CN110514583B - Spherical particle sliding-rolling friction tester and testing method - Google Patents

Spherical particle sliding-rolling friction tester and testing method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN110514583B
CN110514583B CN201910870467.4A CN201910870467A CN110514583B CN 110514583 B CN110514583 B CN 110514583B CN 201910870467 A CN201910870467 A CN 201910870467A CN 110514583 B CN110514583 B CN 110514583B
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lead screw
screw
bearing
iii
plate
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CN110514583A (en
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孙珊珊
孙岩
王延林
程大海
刘边卓
詹卫伸
樊哲良
陈永浩
张亿坚
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Dalian University of Technology
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Dalian University of Technology
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N19/00Investigating materials by mechanical methods
    • G01N19/02Measuring coefficient of friction between materials

Abstract

The invention designs a spherical particle sliding-rolling friction tester and a testing method, belonging to the technical field of measuring instruments. The tester comprises a displacement sensor, a workbench, an upper bearing plate, a sliding rail, a motor, spherical particles, a shaft, a pressure sensor, an angular velocity sensor, a lead screw, a bearing and a gear. An electromagnet, a displacement sensor and a lead screw are arranged on the workbench; a bearing and a bracket are respectively arranged on the screw rod, the bearing fixes a shaft with spherical particles, and a gear and a motor are arranged outside the bearing; the bracket fixes the sliding rail; an upper bearing plate is arranged between the slide rails; the upper bearing plate is in close contact with the spherical particles and moves along with the spherical particles. The invention can measure the rolling-sliding friction force between the spherical particles and the material under different pressure conditions, and distinguish the rolling and sliding processes; the acceleration can be measured by using a displacement sensor under the condition of not generating interaction force with a measuring system.

Description

Spherical particle sliding-rolling friction tester and testing method
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the field of instrument measurement, and particularly relates to a spherical particle sliding-rolling friction tester and a spherical particle sliding-rolling friction testing method.
Background
The sliding friction and rolling friction between particles are one of the factors determining the micro-and macro-dynamic characteristics of the particles. In the field of particle fluid dynamics, the sliding friction of particle media has been well studied, while the difference between rolling friction and sliding friction has to be further studied. In the prior art, the rolling friction of a cylinder is researched more, and the spherical particle rolling friction is smaller than the sliding friction, so that the requirement on the precision of an instrument for measuring the rolling friction is higher, and the research on the spherical particle rolling friction is less. The existing spherical particle rolling friction measuring instrument cannot well distinguish the rolling and sliding of a sphere in the movement process, and the existing instrument lacks control on the pressure borne by particles in the measurement of the rolling friction force.
The invention provides a sliding-rolling friction tester for spherical particles, which is characterized in that the rolling-sliding friction between the spherical particles with fixed spherical centers and an upper bearing plate which freely slides is taken as a driving force to drive a steel plate to move so as to measure the rolling friction. The instrument has the advantages that the rolling-sliding friction force between different materials can be conveniently and accurately measured, the motion stress analysis of the upper bearing plate is simple and feasible, the speed measurement by the sensor is accurate, the continuous change of the rotating speed of the measured particles can be realized by the motor and the gear set, the rolling and the sliding in the moving process of the steel plate can be distinguished, and further the rolling friction force and the sliding friction force can be distinguished.
Disclosure of Invention
In order to achieve the purpose, the invention provides a tester and a testing method for measuring the sliding-rolling friction force of spherical particles. The tester adopts spherical particles with fixed spherical centers, an adjustable slide rail structure and a motor with adjustable rotating speed to enable the spherical particles to rotate under the upper bearing plate, and measures the friction force between the spherical particles and the flat plate sample. The flat plate sample is a rectangular flat plate sample processed by different materials or sand paper with different roughness, so that the rolling friction force between the spherical shape and the different flat plate materials can be conveniently measured
The technical scheme of the invention is as follows:
a spherical particle sliding-rolling friction tester comprises a displacement sensor 1, a workbench 2, an upper bearing plate 4, a sliding rail 10, a motor 18, spherical particles 19, a shaft 20, a pressure sensor 23, an angular velocity sensor, a lead screw, a bearing and a gear.
