CN110293233A - A kind of thin-wall semi shells automatization processing method - Google Patents

A kind of thin-wall semi shells automatization processing method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN110293233A
CN110293233A CN201910692097.XA CN201910692097A CN110293233A CN 110293233 A CN110293233 A CN 110293233A CN 201910692097 A CN201910692097 A CN 201910692097A CN 110293233 A CN110293233 A CN 110293233A
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workpiece
processed
thin
feed
vacuum
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CN110293233B (en
Inventor
胡向波
蔡伟
陈杰
刘鑫
张斌
李睿
贾占磊
冯伟
杨攀
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Institute of Materials of CAEP
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Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23BTURNING; BORING
    • B23B1/00Methods for turning or working essentially requiring the use of turning-machines; Use of auxiliary equipment in connection with such methods
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23QDETAILS, COMPONENTS, OR ACCESSORIES FOR MACHINE TOOLS, e.g. ARRANGEMENTS FOR COPYING OR CONTROLLING; MACHINE TOOLS IN GENERAL CHARACTERISED BY THE CONSTRUCTION OF PARTICULAR DETAILS OR COMPONENTS; COMBINATIONS OR ASSOCIATIONS OF METAL-WORKING MACHINES, NOT DIRECTED TO A PARTICULAR RESULT
    • B23Q3/00Devices holding, supporting, or positioning work or tools, of a kind normally removable from the machine
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23QDETAILS, COMPONENTS, OR ACCESSORIES FOR MACHINE TOOLS, e.g. ARRANGEMENTS FOR COPYING OR CONTROLLING; MACHINE TOOLS IN GENERAL CHARACTERISED BY THE CONSTRUCTION OF PARTICULAR DETAILS OR COMPONENTS; COMBINATIONS OR ASSOCIATIONS OF METAL-WORKING MACHINES, NOT DIRECTED TO A PARTICULAR RESULT
    • B23Q2703/00Work clamping
    • B23Q2703/02Work clamping means
    • B23Q2703/04Work clamping means using fluid means or a vacuum
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23QDETAILS, COMPONENTS, OR ACCESSORIES FOR MACHINE TOOLS, e.g. ARRANGEMENTS FOR COPYING OR CONTROLLING; MACHINE TOOLS IN GENERAL CHARACTERISED BY THE CONSTRUCTION OF PARTICULAR DETAILS OR COMPONENTS; COMBINATIONS OR ASSOCIATIONS OF METAL-WORKING MACHINES, NOT DIRECTED TO A PARTICULAR RESULT
    • B23Q2703/00Work clamping
    • B23Q2703/02Work clamping means
    • B23Q2703/10Devices for clamping workpieces of a particular form or made from a particular material

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of thin-wall semi shells automatization processing methods, belong to the technical field of automated machine processing, this method specifically includes: (1) taking vacuum attracting instrument, by vacuum attracting instrument assembly connection to vacuum air pump and the vacuum chamber of vacuum attracting instrument is made to form negative pressure;(2) workpiece to be processed is adsorbed on vacuum attracting instrument;(3) in process, interval carries out radial feed and axial feed to workpiece to be processed;(4) processing to workpiece to be processed is completed;By cleverly designing tool path pattern, effectively improve the chip breaking problem in plastic material process, improve cutter and twines bits situation, avoid processing midway manual intervention, effective guarantee is provided for automation processing, this method design is rationally, easy to implement, thin-wall semi shells machining accuracy and quality can be greatly improved using it, and is suitable for automatic production line.

