CN110218914B - High-strength wear-resistant cast aluminum-silicon alloy and casting method thereof - Google Patents

High-strength wear-resistant cast aluminum-silicon alloy and casting method thereof Download PDF

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CN110218914B
CN110218914B CN201910546706.0A CN201910546706A CN110218914B CN 110218914 B CN110218914 B CN 110218914B CN 201910546706 A CN201910546706 A CN 201910546706A CN 110218914 B CN110218914 B CN 110218914B
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aluminum
silicon alloy
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陈学文
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Guangdong Engineering Polytechnic
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C1/00Making alloys
    • C22C1/02Making alloys by melting
    • C22C1/026Alloys based on aluminium
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C1/00Making alloys
    • C22C1/02Making alloys by melting
    • C22C1/03Making alloys by melting using master alloys
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C1/00Making alloys
    • C22C1/06Making alloys with the use of special agents for refining or deoxidising
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C21/00Alloys based on aluminium
    • C22C21/02Alloys based on aluminium with silicon as the next major constituent
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22FCHANGING THE PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF NON-FERROUS METALS AND NON-FERROUS ALLOYS
    • C22F1/00Changing the physical structure of non-ferrous metals or alloys by heat treatment or by hot or cold working
    • C22F1/002Changing the physical structure of non-ferrous metals or alloys by heat treatment or by hot or cold working by rapid cooling or quenching; cooling agents used therefor
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22FCHANGING THE PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF NON-FERROUS METALS AND NON-FERROUS ALLOYS
    • C22F1/00Changing the physical structure of non-ferrous metals or alloys by heat treatment or by hot or cold working
    • C22F1/04Changing the physical structure of non-ferrous metals or alloys by heat treatment or by hot or cold working of aluminium or alloys based thereon
    • C22F1/043Changing the physical structure of non-ferrous metals or alloys by heat treatment or by hot or cold working of aluminium or alloys based thereon of alloys with silicon as the next major constituent

Abstract

The invention discloses a high-strength wear-resistant cast aluminum-silicon alloy and a casting method thereof. The cast aluminum-silicon alloy comprises the following components in percentage by mass: 12.5-14.5% of Si, 1.6-1.9% of Mg, 0.2-0.4% of Zr, 0.1-0.2% of Ta, 0.05-0.1% of Nb, 0.05-0.1% of Ru, less than or equal to 0.05% of single impurity element, less than or equal to 0.15% of total impurity elements and the balance of Al. Also discloses a casting method of the high-strength wear-resistant cast aluminum-silicon alloy. On the basis of optimizing main alloy elements of Si and Mg, the invention refines and modifies Fe-rich phase, eutectic Si phase and primary Si phase through microalloying treatment, and improves the strength, plasticity and wear resistance of the cast aluminum-silicon alloy. The cast aluminum-silicon alloy has high strength, good plasticity and excellent wear resistance.

Description

High-strength wear-resistant cast aluminum-silicon alloy and casting method thereof
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of metal materials, and particularly relates to a high-strength wear-resistant cast aluminum-silicon alloy and a casting method thereof.
Background
The cast aluminum-silicon alloy has high Si content, so that the cast aluminum-silicon alloy has excellent casting flowability, wear resistance and machining performance, good air tightness and heat cracking resistance and low thermal expansion coefficient. Therefore, the cast aluminum-silicon alloy is widely applied to aluminum alloy parts with high requirements on wear resistance and complex shapes and structures in the fields of automobiles, motorcycles, agricultural implements, 3C products, electric tools, sewing machines, elevators and the like, such as engine cylinder bodies, cylinder liners, pistons, brake blocks, belt wheels, gear pump bearings and the like. With the development of light weight and intellectualization of vehicles, mechanical equipment, electronic appliances and the like, cast aluminum-silicon alloy parts are continuously developed towards the directions of thinning, integration and the like, which requires higher strength and shaping of cast aluminum-silicon alloy. The existing cast aluminum-silicon alloy has the characteristics of excellent casting fluidity, wear resistance, machining performance and the like, but the problems of low strength and poor shaping are increasingly prominent, and the application of the cast aluminum-silicon alloy is greatly limited.
