CN110906861B - Real-time measuring device and method for rolling angle error of guide rail movement - Google Patents

Real-time measuring device and method for rolling angle error of guide rail movement Download PDF

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CN110906861B
CN110906861B CN201911272672.7A CN201911272672A CN110906861B CN 110906861 B CN110906861 B CN 110906861B CN 201911272672 A CN201911272672 A CN 201911272672A CN 110906861 B CN110906861 B CN 110906861B
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eddy current
guide rail
current displacement
displacement sensor
measuring
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CN110906861A (en
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娄志峰
夏波
范光照
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Dalian University of Technology
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01BMEASURING LENGTH, THICKNESS OR SIMILAR LINEAR DIMENSIONS; MEASURING ANGLES; MEASURING AREAS; MEASURING IRREGULARITIES OF SURFACES OR CONTOURS
    • G01B7/00Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of electric or magnetic means
    • G01B7/30Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of electric or magnetic means for measuring angles or tapers; for testing the alignment of axes
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01MTESTING STATIC OR DYNAMIC BALANCE OF MACHINES OR STRUCTURES; TESTING OF STRUCTURES OR APPARATUS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G01M13/00Testing of machine parts
    • G01M13/02Gearings; Transmission mechanisms
    • G01M13/025Test-benches with rotational drive means and loading means; Load or drive simulation

Abstract

The invention belongs to the field of precision mechanical error measurement, and particularly relates to a device and a method for measuring a rolling angle error of guide rail movement in real time. The device comprises two eddy current displacement sensors which are arranged on a motion platform at a certain distance, wherein the eddy current sensors measure the displacement change of different positions of a guide rail relative to a reference straight line in the motion process. In the measuring process, the eddy current displacement sensors can measure the straightness errors of different positions of the moving platform, the two eddy current displacement sensors indirectly measure the roll angle errors through the straightness measurement, namely under the condition of eliminating the influence of the flatness errors of the reference surface, the roll angle errors can be obtained in real time by dividing the output difference of the two eddy current displacement sensors by the distance between the two displacement sensors. The invention realizes high-precision, real-time and non-contact measurement of the rolling angle error of the moving guide rail.

