CN110542498A - MEMS strain differential pressure sensor and manufacturing method thereof - Google Patents

MEMS strain differential pressure sensor and manufacturing method thereof Download PDF

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Publication number
CN110542498A
CN110542498A CN201910839863.0A CN201910839863A CN110542498A CN 110542498 A CN110542498 A CN 110542498A CN 201910839863 A CN201910839863 A CN 201910839863A CN 110542498 A CN110542498 A CN 110542498A
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China
Prior art keywords
strain
silicon
film
pressure sensor
metal
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CN201910839863.0A
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Inventor
陈李
宋凤民
贾青青
张志强
徐溢
李顺波
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Chongqing University
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Chongqing University
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Priority to CN201910839863.0A priority Critical patent/CN110542498A/en
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01LMEASURING FORCE, STRESS, TORQUE, WORK, MECHANICAL POWER, MECHANICAL EFFICIENCY, OR FLUID PRESSURE
    • G01L1/00Measuring force or stress, in general
    • G01L1/20Measuring force or stress, in general by measuring variations in ohmic resistance of solid materials or of electrically-conductive fluids; by making use of electrokinetic cells, i.e. liquid-containing cells wherein an electrical potential is produced or varied upon the application of stress
    • G01L1/22Measuring force or stress, in general by measuring variations in ohmic resistance of solid materials or of electrically-conductive fluids; by making use of electrokinetic cells, i.e. liquid-containing cells wherein an electrical potential is produced or varied upon the application of stress using resistance strain gauges
    • G01L1/2287Measuring force or stress, in general by measuring variations in ohmic resistance of solid materials or of electrically-conductive fluids; by making use of electrokinetic cells, i.e. liquid-containing cells wherein an electrical potential is produced or varied upon the application of stress using resistance strain gauges constructional details of the strain gauges
    • G01L1/2293Measuring force or stress, in general by measuring variations in ohmic resistance of solid materials or of electrically-conductive fluids; by making use of electrokinetic cells, i.e. liquid-containing cells wherein an electrical potential is produced or varied upon the application of stress using resistance strain gauges constructional details of the strain gauges of the semi-conductor type

Abstract

The invention provides an MEMS strain type differential pressure sensor and a manufacturing method thereof. The length of the silicon island structure along the Y-axis direction is more than 2 times of the length along the X-axis direction. The metal strain resistors are arranged on the front surface of the strain silicon wafer and symmetrically arranged in a stress concentration area where the strain silicon film is connected with the supporting frame and a stress concentration area where the strain silicon film is connected with the silicon island structure along the Y axis. The invention adopts an island-film structure to form symmetrical tensile stress and compressive stress concentration areas, solves the problem that the traditional strain type pressure sensor is difficult to form symmetrical differential measurement layout, inhibits nonlinear error and temperature drift, and improves the sensitivity and stability of the sensor.