The reasons for the low strength and poor plasticity of the existing cast aluminum-silicon alloy include the following: firstly, the content of Fe in the cast aluminum-silicon alloy is high, Fe usually exists in a cast aluminum-silicon alloy matrix in the form of coarse acicular Al-Fe-Si series Fe-rich phase in the aluminum alloy, and the coarse acicular Fe-rich phase belongs to a hard and brittle intermetallic compound phase, can seriously crack the aluminum matrix and becomes a crack source and a crack propagation direction for the stress fracture of the cast aluminum-silicon alloy. And secondly, because the cast aluminum-silicon alloy has high Si content, the Si exists in the cast aluminum-silicon alloy together in the form of needle-shaped eutectic Si and coarse primary Si, and the needle-shaped eutectic Si and the coarse primary Si are hard brittle phases and can also seriously crack an aluminum matrix, so that the strength, the plasticity and the wear resistance of the cast aluminum-silicon alloy are reduced. Therefore, the existing cast aluminum-silicon alloy and the casting method thereof still need to be improved and developed.
Disclosure of Invention
In order to overcome the problems in the prior art, the invention aims to provide a high-strength wear-resistant cast aluminum-silicon alloy; the other purpose of the invention is to provide a casting method of the high-strength wear-resistant cast aluminum-silicon alloy. The high strength in the high-strength wear-resistant cast aluminum-silicon alloy means that the tensile strength of the aluminum-silicon alloy at room temperature is more than 400MPa, and the wear resistance means that the wear rate of the aluminum-silicon alloy is less than 0.2 multiplied by 10-6g/m。
The invention refines and modifies the rich Fe phase, the eutectic Si and the primary Si phase through microalloying treatment, and improves the strength, the plasticity and the wear resistance of the cast aluminum-silicon alloy.
In order to achieve the purpose, the technical scheme adopted by the invention is as follows:
the invention provides a high-strength wear-resistant cast aluminum-silicon alloy which comprises the following components in percentage by mass: 12.5 to 14.5 percent of Si, 1.6 to 1.9 percent of Mg, 0.2 to 0.4 percent of Zr, 0.1 to 0.2 percent of Ta, 0.05 to 0.1 percent of Nb, 0.05 to 0.1 percent of Ru, less than or equal to 0.05 percent of single impurity element, less than or equal to 0.15 percent of total impurity element and the balance of Al.
Further, the single content of the impurity element is less than or equal to 0.05 percent, which means that the content of each impurity element in the cast aluminum-silicon alloy is less than or equal to 0.05 percent; the total content of the impurity elements is less than or equal to 0.15 percent, which means that the total mass of all the impurity elements in the cast aluminum-silicon alloy is less than or equal to 0.15 percent. The impurity element means other inevitable elements than Al, Si, Mg, Zr, Ta, Nb, and Ru.
The action and the amount of each element in the cast aluminum-silicon alloy of the invention are further explained as follows:
the Si element can form an Al + Si eutectic liquid phase with Al in the cast aluminum-silicon alloy, so that the fluidity of the cast aluminum-silicon alloy is improved, and the wear resistance and the machining performance of the cast aluminum-silicon alloy can be improved. The higher the content of Si element, the better the fluidity, wear resistance and machining performance of the cast aluminum-silicon alloy, but the plasticity of the cast aluminum-silicon alloy is gradually reduced. The content of Si element is lower than 12.5%, the fluidity and the wear resistance of the cast aluminum-silicon alloy are insufficient, and the requirements of the casting process and the wear resistance of parts with complicated shapes and structures are difficult to meet. When the content of the Si element exceeds 14.5%, the plasticity of the cast aluminum-silicon alloy is remarkably reduced. Therefore, in order to ensure that the cast aluminum-silicon alloy has sufficient fluidity, wear resistance and plasticity, the content of the Si element is preferably 12.5-14.5%.
