conical hole, the positioning expanding sleeve 29 is provided with an open slot 28 along the axial direction, the outer conical surface of the conical expanding disc 26 is matched with the conical hole of the positioning expanding sleeve 29, and the compression screw 27 compresses the conical expanding disc 26 in the conical hole of the positioning expanding sleeve 29.
In the embodiment, a procedure of a supporting surface of the refining blade and a procedure of a front edge surface of the refining blade are arranged before a procedure of grinding the tooth shape and the rear angle, so that the most accurate processing reference of the blade is created, and the key for ensuring the final manufacturing accuracy of the blade is.
In the process of grinding the tooth profile and the back angle, the tooth profile and the back angle are roughly ground by a rough grinding wheel, the tooth profile and the back angle are semi-accurately ground by a semi-fine grinding wheel, and the tooth profile and the back angle are accurately ground by an accurate grinding wheel, so that the tooth surface brightness is similar to a mirror, the precision is controlled to be R0.1 +/-0.02 mm according to the drawing and the technical conditions.
Considering that the mirror surface grinding front cutting edge surface is the basis and the determining factor of the service life of the blade, the oil furnace stress relief treatment is arranged between the tooth grinding and back angle process and the mirror surface grinding front cutting edge process, so that the grinding stress can be removed, the deformation of the mirror surface grinding front cutting edge surface can be avoided, and the final machining precision of the ultrathin slotting blade is improved.
In the working procedure of blade passivation and coating, the blade is passivated to form a firm cutting edge with a smooth and unopened blade arc of R0.015 +/-0.002 mm, so that the durability of the blade can be prolonged by 3-5 times. The coating of blade working face and blade is according to processing material and cutting quantity, selects the thickness of suitable kind of coating and coating to the durability of extension blade improves the life-span more than 2 times.
In a preferable embodiment of the present invention, in the step of forging and annealing the blank, the annealing temperature is 850 to 900 ℃; the heat preservation is carried out for 6 hours, in the heat treatment stress removal procedure, the heat treatment stress removal temperature is 400-450 ℃, and the heat preservation is carried out for 12 hours; in the cold treatment process, the workpiece is placed in a liquid nitrogen cooling box to be subjected to cold treatment at the temperature of below 185 ℃ below zero, and the temperature is kept for 24 hours, so that the internal structure of the material is shaped, and the dimensional stability of the workpiece is improved.
Among the above technological parameters, the annealing temperature after forging the blank is optimized from about 850 ℃ of the conventional heating temperature to 850-900 ℃, the heat preservation time is more than 6 hours, so that the blank has sufficient annealing structure, the crystal grains are refined, the structure stress is reduced, the shaft type annealing furnace with the fan is adopted, the upper furnace temperature and the lower furnace temperature are uniform, the temperature difference is reduced, and the annealing quality is ensured.
as a further optimization, in the manufacturing process of the ultrathin slotting blade of the embodiment, in the step of grinding the plane, a circular table grinder is adopted to grind and machine two planes of the workpiece, and the grinding plane comprises plane rough grinding, plane semi-finish grinding and plane non-magnetic finish grinding; and low-temperature stress relief aging treatment procedures are respectively arranged between the plane rough grinding and the plane semi-fine grinding, between the plane semi-fine grinding and the plane non-magnetic fine grinding, between the slow-running wire cutting inner hole and the grinding inner hole, and between the grinding tooth shape and the rear angle as well as the mirror surface grinding front cutter face, and the low-temperature stress relief aging treatment is to place the workpiece in a low-temperature aging oil furnace and perform aging treatment at set heating temperature and heat preservation time.
As a further optimization, a low-temperature stress relief aging treatment process is arranged between the process of forming the slow-wire cutting cylinder into blades and the process of forming the supporting surface of the fine grinding cutter disc.
Preferably, the heating temperature set during the low-temperature stress relief aging treatment is 150-160 ℃, and the heat preservation time is 12 hours.
Compared with the conventional single-piece machining and manufacturing process of the thin blade, the process of multiple pieces of combined forging and then cutting into the thin blade in a linear mode has the advantages that the stress deformation of the workpiece is effectively controlled before slicing, and low-temperature stress relief aging treatment is carried out after the blade is formed by the aid of the slow-moving wire cutting cylinder, so that machining procedures are simplified, material utilization rate is improved, and machining accuracy and machining efficiency are improved.
