CN110293233B - Automatic machining method for thin-wall hemispherical shell - Google Patents

Automatic machining method for thin-wall hemispherical shell Download PDF

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Publication number
CN110293233B
CN110293233B CN201910692097.XA CN201910692097A CN110293233B CN 110293233 B CN110293233 B CN 110293233B CN 201910692097 A CN201910692097 A CN 201910692097A CN 110293233 B CN110293233 B CN 110293233B
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workpiece
processed
machining
thin
suction tool
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CN110293233A (en
Inventor
胡向波
蔡伟
陈杰
刘鑫
张斌
李睿
贾占磊
冯伟
杨攀
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Institute of Materials of CAEP
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Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23BTURNING; BORING
    • B23B1/00Methods for turning or working essentially requiring the use of turning-machines; Use of auxiliary equipment in connection with such methods
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23QDETAILS, COMPONENTS, OR ACCESSORIES FOR MACHINE TOOLS, e.g. ARRANGEMENTS FOR COPYING OR CONTROLLING; MACHINE TOOLS IN GENERAL CHARACTERISED BY THE CONSTRUCTION OF PARTICULAR DETAILS OR COMPONENTS; COMBINATIONS OR ASSOCIATIONS OF METAL-WORKING MACHINES, NOT DIRECTED TO A PARTICULAR RESULT
    • B23Q3/00Devices holding, supporting, or positioning work or tools, of a kind normally removable from the machine
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23QDETAILS, COMPONENTS, OR ACCESSORIES FOR MACHINE TOOLS, e.g. ARRANGEMENTS FOR COPYING OR CONTROLLING; MACHINE TOOLS IN GENERAL CHARACTERISED BY THE CONSTRUCTION OF PARTICULAR DETAILS OR COMPONENTS; COMBINATIONS OR ASSOCIATIONS OF METAL-WORKING MACHINES, NOT DIRECTED TO A PARTICULAR RESULT
    • B23Q2703/00Work clamping
    • B23Q2703/02Work clamping means
    • B23Q2703/04Work clamping means using fluid means or a vacuum
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23QDETAILS, COMPONENTS, OR ACCESSORIES FOR MACHINE TOOLS, e.g. ARRANGEMENTS FOR COPYING OR CONTROLLING; MACHINE TOOLS IN GENERAL CHARACTERISED BY THE CONSTRUCTION OF PARTICULAR DETAILS OR COMPONENTS; COMBINATIONS OR ASSOCIATIONS OF METAL-WORKING MACHINES, NOT DIRECTED TO A PARTICULAR RESULT
    • B23Q2703/00Work clamping
    • B23Q2703/02Work clamping means
    • B23Q2703/10Devices for clamping workpieces of a particular form or made from a particular material

Abstract

The invention discloses an automatic processing method of a thin-wall hemispherical shell, belonging to the technical field of automatic machining, and the method specifically comprises the following steps: (1) taking a vacuum suction tool, assembling and connecting the vacuum suction tool to a vacuum air extractor and enabling a vacuum cavity of the vacuum suction tool to form negative pressure; (2) adsorbing a workpiece to be processed on a vacuum suction tool; (3) in the processing process of a workpiece to be processed, performing radial feed and axial feed intermittently; (4) finishing the processing of the workpiece to be processed; through ingenious design feed mode, the chip breaking problem in the plastic material machining process is effectively improved, the chip winding condition of a cutter is improved, manual intervention in the middle of machining is avoided, and effective guarantee is provided for automatic machining.