The Mg element has the solid solution strengthening function in casting the aluminum-silicon alloy, and can form Mg in casting the aluminum-silicon alloy2The Si strengthening phase further enhances the strength of the cast aluminum-silicon alloy. The higher the content of Mg element, the higher the strength of the cast aluminum-silicon alloy, but the plasticity of the cast aluminum-silicon alloy is gradually reduced. The content of Mg element is lower than 1.6 percent, and the strength of the cast aluminum-silicon alloy can not reach 400 MPa. And when the content of Mg element exceeds 1.9 percent, the plasticity of the cast aluminum-silicon alloy is obviously reduced. Therefore, in order to ensure sufficient strength and plasticity of the cast aluminum-silicon alloy, the content of the Mg element is preferably 1.6 to 1.9%.
Zr element mainly plays a role in refining alpha-Al crystal grains in casting aluminum-silicon alloy, improves the uniformity of structural components of the casting aluminum-silicon alloy, and improves the strength and plasticity of the casting aluminum-silicon alloy. The Zr element content is less than 0.2 percent, and the grain refining effect is not obvious. The higher the Zr element content, the better the grain refining effect, but also the production cost of casting the aluminum-silicon alloy is increased. By adding 0.2-0.4% of Zr element, alpha-Al crystal grains of the cast aluminum-silicon alloy can be refined from coarse dendrites into fine and uniform equiaxial crystals, the structural component uniformity of the cast aluminum-silicon alloy is improved, and the strength and the plasticity of the cast aluminum-silicon alloy are improved. Therefore, the Zr element content is preferably 0.2 to 0.4%.
The Ta element mainly plays a role in refining and modifying the Fe-rich phase in casting the aluminum-silicon alloy. Fe is an inevitable impurity element in the cast aluminum-silicon alloy, and generally exists in the form of a coarse needle-shaped Al-Fe-Si system Fe-rich phase in the cast aluminum-silicon alloy, and the coarse needle-shaped Fe-rich phase belongs to a brittle and hard intermetallic compound, can seriously cut an aluminum-silicon alloy matrix, becomes a crack source and a crack propagation direction of stress fracture of the cast aluminum-silicon alloy, and is an important reason for causing the existing cast aluminum-silicon alloy to have low strength and poor plasticity. After a large amount of experimental research, the inventor discovers that 0.1-0.2% of Ta element is added, and in the solidification process of the cast aluminum-silicon alloy, Ta can effectively inhibit and change the growth orientation of the Fe-rich phase, so that the Fe-rich phase is refined and modified into fine and uniform particles from coarse needles, thereby eliminating the influence of the strength and plasticity of the coarse needles on the cast aluminum-silicon alloy, and improving the strength and plasticity of the cast aluminum-silicon alloy. In addition, because the Fe-rich phase is a hard point intermetallic compound, when the Fe-rich phase is in a fine granular shape and is uniformly distributed on the aluminum-silicon alloy matrix, the wear resistance of the cast aluminum-silicon alloy can be further improved. The content of Ta element is less than 0.2%, the refining and modification effects on Fe-rich are not obvious, the effect cannot be achieved, and the production cost of casting aluminum-silicon alloy can be increased due to too high content of Ta element. The refining and modification effect of the Ta element and the production cost factor of casting the aluminum-silicon alloy are comprehensively considered, and the content of the Ta element is preferably 0.1-0.2%.
