CN110412616A - A kind of mining area underground mining stope acceptance method and device - Google Patents

A kind of mining area underground mining stope acceptance method and device Download PDF

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Publication number
CN110412616A
CN110412616A CN201910727030.5A CN201910727030A CN110412616A CN 110412616 A CN110412616 A CN 110412616A CN 201910727030 A CN201910727030 A CN 201910727030A CN 110412616 A CN110412616 A CN 110412616A
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China
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dimensional
laser
point cloud
measurement
frame
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Inventor
王建军
姚卫东
王田田
郭华
桑锦国
张进强
王迷军
姜士矫
王云霞
董坤朋
刘慧娟
胡燕威
卢云鹏
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SHANDONG GOLDSOFT TECHNOLOGY Ltd
Shandong University of Technology
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SHANDONG GOLDSOFT TECHNOLOGY Ltd
Shandong University of Technology
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Priority to CN201910727030.5A priority Critical patent/CN110412616A/en
Publication of CN110412616A publication Critical patent/CN110412616A/en
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01SRADIO DIRECTION-FINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCE-DETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
    • G01S17/00Systems using the reflection or reradiation of electromagnetic waves other than radio waves, e.g. lidar systems
    • G01S17/88Lidar systems specially adapted for specific applications
    • G01S17/89Lidar systems specially adapted for specific applications for mapping or imaging
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01SRADIO DIRECTION-FINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCE-DETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
    • G01S7/00Details of systems according to groups G01S13/00, G01S15/00, G01S17/00
    • G01S7/48Details of systems according to groups G01S13/00, G01S15/00, G01S17/00 of systems according to group G01S17/00
    • G01S7/481Constructional features, e.g. arrangements of optical elements

Abstract

A kind of mining area underground mining stope acceptance method and device, three-dimensional laser radar is mounted on mobile load platform, it advances along goaf while laser radar scanning obtains a point cloud, mobile first group of space displacement of load platform and posture information are obtained by consecutive frame point cloud Feature Correspondence Algorithm;By speed measuring coder, six degree of freedom gyroscope accelerometer and GPS Multisensor Data Fusion Algorithm, the second group of space displacement and posture information of mobile load platform are obtained.By two groups of space displacements and posture information by Kalman filtering, the space displacement and attitude prediction value of precision optimizing are obtained, every frame laser point cloud pose is corrected, and then be registrated by coordinate conversion unification and multi-site laser point cloud, obtains the complete cloud in goaf.It is handled by gridding and obtains digital surface model, and calculate goaf volume;Goaf digital surface model and target production model are compared, evaluation examination can be carried out to indexs such as mining construction operation effect, digging volume, mining efficiency and the rate of dilutions.

Description

A kind of mining area underground mining stope acceptance method and device
Technical field
This application involves the three-dimensional imagings using three-dimensional laser scanning technique building Goaf Area, and then by calculating in fact Border goaf volume realizes the examination and evaluation that hit the target to stope construction compared with preparatory production zone.
Background technique
The foundation of mining engineering three-dimensional visualization model is the digitized core requirement in mining area, to mining area design, is produced, residual Mine back production etc. all has important realistic meaning.Three-dimensional laser radar is swashed as newest terrain mapping technology by transmitting Light pulse is scanned tested landform, obtains the magnanimity measurement pointcloud of tested topographical surface, is then filtered by subsequent point cloud Processing and surface fitting, are quickly obtained the three-dimensional digital model of tested topographical surface.Three-dimensional laser radar scanning modeling technology is surveyed It is fast to measure speed, laser points are intensive, and modeling is a kind of very effective technology to the three-dimensional imaging of mining area goaf rapidly.This Shen A kind of mining area underground mining stope acceptance method please be devised based on three-dimensional laser radar scanning imaging technology with device, it can be achieved that mined out The three-dimensional imaging modeling in area and volume calculate, and mining situation is carried out an acceptance inspection and evaluated.
Summary of the invention
To realize that the three-dimensional modeling of mine worked-out section, volume calculates and mining effect assessment, present applicant proposes one Kind of mining area underground mining stope acceptance method and device, when design, mainly consider the realization requirement of the following aspects: (1) can be by ground Lower goaf three-dimensional configuration is combined with ground local measurement reference frame, and the body in entire goaf is acquired by laser point cloud Product, and be compared with planning goaf, realize the assessment to mining effect;(2) three-dimensional imaging can be carried out to tunnel; (3) laser scanning and three-dimensional imaging can be carried out to an independent mined out region;(4) two adjacent goafs can be swashed Luminous point cloud is effectively spliced, and all goaf point clouds are finally formed a unified three-dimensional digital model.