Description

Real-time measuring device and method for rolling angle error of guide rail movement
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the field of precision mechanical error measurement, and particularly relates to a device and a method for measuring roll angle error of guide rail movement in real time.
Background
When the guide rail kinematic pair moves along the linear guide rail, six-degree-of-freedom errors, namely a positioning error along the guide rail direction, a two-dimensional linearity error (a horizontal linearity error and a vertical linearity error) perpendicular to the guide rail direction, a two-dimensional angle error (a pitch angle error and a yaw angle error) and a roll angle error exist. During the processing of the manufacturing equipment, due to the influence of cutting force and the like, the motion errors are different from the measurement results obtained by an offline measurement method, so that the processing precision and the production efficiency of the related manufacturing equipment are directly influenced by detecting the errors quickly and accurately in real time. Of the 6-term errors in rail motion, the most difficult to measure is the roll angle error. At present, the most commonly used method for detecting the roll angle error is to measure by using a level gauge, but due to the problem of the measuring principle of the level gauge, a certain stabilization time is required at each measuring point, so that real-time measurement cannot be realized. In addition, the rolling angle error of the guide rail can be measured by adopting a laser measurement technology, but the laser measurement is greatly influenced by environmental change, and the guide rail is not easy to be measured in real time in actual working conditions. The method can generally measure the motion error of the guide rail off line only under the non-working condition. In addition, there is also a document that a capacitance sensor is used to measure the rolling angle error of the moving guide rail by using a reference plane as a measurement reference. However, the accuracy of the reference plane is required to be very high, and the influence of the flatness of the reference plane is ignored when the roll angle is analyzed.
Disclosure of Invention
In order to solve the problems, the invention provides a method and a device for measuring the rolling angle error of a moving guide rail in real time.
In the measuring process, the eddy current displacement sensors can measure straightness errors of different positions of the moving platform, the two eddy current displacement sensors indirectly measure the rolling angle errors through the straightness measurement, namely under the condition that the influence of angle variation caused by the height difference of each point corresponding to two scanning straight lines on a reference surface is eliminated, the output difference of the two eddy current displacement sensors is divided by the distance between the two displacement sensors, and the rolling angle errors can be obtained in real time. Different from the prior art, the invention adopts a plane or a guide rail seat with general precision as a reference, and eliminates the influence of angle variation errors caused by the height difference of each point corresponding to two scanning straight lines on the reference plane, thereby accurately measuring the roll angle errors in real time, being conveniently integrated in a machine tool and not needing to excessively increase the cost.
A real-time measuring device for a rolling angle error of guide rail movement comprises a guide rail 5, a moving platform 4, two eddy current displacement sensors, two connecting plates, a guide rail seat 6 and a level meter 3; the guide rail 5 is arranged on the guide rail seat 6, and the moving platform 4 is arranged on the guide rail 5 and slides along the guide rail 5; the level 3 is fixed on the upper surface of the motion platform 4; the connecting plate A1 and the connecting plate B8 are symmetrically arranged at two sides of the moving platform 4, and the eddy current displacement sensor A and the eddy current displacement sensor B are vertically arranged on the connecting plate A1 and the connecting plate B8 respectively; the guide rail seat 6 is provided with two parallel scanning straight lines which are positioned at two sides of the moving platform 4, the eddy current displacement sensor probe A2 and the eddy current displacement sensor probe B7 are respectively positioned above the two scanning straight lines, and the measuring axis of the level meter 3 is parallel to the connecting line of the eddy current displacement sensor probe A2 and the eddy current displacement sensor probe B7, so that the accuracy of measuring the angle change caused by the height difference of each corresponding point when the two probes scan is ensured.
A real-time measuring method for a rolling angle error of guide rail movement adopts the device to measure, and comprises the following steps:
step 1: calibrating angle variation caused by height difference of each point corresponding to two scanning lines scanned by probe
Step 1-1: respectively embedding the eddy current displacement sensor A and the eddy current displacement sensor B into a connecting plate A1 and a connecting plate B8;
step 1-2: adjusting the eddy current displacement sensor A and the eddy current displacement sensor B to ensure that the probe A2 and the probe B7 of the eddy current displacement sensor are perpendicular to the motion platform 4 and the corresponding scanning straight line and the two probes are parallel to each other;