The Nb element plays a main role in refining and modifying the eutectic Si phase in casting the aluminum-silicon alloy. In the prior art, Na element or Sr element is usually adopted to refine and modify eutectic Si phase, but Na and Sr are easy to induce aluminum-silicon alloy liquid to absorb gas in the refining and modifying process. After a large number of experiments and researches, the inventor discovers that the Nb element has good refining and modification effects on the eutectic Si phase of the cast aluminum-silicon alloy, the effects of the Nb element are obviously better than those of the existing Na element and Sr element, and the problem of causing air suction of aluminum alloy liquid does not exist. When 0.05-0.1% of Nb element is added, the eutectic Si phase can be fully refined and modified, so that the needle-shaped eutectic Si phase is converted into small and uniform granular Si phase, the influence of the needle-shaped eutectic Si on the strength and plasticity of the cast aluminum-silicon alloy is eliminated, the strength and plasticity of the cast aluminum-silicon alloy are improved, and the wear resistance of the cast aluminum-silicon alloy is further improved. The content of Nb element is less than 0.05 percent, the refining and modification effects on eutectic Si phase are not obvious, the effect cannot be achieved, and the production cost of casting aluminum-silicon alloy can be increased due to too high content of Nb element. The refining and modification effect of the Nb element and the production cost factor of the cast aluminum-silicon alloy are comprehensively considered, and the content of the Nb element is preferably 0.05-0.1%.
The Ru element mainly plays a role in refining and modifying the primary Si phase in casting the aluminum-silicon alloy. The prior art generally adopts P element to refine the metamorphic primary Si phase. However, the P element is unstable in refining and modification effects on the primary Si phase, and is easily oxidized and burned to be lost. After a large number of experimental researches, the inventor finds that the Ru element has stable refining and modification effects on the primary Si phase and does not have the problem of loss caused by oxidation combustion. When 0.05-0.1% of Ru is added, the primary Si phase can be fully refined and modified, coarse and large blocky primary Si is converted into small and uniform granular Si phases, the influence of the coarse and large blocky primary Si on the strength and plasticity of the cast aluminum-silicon alloy is eliminated, and the strength, plasticity and wear resistance of the cast aluminum-silicon alloy are improved. The content of Ru element is less than 0.05 percent, the refining and modification effects on the primary Si phase are not obvious, the effect cannot be achieved, and the production cost of casting the aluminum-silicon alloy can be increased due to the fact that the content of Ru element is too high. The refining and modification effects of the Ru element and the production cost factor of casting the aluminum-silicon alloy are comprehensively considered, and the content of the Ru element is preferably 0.05-0.1%.
The invention also provides a casting method of the high-strength wear-resistant cast aluminum-silicon alloy, which sequentially comprises the following steps:
1) selecting aluminum ingots, crystallized silicon, magnesium ingots, Al-10Zr alloy, Al-10Ta alloy, Al-5Nb alloy and Al-5Ru alloy as aluminum-silicon alloy raw materials;
2) heating and melting an aluminum ingot, adding crystalline silicon accounting for 12.5-14.5 percent of the total mass of the aluminum-silicon alloy raw materials, magnesium ingot accounting for 1.6-1.9 percent of the total mass of the aluminum-silicon alloy raw materials, Al-10Zr alloy accounting for 2-4 percent of the total mass of the aluminum-silicon alloy raw materials, Al-5Ta alloy accounting for 2-4 percent of the total mass of the aluminum-silicon alloy raw materials, Al-5Nb alloy accounting for 1-2 percent of the total mass of the aluminum-silicon alloy raw materials and Al-5Ru alloy accounting for 1-2;
3) degassing and deslagging the aluminum-silicon alloy liquid, and standing after slagging off;
4) casting the aluminum-silicon alloy liquid subjected to degassing and deslagging treatment into aluminum-silicon alloy;
5) quenching the cast aluminum-silicon alloy, and carrying out solution treatment;
6) and carrying out aging treatment on the cast aluminum-silicon alloy after the solution treatment to obtain the cast aluminum-silicon alloy with high strength and wear resistance.
Preferably, in the step 1) of the casting method for casting the aluminum-silicon alloy, the purity of the aluminum ingot is more than or equal to 99.7 percent; more preferably, the purity of the aluminum ingot is 99.7%.
Preferably, in the step 1) of the casting method for casting the aluminum-silicon alloy, the purity of the crystalline silicon is more than or equal to 99.9 percent; more preferably, the purity of the crystalline silicon is 99.9%.