Based on above-mentioned requirements, a kind of mining area underground mining stope acceptance method and device that the application proposes, which is characterized in that mine It includes: mobile load platform (1) that area's underground mining stope, which checks and accepts device, electric wheel (2), speed measuring coder (3), A-frame (4), One-dimensional electronic rotation holder (5), right angle mounting bracket (6), three-dimensional laser radar (7), six degree of freedom gyroscope accelerometer (8), GPS(9).Mobile load platform (1) bottom is mounted with two electric wheels (2) in left and right, passes through differential control The electric wheel (2) of left and right two is realized the front and back of the mobile load platform (1) and is moved left and right, along mining area underground mining It advances in field tunnel;It is mounted with the speed measuring coder (3), measurement two respectively on two electric wheels (2) in left and right The real-time revolving speed of a electric wheel (2), by integral calculation, obtain the mobile load platform (1) traveling displacement and Turn to orientation.One A-frame (4), the peace in the A-frame (4) are housed on the mobile load platform (1) It is mounted with that the one-dimensional electronic rotation holder (5), the three-dimensional laser radar (7) are further pacified by the right angle on assembling platform Dress bracket (6) is vertically mounted on the one-dimensional electronic rotation holder (5).The mobile load platform (1) and the one-dimensional electricity Dynamic rotary head (5) combination forms the mounting platform of the three-dimensional laser radar (7), and the three-dimensional laser radar (7) is to tunnel Laser scanning, which is carried out, with goaf realizes three-dimensional reconstruction.The one-dimensional electronic rotation holder (5) drives the three-dimensional laser radar (7) 360 ° of level rotations are carried out, the laser scanning of the three-dimensional laser radar (7) is to rotate 360 ° in vertical direction, Two 360 ° rotation movements are combined, and laser scanning can be enable to cover around mobile load platform (1) travel track Holonmic space realizes the comprehensive scanning to goaf space, obtains the laser scanning point cloud of four wall of goaf.Described six freely Degree gyroscope accelerometer (8) is mounted on the mobile load platform (1), the six degree of freedom gyroscope accelerometer (8) It is integrated with the comprehensive measurement function of gyroscope and accelerometer, the instantaneous three-dimensional line that can measure the mobile load platform (1) adds Speed and 3 d pose angular speed, by integral operation, can get the instantaneous three-dimensional displacement of the lines of the mobile load platform (1) with 3 d pose angle value.The GPS(9) it is mounted on the A-frame (4), it is negative to obtain the movement in initial measurement locations 3 d space coordinate of the carrying platform (1) in local horizontal reference coordinate system.The six degree of freedom gyroscope accelerometer (8) and Displacement that the speed measuring coder (3) obtains turns to orientation and attitude angle information by Data Fusion Filtering algorithm, described in acquisition Real time position, speed, acceleration and the attitude angle information of mobile load platform (1) measurement website.
Wherein, need to solve two critical issues in measurement: first is that underground mining area can not pass through GPS(9 without satellite-signal) it is right The spatial position of mobile load platform (1) carries out accurate and continuous positioning and tracking, can only measure at roadway entry Obtain an initial value.Although six degree of freedom gyroscope accelerometer (8) and speed measuring coder (3) are mounted with, due to two kinds Sensor has biggish measurement error and accumulated error, it is also difficult to obtain the accurate positioning of mobile load platform (1).It is simple logical It crosses and the side that characteristic matching obtains three-dimensional land map is carried out using the different frame scanning element cloud that the three-dimensional laser radar (7) are scanned Method is also easy the presence of matching deviation, it is therefore necessary to use Multi-sensor Fusion algorithm, so that various sensors is learnt from other's strong points to offset one's weaknesses, have Effect improves the precision of prediction of laser scanning station space of points position, to obtain accurate three-dimensional modeling;Second is that individually measuring website Laser scanning generally the space profiles face in all goafs can not all be scanned completely, need multiple measuring station points to be scanned Multiple clouds are obtained, then each obtained cloud of measurement website is spliced and be registrated, ultimately forms one completely Lower minery laser point cloud, therefore how to realize that the accuracy registration of more measurement website laser scanning point clouds obtained is a need The difficult point of solution.It is proposed that a kind of mining area underground mining stope acceptance method, emphasis solves above-mentioned two problem.
Wherein, in eye, satellite positioning is carried out with the GPS(9), obtains eye in local horizontal ginseng The spatial position under coordinate system is examined, by its three-dimensional coordinate as origin, is established ' laser scanning measurement starting point reference frame ', Thirdly axis direction is identical as three axis direction of measurement reference frame of the three-dimensional laser radar (7) at this time.
Wherein, it during the scanning in tunnel and three-dimensional imaging, controls the mobile load platform (1) and advances along tunnel, The one-dimensional electronic rotation holder (5) wouldn't work, and the laser scanning plane of the three-dimensional laser radar (7) is perpendicular to the shifting The direction of travel of dynamic load platform (1).The three-dimensional laser radar (7) carries out laser scanning to tunnel and obtains point cloud, using base In the visual odometry autonomous positioning tracking measurement method of laser point cloud, tunnel 3-dimensional digital topographic map, method are as follows: right are rebuild Each frame laser scanning point cloud is handled, and characteristic point, characteristic curve and characteristic face are obtained, more adjacent two frames characteristic point of the same name Changes in coordinates obtains three-dimensional space relative displacement and phase between two consecutive frame point clouds according to laser scanning vision measurement principle Three-dimension altitude angle is changed;The laser point cloud of a later frame can be registrated with the laser point cloud of former frame, be led to by coordinate system conversion Continuous registration process is crossed, each frame laser point cloud can be registered under ' laser scanning measurement starting point reference frame ', be obtained Obtain the three-dimensional land map in tunnel.When tested tunnel ambient enviroment feature is unobvious, pose is carried out based on consecutive frame laser point cloud Since characteristic point is insufficient or homotopy mapping mistake when estimation, the pose estimation of consecutive frame laser point cloud be easy to lose value or error compared with Greatly, lead to not correctly track the mounting platform pose of the three-dimensional laser radar (7), when a cloud coordinate being caused to convert It misplaces, leads to the distortion for rebuilding three-dimensional land map.Therefore, it during scanning three-dimensional imaging laser, needs in conjunction with described The spatial movement state of mobile load platform (1) and the spatial movement state of the one-dimensional electronic rotation holder (5), to adopting merely It is modified with the mounting platform pose estimated value of the three-dimensional laser radar (7).