Description

A kind of thin-wall semi shells automatization processing method
Technical field
It is automatic in particular to a kind of thin-wall semi shells the invention belongs to the technical field of automated machine processing Change processing method.
Background technique
Thin-wall semi shells is widely used in all trades and professions, and in order to guarantee its dimensional accuracy, turnery processing is a kind of quilt The process being widely used.Thin-wall semi shells turning difficult point first is that how by clamping workpiece on lathe spindle, can Guarantee that workpiece reliable location is fixed, and is avoided that influence of the clamping power to workpiece size precision.General installation way has chuck Clamping, opening sleeve clamping, expansion core clamping, floral disc clamping.These installation way are applied with biggish power to workpiece, and need workpiece There is the position that is locked accordingly.Thin-wall semi shells stress is easily-deformable, and workpiece two sides is respectively concave spherical surface and convex spherical, inconvenience In being locked, conventional installation way is unsuitable for the turning clamping of thin-wall semi shell.
With manufacturing development, to machining efficiency and precision, more stringent requirements are proposed.Automation processing can The participation for reducing people, avoids human factor to the interference of workpiece, is the effective means for improving machining efficiency and precision.Turning It processes as a kind of common manufacturing process, is widely used in manufacturing industry, the automation application wide market of turnery processing. During metal turning, chip formation is an important machining index, stability of the chip formation to process Play very important influence.Unfavorable chip formation is for example band-like, bulk or flat wound shape chip may hinder Chip effectively removes, and scrapes machined surface.During the cutting process, continuously chip is wrapped on workpiece or cutter, Workpiece machined surface roughness can be reduced, reduce production efficiency, shorten cutter life, or even endanger the peace of staff Entirely.Therefore, it needs to control chip in process, the top priority of chip control is exactly to solve the problems, such as chip breaking, institute To take reasonable chip breaking method extremely important.
In turning process, influenced by material, cutter, cutting parameter etc., cutting comes in every shape.The preferable material chip of plasticity It is longer, and be difficult to fracture, it, can be increasingly longer with the accumulation of cutting output, if removal will affect the quality of workpiece not in time.Cause This, needs people to remove manually using tweezers in process.Automation processing needs manual intervention few as far as possible, and turning chip breaking is Automation processing urgent problem.Experiment and research is generally carried out in terms of following three both at home and abroad:
1) cutting deformation and additional deformation method chip breaking are used;
2) use the chip breaking devices such as mechanical, electric power, hydraulic with chip breaking;
3) Chip-Breaking Mechanism is furtherd investigate, new chip breaking method is found.
Above-mentioned processing method can be solved effectively for general material, but not for the preferable material chip breaking effect of plasticity It is good, influence the stability for automating turning process.
Therefore, for the process of thin-wall semi shells, it would be highly desirable to solve two critical issues of its clamping and chip breaking.
Summary of the invention
In consideration of it, in order to solve the above problems existing in the present technology, the purpose of the present invention is to provide a kind of thin-walleds half Spherical shell part automatization processing method is improved in a manner of reaching through clamping workpiece to thin-wall semi shells and turning chip breaking, To improve to the processing quality of thin-wall semi shells and the purpose of processing efficiency.
The technical scheme adopted by the invention is as follows: a kind of thin-wall semi shells automatization processing method, this method are specifically wrapped It includes:
(1) vacuum attracting instrument is taken, by vacuum attracting instrument assembly connection to vacuum air pump and forms the vacuum chamber of vacuum attracting instrument Negative pressure;
(2) workpiece to be processed is adsorbed on vacuum attracting instrument;
(3) in process, interval carries out radial feed and axial feed to workpiece to be processed;
(4) processing to workpiece to be processed is completed.
Further, the step (3) includes the following steps:
1) beginning feed processing is opened from the arc ball of workpiece to be processed, by the way of axial feed;
2) it when being worked into arc angle is between 30 ° -60 °, is combined with axial feed and radial feed, when axial direction is walked After knife feeds 3-5mm, it is transformed into radial feed feeding 3-5mm, so as to circulate back and forth;
3) when being worked into arc angle is between 60 ° -90 °, by the way of radial feed;
Using above-mentioned tool path pattern, it can be achieved that in process, chip meeting automatic chip breaking does not need to set by the external world It is standby.
Further, further include executing finishing between step (3) and step (4), execute finishing using it is axial into The mode of knife is simultaneously shaped twice, after overcoming axial feed and radial feed to combine processing, finished surface matter Measure poor defect.
Further, in the initial state, the two sides of workpiece to be processed is respectively inner concave and outer to the workpiece to be processed Convex surface, arcuate surface can cooperate vacuum attracting instrument, enable the good fixation of workpiece to be processed.
Further, angle of the arc angle between line of centres and axis, the line of centres are on workpiece to be processed Processing stand and workpiece to be processed arc core between line.