Preferably, in the step 1) of the casting method for casting the aluminum-silicon alloy, the purity of the magnesium ingot is more than or equal to 99.9 percent; more preferably, the purity of the magnesium ingot is 99.9%.
Preferably, in step 2) of the casting method for casting the aluminum-silicon alloy, the temperature for heating and melting the aluminum ingot is 720 to 760 ℃.
Preferably, the step 3) of the casting method for casting the aluminum-silicon alloy is specifically as follows: and blowing and refining the aluminum-silicon alloy liquid for 5-10 minutes by adopting protective gas and an aluminum alloy refining agent to perform degassing and deslagging treatment, and standing for 30-50 minutes after deslagging.
Preferably, in step 3) of the casting method for casting the aluminum-silicon alloy, the protective gas is selected from one or more of argon, helium, neon and nitrogen; further preferably, the protective gas is selected from argon or nitrogen.
Preferably, in step 3) of the casting method for casting the aluminum-silicon alloy, the purity of the protective gas is more than or equal to 99.95 percent; more preferably, the purity of the shielding gas is 99.95%.
Preferably, in step 3) of the casting method for casting the aluminum-silicon alloy, the amount of the aluminum alloy refining agent accounts for 0.3-0.5% of the total mass of the aluminum-silicon alloy raw materials.
Preferably, in the step 4) of the casting method for casting the aluminum-silicon alloy, the casting temperature is 680-700 ℃; the casting temperature is 150-250 ℃.
Preferably, the casting method for casting the aluminum-silicon alloy comprises the step 5) of heating the cast aluminum-silicon alloy to 430-450 ℃ and preserving the heat for 4-6 hours, and then putting the cast aluminum-silicon alloy into water at 70-90 ℃ for quenching.
Preferably, in the step 6) of the casting method for casting the aluminum-silicon alloy, the aging treatment is to heat the cast aluminum-silicon alloy to 160-170 ℃ and preserve the temperature for 6-8 hours; cooling after aging treatment to obtain the cast aluminum-silicon alloy with high strength and wear resistance.
The invention has the beneficial effects that:
on the basis of optimizing main alloy elements of Si and Mg, the invention refines and modifies Fe-rich phase, eutectic Si phase and primary Si phase through microalloying treatment, and improves the strength, plasticity and wear resistance of the cast aluminum-silicon alloy. The cast aluminum-silicon alloy has high strength, good plasticity and excellent wear resistance.
Specifically, compared with the prior art, the invention has the following advantages:
(1) on the basis of optimizing main alloy elements of Si and Mg, trace Zr, Ta, Nb and Ru elements are added to refine and modify alpha-Al crystal grains, Fe-rich phases, eutectic Si phases and primary Si phases, so that the strength, plasticity and wear resistance of the cast aluminum-silicon alloy are obviously improved.
(2) The cast aluminum-silicon alloy has room temperature tensile strength of more than 400MPa, elongation of more than 8 percent and wear rate of less than 0.2 multiplied by 10-6g/m, high strength, good plasticity and excellent wear resistance.
Detailed Description
The present invention will be described in further detail with reference to specific examples. The starting materials used in the examples are, unless otherwise specified, commercially available from conventional sources.
Example 1
The cast aluminum-silicon alloy of the embodiment comprises the following components in percentage by mass: 13.6 percent of Si, 1.8 percent of Mg, 0.3 percent of Zr, 0.15 percent of Ta, 0.08 percent of Nb, 0.06 percent of Ru, the balance of Al and inevitable impurity elements, wherein the content of a single impurity element is less than or equal to 0.05 percent, and the total content of the impurity elements is less than or equal to 0.15 percent.