Wherein, in the mobile load platform (1) along the moving process that tunnel enters goaf, due in drive centre halfback Star signal blocks, the at this time GPS(9) data be unable to get.But by the six degree of freedom gyroscope accelerometer (8) and (3) two kinds of measurement data of the speed measuring coder can get the pose of the mobile load platform (1) by Kalman filtering Real-time measurement values.Therefore in the three-dimensional laser radar (7) scanning process, in conjunction with the six degree of freedom gyroscope accelerometer (8) and the real-time measured information of the speed measuring coder (3), to assist the mounting platform position to the three-dimensional laser radar (7) Appearance carries out real-time optimization, improves the mounting platform pose estimated accuracy of the three-dimensional laser radar (7), reduces measurement error shadow It rings, and then the three-dimensional laser radar (7) multiframe scanning element cloud obtained can be carried out to coordinate conversion, it is unified to arrive same reference Under coordinate system.But due to the survey of (3) two kinds of sensors of the six degree of freedom gyroscope accelerometer (8) and the speed measuring coder The presence for measuring error and accumulated error, with the extension of time of measuring, the posture information of the mobile load platform (1) of acquisition Error can be gradually increased, and be unfavorable for the three-dimensional reconstruction of laser point cloud, influenced the matching of laser point cloud and built figure precision.Therefore, one Aspect carries out real-time characteristic matching by the laser scanning point cloud individually using the three-dimensional laser radar (7), described to obtain One group of pose measurement estimated value of mobile load platform (1);On the other hand by the six degree of freedom gyroscope accelerometer (8) and Speed measuring coder (3) combination obtains second group of pose measurement estimated value of the mobile load platform (1), by two groups of poses Measurement estimated value is optimized by Extended Kalman filter, can get the more smart of the three-dimensional laser radar (7) mounting platform True pose predicted value;This pose predicted value is used for the coordinate translation rotation transformation of every frame laser scanning point cloud, it is unified to mining Under ' laser scanning measurement starting point reference frame ' at mouth initial measurement website, to realize that the 3-dimensional digital in tunnel is built Mould.
Wherein, the laser scanning and three-dimensional imaging about goaf, when to reach some mined out for the mobile load platform (1) When the approximate mid location on area ground, the mobile load platform (1) described at this time stops movement, only by the one-dimensional electronic rotation cloud Platform (5) and the three-dimensional laser radar (7) carry out 360 ° of rotations in the horizontal and vertical directions respectively, carry out full side to goaf Bit scan, the pose variation of three-dimensional laser radar (7) mounting platform is only true by the one-dimensional electronic rotation holder (5) at this time Fixed, bring measurement error when can reduce the mobile load platform (1) movement improves the matching essence of every frame laser scanning point cloud Degree.The one-dimensional electronic rotation holder (5) is stopped after driving the three-dimensional laser radar (7) to be rotated by 360 ° at a slow speed in the horizontal direction Rotation stop is dynamic, completes a Zhou Xuanzhuan, in this rotation process, the three-dimensional laser radar (7) carries out quickly in vertical direction 360 ° of rotary scannings, complete the three dimension laser scanning surreying in the goaf.The one-dimensional electronic rotation holder (5) uses stepping Motor driven turbine and worm precision drive mechanism, velocity of rotation is steady state value, by determining velocity of rotation and Initial Turning Angle position It sets, by measuring rotation time, it may be determined that one-dimensional electronic rotation holder when each frame scan of the three-dimensional laser radar (7) (5) turned position.By the stationary state spatial position of the mobile load platform (1) described at this time and the one-dimensional electronic rotation cloud The rotary state of platform (5) combines, and can get the spatial movement state of the three-dimensional laser radar (7) mounting platform, determines laser Spatial position and the attitude value of each frame point cloud are scanned, so as to by each frame scan point cloud of the three-dimensional laser radar (7) It is converted by coordinate, it is unified in ' laser scanning measurement starting point reference frame '.
Wherein, it after a mined out region measurement is complete, manipulates the mobile load platform (1) and advances, continue as to tunnel Laser scanning process, the ground approximate mid location until reaching next adjacent goaf stops, then proceeding by The laser scanning measurement process in this goaf.Due to the measurement website from the measurement website in a upper goaf to next goaf In traveling process, to the spatial movement position and posture measured value of the three-dimensional laser radar (7) mounting platform there are error, two The laser scanning point cloud in adjacent goaf can not accuracy registration, therefore multi-site laser point cloud registration process need to be carried out, make two The laser point cloud of adjacent sites measurement can correctly splice.
Wherein, the digging wall of underground mining stope smoother sometimes, it is difficult to obtain obvious characteristic point, therefore can be in light before measuring T-shaped gusset is installed on sliding digging wall, T-shaped gusset is scanned by the three-dimensional laser radar (7), increases characteristic point, mention The registration accuracy of high consecutive frame point cloud.
Wherein, multi-site measurement pointcloud carries out extracting and matching feature points, obtains the phase of two adjacent sites laser point clouds To Conversion Matrix of Coordinate, the laser point cloud alignment splicing of two adjacent sites is realized, it is unified to arrive under the same coordinate system, it obtains The laser scanning three-dimensional point cloud in entire goaf.Denoising is carried out to the goaf full laser point cloud of acquisition, is deleted coarse Then error dot carries out complement point to missing point cloud sector domain, while carrying out homogenization interpolation processing to the density of cloud, make dot density Uniformly, it is then handled by triangle gridding, obtains Mesh triangle gridding mathematical model.In Mesh triangle gridding number mould On the basis of type, goaf volume is calculated.
Wherein, digital table is obtained by surface fitting interpolation arithmetic by the Mesh triangle gridding mathematical model in goaf Surface model shows the three-dimensional configuration in goaf.Maximum horizontal area is extracted from digital surface model, to maximum horizontal area It carries out gridding and is subdivided into multiple cell arrays, by the corresponding digital surface model of each cellar area in this element Average height value in area is multiplied, then accumulated calculating, can get the encirclement volume of entire goaf digital surface model;When When the grid subdivision of maximum horizontal area is enough, then the calculating volume of digital surface model calculated is just accurate enough.Meter The goaf volume of calculating is for calculating the workload of mining.In addition, by the digital surface model and mesh of acquisition It marks exploitation threedimensional model to compare, carries out friendship and poor Boolean calculation, it can be to the completion effect constructed, mining efficiency, the rate of dilution of digging up mine Etc. indexs carry out Calculation Estimation.