The invention has the benefit that
1. using thin-wall semi shells automatization processing method provided by the present invention, the process is according to work to be processed The mode that the characteristics of part takes radial feed and axial feed to combine, according to the surface features for workpieces processing in different circles Under arc angle, different tool path patterns is selected;According to workpiece size, parameter is fed according to different arc angle range adjustment, Preferable chip breaking effect can be obtained, additional equipment is not needed using this process, all operations are by numerical control machine The numerical control program of bed is completed, and can be realized as stablizing chip breaking under existing appointed condition, not the additional increase to cost is caused.
Detailed description of the invention
Fig. 1 is the clamping schematic diagram of vacuum attracting instrument in thin-wall semi shells automatization processing method provided by the invention;
Fig. 2 is the process schematic of turning in thin-wall semi shells automatization processing method provided by the invention;
Fig. 3 is tool path pattern schematic diagram in thin-wall semi shells automatization processing method provided by the invention;
Mark in attached drawing is as follows:
Workpiece to be processed -1, vacuum attracting instrument -2, vacuum chamber -3 vacuumize gas nozzle -4, cutter -5, chip -6, feed path - 7。
Specific embodiment
In order to make the object, technical scheme and advantages of the embodiment of the invention clearer, below in conjunction with the embodiment of the present invention In attached drawing, technical scheme in the embodiment of the invention is clearly and completely described, it is clear that described embodiment is A part of the embodiment of the present invention, instead of all the embodiments.The present invention being usually described and illustrated herein in the accompanying drawings is implemented The component of example can be arranged and be designed with a variety of different configurations.
Therefore, the detailed description of the embodiment of the present invention provided in the accompanying drawings is not intended to limit below claimed The scope of the present invention, but be merely representative of selected embodiment of the invention.Based on the embodiments of the present invention, this field is common Technical staff's every other embodiment obtained without creative efforts belongs to the model that the present invention protects It encloses.
It should be noted that in the absence of conflict, the feature in embodiment and embodiment in the present invention can phase Mutually combination.
It should also be noted that similar label and letter indicate similar terms in following attached drawing, therefore, once a certain Xiang Yi It is defined in a attached drawing, does not then need that it is further defined and explained in subsequent attached drawing.
In the description of the embodiment of the present invention, it should be noted that indicating position or positional relationship is based on shown in attached drawings The orientation or positional relationship invention product using when the orientation or positional relationship usually put or this field Orientation or positional relationship that technical staff usually understands or the invention product using when the orientation usually put or position close System, is merely for convenience of description of the present invention and simplification of the description, rather than the device or element of indication or suggestion meaning must have Specific orientation is constructed and operated in a specific orientation, therefore is not considered as limiting the invention.In addition, term " the One ", " second " is only used for distinguishing description, is not understood to indicate or imply relative importance.
In the description of the embodiment of the present invention, it is also necessary to which explanation is unless specifically defined or limited otherwise, term " setting ", " connection " shall be understood in a broad sense, for example, it may be being fixedly connected, may be a detachable connection, or integrally connect It connects;It can be and be directly connected to, can also be indirectly connected with by intermediary.For the ordinary skill in the art, may be used The attached drawing in the concrete meaning type embodiment of above-mentioned term in the present invention is understood with concrete condition, in the embodiment of the present invention Technical solution is clearly and completely described, it is clear that described embodiments are some of the embodiments of the present invention, rather than complete The embodiment in portion.The component of embodiments of the present invention, which are generally described and illustrated herein in the accompanying drawings can be with a variety of different configurations To arrange and design.
Embodiment 1
As shown in Fig. 2, the requirement of automation turning chip breaking is to ensure that work pieces process at the physics after part, mechanical performance And surface quality;The safety for guaranteeing operator, does not damage lathe;Guarantee the service life of cutter 5;Chip breaking is reliable, does not twine mutually Around.Commonly the useful knife tool chip breaker chip breaking of chip breaking method, mechanical device chip breaking, energy (luminous energy, thermal energy, electric energy, vibration) are disconnected Bits.
Knife tool chip breaker chip breaking needs to change cutter structure, can bring other problems, can such as reduce workpiece surface quality;Needle To the preferable material of plasticity, structure all cannot effective chip breaking at change cutting edge roundness anyway.What other chip breaking methods needed Structure and the device is complicated, stability is poor, is affected to workpiece, also there is certain limitation.