As a further improvement, the manufacturing process of the ultrathin slotting blade of the embodiment includes that the low-temperature aging oil furnace is an ultrasonic enhanced low-temperature aging oil furnace, the ultrasonic enhanced low-temperature aging oil furnace includes a cylinder furnace body 1, a furnace body cover plate 2 arranged at the upper end of the cylinder furnace body 1, a liquid oil heating pipe 3 arranged in the cylinder furnace body 1, a carrying platform 5 which is horizontally arranged in the cylinder furnace body 1 and can vertically float and is used for placing a plurality of cutter heads 4 in an up-and-down laminated manner, and an ultrasonic vibration device 6 connected with the carrying platform 5, wherein the ultrasonic vibration device 6 includes an ultrasonic vibration head 7 arranged at the lower end of the carrying platform 5 and an ultrasonic generator 8 connected with the ultrasonic vibration head 7.
The ultrasonic enhanced low-temperature aging oil furnace has a composite destressing function of low-temperature aging destressing and ultrasonic vibration destressing, and through the synergistic effect of the two functions, on one hand, the thoroughness of destressing can be greatly improved, on the other hand, the destressing efficiency is also greatly improved, so that the cutter head destressing time is greatly shortened, and the cutter head manufacturing period is greatly shortened.
It is preferred. The lower extreme of objective table 5 is connected with corrugated metal pipe 9 that downwardly extending set up, just corrugated metal pipe 9's lower extreme with the bottom of cylinder furnace body 1 is connected and the inside of corrugated metal pipe 9 forms the oil-free space that separates the inside liquid oil 18 of cylinder furnace body 1, ultrasonic vibration head 7 is located in oil-free space 18, objective table 5 passes through corrugated metal pipe 9 realizes the unsteady from top to bottom in the cylinder furnace body 1.
preferably, a support frame 11 is further arranged at the lower end of the objective table 5, an electric push rod 12 is vertically arranged between the support frame 11 and the bottom of the cylindrical furnace body 1, a flexible rubber buffer block 13 is connected to a telescopic head of the electric push rod 12, and the electric push rod 12 upwards props against the support frame 11 through the flexible rubber buffer block 13; and a plurality of limiting stop rods 14 for limiting the cutter head 4 are arranged at the periphery of the upper end surface of the objective table 5.
When the ultrasonic enhancement type low-temperature aging oil furnace works, the cutter head 4 is stacked on the objective table 5, the cutter head 4 and the objective table 5 are immersed in the low-heat liquid oil 18 together, meanwhile, the objective table 5 generates ultrasonic vibration under the effect of the ultrasonic vibration device 6, and the grinding stress on the surface of the cutter head 4 is released in an accelerating mode through the synergistic effect of the destressing of the low-heat liquid oil 18 and the destressing of the ultrasonic vibration, so that the destressing aging effect is good, and the speed is high.
The ultrasonic enhancement type low-temperature aging oil furnace of the embodiment is provided with the electric push rod 12 below the object stage 5, and when a workpiece is placed and taken, the object stage 5 can be lifted through the electric push rod 12, so that the operation is facilitated.
Preferably, the ultrasonic enhanced low-temperature aging oil furnace in the embodiment has the ultrasonic vibration head 7 installed and connected at the lower end of the object stage 5 according to one of the following three ways: one of the mounting and connecting modes is that the ultrasonic vibration head 7 is mounted on the end face of the lower end of the objective table 5; the second mounting connection mode is that the ultrasonic vibration head 7 is mounted on a support frame 11 at the lower end of the objective table 5; the third installation connection mode is that the ultrasonic vibration head 7 is installed between the support frame 11 at the lower end of the objective table 5 and the flexible rubber buffer block 13.
In this embodiment, the ultrasonic vibration head 7 includes an ultrasonic transducer 15 and an ultrasonic horn 16 connected to the ultrasonic transducer 15, wherein the ultrasonic transducer 15 is connected to the ultrasonic generator 8.
Preferably, in the low-temperature stress relief aging treatment process, when the cutter head is aged by using the ultrasonic enhanced low-temperature aging oil furnace, the heating temperature of the low-temperature stress relief aging treatment is set to be 150-160 ℃, and the heat preservation time of the low-temperature stress relief aging treatment is set to be shortened to be 4-6 hours.
in the embodiment, a temperature controller 17 is arranged in the cylinder furnace body 1 of the ultrasonic enhanced low-temperature aging oil furnace.
In this embodiment, the lower end of the oil-free space 10 inside the corrugated metal pipe 9 is communicated with the outside air (the communicating hole is formed at the bottom of the cylindrical furnace body 1) to lower the working temperature of the ultrasonic vibration head 7 and the electric push rod 12, and improve the working reliability thereof.
After the ultra-thin pinion blade is manufactured, the size, the geometric shape, the form and position tolerance and the like of the blade are comprehensively detected. The main technical indexes of the blade are measured by adopting a Clinberg gear detection center and a Zoll cutter detection center.