Description

MEMS strain differential pressure sensor and manufacturing method thereof
Technical Field
The invention relates to the field of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) sensors, in particular to an MEMS strain type differential pressure sensor.
Background
MEMS strain gauge pressure sensors are a type of sensor that has been created as MEMS devices and processes have evolved. The MEMS strain type pressure sensor adopts an MEMS process, has high production consistency and repeatability, can be produced in large scale, and is widely applied to the fields of civil engineering, electric power systems, urban construction, environmental monitoring, aerospace and the like. The principle of the MEMS strain pressure sensor is that the geometric shape (length or width) of a strain material is changed by external pressure (or tension), which further causes the resistance of the material to change, and the magnitude of the external force can be measured by detecting the amount of change in the resistance.
patent CN201510504678 discloses a method for manufacturing a high-performance thin-film pressure sensor, which adopts gallium arsenide, samarium sulfide and gallium nitride as sensitive materials to manufacture the thin-film pressure sensor, and can solve the problems of low sensitivity and large temperature drift of the pressure sensor, and a strain film of the thin-film pressure sensor is made of a metal elastomer. In MEMS pressure sensors, the structure of the membrane plays an important role in performance. Samaun et al propose a C-type membrane structure formed by cavities on a silicon wafer for measuring air pressure or water pressure. But the non-linearity problem of the C-type membrane structure output is large. When the film is too thin, the deflection at the center of the film is too large, the assumption of small deflection is deviated, and the corresponding nonlinear error is increased. Kinnella et al propose a membrane with a thin-walled hollow reinforcing structure that achieves less pressure non-linearity, less than 0.40% FSS, with the size of the areas of maximum tensile and compressive stress regions limited by the dimensions of the hollow reinforcing structure, and limited strain resistance that can be placed.
In summary, the sensitivity of the pressure sensor is improved, the nonlinearity is reduced, the size and the structure of the strain film are important steps for optimizing the performance, and the structure of the strain film plays an important role in the performance of the pressure sensor under the condition that the size of the film is fixed.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide an MEMS strain type differential pressure sensor and a preparation method thereof, wherein an island-film structure is adopted to form symmetrical tensile stress and compressive stress concentration areas, the problem that the conventional strain type pressure sensor is difficult to form a symmetrical differential measurement layout is solved, nonlinear errors and temperature drift are inhibited, and the sensitivity and the stability of the sensor are improved.
In order to achieve the purpose, the invention adopts the following technical scheme:
the utility model provides a MEMS strain formula differential pressure sensor, the sensor includes metal strain resistance, insulating layer and strain silicon chip, still includes silicon island structure and braced frame structure, strain silicon membrane, silicon island structure and braced frame structure are based on the silicon chip and are makeed and obtain, form silicon island structure at the intermediate position through micro-machining at the silicon chip back, form braced frame structure all around, form strain silicon membrane between silicon island structure and the braced frame structure. The length of the silicon island structure along the Y-axis direction is more than 2 times of the length along the X-axis direction; four groups of metal strain resistors are arranged on the front surface of the strain silicon wafer and symmetrically arranged in a stress concentration area for connecting the strain silicon film and the support frame and a stress concentration area for connecting the strain silicon film and the silicon island structure along the Y axis, and the metal strain resistors are isolated from the strain silicon film by using an insulating material; when the strain silicon film deforms under the action of external pressure, tensile stress (or compressive stress) and compressive stress (or tensile stress) concentration regions are respectively formed in a connection region of the strain silicon film and the supporting frame and a connection region of the strain silicon film and the silicon island structure, and the resistance values of the metal strain resistors are respectively increased and reduced by the tensile stress and the compressive stress, so that differential measurement is formed, and temperature drift is inhibited.
According to a further preferable scheme of the invention, the metal strain resistors are designed to be folded and extended along the Y-axis direction, and the sensitivity is improved by increasing the number of the folded and arranged strain resistors.