Therein it is proposed that mining area underground mining stope check and accept device in contain multiple sensors, measured value includes described one Corner value, the scanning angle and laser ranging value of the three-dimensional laser radar (7) of electronic rotation holder (5) are tieed up, it is described to test the speed Encoder (3), the six degree of freedom gyroscope accelerometer (8) and the GPS(9) spatial position obtained for measuring website With attitude value, these sensor measurement datas need strict time synchronization, and after integrated fusion is handled, are just able to achieve laser point cloud The accurate calculating of spatial position.By working out VC++ synchronous data collection software, by the measurement number of the three-dimensional laser radar (7) Carry out strict time synchronization acquisition according to the measurement data of the one-dimensional electronic rotation holder (5) and other sensors, then into The processing of row Extended Kalman filter, the calculating of achievable laser point cloud.
Wherein, due to the limitation of three-dimensional laser radar measuring device itself and goaf environment, goaf spatial surface wheel Wide complete measurement data generally require to complete by multiple laser scanning.It therefore, is the Complete three-dimensional point cloud for obtaining goaf, It needs that the point cloud of different station scans is integrated into a unified coordinate system by point cloud registering.The main purpose of registration is to look for Relative position and attitude angle to cloud to another cloud, and then converted by coordinate, by two or more laser points Cloud is transformed into the same coordinate system system.Feature point extraction is carried out to each laser point cloud first, obtains local normal vector, part song The characteristic points such as rate and salient point, concave point.Then two clouds just match first with features such as local normal vector, local curvatures Two o'clock cloud is adjusted to the position of approximate overlapping, then carries out smart registration with iteration closest approach algorithm by standard, is obtained between two clouds Relative translation and spin matrix parameter.It is converted finally by coordinate, the reference that cloud is transformed into another cloud is sat Under mark system.
Detailed description of the invention
Fig. 1 is a kind of mining area underground mining stope examination device hardware composed structure schematic diagram.
Fig. 2 is a kind of mining area underground mining stope acceptance method technology path flow chart.
Fig. 3 is synchronous data collection and processing hardware structural diagram based on VC++.
Fig. 4 be multi-site measurement laser point cloud feature extraction be registrated embodiment flow chart.
Specific embodiment
The application patent Example is described in further detail below in conjunction with attached drawing.
Fig. 1 is a kind of mining area underground mining stope examination device hardware composed structure schematic diagram.The mining area underground mining stope proposed Checking and accepting device includes: mobile load platform (1), electric wheel (2), speed measuring coder (3), A-frame (4), one-dimensional electronic rotation Turn holder (5), right angle mounting bracket (6), three-dimensional laser radar (7), six degree of freedom gyroscope accelerometer (8), GPS(9).Institute It states mobile load platform (1) bottom and is mounted with two electric wheels (2) in left and right, pass through two electricity of differential control or so Motor car wheel (2) is realized mobile load platform (1) front and back and is moved left and right, and advances along mining area underground mining stope tunnel;On a left side It is mounted with the speed measuring coder (3) respectively on right two electric wheels (2), measures two electric wheels (2) real-time revolving speed obtains the traveling displacement of the mobile load platform (1) and turns to orientation then by integral calculation.In One A-frame (4) is housed on the mobile load platform (1), is pacified on the mounting platform of the A-frame (4) The one-dimensional electronic rotation holder (5) is filled, the three-dimensional laser radar (7) further passes through the right angle mounting bracket (6) It is vertically mounted on the one-dimensional electronic rotation holder (5).The mobile load platform (1) and the one-dimensional electronic rotation holder (5) combination forms the mounting platforms of the three-dimensional laser radar (7), the three-dimensional laser radar (7) to tunnel and goaf into Three-dimensional reconstruction is realized in row laser scanning.It is horizontal that the one-dimensional electronic rotation holder (5) drives the three-dimensional laser radar (7) to carry out 360 ° of rotations, the laser scanning of the three-dimensional laser radar (7) is to rotate 360 ° in vertical direction, two 360 ° of rotations It is combined, laser scanning can be enable to cover the holonmic space around mobile load platform (1) travel track, realize to adopting The comprehensive scanning in dead zone space obtains the laser scanning point cloud of four wall of goaf.The six degree of freedom gyroscope accelerometer (8) it is mounted on the mobile load platform (1), the six degree of freedom gyroscope accelerometer (8) is integrated with gyroscope and adds The comprehensive measurement function of speedometer can measure the instantaneous three-dimensional linear acceleration and three-dimension altitude angle of the mobile load platform (1) Speed can get the instantaneous three-dimensional displacement of the lines and posture angle value of the mobile load platform (1) by integral operation.The GPS (9) it is mounted on the A-frame (4), it is horizontal in locality to obtain the mobile load platform (1) in initial measurement locations Measure the 3 d space coordinate in reference frame.The six degree of freedom gyroscope accelerometer (8) and the speed measuring coder (3) displacement, steering orientation and the attitude angle information obtained obtains the mobile load platform by Data Fusion Filtering algorithm (1) real time position, speed, acceleration and the attitude angle information of website are measured.
Fig. 2 is a kind of mining area underground mining stope acceptance method technology path flow chart.In eye, with the GPS(9) Carry out satellite positioning, obtain spatial position of the eye under local horizontal reference coordinate system, by its three-dimensional coordinate as Origin is established ' laser scanning measurement starting point reference frame ', thirdly axis direction is and the three-dimensional laser radar (7) at this time Three axis direction of measurement reference frame it is identical.