The foregoing is only a preferred embodiment of the present invention, and it should be noted that, for those skilled in the art, various modifications and decorations can be made without departing from the technical principle of the present invention, and these modifications and decorations should also be regarded as the protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (10)

1. A manufacturing process of an ultra-thin slotting blade is characterized by comprising the working procedures of forging and annealing a blank, turning and grinding two end faces, finely turning an outer circle, grinding a plane, cutting an inner hole with a slow-running wire, grinding the inner hole, linearly cutting a key groove, cutting a cylinder with the slow-running wire into a blade, supporting surfaces of a fine grinding blade, front edge faces of the fine grinding blade, grinding tooth shapes and rear angles, mirror-surface grinding of a front knife face, passivating and coating of a cutting edge, wherein the working procedures are sequentially arranged according to the manufacturing flow; in the working procedures of forging and annealing the blank, a plurality of blades are forged into a section of cylindrical blank; a demagnetization process is arranged between the process of turning and grinding the two end surfaces and the process of finish turning the excircle; and a heat treatment process, a stress relief process, a surface sand blasting process and a cold treatment process are sequentially arranged between the outer circle finish turning process and the plane grinding process.
2. The manufacturing process of an ultra-thin pinion blade as claimed in claim 1, wherein the grinding process comprises a plane rough grinding process, a plane semi-finish grinding process and a plane nonmagnetic finish grinding process; the non-magnetic fine grinding of the plane adopts a circular grinder, a workpiece is placed on a non-magnetic circular grinder workbench, a plurality of strong magnetic stop blocks are arranged on the outer circle and the inner hole of the workpiece respectively along the circumferential direction, the bottom surfaces of the strong magnetic stop blocks are adsorbed on the workbench, and the side surfaces of the strong magnetic stop blocks lean against the outer circle surface and the inner hole surface of the flat workpiece for grinding.
3. The manufacturing process of the ultrathin slotting cutter blade according to claim 1, wherein in the process of taking the slow-speed wire cutting cylinder as the cutter blade, an internal expansion type elastic chuck is adopted for positioning and clamping; the internal expanding type elastic chuck comprises an expanding sleeve type positioning mandrel, a conical expanding disc and a compression screw, wherein a positioning expanding sleeve used for positioning an inner hole of a workpiece is arranged on the expanding sleeve type positioning mandrel, the inner hole of the positioning expanding sleeve is a conical hole, the positioning expanding sleeve is provided with an open slot along the axial direction, the outer conical surface of the conical expanding disc is matched with the conical hole of the positioning expanding sleeve, and the compression screw is used for compressing the conical expanding disc in the conical hole of the positioning expanding sleeve.
4. The manufacturing process of the ultrathin slotting blade according to claim 1, wherein in the blank forging and annealing process, the annealing temperature is 850-900 ℃; the heat preservation is carried out for 6 hours, in the heat treatment stress removal procedure, the heat treatment stress removal temperature is 400-450 ℃, and the heat preservation is carried out for 12 hours; in the cold treatment process, the workpiece is placed in a liquid nitrogen cooling box to be subjected to cold treatment at the temperature of below 185 ℃ below zero, and the temperature is kept for 24 hours, so that the internal structure of the material is shaped, and the dimensional stability of the workpiece is improved.
5. The manufacturing process of the ultra-thin slotting cutter blade according to claim 1, wherein in the step of grinding the plane, a circular table grinder is adopted to grind and machine two planes of a workpiece, and the grinding planes comprise plane rough grinding, plane semi-finish grinding and plane non-magnetic finish grinding; and low-temperature stress relief aging treatment procedures are respectively arranged between the plane rough grinding and the plane semi-fine grinding, between the plane semi-fine grinding and the plane non-magnetic fine grinding, between the slow-running wire cutting inner hole and the grinding inner hole, and between the grinding tooth shape and the rear angle as well as the mirror surface grinding front cutter face, and the low-temperature stress relief aging treatment is to place the workpiece in a low-temperature aging oil furnace and perform aging treatment at set heating temperature and heat preservation time.
6. The manufacturing process of the ultrathin slotting cutter blade according to claim 5, wherein the heating temperature set during the low-temperature stress relief aging treatment is 150-160 ℃, and the holding time is 12 hours.