A kind of thin-wall semi shells automatization processing method, basic principle are as follows: vehicle are specifically provided in the present embodiment Chip breaking state is not only influenced by cutter structure during cutting, and also will receive the influence of cutting way, cuts feed by changing Mode is realized to change the stress of chip 6 and stablizes chip breaking.
Using thin-wall semi shells as workpiece to be processed 1, the workpiece to be processed 1 in the initial state, workpiece to be processed 1 Two sides is respectively inner concave and arcuate surface, and arcuate surface can cooperate vacuum attracting instrument 2, enables the good fixation of workpiece to be processed 1, should Method specifically includes:
(1) as shown in Figure 1, taking vacuum attracting instrument 2, by vacuum attracting instrument 2 by vacuumizing 4 assembly connection of gas nozzle to vacuum suction Machine, and make the vacuum chamber 3 of vacuum attracting instrument 2 is interior to form negative pressure;Due to the type face of workpiece to be processed 1 and the type face energy of vacuum attracting instrument 2 It is enough to cooperate, negative pressure is formed under the action of vacuumizing in conjunction with vacuum chamber 3, it, can be in 3 outside of vacuum chamber by atmospheric pressure effect Surface forms atmospheric pressure, so that workpiece to be processed 1 and vacuum attracting instrument 2 are fixedly secured.
(2) workpiece to be processed 1 is adsorbed on vacuum attracting instrument 2, at this point, the side of the surface pressure of workpiece to be processed 1 To the surface perpendicular to workpiece to be processed 1, and it is uniform in size consistent;1 uniform force of workpiece to be processed, will not be because of the effect of power Biggish deformation is generated, clamping does not need to reserve special clamping position, such as collet yet, relative to traditional clamping side Formula, it is stronger, it is also easier.
(3) in process, interval carries out radial feed and axial feed to workpiece to be processed 1;Specifically include following step It is rapid:
1) feed is processed since the Inner arc top dome of workpiece to be processed 1, and arc diameter is smaller at this time, using axial feed Mode;In this process, the length of chip of every circle is smaller, and chip curling curvature is smaller, and chip 6 is easier to fracture, and cuts After 6 accumulation 3-5 circle of bits, acted on by chip gravity, inertia force, chip 6 can fracture automatically.
2) when being worked into arc angle is between 30 ° -60 °, arc diameter is relatively large at this time, two kinds of feed modes pair The effect for cutting chip breaking is all not up to best, and chip breaking is more difficult, therefore in such a way that axial feed and radial feed combine, After axial feed feeds 3-5mm, it is transformed into radial feed feeding 3-5mm, so as to circulate back and forth;Ensure that chip 6 runs up to one After measured length, it is switched to another feed mode, since the variation of Tool in Cutting angle can cut off iron filings.
3) when being worked into arc angle is between 60 ° -90 °, by the way of radial feed, in this process, by It is more flat in chip 6, it, will natural chip breaking after chip 6 runs up to 1-2 circle.
In above-mentioned steps, angle of the arc angle between line of centres and axis, the line of centres is work to be processed Line between processing stand on part 1 and the arc core of workpiece to be processed 1.In the actual processing process, in workpiece to be processed 1 Circular arc top dome is as origin, when cutter 5 is moved along axis direction, according to the shift length L of cutter 5, in conjunction with known to be added The maximum arc radius R of work workpiece 1 can calculate current its corresponding arc chord angle of 5 present position of cutter with trigonometric function A is spent, according to arc angle a combination step 1)-step 3), adaptability is carried out by tool path pattern of the numerically-controlled machine tool to cutter 5 Adjustment effectively improves the chip breaking problem in plastic material process by cleverly tool path pattern, improves cutter and twines bits Situation avoids processing midway manual intervention, provides effective guarantee for automation processing.
Preferably, in this step 1) -3) in, during feed (axial feed and radial feed), suitably increase numerical control The main shaft of lathe suspends, and changes the stress of chip 6, increases chip breaking effect, while being washed away by coolant liquid convenient for chip 6;Example Such as: in the process of running, every continuous operation 2s suspends 0.1s to the main shaft of numerically-controlled machine tool, and the continuous operating time of main shaft should be according to this The overall processing time of workpiece to be processed 1 carries out flexible setting.
In such a way that axial feed and radial feed combine, feed path 7 in roughing as shown in figure 3, have There are preferable chip breaking effect and higher metal removal efficiency, its shortcoming is that the surface quality after processing compares single feed It is relatively poor for mode, therefore, step (4) can be executed.
(4) finishing is executed
It executes finishing to be shaped using axial feed by the way of and twice, to overcome axial feed and radially walk Knife combines the poor defect of its machined surface quality after processing.
(5) processing to workpiece to be processed 1 is completed, the machining accuracy and surface processing of thin-wall semi shells are greatly improved Quality, and it is suitable for automatic production line.
The present invention is not limited to above-mentioned optional embodiment, anyone can show that other are various under the inspiration of the present invention The product of form, however, make any variation in its shape or structure, it is all to fall into the claims in the present invention confining spectrum Technical solution, be within the scope of the present invention.