step 1-3: fixing a level meter 3 on a motion platform 4, so that the measuring axis of the level meter 3 is parallel to the connecting line of the two eddy current displacement sensor probes;
step 1-4: measuring once at the same distance from the starting point of the guide rail 5 until the whole guide rail stroke is measured, and recording the numerical values of the level meter 3 and the two eddy current displacement sensors;
step 1-5: calibrating the angle variation caused by the height difference of each point corresponding to two scanning straight lines on the guide rail seat 6 scanned by the probe of the eddy current displacement sensor: the output difference of the two eddy current displacement sensors is divided by the distance between the two eddy current displacement sensors, and then the value is subtracted from the reading of the level meter 3, so that the angle variation caused by the height difference of each point corresponding to the two straight lines scanned by the probe of the eddy current displacement sensor is calculated.
Step 1-6: establishing an optimal fitting function based on the least square principle according to the angle variation caused by the height difference obtained in the step 1-5, and fitting to calculate the angle variation caused by the height difference of all points of the two scanning lines; and the two calibrated scanning straight lines are used as reference straight lines for measuring the roll angle of the guide rail and are used for measuring the roll angle at any position in the motion process of the guide rail.
Step 2: rail roll angle error measurement
Step 2-1: sliding the moving platform 4 along the guide rail 5, and respectively scanning the corresponding reference straight lines by the two probes of the eddy current displacement sensor;
step 2-2: in the motion process of the guide rail 5, the output difference of the two eddy current displacement sensors at any position is divided by the distance between the two eddy current displacement sensors, and then the angle variation caused by the height difference of each point corresponding to the two reference straight lines is compensated by an error compensation method, namely the rolling angle error of the motion guide rail is calculated;
step 2-3: analysis of the motion state of the guide rail 5: and (3) measuring the rolling angle error of each point of the guide rail 5 in real time according to the step 2-1 and the step 2-2.
The invention has the beneficial effects that: the invention realizes high-precision, real-time and non-contact measurement of the rolling angle error of the moving guide rail, avoids the problems that the rolling angle of the guide rail is measured by a level meter, needs stable time and cannot be measured in real time, has strong anti-interference capability and can realize stability measurement in actual working conditions. The influence of the flatness of the reference plane is taken into account and reduced when actually measuring the roll angle. And can be combined with other eddy current displacement sensors to form a multi-degree-of-freedom simultaneous measurement system with a simple structure.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic view of an angle variation measuring device caused by height differences of points corresponding to two straight lines scanned by a probe;
FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram of a rolling angle error measuring device for a moving guide rail;
FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram of the measurement of the angle variation caused by the height difference of each point corresponding to two scanning lines;
fig. 4 is a schematic diagram of an eddy current displacement sensor for measuring rolling angle error of a moving guide rail.
In the figure: 1 connecting a board A; 2, a probe A of the eddy current displacement sensor; 3, a level meter; 4, a motion platform; 5, a guide rail; 6, a guide rail seat; 7, a probe B of the eddy current displacement sensor; and 8, connecting the plate B.
Detailed Description
The technical solution of the present invention is described in detail below with reference to the accompanying drawings and specific embodiments.
An embedded real-time measuring device for a guide rail movement roll angle error comprises a movement guide rail 5, a movement platform 4, an eddy current displacement sensor A, an eddy current displacement sensor B, a connecting plate A1, a connecting plate B8, a guide rail seat 6 and a level meter 3; the measurement method is as follows:
step 1, calibrating angle variation caused by height difference of each point corresponding to two straight lines scanned by a probe
Step 1-1: as shown in fig. 1, an eddy current displacement sensor a and an eddy current displacement sensor B are respectively embedded in a connection plate a1 and a connection plate B8, and then fixed on the motion platform 4 as a whole at two sides perpendicular to the motion direction of the guide rail 5;
step 1-2: adjusting the installed probe A2 and the probe B7 of the eddy current displacement sensor to ensure that the two probes are perpendicular to the motion platform 4 and the scanning line and parallel to each other;
step 1-3: adjusting a connecting plate A1 and a connecting plate B8 embedded with a sensor probe to ensure that a distance L is reserved between an eddy current displacement sensor probe A2 and an eddy current displacement sensor probe B7; the level 3 is placed on the moving platform 4, the measuring axis of the level 3 is parallel to the connecting line of the eddy current displacement sensor probe A2 and the eddy current displacement sensor probe B7, the level 3 is fixed, the level 3 and the moving platform 4 can move as a whole, and the measuring accuracy is guaranteed;