During the scanning in tunnel and three-dimensional imaging, controls the mobile load platform (1) and advance along tunnel, described one Dimension electronic rotation holder (5) wouldn't work, and the laser scanning plane of the three-dimensional laser radar (7) is perpendicular to the mobile load The direction of travel of platform (1).The three-dimensional laser radar (7) carries out laser scanning to drive and obtains point cloud, using based on laser The visual odometry autonomous positioning tracking measurement principle of point cloud, rebuilds tunnel 3-dimensional digital topographic map, method are as follows: to each frame Laser scanning point cloud is handled, and obtains characteristic point, characteristic curve and characteristic face, characteristic point of the same name in more adjacent two frames point cloud Changes in coordinates obtains three-dimensional space relative displacement and phase between two consecutive frame point clouds according to laser scanning vision measurement principle Three-dimension altitude angle is changed;The laser point cloud of a later frame can be registrated with the laser point cloud of former frame, be passed through by coordinate conversion Each frame laser point cloud can be registrated under ' laser scanning measurement starting point reference frame ', obtain by the registration process of successive frame Obtain the three-dimensional land map in tunnel.When tested tunnel ambient enviroment feature is unobvious, pose is carried out based on consecutive frame laser point cloud Since characteristic point is insufficient or homotopy mapping mistake when estimation, the pose estimation of consecutive frame laser point cloud be easy to lose value or error compared with Greatly, lead to not correctly track the pose of the three-dimensional laser radar (7) mounting platform, when a cloud coordinate being caused to convert It misplaces, leads to the distortion for rebuilding three-dimensional land map.Therefore, it during scanning three-dimensional imaging laser, needs in conjunction with described The spatial movement state of mobile load platform (1) and the spatial movement state of the one-dimensional electronic rotation holder (5), to adopting merely It is modified with the pose estimated value of the three-dimensional laser radar (7).
In the mobile load platform (1) along the moving process that tunnel enters goaf, due to believing in tunnel Satellite Number block, at this time the GPS(9) data be unable to get.But by the six degree of freedom gyroscope accelerometer (8) and the survey (3) two kinds of measurement data of fast encoder, by Kalman filtering, the pose that can get the mobile load platform (1) is surveyed in real time Magnitude.Therefore in the three-dimensional laser radar (7) scanning process, in conjunction with the six degree of freedom gyroscope accelerometer (8) and The real-time measured information of the speed measuring coder (3), to assist the pose to the three-dimensional laser radar (7) mounting platform to carry out Real-time optimization improves the pose estimated accuracy of the three-dimensional laser radar (7) mounting platform, and reducing measurement error influences, in turn The three-dimensional laser radar (7) multiframe scanning element cloud obtained can be carried out to coordinate conversion, it is unified to arrive same reference frame Under.But due to the measurement error of (3) two kinds of sensors of the six degree of freedom gyroscope accelerometer (8) and the speed measuring coder With the presence of accumulated error, with the extension of time of measuring, the position and posture error meeting of the mobile load platform (1) of acquisition It is gradually increased, is unfavorable for the three-dimensional reconstruction of laser point cloud, influence the matching of laser point cloud and build figure precision.Therefore, on the one hand logical It crosses and real-time characteristic matching is individually carried out using the laser scanning point cloud of the three-dimensional laser radar (7), obtain the mobile load One group of pose measurement estimated value of platform (1) on the other hand by the six degree of freedom gyroscope accelerometer (8) and described tests the speed Encoder (3) combination obtains second group of pose measurement estimated value of the mobile load platform (1), and two groups of pose measurements are estimated Value is optimized by Extended Kalman filter, and it is pre- to can get the more accurate pose of the three-dimensional laser radar (7) mounting platform Measured value;This pose predicted value is used for the coordinate translation rotation transformation of every frame laser scanning point cloud, it is unified initially to be surveyed to mining mouth It measures under ' the laser scanning measurement starting point reference frame ' at website, to realize the 3-dimensional digital modeling in tunnel.
About the laser scanning and three-dimensional imaging in goaf, when the mobile load platform (1) with reaching some goaf When the approximate mid location in face, the mobile load platform (1) described at this time stops movement, only by the one-dimensional electronic rotation holder (5) and the three-dimensional laser radar (7) carries out 360 ° of rotations in the horizontal and vertical directions respectively, carries out to goaf comprehensive Scanning, the pose variation of three-dimensional laser radar (7) mounting platform is only true by the one-dimensional electronic rotation holder (5) at this time Fixed, bring measurement error when can reduce the mobile load platform (1) movement improves the matching essence of every frame laser scanning point cloud Degree.After the one-dimensional electronic rotation holder (5) drives the three-dimensional laser radar (7) to be rotated by 360 ° at a slow speed in the horizontal direction It stops operating, completes a Zhou Xuanzhuan, in this rotation process, the three-dimensional laser radar (7) carries out in vertical direction Quick 360 ° of rotary scannings, complete the three dimension laser scanning surreying in the goaf.The one-dimensional electronic rotation holder (5) is using step Into motor driven turbine and worm precision drive mechanism, velocity of rotation is set as constant, by determining velocity of rotation and initial rotation Angle Position, according to time of measuring, it may be determined that three-dimensional laser radar (7) each frame point cloud one-dimensional electronic rotation when scanning The angular position of holder (5).By the stationary state spatial position of the mobile load platform (1) described at this time and the one-dimensional electronic rotation The rotary state for turning holder (5) is combined, and can get the spatial movement state of the three-dimensional laser radar (7) mounting platform, Spatial position and the attitude measurement value of each frame point cloud of laser scanning are determined, so as to by the every of the three-dimensional laser radar (7) One frame scan point cloud is converted by coordinate, unified in ' laser scanning measurement starting point reference frame '.
After a mined out region measurement is complete, manipulates the mobile load platform (1) and advance, continue such as the laser to tunnel Scanning process, the approximate mid location until reaching next adjacent goaf ground stop, then proceeding by mined out at this The laser scanning measurement process in area.Due to traveling across for the measurement website from the measurement website in a upper goaf to next goaf Cheng Zhong, to the spatial movement position and posture measured value of the three-dimensional laser radar (7) mounting platform there are error, two adjacent to be adopted The laser scanning point cloud of dead zone can not accuracy registration, it is therefore desirable to carry out multi-site laser point cloud registration process, make two it is adjacent The laser point cloud of website measurement can correctly splice.