Further preferably, the silicon wafer used in the invention is a silicon wafer with N-type or P-type crystal orientation <100> double-sided polishing, the thickness is between 300 microns and 1000 microns, and the thickness of the strained silicon film manufactured on the strained silicon wafer is between 30 microns and 100 microns.
Preferably, the lower surfaces of the silicon island structure and the support frame structure are provided with insulating layers.
preferably, the metal strain resistance adopts one or more of chromium, gold, platinum and nickel or alloy or lamination.
Preferably, the insulating material may be a silicon dioxide film or a silicon nitride film or a composite film of both, with a thickness between 100 nm and 1000 nm.
The invention also provides a method for preparing the MEMS strain type differential pressure sensor, which comprises the following steps:
(1) manufacturing an insulating layer on the upper surface and the lower surface of the silicon chip, wherein the thickness of the insulating layer is between 100 nanometers and 1000 nanometers;
(2) Photoetching the back of the silicon wafer, and etching the exposed part of the insulating material to form a silicon corrosion window;
(3) sputtering a metal film on the front surface of the silicon wafer, wherein the thickness of the metal film is between 100 nanometers and 500 nanometers;
(4) Photoetching the front side of the silicon wafer, corroding the metal film to form a metal strain resistor structure;
(5) and etching the back of the silicon wafer to form a strained silicon film with the thickness of 30-100 microns, and simultaneously forming an island-film structure and a supporting structure.
the invention has the advantages that:
1. according to the invention, by adopting the island-film structure, the tensile stress and compressive stress concentration distribution regions are formed in the connection region of the strain silicon film and the support frame and the connection region of the strain silicon film and the silicon island structure, and the geometric shapes of the stress concentration regions are more regular and symmetrical, so that strain resistors are conveniently and symmetrically arranged to form a differential detection structure, the problem that the conventional strain type pressure sensor is difficult to form a symmetrical differential measurement layout is solved, the nonlinear error and the temperature drift are inhibited, and the sensitivity and the stability of the sensor are improved.
2. In the invention, the silicon island structure formed in the middle of the silicon material film can effectively reduce the deformation of the central area of the sensitive film, improve the reliability of the film and the overload resistance of the sensor, and improve the nonlinearity of the sensor. And the transverse length and the longitudinal length of the central island are designed to be different, so that the stress of the metal resistor arrangement position along the X-axis direction is increased, the stress along the Y-axis direction is reduced, and the sensitivity of the sensor is improved more effectively.
drawings
FIG. 1 is a top view of a pressure sensitive membrane of a MEMS strain gauge differential pressure sensor of the present invention.
FIG. 2 is a schematic cross-sectional view of a silicon wafer of the MEMS strain differential pressure sensor along the A-A direction.
FIG. 3 is a schematic cross-sectional view of a silicon wafer of the MEMS strain differential pressure sensor along the B-B direction.
Fig. 4 is a top view of a MEMS strain-type differential pressure sensor island-membrane structure of the present invention.
FIG. 5 is a process flow diagram of a method for fabricating a MEMS strain differential pressure sensor according to the present invention.
FIG. 6 is a stress distribution diagram of the MEMS strain differential pressure sensor structure simulation of the present invention, which is the stress distribution in the X direction when 1MPa is applied;
FIG. 7 is a stress distribution diagram of the MEMS strain differential pressure sensor structure simulation of the present invention, namely, the stress distribution in the Y direction when 1MPa is applied;
FIG. 8 is a stress distribution diagram of the structural simulation of the MEMS strain differential pressure sensor of the present invention, i.e., the total displacement distribution when 1MPa is applied;
FIG. 9 is a stress distribution diagram of a pressure sensor structure simulation without a silicon island structure, wherein the stress distribution in the X direction is 1 MPa;
FIG. 10 is a stress distribution diagram of a pressure sensor structure simulation without a silicon island structure, wherein the stress distribution in the Y direction is 1 MPa;
FIG. 11 is a stress distribution diagram of a pressure sensor structure simulation without a silicon island structure, namely the total displacement distribution situation when 1MPa is applied.
FIG. 12 is a stress distribution diagram of the MEMS strain type differential pressure sensor structure simulation of the present invention, which is the stress distribution condition along the X-axis direction at the geometric center of the surface of the silicon strained film when 1MPa is applied;