step 1-4: measuring once at a certain distance from the starting point of the moving guide rail 5 until the stroke of the whole guide rail 5 is measured, and recording the output values of the level meter 3 and the two eddy current displacement sensors;
step 1-5: the principle of calibrating the angle variation caused by the height difference of each point corresponding to the two scanning lines is shown in fig. 3, wherein the scanning line a is parallel to the scanning line B, and the distance between the two scanning lines is equal to the distance L between the eddy current displacement sensors. The reading changes of the eddy current displacement sensor A and the eddy current displacement sensor B from the initial point to the measuring point are respectively delta z1iAnd Δ z2i(i is 1,2,3 …, n), i is the number of the measuring point, the difference of the two is divided by the distance L between the two eddy current displacement sensor probes to obtain the roll angle measuring data without error compensation, and the roll angle measuring data is shown in the formula (1):
wherein the content of the first and second substances,the roll angle measurement data without error compensation includes the angle variation caused by the height difference between the scanning line a and the scanning line B.
According to the measurement principle of the angle variation caused by the height difference of each point corresponding to the two scanning lines, the angle variation caused by the height difference is calculated by subtracting the measurement data of the eddy current displacement sensor from the reading of the level meter 3;
angle variation mu caused by height difference of each point corresponding to two scanning linesiComprises the following steps:
wherein, γiMeasuring data for the level;
step 1-6: calibrating N points and recording the motion position y of the guide rail 5iThe angle change amount due to the height difference is μ (y)i) (i ═ 1,2,3, …, n), each yiCorresponding to one mu (y)i). Based on the least square principle, an optimal harmonic fitting function mu (y) is established according to a formula (3), and the sampling theorem can know that when the number N of calibration points is an even number, only m is equal to N/2 order coefficient; when N is an odd number, only the coefficient of order (N-1)/2 can be calculated.
Wherein μ (y) ═ μ (y)1),μ(y2),…,μ(yi),…,μ(yn)],y=[y1,y2,…,yi,…,yn],m is the highest order number of which the height difference harmonic can be calculated, AkAnd BkIs the k-th order error harmonic coefficient, CkAndthe amplitude and phase of the k-th error harmonic.
Solving the k-th order error harmonic coefficient A by least square methodkAnd BkAnd then the amplitude C is obtainedkAnd phase
And two scanning straight lines in the calibrated guide rail seat 6 are used as reference straight lines for measuring the roll angle of the guide rail and are used for measuring the roll angle at any position in the motion process of the guide rail.
When the rolling angle error of the guide rail is measured, the angle variation mu (y) caused by the height difference of any point of two scanning lines can be obtained according to the formula (3)j)(j=1,2,3…),yjIndicating the arbitrary movement position of the guide rail 5 at the time of a particular measurement.
Step 2: rail roll angle error measurement
Step 2-1: as shown in fig. 2, the two eddy current displacement sensors embedded in the motion platform and the motion platform 4 are regarded as a whole (at this time, the reading of the level 3 is not read), and the relative position relationship of the components is consistent with the calibration time. When the moving platform 4 moves, the two eddy current displacement sensor probes respectively scan the corresponding reference straight lines;
step 2-2: according to the roll angle measuring principle shown in FIG. 4, during the movement, the roll angle measuring device moves from an initial point to any measuring point yjThe reading changes of the two eddy current displacement sensors are respectively delta z1jAnd Δ z2j(j ═ 1,2,3 …), showing the displacement variation of the eddy current displacement sensor on the moving platform 4 relative to the reference line, twoOutput difference Deltaz of each eddy current displacement sensor1j-Δz2jDividing the difference by the distance L between the two eddy current displacement sensors, and compensating the angle variation mu (y) caused by the height difference of any point corresponding to the two reference straight lines calibrated in the steps 1-6 by an error compensation methodj) (j is 1,2,3 …), the roll angle error α at any point of the guide rail 5 is calculatedj
Step 2-3: analyzing the motion state of the guide rail 5; the angle variation caused by the height difference of the two reference straight lines A and B is measured in advance by the steps 1-6, the device moves along with the moving platform 4, and the rolling angle errors of each point of the guide rail can be measured in sequence in real time through the error compensation of the steps 2-2.
The invention can accurately detect the roll angle of the guide rail in real time. The structure of the invention can be combined with other eddy current displacement sensors to form a multi-degree-of-freedom real-time simultaneous measurement system with simple structure.