The digging wall of underground mining stope smoother sometimes, it is difficult to obtain obvious characteristic point, therefore in smooth digging before measuring T-shaped gusset is installed on wall, T-shaped gusset is scanned by the three-dimensional laser radar (7), increases characteristic point, improve adjacent The registration accuracy of scanning frame point cloud.
Multi-site measurement pointcloud carries out extracting and matching feature points, obtains the relative coordinate system conversion of two adjacent laser point clouds Matrix is realized the alignment splicing of two adjacent sites laser point clouds, is transformed under the same coordinate system, the laser for obtaining entire goaf is swept Retouch three-dimensional point cloud.Denoising is carried out to the goaf full laser point cloud of acquisition, gross error point is deleted, then to missing point Cloud sector domain carries out complement point, while carrying out homogenization interpolation processing to the density of cloud, keeps dot density uniform, then passes through the triangulation network It formats processing, obtains Mesh triangle gridding mathematical model.On the basis of Mesh triangle gridding mathematical model, calculate mined out Area's volume.
Digital surface mould is obtained by surface fitting interpolation arithmetic by the Mesh triangle gridding mathematical model in goaf Type shows the three-dimensional configuration in goaf.Maximum horizontal area is extracted from digital surface model, and maximum horizontal area is carried out Gridding is subdivided into multiple cell arrays, by the corresponding digital surface model of each cellar area in this cellar area In average height value be multiplied, then accumulated calculating can get the encirclement volume of entire goaf digital surface model;Work as maximum When the grid subdivision of horizontal area is enough, then the calculating volume of digital surface model calculated is just accurate enough.It calculates Goaf volume for calculating the workload of mining.In addition, the digital surface model of acquisition is opened with target Threedimensional model comparison is adopted, hand over and poor Boolean calculation, completion effect, mining efficiency and the rate of dilution etc. that can be constructed to mining refers to Mark is evaluated.
Fig. 3 is synchronous data collection and processing hardware structural diagram based on VC++.The mining area underground mining stope proposed It checks and accepts in device and contains multiple sensors, measured value includes the corner value of the one-dimensional electronic rotation holder (5), described three The scanning angle and laser ranging value of laser radar (7) are tieed up, the speed measuring coder (3), the six degree of freedom gyroscope accelerate Degree meter (8) and the GPS(9) it is obtained measurement website spatial position and attitude value, these sensor measurement datas need sternly Lattice time synchronization, and after integrated fusion is handled, just it is able to achieve the accurate calculating of laser point cloud spatial position.By working out VC++ Synchronous data collection software, by the measurement data of the three-dimensional laser radar (7) and the one-dimensional electronic rotation holder (5) and The measurement data of other sensors carries out strict time synchronization acquisition, is then extended Kalman filtering processing, achievable to swash The calculating of luminous point cloud.
Fig. 4 be multi-site measurement laser point cloud feature extraction be registrated embodiment flow chart.Due to three-dimensional laser thunder Up to the limitation of measuring device itself and goaf environment, the complete measurement data of goaf spatial surface profile generally require to pass through Multiple laser scanning is completed.Therefore, it is the Complete three-dimensional point cloud for obtaining goaf, needs to sweep different websites by point cloud registering The point cloud retouched is integrated into a unified coordinate system.The main purpose of registration is the phase for finding cloud to another cloud It is converted to position and attitude angle, and then by coordinate, two or more laser point clouds is transformed into the same coordinate system system.First Feature point extraction is carried out to each laser point cloud, obtains the characteristic points such as local normal vector, local curvature and salient point, concave point.Then Just registration is carried out to two clouds first with features such as local normal vector, local curvatures, two o'clock cloud is adjusted to approximate overlapping Position, then smart registration is carried out with iteration closest approach algorithm, obtain the relative translation and spin matrix parameter between two clouds.Most It is converted, cloud is transformed under the reference frame of another cloud by coordinate afterwards.
Above to the description of the application and its specific embodiment, it is not limited to which this, is only the application shown in attached drawing One of embodiment.In the case where not departing from the application creation objective, without creating design and the technical solution class As structure or embodiment, category the application protection scope.

Claims (9)

1. a kind of mining area underground mining stope acceptance method and device, which is characterized in that the mining area underground mining stope proposed checks and accepts device It include: mobile load platform (1), electric wheel (2), speed measuring coder (3), A-frame (4), one-dimensional electronic rotation holder (5), right angle mounting bracket (6), three-dimensional laser radar (7), six degree of freedom gyroscope accelerometer (8), GPS(9);The movement Load platform (1) bottom is mounted with two electric wheels (2) in left and right, passes through two electric wheels of differential control or so (2) it realizes mobile load platform (1) front and back and moves left and right, advance along mining area underground mining stope tunnel;Controlling two The speed measuring coder (3) is mounted on the electric wheel (2) respectively, measures the reality of two electric wheels (2) When revolving speed obtain the traveling displacement of the mobile load platform (1) then by integral calculation and turn to orientation;In the shifting One A-frame (4) is housed on dynamic load platform (1), institute is mounted on the mounting platform of the A-frame (4) One-dimensional electronic rotation holder (5) is stated, the three-dimensional laser radar (7) is further vertically pacified by the right angle mounting bracket (6) On the one-dimensional electronic rotation holder (5);The mobile load platform (1) and one-dimensional electronic rotation holder (5) group Conjunction forms the mounting platform of the three-dimensional laser radar (7), and the three-dimensional laser radar (7) carries out laser to tunnel and goaf Scanning carries out three-dimensional reconstruction;The one-dimensional electronic rotation holder (5) drives the three-dimensional laser radar (7) to carry out 360 ° of level rotations Turn, the laser scanning of the three-dimensional laser radar (7) is to rotate 360 ° in vertical direction, two 360 ° of rotation phase groups It closes, laser scanning can be enable to cover the holonmic space around mobile load platform (1) travel track, realize to goaf The comprehensive scanning in space obtains the laser scanning point cloud of four wall of goaf;Six degree of freedom gyroscope accelerometer (8) peace On the mobile load platform (1), the six degree of freedom gyroscope accelerometer (8) is integrated with gyroscope and accelerometer Comprehensive measurement function, can measure the instantaneous three-dimensional linear acceleration and 3 d pose angular speed of the mobile load platform (1), lead to Integral operation is crossed, can get the instantaneous three-dimensional displacement of the lines and posture angle value of the mobile load platform (1);The GPS(9) installation On the A-frame (4), obtains the mobile load platform (1) in initial measurement locations and referred in local horizontal measurement 3 d space coordinate in coordinate system;What the six degree of freedom gyroscope accelerometer (8) and the speed measuring coder (3) obtained Displacement turns to orientation and attitude angle information by Data Fusion Filtering algorithm, obtains the mobile load platform (1) and measures website Real time position, speed, acceleration and attitude angle information.