Description

Automatic machining method for thin-wall hemispherical shell
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of automatic machining, and particularly relates to an automatic machining method for a thin-wall hemispherical shell.
Background
Thin-walled hemispherical shells are widely used in various industries, and turning is a widely adopted process method in order to ensure the dimensional accuracy of the thin-walled hemispherical shells. One of the difficulties in turning the thin-wall hemispherical shell is how to clamp a workpiece on a lathe spindle, which can ensure reliable positioning and fixation of the workpiece and avoid the influence of clamping force on the dimensional accuracy of the workpiece. The general clamping modes include chuck clamping, opening sleeve clamping, core expanding clamping and faceplate clamping. These clamping methods apply a large force to the workpiece and require the workpiece to have a corresponding locking and fixing position. The thin-wall hemispherical shell is easy to deform under stress, two surfaces of a workpiece are respectively a concave spherical surface and a convex spherical surface, the workpiece is not convenient to lock and fix, and the conventional clamping mode is not suitable for turning and clamping the thin-wall hemispherical shell.
With the development of manufacturing industry, higher requirements are put on the machining efficiency and precision. The automatic machining can reduce human participation, avoid interference of human factors to workpieces, and is an effective means for improving the machining efficiency and precision. Turning is a common processing means and is widely applied to the manufacturing industry, and the automatic application market prospect of turning is wide. In metal turning, the chip form is an important cutting index, and the chip form has a very important influence on the stability of the machining process. Unfavorable chip forms such as ribbon, agglomerate or flat spiral chips may prevent effective chip removal and scratch the machined surface. In the cutting process, continuous cutting scraps are wound on a workpiece or a cutter, the machined surface roughness of the workpiece is reduced, the production efficiency is reduced, the service life of the cutter is shortened, and even the safety of workers is damaged. Therefore, the chip control is needed in the machining process, the chip control has the primary task of solving the chip breaking problem, and therefore, the reasonable chip breaking method is very important.
In the turning process, the cutting form is different under the influence of materials, tools, cutting parameters and the like. The material with better plasticity has longer chips and is difficult to break, the chips become longer and longer along with the accumulation of cutting amount, and the quality of the workpiece is affected if the chips are not removed in time. Therefore, a person is required to manually remove the workpiece with tweezers during the machining process. The automatic machining needs manual intervention as little as possible, and turning chip breaking is a problem which needs to be solved urgently by the automatic machining. Experiments and researches are generally carried out at home and abroad from the following three aspects:
1) cutting and deforming by adopting a cutting deformation method and an additional deformation method;
2) mechanical, electric, hydraulic and other chip breaking devices are adopted to break chips;
3) the chip breaking mechanism is deeply researched, and a new chip breaking method is searched.
The processing method can effectively solve the problem of common materials, but has poor chip breaking effect on materials with good plasticity, and influences the stability of the automatic turning process.
Therefore, two key problems of clamping and chip breaking of the thin-wall hemispherical shell piece need to be solved urgently in the machining process of the thin-wall hemispherical shell piece.
Disclosure of Invention
In view of the above, in order to solve the above problems in the prior art, the present invention aims to provide an automated thin-wall hemispherical shell machining method to improve the machining quality and the machining efficiency of the thin-wall hemispherical shell by improving the workpiece clamping and turning and chip breaking modes of the thin-wall hemispherical shell.
The technical scheme adopted by the invention is as follows: an automatic processing method of a thin-wall hemispherical shell piece specifically comprises the following steps:
(1) taking a vacuum suction tool, assembling and connecting the vacuum suction tool to a vacuum air extractor and enabling a vacuum cavity of the vacuum suction tool to form negative pressure;
(2) adsorbing a workpiece to be processed on a vacuum suction tool;
(3) in the processing process of a workpiece to be processed, performing radial feed and axial feed intermittently;
(4) and finishing the processing of the workpiece to be processed.
Further, the step (3) comprises the steps of:
1) starting feed machining from the arc ball top of a workpiece to be machined, and adopting an axial feed mode;
2) when the arc angle is processed to be 30-60 degrees, axial feed and radial feed are combined, and after the axial feed is fed for 3-5mm, the axial feed is switched to the radial feed for 3-5mm, so that the reciprocating circulation is realized;
3) when the arc angle is processed to be 60-90 degrees, a radial feed mode is adopted;
by adopting the feed mode, the chips can be automatically broken in the machining process without the help of external equipment.
Further, finish machining is performed between the step (3) and the step (4), and the finish machining is performed in an axial feed mode and is performed twice for machining and forming, so that the defect that the machined surface quality is poor after the axial feed and the radial feed are combined for machining is overcome.
Furthermore, when the workpiece to be machined is in an initial state, two surfaces of the workpiece to be machined are an inner concave surface and an outer convex surface respectively, and the outer convex surface can be matched with the vacuum suction tool, so that the workpiece to be machined can be well fixed.