7. The manufacturing process of the ultrathin slotting blade according to claim 5 is characterized in that the low-temperature aging oil furnace is an ultrasonic enhanced low-temperature aging oil furnace, the ultrasonic enhanced low-temperature aging oil furnace comprises a cylinder furnace body, a furnace body cover plate arranged at the upper end of the cylinder furnace body, a liquid oil heating pipe arranged in the cylinder furnace body, an object stage which is horizontally arranged in the cylinder furnace body and can float up and down and is used for placing a plurality of cutter heads in an up-and-down laminated mode, and an ultrasonic vibration device connected with the object stage, wherein the ultrasonic vibration device comprises an ultrasonic vibration head arranged at the lower end of the object stage, and an ultrasonic generator connected with the ultrasonic vibration head.
8. the manufacturing process of the ultra-thin slotting blade according to claim 7, wherein the lower end of the objective table is connected with a metal corrugated pipe which extends downwards, the lower end of the metal corrugated pipe is connected with the bottom of the cylinder furnace body and forms an oil-free space separating liquid oil in the cylinder furnace body in the metal corrugated pipe, the ultrasonic vibration head is positioned in the oil-free space, and the objective table floats up and down in the cylinder furnace body through the metal corrugated pipe.
9. The manufacturing process of the ultrathin slotting cutter blade according to claim 8, wherein a support frame is further arranged at the lower end of the objective table, an electric push rod is vertically arranged between the support frame and the bottom of the cylindrical furnace body, a flexible rubber buffer block is connected to a telescopic head of the electric push rod, and the electric push rod is upwards propped against the support frame through the flexible rubber buffer block; and a plurality of limiting stop levers of which the number is used for limiting the cutter head are arranged at the periphery of the upper end surface of the objective table.
10. The manufacturing process of the ultrathin slotting cutter blade according to claim 9 is characterized in that in the low-temperature stress relief treatment process, when the cutter head is subjected to the ageing treatment by adopting the ultrasonic enhanced low-temperature ageing oil furnace, the heating temperature of the low-temperature stress relief treatment is set to be 150-160 degrees, and the heat preservation time of the low-temperature stress relief treatment is set to be 4-6 hours.
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JP2002035884A (en) * 2000-07-25 2002-02-05 Daido Steel Co Ltd Gear die for warm or hot forging and manufacturing method thereof
JP2002144155A (en) * 2000-11-14 2002-05-21 Takehiko Watanabe Method of removing residual tensile stress by application of ultrasonic vibration in liquid
CN100402232C (en) * 2006-07-06 2008-07-16 周荣根 Carbide alloy metal saw production process
CN104263902A (en) * 2014-10-11 2015-01-07 北京航空航天大学 Heat and vibration combined aging device for residual stress homogenization
EP2954966B1 (en) * 2014-06-13 2017-07-05 Meccanotecnica Veneta S.r.L. Cutter disc, cutting device and method for obtaining such a cutter disc
CN107297549A (en) * 2017-08-16 2017-10-27 江阴塞特精密工具有限公司 The micro- hard alloy micron hob of superfinishing and its manufacturing process
CN208322166U (en) * 2018-05-30 2019-01-04 扬州众力金属制造有限公司 Elastic internal expanding collet
CN109261868A (en) * 2018-11-27 2019-01-25 南通四合不锈钢制品有限公司 A kind of manufacture craft of steel cutter
CN109773436A (en) * 2019-03-11 2019-05-21 重庆安驰芯金属制品有限公司 Cylindrical dentation cutter and its processing technology

Patent Citations (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP2002035884A (en) * 2000-07-25 2002-02-05 Daido Steel Co Ltd Gear die for warm or hot forging and manufacturing method thereof
JP2002144155A (en) * 2000-11-14 2002-05-21 Takehiko Watanabe Method of removing residual tensile stress by application of ultrasonic vibration in liquid
CN100402232C (en) * 2006-07-06 2008-07-16 周荣根 Carbide alloy metal saw production process
EP2954966B1 (en) * 2014-06-13 2017-07-05 Meccanotecnica Veneta S.r.L. Cutter disc, cutting device and method for obtaining such a cutter disc
CN104263902A (en) * 2014-10-11 2015-01-07 北京航空航天大学 Heat and vibration combined aging device for residual stress homogenization
CN107297549A (en) * 2017-08-16 2017-10-27 江阴塞特精密工具有限公司 The micro- hard alloy micron hob of superfinishing and its manufacturing process
CN208322166U (en) * 2018-05-30 2019-01-04 扬州众力金属制造有限公司 Elastic internal expanding collet
CN109261868A (en) * 2018-11-27 2019-01-25 南通四合不锈钢制品有限公司 A kind of manufacture craft of steel cutter
CN109773436A (en) * 2019-03-11 2019-05-21 重庆安驰芯金属制品有限公司 Cylindrical dentation cutter and its processing technology

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