The workbench 2 is L-shaped and comprises a horizontal plate and a side plate; four leveling screws 3 and six screw rods are arranged on a horizontal plate of the workbench 2. Wherein the lead screw VI 17 is positioned at one end of a horizontal plate of the workbench 2, and the lead screw VI 17 is provided with a bracket 11; one ends of the two slide rails 10 are respectively hinged at two ends of the bracket 11, and the other ends of the slide rails 10 are horizontally hinged on a side plate of the workbench 2; the lower surface of the upper bearing plate 4 is provided with a rectangular groove, the flat plate sample is fixed at the rectangular groove of the lower surface of the upper bearing plate 4, and the upper bearing plate 4 is arranged between two slide rails 10. The initial friction force between the upper bearing plate 4 and the sliding rail 10 can be balanced by adjusting the screw rod VI 17, so that the experimental error is reduced. The side plate of the workbench 2 and the upper bearing plate 4 are provided with an electromagnet and a displacement sensor 1 at the same height, and the upper bearing plate 4 is fixed by the electromagnet. The straight lines of the lead screws I12 and II 13 are parallel to the straight lines of the lead screws III 14, IV 15 and V16 and parallel to the slide rail 10, and the connecting line of the lead screws I12 and III 14 and the connecting line of the lead screws II 13 and V16 are perpendicular to the slide rail 10. The lead screw I12, the lead screw II 13, the lead screw III 14, the lead screw IV 15, the lead screw V16 and the lead screw VI 17 are sequentially provided with a gasket I22, a gasket II 24 and a gasket III 25 from top to bottom, the gasket I and the gasket II on each lead screw are not fixed with the lead screw, and the gaskets III are welded and fixed on a lead screw rotating shaft. A bearing I, a bearing II, a bearing III, a bearing IV and a bearing V are respectively welded on a gasket I of the lead screw I12, the lead screw II 13, the lead screw III 14, the lead screw IV 15 and the lead screw V16, and a support 11 is welded on the gasket I of the lead screw VI 17. The shaft 20 is hinged with threads, and the spherical center of the spherical particles 19 is fixed on the shaft 20; the two shafts 20 are respectively arranged between the bearing I7 and the bearing III and between the bearing II 9 and the bearing V and are positioned below the flat plate sample; the two shafts 20 realize the fine adjustment of the heights of the two shafts 20 by adjusting the screw I12, the screw II 13, the screw III 14 and the screw V16 so as to adapt to the errors of different spherical particle sizes on the shafts 20, so that the two shafts 20 have the same level and the same index of pressure sensors, and the problem of uneven pressure distribution of the upper bearing plate 4 is solved; angular velocity sensors are mounted on the two shafts 20, respectively. A gear I, a gear II and a gear III are respectively arranged on the outer sides of the bearing III, the bearing IV and the bearing V, and the three gears are tightly meshed; the motor 18 is connected with a gear II, the motor 18 controls three gears, two shafts 20, spherical particles 19 and an angular speed sensor to have the same rotating speed. After the motor 18 is started, when the angular velocity sensor displays a constant rotating speed, the electromagnet is switched off to avoid the influence caused by the speed change when the motor 18 is started.
Further, the slide rail 10 is connected between the bracket 11 and the side plate of the working table 2 by a fixed hinge bracket 21.
A test method adopting a spherical particle sliding-rolling friction tester comprises the following steps:
in a first step, the leveling screws 3 are adjusted to keep the table 2 horizontal.
Secondly, mounting a flat plate sample at a rectangular groove on the lower surface of an upper bearing plate 4, mounting the upper bearing plate 4 between two slide rails 10, and adjusting a screw VI 17 to keep the upper bearing plate 4 horizontal; the displacement sensor 1 is turned on, an initial velocity is given to the upper carrier plate 4, and a displacement-time image is recorded using the displacement sensor 1. And (4) deriving the displacement to the time, finely adjusting the screw rod VI 17 if the image is not horizontal, and measuring again to enable the image to be horizontal.
Thirdly, two shafts 20 fixed with spherical particles 19 are respectively arranged between the bearing I and the bearing III and between the bearing II and the bearing V. And starting the four pressure sensors, and adjusting a screw I12, a screw II 13, a screw III 14 and a screw V16 to enable the spherical particles 19 to be in contact with the flat plate sample on the lower surface of the upper bearing plate 4 and enable the pressures displayed by the pressure sensors to be equal. And adjusting a lead screw IV 15 to enable the gear I, the gear II and the gear III to be tightly meshed.