Furthermore, the arc angle is an included angle between a connecting line and an axis, and the connecting line is a connecting line between a processing point on the workpiece to be processed and an arc center of the workpiece to be processed.
The invention has the beneficial effects that:
1. by adopting the automatic processing method of the thin-wall hemispherical shell, the process method adopts a mode of combining radial feed and axial feed according to the characteristics of the workpiece to be processed, and selects different feed modes under different arc angles according to the surface characteristics of the workpiece to be processed; according to the size of a workpiece, feeding parameters are adjusted according to different arc angle ranges, so that a good chip breaking effect can be obtained, no additional equipment is needed by adopting the process method, all operations are completed by numerical control programs of numerical control machines, stable chip breaking can be realized under the existing equipment conditions, and the cost is not additionally increased.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic view of a vacuum chuck in the automated thin-walled hemispherical shell machining method provided by the invention;
FIG. 2 is a schematic view of the turning process in the automatic machining method for the thin-wall hemispherical shell provided by the invention;
FIG. 3 is a schematic view of a feeding mode in the automatic processing method of the thin-wall hemispherical shell provided by the invention;
the notations in the figures are as follows:
a workpiece-1 to be processed, a vacuum suction tool-2, a vacuum cavity-3, a vacuumizing air nozzle-4, a cutter-5, chips-6 and a feed path-7.
Detailed Description
In order to make the objects, technical solutions and advantages of the embodiments of the present invention clearer, the technical solutions in the embodiments of the present invention will be clearly and completely described below with reference to the drawings in the embodiments of the present invention, and it is obvious that the described embodiments are some, but not all, embodiments of the present invention. The components of embodiments of the present invention generally described and illustrated in the figures herein may be arranged and designed in a wide variety of different configurations.
Thus, the following detailed description of the embodiments of the present invention, presented in the figures, is not intended to limit the scope of the invention, as claimed, but is merely representative of selected embodiments of the invention. All other embodiments, which can be derived by a person skilled in the art from the embodiments given herein without making any creative effort, shall fall within the protection scope of the present invention.
It should be noted that the embodiments and features of the embodiments may be combined with each other without conflict.
It should be noted that: like reference numbers and letters refer to like items in the following figures, and thus, once an item is defined in one figure, it need not be further defined and explained in subsequent figures.
In the description of the embodiments of the present invention, it should be noted that the indication of the orientation or the positional relationship is based on the orientation or the positional relationship shown in the drawings, or the orientation or the positional relationship which is usually placed when the product of the present invention is used, or the orientation or the positional relationship which is usually understood by those skilled in the art, or the orientation or the positional relationship which is usually placed when the product of the present invention is used, and is only for the convenience of describing the present invention and simplifying the description, but does not indicate or imply that the indicated device or element must have a specific orientation, be constructed in a specific orientation, and be operated, and therefore, cannot be understood as limiting the present invention. Furthermore, the terms "first" and "second" are used merely to distinguish one description from another, and are not to be construed as indicating or implying relative importance.
In the description of the embodiments of the present invention, it should be further noted that the terms "disposed" and "connected" are to be interpreted broadly, and may be, for example, fixedly connected, detachably connected, or integrally connected, unless explicitly stated or limited otherwise; may be directly connected or indirectly connected through an intermediate. For those skilled in the art, the drawings of the embodiments with specific meanings of the terms in the present invention can be understood in specific situations, and the technical solutions in the embodiments of the present invention are clearly and completely described. The components of embodiments of the present invention generally described and illustrated in the figures herein may be arranged and designed in a wide variety of different configurations.
Example 1
As shown in fig. 2, the requirements of automatic turning chip breaking are to ensure the physical and mechanical properties and surface quality of the workpiece after being processed into parts; the safety of an operator is ensured, and the machine tool is not damaged; the service life of the cutter 5 is ensured; the chip breaking is reliable and does not intertwine. The commonly used chip breaking method includes chip breaking of a chip breaking groove of a cutter, chip breaking of a mechanical device and chip breaking of energy (light energy, heat energy, electric energy and vibration).
The chip breaking of the chip breaking groove of the cutter needs to change the structure of the cutter, and other problems can be caused, such as the surface quality of a workpiece can be reduced; aiming at the material with better plasticity, the chip can not be effectively broken no matter how to change the structure at the edge of the cutter. Other chip breaking methods require complex structures and equipment, are poor in stability, have large influence on workpieces and have certain limitations.
The embodiment specifically provides an automatic processing method of a thin-wall hemispherical shell, and the basic principle is as follows: the chip breaking state in the turning process is not only influenced by the structure of the cutter, but also influenced by the cutting mode, and the stress state of the chips 6 is changed by changing the cutting feed mode, so that the stable chip breaking is realized.