Claims (1)

1. A real-time measuring method for a rolling angle error of a guide rail movement is characterized in that an adopted real-time measuring device for the rolling angle error of the guide rail movement comprises a guide rail (5), a moving platform (4), two eddy current displacement sensors, two connecting plates, a guide rail seat (6) and a level gauge (3); the guide rail (5) is arranged on the guide rail seat (6), and the moving platform (4) is arranged on the guide rail (5) and slides along the guide rail (5); the gradienter (3) is fixed on the upper surface of the moving platform (4); the connecting plate A (1) and the connecting plate B (8) are symmetrically arranged on two sides of the moving platform (4), and the eddy current displacement sensor A and the eddy current displacement sensor B are vertically arranged on the connecting plate A (1) and the connecting plate B (8) respectively; two parallel scanning straight lines are arranged on the guide rail seat (6) and are positioned on two sides of the motion platform (4), the eddy current displacement sensor probe A (2) and the eddy current displacement sensor probe B (7) are respectively positioned above the two scanning straight lines, and the measuring axis of the level meter (3) is parallel to the connecting line of the eddy current displacement sensor probe A (2) and the eddy current displacement sensor probe B (7);
the method for measuring the rolling angle error of the guide rail motion in real time comprises the following steps:
step 1: calibrating angle variation caused by height difference of each point corresponding to two scanning lines scanned by probe
Step 1-1: respectively embedding an eddy current displacement sensor A and an eddy current displacement sensor B into a connecting plate A (1) and a connecting plate B (8);
step 1-2: adjusting the eddy current displacement sensor A and the eddy current displacement sensor B to ensure that the probe A (2) and the probe B (7) of the eddy current displacement sensor are perpendicular to the moving platform (4) and the corresponding scanning straight line and the two probes are parallel to each other;
step 1-3: fixing the level meter (3) on the moving platform (4) to enable the measuring axis of the level meter (3) to be parallel to the connecting line of the two eddy current displacement sensor probes; the distance between the probes of the two eddy current displacement sensors is L;
step 1-4: measuring once at the same distance from the starting point of the guide rail (5) until the whole guide rail stroke is measured, and recording the numerical values of the level meter (3) and the two eddy current displacement sensors;
step 1-5: the angle variation caused by the height difference of each point corresponding to two scanning straight lines on a guide rail seat (6) scanned by a probe of the eddy current displacement sensor is calibrated: the output difference of the two eddy current displacement sensors is divided by the distance between the two eddy current displacement sensors, and then the numerical value is subtracted from the reading of the level meter (3) to calculate the angle variation caused by the height difference of each point corresponding to the two straight lines scanned by the probe of the eddy current displacement sensor; the method comprises the following specific steps:
the reading changes of the eddy current displacement sensor A and the eddy current displacement sensor B from the initial point to the measuring point are respectively delta z1iAnd Δ z2iI is the number of the measuring point, i is 1,2,3 …, n, Δ z1iAnd Δ z2iThe difference is divided by the distance L between the two eddy current displacement sensor probes to obtain roll angle measurement data without error compensation, and the roll angle measurement data is shown in a formula (1):
wherein the content of the first and second substances,the roll angle measurement data without error compensation comprises angle variation caused by the height difference between the scanning line A and the scanning line B;
angle variation mu caused by height difference of each point corresponding to two scanning linesiComprises the following steps:
wherein, γiMeasuring data for the level;
step 1-6: establishing an optimal fitting function based on the least square principle according to the angle variation caused by the height difference obtained in the step 1-5, and fitting to calculate the angle variation caused by the height difference of all points of the two scanning lines; the two calibrated scanning straight lines are used as reference straight lines for measuring the roll angle of the guide rail and are used for measuring the roll angle at any position in the motion process of the guide rail; the method comprises the following specific steps:
demarcating N points and recording the movement position y of the guide rail (5)iThe angle change amount due to the height difference is μ (y)i) I is 1,2,3, …, n, each yiCorresponding to one mu (y)i) (ii) a Establishing an optimal harmonic fitting function mu (y) shown in formula (3):
wherein μ (y) ═ μ (y)1),μ(y2),…,μ(yi),…,μ(yn)],y=[y1,y2,…,yi,…,yn],m is the highest order number of which the height difference harmonic can be calculated, AkAnd BkIs the k order error harmonicWave coefficient, CkAndthe amplitude and phase of the k-th order error harmonic;
when the rolling angle error of the guide rail is measured, the angle variation mu (y) caused by the height difference of any point of two scanning lines can be obtained according to the formula (3)j),j=1,2,3…,yjThe arbitrary movement position of the guide rail (5) during specific measurement is shown;
step 2: rail roll angle error measurement
Step 2-1: sliding the motion platform (4) along the guide rail (5), and respectively scanning the corresponding reference straight lines by the two eddy current displacement sensor probes;
step 2-2: in the moving process of the guide rail (5), the output difference of two eddy current displacement sensors at any position is divided by the distance between the two eddy current displacement sensors, and then the angle variation caused by the height difference of each point corresponding to two reference straight lines is compensated by an error compensation method, namely the rolling angle error of the moving guide rail is calculated; the method comprises the following specific steps:
during the movement, from the initial point to any measuring point yjThe reading changes of the two eddy current displacement sensors are respectively delta z1jAnd Δ z2j,j=1,2,3…,Δz1jAnd Δ z2jThe difference is divided by the distance L between the two eddy current displacement sensors, and the angle variation mu (y) caused by the height difference of any point corresponding to the two reference straight lines calibrated in the steps 1 to 6 is compensated by an error compensation methodj) The rolling angle error alpha of any point of the guide rail (5) is calculated after compensationj
Step 2-3: analyzing the motion state of the guide rail (5): and (3) measuring the rolling angle error of each point of the guide rail (5) in real time in sequence according to the step (2-1) and the step (2-2).
CN201911272672.7A 2019-12-12 2019-12-12 Real-time measuring device and method for rolling angle error of guide rail movement Active CN110906861B (en)

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CN111854587B (en) * 2020-07-21 2021-08-10 大连理工大学 Guide rail five-degree-of-freedom motion error online measurement device and method
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