FIG. 13 is a stress distribution diagram of simulation without a silicon island structure, which is a stress distribution condition passing through the geometric center of the surface of the silicon strained film and along the X-axis direction when 1MPa is applied;
Detailed Description
The invention is further described below with reference to the accompanying drawings.
referring to fig. 1, the MEMS strain type differential pressure sensor according to the present invention is a pressure sensor for measuring a pressure difference between both sides of a pressure sensitive membrane, that is, a type of measuring a differential pressure, and has a structure including: the structure comprises an insulating layer 2, a metal strain resistor 3, a strain silicon film 4, a silicon island structure 5 and a support structure 6.
Between the metal strain resistor 3 and the strained silicon film 4 is an insulating layer 2.
the sensor is a structure manufactured by micromachining, as shown in fig. 2, 3 and 4, the sensor is based on a silicon wafer 1, a silicon island structure 5 is formed at the middle position on the back surface of the silicon wafer by micromachining, a supporting frame structure 6 is formed at the periphery, and a strained silicon film 4 is formed between the silicon island structure 5 and the supporting frame structure 6. The length of the silicon island structure 5 in the Y-axis direction is 2 times or more the length in the X-axis direction.
There are 4 metal strain resistors 3 above the strained silicon film 4, and their resistance values are the same and the shape is symmetrical about the center of the strained silicon film surface.
Further, in order to improve the sensitivity of the sensor, the metal strain resistor 3 is designed to have a folded shape extending in the Y-axis direction, preferably a bend similar to a square tooth shape, so that the sensitivity is improved by increasing the number of the strain resistor folded line segment arrangements.
as shown in fig. 2 to 5, the manufacturing method of the MEMS strain-type differential pressure sensor is as follows:
(a) A4-inch silicon wafer 1 having an N-type (or P-type) crystal orientation <100> is subjected to double-side polishing.
(b) And (3) carrying out double-sided oxidation or nitridation treatment on the silicon wafer 1 processed in the last step to manufacture an insulating layer 2. The thickness of which is between 100 nm and 1000 nm.
(c) and photoetching the back surface of the silicon wafer 1, and etching the exposed insulating material to form a silicon corrosion window. Sputtering metal on the front surface of the silicon wafer 1, wherein the thickness is between 100 nanometers and 500 nanometers. And photoetching the front side of the silicon wafer, corroding the metal film to form the metal strain resistor 3.
(d) The single-side corrosion silicon wafer 1, the strain silicon film 4 and the silicon island structure 5 jointly form an island-film structure, and the single-side corrosion silicon wafer 1 simultaneously forms a support structure 6. If the insulating layer 2 is silicon nitride, etching is performed using a KOH (potassium hydroxide) solution. If the insulating layer 2 is silicon dioxide, etching is performed using TMAH (tetramethylammonium hydroxide) solution. The corrosion process is carried out at the temperature of 85-95 ℃.
and (d) after the operation of step (d), carrying out scribing to form the sensitive structure of the single sensor. And packaging the metal strain resistor 3 after leading wires, wherein the external connection mode of the leading wires is output in a Wheatstone bridge differential mode. When the sensor works, the strain generated by the pressure difference on the two sides of the strain silicon film 4 can be converted into different output voltages, and the purpose of measuring the pressure difference is achieved.
It can be seen from fig. 6-8 and 9-11 that the stress distributions of the sensor structure of the present invention and the pressure sensor structure without the silicon island structure and the supporting structure are significantly different, and the specific simulation data is shown in the following table, in which the data sources are fig. 12 and 13, that is: and stress distribution in the X-axis direction and passing through the geometric center of the surface of the silicon strained film. For convenience of description, signs in the table indicate the directions of the forces are opposite, and the leftmost position on the X axis is 0 and the rightmost position is 5000 micrometers. Table 1 is the structural simulation data of the pressure sensor without the silicon island structure, and table 2 is the structural simulation data of the sensor of the present invention:
Table 1 simulation data of pressure sensor structure without silicon island structure
table 2 structural simulation data of the sensor of the present invention
The above description is only a preferred embodiment of the present invention, and is not limited to the above examples. Any equivalent changes or modifications made without departing from the principle of the present invention also belong to the protection scope of the present invention. The scope of the invention should therefore be determined with reference to the appended claims.