The method comprises the following steps of taking a thin-wall hemispherical shell as a workpiece 1 to be processed, wherein two surfaces of the workpiece 1 to be processed are an inner concave surface and an outer convex surface respectively in an initial state of the workpiece 1 to be processed, and the outer convex surface can be matched with a vacuum suction tool 2 to well fix the workpiece 1 to be processed, and the method specifically comprises the following steps:
(1) as shown in fig. 1, a vacuum suction tool 2 is taken, the vacuum suction tool 2 is assembled and connected to a vacuum air extractor through a vacuum nozzle 4, and negative pressure is formed in a vacuum cavity 3 of the vacuum suction tool 2; because the molded surface of the workpiece 1 to be processed and the molded surface of the vacuum suction tool 2 can be matched with each other, negative pressure is formed under the action of vacuum pumping of the combined vacuum cavity 3, and atmospheric pressure is formed on the outer side surface of the vacuum cavity 3 under the action of atmospheric pressure, so that the workpiece 1 to be processed and the vacuum suction tool 2 are firmly fixed.
(2) Adsorbing the workpiece 1 to be processed on the vacuum suction tool 2, wherein the direction of the pressure force on the surface of the workpiece 1 to be processed is vertical to the surface of the workpiece 1 to be processed, and the pressure force is uniform and consistent in size; the workpiece 1 to be machined is uniformly stressed, large deformation caused by force action can be avoided, special clamping positions such as a clamping head and the like do not need to be reserved for clamping, and the clamping device is firmer and simpler and more convenient compared with a traditional clamping mode.
(3) In the processing process of the workpiece 1 to be processed, radial feed and axial feed are carried out intermittently; the method specifically comprises the following steps:
1) feeding machining is started from the top of an inner circular arc ball of a workpiece 1 to be machined, the diameter of the circular arc is smaller at the moment, and an axial feeding mode is adopted; in the machining process, the length of each circle of chips is small, the curling curvature of the chips is small, the chips 6 are easy to break, and after the chips 6 are accumulated for 3-5 circles, the chips 6 can be automatically broken under the action of the gravity and the inertia force of the chips.
2) When the arc angle is processed to be 30-60 degrees, the diameter of the arc is relatively large, the effect of the two feeding modes on cutting and chip breaking is not optimal, and the chip breaking is difficult, so that the axial feeding mode and the radial feeding mode are combined, and after the axial feeding mode is fed for 3-5mm, the axial feeding mode is converted into the radial feeding mode for 3-5mm, and the reciprocating circulation is carried out; after the chips 6 are ensured to be accumulated to a certain length, the mode is switched to another feeding mode, and the scrap iron can be cut off due to the change of the cutting angle of the cutter.
3) When the arc angle is between 60 degrees and 90 degrees, a radial feed mode is adopted, and in the machining process, chips 6 are naturally broken after being accumulated for 1-2 circles because the chips 6 are relatively flat.
In the actual processing process, the inner circular arc top of the workpiece 1 to be processed is taken as an original point, when the cutter 5 moves along the axis direction, according to the displacement distance L of the cutter 5 and the maximum circular arc radius R of the known workpiece 1 to be processed, the circular arc angle a corresponding to the position where the current cutter 5 is located can be calculated by applying a trigonometric function, and according to the circular arc angle a, the step 1) -the step 3), the feeding mode of the cutter 5 is adaptively adjusted by the numerical control machine, so that the chip breaking problem in the plastic material processing process is effectively improved by a smart feeding mode, the chip winding condition of the cutter is improved, the manual intervention in the middle of processing is avoided, and the automatic processing is effectively guaranteed.
Preferably, in the steps 1) to 3), during the feeding (axial feeding and radial feeding), the pause of the main shaft of the numerical control machine tool is properly increased, the stress state of the chips 6 is changed, the chip breaking effect is increased, and meanwhile, the chips 6 are conveniently washed away by the cooling liquid; for example: in the operation process of a main shaft of the numerical control machine tool, the continuous operation time of the main shaft is suspended for 0.1s every 2s, and the continuous operation time of the main shaft is flexibly set according to the whole processing time of the workpiece 1 to be processed.
The combination of axial feed and radial feed, the feed path 7 of which is shown in fig. 3, provides better chip breaking effect and higher metal removal efficiency during rough machining, but has a disadvantage in that the surface quality after machining is relatively poor compared to that of a single feed, and thus step (4) is performed.
(4) Performing a finishing operation
And the finish machining is carried out by adopting an axial feed mode and carrying out twice machining forming so as to overcome the defect of poor quality of the machined surface after the combined machining of the axial feed and the radial feed.
(5) The machining of the workpiece 1 to be machined is completed, the machining precision and the surface machining quality of the thin-wall hemispherical shell can be greatly improved, and the machining method is suitable for an automatic production line.
The invention is not limited to the above alternative embodiments, and any other various forms of products can be obtained by anyone in the light of the present invention, but any changes in shape or structure thereof, which fall within the scope of the present invention as defined in the claims, fall within the scope of the present invention.