And fourthly, moving the upper bearing plate 4 to the left end, turning on the motor 18, driving the three gears to rotate by the motor 18, further driving the shaft 20 and the spherical particles 19 to rotate, enabling the upper bearing plate 4 to move forwards along with the spherical particles 19, and recording a displacement-time image by the displacement sensor 1.
And fifthly, repeating the fourth step to obtain a plurality of displacement-time images.
And sixthly, processing the plurality of displacement-time images obtained in the fifth step to obtain a resultant force.
The measurement principle is as follows: the upper bearing plate 4 is placed on the spherical particles 19, and the pressure borne by each screw is equal by adjusting the screw I12, the screw II 13, the screw III 14 and the screw V16; the upper bearing plate 4 is closely contacted with the flat plate sample, and the displacement sensor 1 is fixed at the same horizontal line of the side plate of the workbench 2 and the upper bearing plate 4. When the motor 18 is started, the spherical particles 19 rotate at a constant speed, the upper bearing plate 4 moves towards the right under the action of friction force, a displacement-time image measured by the displacement sensor 1 is subjected to linear fitting to obtain a curve and an equation, and the curve is derived to time to form a speed-time relation graph, so that an acceleration-time relation is obtained, and a friction force-time curve can be further obtained. The distance of a certain point on the spherical particles 19 can be calculated by multiplying the rotating speed of the motor 18 by the radius of the spherical particles 19 to be the pure rolling displacement of the upper bearing plate 4, and further a rolling friction displacement-time curve is obtained; the displacement sensor 1 records an actual displacement-time curve, and the difference value of the two displacement-time curves is a sliding displacement-time curve, so that rolling and sliding in the movement process are distinguished.
The invention has the beneficial effects that: the invention can measure the rolling-sliding friction force between the spherical particles and the material under different pressure conditions, and distinguish the rolling and sliding processes; the invention can measure and calculate the acceleration by utilizing the displacement sensor under the condition of not generating the interaction force with the measuring system.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a test meter according to the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view of the tester and a schematic view of the motor connection location of the present invention;
FIG. 3 is a schematic view of a spherical particle with a fixed axis;
FIG. 4 is a schematic cross-sectional view of a slide rail;
FIG. 5 is a schematic view of a lead screw component and a pressure sensor;
in the figure: 1. a displacement sensor; 2. a work table; 3. leveling screws; 4. an upper deck plate; 5. a gear I; 6. a gear II; 7. a bearing I; 8. a gear III; 9. a bearing II; 10. a slide rail; 11. a support; 12. a screw I; 13. a screw II; 14. a screw rod III; 15. a lead screw IV; 16. a screw rod V; 17. a screw rod VI; 18. an electric motor; 19. spherical particles; 20. a shaft; 21. fixing the twisting bracket; 22. a gasket I; 23. a pressure sensor; 24. a gasket II; 25. and a gasket III.
Detailed Description
The following further describes a specific embodiment of the present invention with reference to the drawings and technical solutions.
As shown in fig. 1-5, the sliding-rolling friction tester for spherical particles of the present invention comprises a displacement sensor 1, a workbench 2, an upper bearing plate 4, a slide rail 10, a motor 18, spherical particles 19, a shaft 20, a pressure sensor 23, an angular velocity sensor, a lead screw, a bearing and a gear.
The workbench 2 is L-shaped and comprises a horizontal plate and a side plate, and the horizontal plate and the side plate are vertical to each other; six lead screws and four leveling screws 3 are fixed on the horizontal plate of the workbench 2. The lead screw VI 17 is positioned at one end of a horizontal plate of the workbench 2, and the top end of the lead screw VI 17 is provided with a bracket 11; one ends of the two slide rails 10 are respectively fixed at two ends of the bracket 11, and the other ends of the slide rails 10 are horizontally fixed on a side plate of the workbench 2; the upper bearing plate 4 with the lower surface fixed with the flat plate sample is arranged between the two slide rails 10; the side plate of the workbench 2 and the upper bearing plate 4 are provided with an electromagnet and a displacement sensor 1 at the same height, and the electromagnet is used for fixing the upper bearing plate 4.