2. a kind of mining area underground mining stope acceptance method described in accordance with the claim 1, which is characterized in that in eye, use The GPS(9) carry out satellite positioning, obtain spatial position of the eye under local horizontal reference coordinate system, will thirdly Coordinate is tieed up as origin, establishes laser scanning measurement starting point reference frame, thirdly axis direction swashs with the three-dimensional at this time Three axis direction of measurement reference frame of optical radar (7) is identical.
3. a kind of mining area underground mining stope acceptance method described in accordance with the claim 1, which is characterized in that in the scanning in tunnel and three It ties up in imaging process, controls the mobile load platform (1) and advance along tunnel, the one-dimensional electronic rotation holder (5) wouldn't work Make, the direction of travel of the laser scanning plane of the three-dimensional laser radar (7) perpendicular to the mobile load platform (1);It is described Three-dimensional laser radar (7) carries out laser scanning to drive and obtains point cloud, independently fixed using the visual odometry based on laser point cloud Position tracking measurement principle, rebuilds tunnel 3-dimensional digital topographic map, method are as follows: each frame laser scanning point cloud handled, Characteristic point, characteristic curve and characteristic face, the changes in coordinates of more adjacent two frames point cloud characteristic point of the same name is obtained to be regarded according to laser scanning Feel measuring principle, obtains three-dimensional space relative displacement and the variation of relative dimensional attitude angle between two consecutive frame point clouds;Pass through seat The laser point cloud of a later frame can be registrated by the conversion of mark system with the laser point cloud of former frame, can will be every by continuous registration process One frame laser point cloud is registered under laser scanning measurement starting point reference frame, obtains the three-dimensional land map in tunnel;In laser During scanning three-dimensional imaging, the spatial movement state and the one-dimensional electronic rotation in conjunction with the mobile load platform (1) are needed The spatial movement state for turning holder (5) is modified the pose estimated value merely using the three-dimensional laser radar (7).
4. a kind of mining area underground mining stope acceptance method described in accordance with the claim 1, which is characterized in that on the one hand by individually adopting Real-time characteristic matching is carried out with the laser scanning point cloud of the three-dimensional laser radar (7), obtains the mobile load platform (1) One group of pose measurement estimated value;On the other hand by the six degree of freedom gyroscope accelerometer (8) and the speed measuring coder (3) Combination obtains second group of pose measurement estimated value of the mobile load platform (1), and two groups of pose measurement estimated values are passed through expansion Exhibition Kalman filtering optimizes, and can get the more accurate pose predicted value of the three-dimensional laser radar (7) mounting platform;It will This pose predicted value is used for the coordinate translation rotation transformation of every frame laser scanning point cloud, unified at mining mouth initial measurement website Laser scanning initial reference coordinates system under, realize tunnel 3-dimensional digital modeling.
5. a kind of mining area underground mining stope acceptance method described in accordance with the claim 1, which is characterized in that when the mobile load is flat When platform (1) reaches the approximate mid location on some goaf ground, the mobile load platform (1) described at this time stops movement, only by The one-dimensional electronic rotation holder (5) and the three-dimensional laser radar (7) carry out 360 ° respectively in the horizontal and vertical directions and turn It is dynamic, comprehensive scanning is carried out to goaf, the pose of three-dimensional laser radar (7) mounting platform changes only by described one at this time It ties up electronic rotation holder (5) to determine, bring measurement error when can reduce the mobile load platform (1) movement improves every frame The matching precision of laser scanning point cloud;When the one-dimensional electronic rotation holder (5) drives the three-dimensional laser radar (7) in level It stops operating after being rotated by 360 ° at a slow speed on direction, completes a Zhou Xuanzhuan, in this rotation process, the three-dimensional laser radar (7) quick 360 ° of rotary scannings are carried out in vertical direction, complete the three dimension laser scanning surreying in the goaf;The one-dimensional electricity Dynamic rotary head (5) drive turbine and worm precision drive mechanism using stepper motor, and velocity of rotation is set as constant, passes through determination Velocity of rotation and initial rotation Angle Position, according to time of measuring, it may be determined that each frame point cloud scanning of three-dimensional laser radar (7) The angular position of the one-dimensional electronic rotation holder (5) of Shi Suoshu;By the stationary state space bit of the mobile load platform (1) described at this time It sets and is combined with the rotary state of the one-dimensional electronic rotation holder (5), it is flat to can get the three-dimensional laser radar (7) installation The spatial movement state of platform determines spatial position and the attitude measurement value of each frame point cloud of laser scanning, so as to by described three The each frame scan point cloud for tieing up laser radar (7) is converted by coordinate, unified to arrive laser scanning measurement starting point reference frame In;After a mined out region measurement is complete, manipulates the mobile load platform (1) and advance, continue such as the laser scanning to tunnel Process, the approximate mid location until reaching next adjacent goaf ground stop, then proceeding by this goaf Laser scanning measurement process;Due to the traveling process of the measurement website from the measurement website in a upper goaf to next goaf In, to the spatial movement position and posture measured value of the three-dimensional laser radar (7) mounting platform there are error, two are adjacent mined out The laser scanning point cloud in area can not accuracy registration, it is therefore desirable to carry out multi-site laser point cloud registration process, make two neighbor stations The laser point cloud of point measurement can correctly splice.