Claims (4)

1. An automatic processing method of a thin-wall hemispherical shell is characterized by specifically comprising the following steps:
(1) taking a vacuum suction tool, assembling and connecting the vacuum suction tool to a vacuum air extractor and enabling a vacuum cavity of the vacuum suction tool to form negative pressure;
(2) adsorbing a workpiece to be processed on a vacuum suction tool;
(3) in the processing process of a workpiece to be processed, performing radial feed and axial feed intermittently;
(4) finishing the processing of the workpiece to be processed;
the step (3) comprises the following steps:
1) starting feed machining from the arc ball top of a workpiece to be machined, and adopting an axial feed mode;
2) when the arc angle is processed to be 30-60 degrees, axial feed and radial feed are combined, and after the axial feed is fed for 3-5mm, the axial feed is switched to the radial feed for 3-5mm, so that the reciprocating circulation is realized;
3) when the arc angle is between 60 degrees and 90 degrees, a radial feed mode is adopted.
2. The automated machining method for the thin-walled hemispherical shell according to claim 1, characterized by further comprising performing finish machining between the step (3) and the step (4), wherein the finish machining is performed in an axial feed mode and twice machining forming is performed.
3. The automated processing method of the thin-wall hemispherical shell as claimed in claim 1, wherein in the initial state of the workpiece to be processed, two surfaces of the workpiece to be processed are respectively an inner concave surface and an outer convex surface.
4. The automated processing method of a thin-walled hemispherical shell as claimed in claim 1, wherein the arc angle is an angle between a connecting line and an axis, and the connecting line is a connecting line between a processing point on the workpiece to be processed and an arc center of the workpiece to be processed.
CN201910692097.XA 2019-07-30 2019-07-30 Automatic machining method for thin-wall hemispherical shell Active CN110293233B (en)

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CN111203575B (en) * 2020-01-15 2020-11-03 中国工程物理研究院机械制造工艺研究所 Thin-wall part mirror image milling equipment and method based on follow-up non-contact support
CN112192252B (en) * 2020-09-01 2021-09-10 中国工程物理研究院材料研究所 Clamping and aligning device and method suitable for ultra-precise turning of shell type rotary parts
CN113695937B (en) * 2021-09-10 2022-06-21 哈尔滨工业大学 Vacuum adsorption clamp and adsorption method for clamping thin-wall spherical shell type micro component
CN113695646B (en) * 2021-09-10 2022-06-14 哈尔滨工业大学 Machining device for full-surface micro-pit structure of thin-wall spherical shell type micro component
CN113695936B (en) * 2021-09-10 2022-06-21 哈尔滨工业大学 Secondary clamping process method for thin-wall spherical shell type micro component

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US5395098A (en) * 1992-04-24 1995-03-07 Deutsche Aerospace Airbus Gmbh Apparatus for holding a large surface area thin work piece when shaping the work piece
CN104708020A (en) * 2015-03-12 2015-06-17 陕西理工学院 Radius rod spherical surface contour machining device
CN106001720A (en) * 2016-06-12 2016-10-12 西北工业大学 Thin-walled vane nine-point control variable-allowance milling method based on Newton interpolation
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