Claims (7)

1. The MEMS strain type differential pressure sensor comprises a metal strain resistor, an insulating layer and a strain silicon film, and is characterized by further comprising a silicon island structure and a supporting frame structure, wherein the strain silicon film, the silicon island structure and the supporting frame structure are manufactured on the basis of a silicon wafer, the silicon island structure is formed in the middle of the back of the silicon wafer through micro machining, the supporting frame structure is formed on the periphery of the silicon island structure, and the strain silicon film is formed between the silicon island structure and the supporting frame structure; the length of the silicon island structure along the Y-axis direction is more than 2 times of the length along the X-axis direction; four groups of metal strain resistors are arranged on the front surface of the strain silicon wafer and symmetrically arranged in a stress concentration area for connecting the strain silicon film and the support frame and a stress concentration area for connecting the strain silicon film and the silicon island structure along the Y axis, and the metal strain resistors are isolated from the strain silicon film by using an insulating material; when the strain silicon film deforms under the action of external pressure, tensile stress (or compressive stress) and compressive stress (or tensile stress) concentration regions are respectively formed in a connection region of the strain silicon film and the supporting frame and a connection region of the strain silicon film and the silicon island structure, and the resistance values of the metal strain resistors are respectively increased and reduced by the tensile stress and the compressive stress, so that differential measurement is formed, and temperature drift is inhibited.
2. The MEMS strain differential pressure sensor of claim 1, wherein the metal strain resistors are folded in a Y-axis direction, and the sensitivity is increased by increasing the number of folded arrangements of the strain resistors.
3. The MEMS strain differential pressure sensor as defined in claim 1, wherein the silicon wafer is a double-side polished silicon wafer with N-type or P-type crystal orientation <100> and has a thickness of 300 to 1000 microns, and the strained silicon film is formed on the strained silicon wafer and has a thickness of 30 to 100 microns.
4. The MEMS strain differential pressure sensor of claim 1 wherein the lower surfaces of the silicon island structure and the support frame structure are provided with an insulating layer.
5. The MEMS strain differential pressure sensor of claim 1 wherein the metal strain resistors are laminated with one or more of chromium, gold, platinum, nickel or alloys thereof.
6. The MEMS strain differential pressure sensor of claim 1 wherein the insulating material is a silicon oxide film or a silicon nitride film or a composite film of both, having a thickness of between 100 nm and 1000 nm.
7. A method of making a MEMS strain gauge differential pressure sensor, comprising the steps of:
(1) Manufacturing an insulating layer on the upper surface and the lower surface of the silicon chip, wherein the thickness of the insulating layer is between 100 nanometers and 1000 nanometers;
(2) Photoetching the back of the silicon wafer, and etching the exposed part of the insulating material to form a silicon corrosion window;
(3) sputtering a metal film on the front surface of the silicon wafer, wherein the thickness of the metal film is between 100 nanometers and 500 nanometers;
(4) photoetching the front side of the silicon wafer, corroding the metal film to form a metal strain resistor structure;
(5) and etching the back of the silicon wafer to form a strained silicon film with the thickness of 30-100 microns, and simultaneously forming an island-film structure and a supporting structure.
CN201910839863.0A 2019-09-06 2019-09-06 MEMS strain differential pressure sensor and manufacturing method thereof Pending CN110542498A (en)

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Cited By (3)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN112857631A (en) * 2021-04-23 2021-05-28 武汉飞恩微电子有限公司 Core structure and pressure sensor
CN113884701A (en) * 2021-09-28 2022-01-04 东南大学 Wind speed and direction sensor for improving measurement range and full-range precision
CN114199323A (en) * 2021-12-09 2022-03-18 北京智芯传感科技有限公司 Monolithic integrated MEMS differential pressure flowmeter and preparation method thereof

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CN1834602A (en) * 2005-03-14 2006-09-20 昆山双桥传感器测控技术有限公司 Pressure resistance type high frequency dynamic low voltage sensor
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CN112857631A (en) * 2021-04-23 2021-05-28 武汉飞恩微电子有限公司 Core structure and pressure sensor
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CN113884701A (en) * 2021-09-28 2022-01-04 东南大学 Wind speed and direction sensor for improving measurement range and full-range precision
CN114199323A (en) * 2021-12-09 2022-03-18 北京智芯传感科技有限公司 Monolithic integrated MEMS differential pressure flowmeter and preparation method thereof

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Application publication date: 20191206