The straight lines of the screw I12 and the screw II 13 are parallel to the straight lines of the screw III 14, the screw IV 15 and the screw V16 and parallel to the horizontal plate side length of the workbench 2; the connecting line of the screw I12 and the screw III 14 and the connecting line of the screw II 13 and the screw V16 are perpendicular to the horizontal plate side of the workbench 2; the lead screw I12, the lead screw II 13, the lead screw III 14, the lead screw IV 15, the lead screw V16 and the lead screw VI 17 are sequentially provided with a gasket I22, a gasket II 24 and a gasket III 25 from top to bottom, wherein the gasket III 25 is welded and fixed with a rotating shaft of the lead screw, and the gasket I22 and the gasket II 24 are not fixed. Pressure sensors 23 are mounted on the lead screw I12, the lead screw II 13, the lead screw III 14 and the lead screw V16, and the pressure sensors 23 are fixed between the gasket I22 and the gasket II 24. And a bearing I7, a bearing II 9, a bearing III, a bearing IV and a bearing V are welded on the gaskets I of the screw I12, the screw II 13, the screw III 14, the screw IV 15 and the screw V16. And a gear I, a gear II and a gear III are respectively arranged on the outer sides of the bearing III, the bearing IV and the bearing V.
Spherical particles 19 and an angular velocity sensor are fixed on the shafts 20, the two shafts 20 are respectively installed between the bearing I and the bearing III and between the bearing II and the bearing V, the lead screw I12, the lead screw II 13, the lead screw III 14 and the lead screw V16 are adjusted to enable the bearings to be equal in height, three gears are tightly meshed, a motor 18 is connected to the outside of the gear II, and the motor 18 controls the three gears, the two shafts 20, the spherical particles 19 and the angular velocity sensor to rotate.
A test method adopting a spherical particle sliding-rolling friction tester comprises the following steps:
in a first step, the leveling screws 3 are adjusted to keep the table 2 horizontal.
And secondly, mounting the upper bearing plate 4 between the two slide rails 10, and adjusting a screw rod VI 17 to keep the upper bearing plate 4 horizontal. The displacement sensor 1 is turned on, an initial velocity is given to the upper bearing plate 4, and the displacement-time image is recorded by using the displacement sensor 1. And if the displacement-time derivative image is not horizontal, finely adjusting the screw rod VI 17, and measuring again to enable the image to be horizontal.
And thirdly, respectively installing two shafts 20 fixed with the spherical particles 19 between the bearing I and the bearing III and between the bearing II and the bearing V. And starting the four pressure sensors, and adjusting the screw I12, the screw II 13, the screw III 14 and the screw V16 to enable the spherical particles 19 to be in contact with the flat plate sample and the pressures displayed by the pressure sensors to be equal. And adjusting the lead screw IV 15 to tightly engage the three gears.
Fourthly, moving the upper bearing plate 4 to the left end, turning on the motor 18, and driving the three gears to rotate by the motor 18 so as to further drive the shaft 20 and the spherical particles 19 to rotate; the spherical particles 19 bring the upper carrier plate 4 into motion and the displacement sensor 1 records a displacement-time image.
And fifthly, repeating the fourth step to obtain a plurality of displacement-time images.
And sixthly, processing the displacement-time image obtained in the fifth step to obtain a resultant force.