Claims (5)

1. a kind of thin-wall semi shells automatization processing method, which is characterized in that this method specifically includes:
(1) vacuum attracting instrument is taken, by vacuum attracting instrument assembly connection to vacuum air pump and the vacuum chamber of vacuum attracting instrument is made to form negative pressure;
(2) workpiece to be processed is adsorbed on vacuum attracting instrument;
(3) in process, interval carries out radial feed and axial feed to workpiece to be processed;
(4) processing to workpiece to be processed is completed.
2. thin-wall semi shells automatization processing method according to claim 1, which is characterized in that step (3) packet Include following steps:
1) beginning feed processing is opened from the arc ball of workpiece to be processed, by the way of axial feed;
2) when be worked into arc angle be 30 ° -60 ° between when, combined with axial feed and radial feed, when axial feed into After 3-5mm, it is transformed into radial feed feeding 3-5mm, so as to circulate back and forth;
3) when being worked into arc angle is between 60 ° -90 °, by the way of radial feed.
3. thin-wall semi shells automatization processing method according to claim 2, which is characterized in that in step (3) and step Suddenly further include executing finishing between (4), execute finishing and shaped by the way of axial feed and twice.
4. thin-wall semi shells automatization processing method according to claim 1, which is characterized in that the workpiece to be processed In the initial state, the two sides of workpiece to be processed is respectively inner concave and arcuate surface.
5. thin-wall semi shells automatization processing method according to claim 1, which is characterized in that the arc angle is Angle between line of centres and axis, the line of centres are between the arc core of the processing stand and workpiece to be processed on workpiece to be processed Line.
CN201910692097.XA 2019-07-30 2019-07-30 Automatic machining method for thin-wall hemispherical shell Active CN110293233B (en)

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Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN111203575A (en) * 2020-01-15 2020-05-29 中国工程物理研究院机械制造工艺研究所 Thin-wall part mirror image milling equipment and method based on follow-up non-contact support
CN112192252A (en) * 2020-09-01 2021-01-08 中国工程物理研究院材料研究所 Clamping and aligning device and method suitable for ultra-precise turning of shell type rotary parts
CN113695646A (en) * 2021-09-10 2021-11-26 哈尔滨工业大学 Machining device for full-surface micro-pit structure of thin-wall spherical shell type micro component
CN113695936A (en) * 2021-09-10 2021-11-26 哈尔滨工业大学 Secondary clamping process method for thin-wall spherical shell type micro component
CN113695937A (en) * 2021-09-10 2021-11-26 哈尔滨工业大学 Vacuum adsorption clamp and adsorption method for clamping thin-wall spherical shell type micro component

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CN108080684A (en) * 2017-12-18 2018-05-29 西安航天动力机械有限公司 A kind of ring-shaped piece abnormal shape circular arc outer mold surface numerical control milling method
CN109202375A (en) * 2017-12-07 2019-01-15 中国航空制造技术研究院 A kind of large size, thin walled hemispheroidal processing method of band muscle
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CN111203575A (en) * 2020-01-15 2020-05-29 中国工程物理研究院机械制造工艺研究所 Thin-wall part mirror image milling equipment and method based on follow-up non-contact support
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CN112192252B (en) * 2020-09-01 2021-09-10 中国工程物理研究院材料研究所 Clamping and aligning device and method suitable for ultra-precise turning of shell type rotary parts
CN113695646A (en) * 2021-09-10 2021-11-26 哈尔滨工业大学 Machining device for full-surface micro-pit structure of thin-wall spherical shell type micro component
CN113695936A (en) * 2021-09-10 2021-11-26 哈尔滨工业大学 Secondary clamping process method for thin-wall spherical shell type micro component
CN113695937A (en) * 2021-09-10 2021-11-26 哈尔滨工业大学 Vacuum adsorption clamp and adsorption method for clamping thin-wall spherical shell type micro component
CN113695646B (en) * 2021-09-10 2022-06-14 哈尔滨工业大学 Machining device for full-surface micro-pit structure of thin-wall spherical shell type micro component
CN113695936B (en) * 2021-09-10 2022-06-21 哈尔滨工业大学 Secondary clamping process method for thin-wall spherical shell type micro component
CN113695937B (en) * 2021-09-10 2022-06-21 哈尔滨工业大学 Vacuum adsorption clamp and adsorption method for clamping thin-wall spherical shell type micro component

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