6. a kind of mining area underground mining stope acceptance method described in accordance with the claim 1, which is characterized in that in smooth digging before measurement T-shaped gusset is installed on wall, T-shaped gusset is scanned by the three-dimensional laser radar (7), increases characteristic point, improve adjacent The registration accuracy of frame point cloud.
7. a kind of mining area underground mining stope acceptance method described in accordance with the claim 1, which is characterized in that the measurement pointcloud of multi-site Spliced by alignment, is transformed under the same coordinate system, obtains the laser scanning three-dimensional point cloud in entire goaf;To the mined out of acquisition Area's full laser point cloud carries out denoising, deletes gross error point, then carries out complement point to missing point cloud sector domain, while to point The density of cloud carries out homogenization interpolation processing, keeps dot density uniform, is then handled by triangle gridding, obtains the Mesh triangulation network It formats mathematical model;Digital table is obtained by surface fitting interpolation arithmetic by the Mesh triangle gridding mathematical model in goaf Surface model shows the three-dimensional configuration in goaf;Maximum horizontal area is extracted from digital surface model, to maximum horizontal area It carries out gridding and is subdivided into multiple cell arrays, by the corresponding digital surface model of each cellar area in this element Average height value in area is multiplied, then accumulated calculating, can get the encirclement volume of entire goaf digital surface model;It will The digital surface model of acquisition is compared with target exploitation threedimensional model, carries out friendship and poor Boolean calculation, can be to the complete of mining construction It is evaluated at effect, mining efficiency and rate of dilution index.
8. a kind of mining area underground mining stope described in accordance with the claim 1 checks and accepts device, it is characterised in that multiple sensors are contained, Measured value includes the corner value of the one-dimensional electronic rotation holder (5), the scanning angle and laser of the three-dimensional laser radar (7) Distance measurement value, the speed measuring coder (3), the six degree of freedom gyroscope accelerometer (8) and the GPS(9) survey obtained Measure spatial position and the attitude value of website;These sensor measurement datas need to by strict time synchronization, and through integrated fusion at After reason, it is just able to achieve the accurate calculating of laser point cloud spatial position;By working out VC++ synchronous data collection software, by described three Tie up the measurement data progress of the measurement data and the one-dimensional electronic rotation holder (5) and other sensors of laser radar (7) Then strict time synchronization acquisition is extended Kalman filtering processing, the calculating of achievable laser point cloud.
9. according to a kind of mining area underground mining stope acceptance method described in claim 1 and 5, which is characterized in that multi-site laser point In cloud matching process, feature point extraction is carried out to each laser point cloud first, obtain local normal vector, local curvature and salient point, The characteristic points such as concave point;Then just registration is carried out to two clouds first with features such as local normal vector, local curvatures, by two o'clock cloud It is adjusted to the position of approximate overlapping;Smart registration is carried out with iteration closest approach algorithm again, obtains the relative translation between two clouds With spin matrix parameter;It is converted finally by coordinate, cloud is transformed under the reference frame of another cloud.
CN201910727030.5A 2019-08-07 2019-08-07 A kind of mining area underground mining stope acceptance method and device Pending CN110412616A (en)

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Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
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CN110992468A (en) * 2019-11-28 2020-04-10 贝壳技术有限公司 Point cloud data-based modeling method, device and equipment, and storage medium
CN111580129A (en) * 2020-04-07 2020-08-25 华南理工大学 Method for acquiring 3D laser point cloud based on single line laser radar
CN112558046A (en) * 2020-12-07 2021-03-26 福建(泉州)哈工大工程技术研究院 Offline acceptance check method with multi-line laser radar intelligent equipment
CN112894832A (en) * 2019-11-19 2021-06-04 广东博智林机器人有限公司 Three-dimensional modeling method, three-dimensional modeling device, electronic equipment and storage medium
CN112945137A (en) * 2021-02-01 2021-06-11 中国矿业大学(北京) Storage ore deposit scanning equipment based on single line laser radar and distancer
CN113362328A (en) * 2021-08-10 2021-09-07 深圳市信润富联数字科技有限公司 Point cloud picture generation method and device, electronic equipment and storage medium
CN113379732A (en) * 2021-07-07 2021-09-10 群周科技(上海)有限公司 Cable target detection method based on airborne laser radar

Cited By (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN112894832B (en) * 2019-11-19 2022-06-03 广东博智林机器人有限公司 Three-dimensional modeling method, three-dimensional modeling device, electronic equipment and storage medium
CN112894832A (en) * 2019-11-19 2021-06-04 广东博智林机器人有限公司 Three-dimensional modeling method, three-dimensional modeling device, electronic equipment and storage medium
CN110992468A (en) * 2019-11-28 2020-04-10 贝壳技术有限公司 Point cloud data-based modeling method, device and equipment, and storage medium
CN111580129A (en) * 2020-04-07 2020-08-25 华南理工大学 Method for acquiring 3D laser point cloud based on single line laser radar
CN111580129B (en) * 2020-04-07 2022-05-24 华南理工大学 Method for acquiring 3D laser point cloud based on single line laser radar
CN112558046A (en) * 2020-12-07 2021-03-26 福建(泉州)哈工大工程技术研究院 Offline acceptance check method with multi-line laser radar intelligent equipment
CN112945137A (en) * 2021-02-01 2021-06-11 中国矿业大学(北京) Storage ore deposit scanning equipment based on single line laser radar and distancer
CN113379732A (en) * 2021-07-07 2021-09-10 群周科技(上海)有限公司 Cable target detection method based on airborne laser radar
CN113362328A (en) * 2021-08-10 2021-09-07 深圳市信润富联数字科技有限公司 Point cloud picture generation method and device, electronic equipment and storage medium

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