Claims (2)

1. The testing method of the spherical particle sliding-rolling friction tester is characterized by comprising a displacement sensor (1), a workbench (2), an upper bearing plate (4), a sliding rail (10), a motor (18), spherical particles (19), a shaft (20), a pressure sensor (23), an angular velocity sensor, a lead screw, a bearing and a gear, wherein the displacement sensor is arranged on the workbench (2);
the workbench (2) is L-shaped and comprises a horizontal plate and a side plate; a leveling screw (3) and a lead screw are arranged on a horizontal plate of the workbench (2); wherein the lead screw VI (17) is positioned at one end of a horizontal plate of the workbench (2), and the lead screw VI (17) is provided with a bracket (11); one ends of the two sliding rails (10) are respectively fixed at two ends of the bracket (11), and the other ends are horizontally fixed on a side plate of the workbench (2); the upper bearing plate (4) with the lower surface fixed with the flat plate sample is arranged between the two slide rails (10); an electromagnet and a displacement sensor (1) are arranged at the positions of the side plate of the workbench (2) and the upper bearing plate (4) at the same height, and the electromagnet is used for fixing the upper bearing plate (4);
the lead screw I (12), the lead screw II (13), the lead screw III (14), the lead screw IV (15) and the lead screw V (16) are all arranged on a horizontal plate of the workbench (2); the straight line of the screw I (12) and the screw II (13) is parallel to the straight line of the screw III (14), the screw IV (15) and the screw V (16) and is parallel to the slide rail (10); the connecting line of the screw I (12) and the screw III (14) and the connecting line of the screw II (13) and the screw V (16) are vertical to the slide rail (10); the lead screw I (12), the lead screw II (13), the lead screw III (14), the lead screw IV (15), the lead screw V (16) and the lead screw VI (17) are sequentially provided with a gasket I (22), a gasket II (24) and a gasket III (25) from top to bottom, wherein the gasket I (22) and the gasket II (24) are not fixed with the lead screw, the gasket III (25) is fixed on a rotating shaft of the lead screw, and pressure sensors (23) are respectively arranged between the gasket I (22) and the gasket II (24) of the lead screw I (12), the lead screw II (13), the lead screw III (14) and the lead screw V (16); a bearing I, a bearing II, a bearing III, a bearing IV and a bearing V are respectively welded on a gasket I (22) of the lead screw I (12), the lead screw II (13), the lead screw III (14), the lead screw IV (15) and the lead screw V (16); the shaft (20) is hinged with threads, and the spherical centers of the spherical particles (19) are fixed on the shaft (20); the two shafts (20) are respectively arranged between the bearing I (7) and the bearing III and between the bearing II (9) and the bearing V and are positioned below the flat plate sample; angular velocity sensors are arranged on the two shafts (20); the two shafts (20) are adjusted by a lead screw to realize fine adjustment of height; a gear I, a gear II and a gear III are respectively arranged on the outer sides of the bearing III, the bearing IV and the bearing V, and the three gears are tightly meshed; the motor (18) is connected with the gear II, and the motor (18) controls the three gears, the two shafts (20) and the spherical particles (19) to rotate together with the angular speed sensor;
the test method comprises the following steps:
firstly, adjusting a leveling screw (3) to keep a workbench (2) horizontal;
secondly, mounting a flat plate sample on the lower surface of an upper bearing plate (4), mounting the upper bearing plate (4) between two slide rails (10), and adjusting a screw rod VI (17) to keep the upper bearing plate (4) horizontal; starting a displacement sensor (1), giving an initial speed to an upper bearing plate (4), recording a displacement-time image by using the displacement sensor (1), and finely adjusting a lead screw VI (17) to enable a derivative image of displacement to time to be horizontal;
thirdly, two shafts (20) fixed with spherical particles (19) are respectively arranged between the bearing I and the bearing III and between the bearing II and the bearing V; starting four pressure sensors, and adjusting a screw I (12), a screw II (13), a screw III (14) and a screw V (16) to enable spherical particles (19) to be in close contact with the flat plate sample on the lower surface of the upper bearing plate (4) and enable the pressures displayed by the pressure sensors to be equal; adjusting a screw IV (15) to enable the gear I, the gear II and the gear III to be tightly meshed;
fourthly, moving the upper bearing plate (4) to one end, turning on the motor (18), driving the three gears to rotate by the motor (18), and further driving the shaft (20) and the spherical particles (19) to rotate; the upper bearing plate (4) moves forwards along with the spherical particles (19), and the displacement sensor (1) records a displacement-time image;
fifthly, repeating the fourth step to obtain a plurality of displacement-time images;
and sixthly, processing the plurality of displacement-time images obtained in the fifth step to obtain a resultant force.
2. The testing method of the spherical particle sliding-rolling friction tester according to the claim 1, characterized in that the sliding rail (10) is connected between the bracket (11) and the side plate of the workbench (2) through a fixed hinge bracket (21).
CN201910870467.4A 2019-09-16 2019-09-16 Spherical particle sliding-rolling friction tester and testing method Active CN110514583B (en)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN111157442B (en) * 2019-12-31 2021-03-19 西南交通大学 Multi-mode friction and wear test device and method
CN111929234B (en) * 2020-09-24 2020-12-15 成都理工大学 Device for measuring friction coefficient of drilling plugging material

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