The casting method for casting the aluminum-silicon alloy sequentially comprises the following steps of:
the first step is as follows: selecting 99.7% aluminum ingot, 99.9% crystalline silicon, 99.9% magnesium ingot, Al-10Zr alloy, Al-10Ta alloy, Al-5Nb alloy and Al-5Ru alloy as raw materials;
the second step is that: heating and melting an aluminum ingot at 740 ℃, adding 13.6 percent of crystalline silicon, 1.8 percent of magnesium ingot, 3 percent of Al-10Zr alloy, 3 percent of Al-5Ta alloy, 1.6 percent of Al-5Nb alloy and 1.2 percent of Al-5Ru alloy which account for the total weight of the raw materials, and stirring and melting the mixture into aluminum-silicon alloy liquid;
the third step: argon with the purity of 99.95 percent and an aluminum alloy refining agent accounting for 0.4 percent of the total weight of the raw materials are adopted to blow and refine the aluminum-silicon alloy liquid for 8 minutes to carry out degassing and deslagging treatment, and then the aluminum-silicon alloy liquid is kept still for 40 minutes after deslagging;
the fourth step: casting the aluminum-silicon alloy liquid into aluminum-silicon alloy under the conditions that the casting temperature is 690 ℃ and the casting temperature is 200 ℃;
the fifth step: heating the cast aluminum-silicon alloy to 440 ℃, preserving heat for 5 hours, then putting into water with the temperature of 80 ℃ for quenching, and carrying out solid solution treatment;
and a sixth step: heating the cast aluminum-silicon alloy to 165 ℃, preserving the heat for 7 hours, carrying out aging treatment, and cooling along with the furnace to obtain the cast aluminum-silicon alloy of the embodiment.
Example 2
The cast aluminum-silicon alloy comprises the following components in percentage by mass: 14.5 percent of Si, 1.6 percent of Mg, 0.4 percent of Zr, 0.1 percent of Ta, 0.1 percent of Nb, 0.05 percent of Ru, the balance of Al and inevitable impurity elements, wherein the content of a single impurity element is less than or equal to 0.05 percent, and the total content of the impurity elements is less than or equal to 0.15 percent.
The casting method for casting the aluminum-silicon alloy sequentially comprises the following steps of:
the first step is as follows: selecting 99.7% aluminum ingot, 99.9% crystalline silicon, 99.9% magnesium ingot, Al-10Zr alloy, Al-10Ta alloy, Al-5Nb alloy and Al-5Ru alloy as raw materials;
the second step is that: heating and melting an aluminum ingot at 760 ℃, adding 14.5 percent of crystalline silicon, 1.6 percent of magnesium ingot, 4 percent of Al-10Zr alloy, 2 percent of Al-5Ta alloy, 2 percent of Al-5Nb alloy and 1 percent of Al-5Ru alloy which account for the total weight of the raw materials, and stirring and melting the mixture to obtain aluminum-silicon alloy liquid;
the third step: blowing and refining the aluminum-silicon alloy liquid for 10 minutes by adopting nitrogen with the purity of 99.95 percent and an aluminum alloy refining agent accounting for 0.3 percent of the total weight of the raw materials to carry out degassing and deslagging treatment, and standing for 30 minutes after deslagging;
the fourth step: casting the aluminum-silicon alloy liquid into aluminum-silicon alloy under the conditions that the casting temperature is 700 ℃ and the casting temperature is 150 ℃;
the fifth step: heating the cast aluminum-silicon alloy to 430 ℃, preserving heat for 6 hours, then putting in water with the temperature of 70 ℃ for quenching, and carrying out solid solution treatment;
and a sixth step: heating the cast aluminum-silicon alloy to 170 ℃, preserving the heat for 6 hours, carrying out aging treatment, and cooling along with the furnace to obtain the cast aluminum-silicon alloy of the embodiment.
Example 3
The cast aluminum-silicon alloy of the embodiment comprises the following components in percentage by mass: 12.5 percent of Si, 1.9 percent of Mg, 0.2 percent of Zr, 0.2 percent of Ta, 0.05 percent of Nb, 0.1 percent of Ru, and the balance of Al and inevitable impurity elements, wherein the content of a single impurity element is less than or equal to 0.05 percent, and the total content of the impurity elements is less than or equal to 0.15 percent.
The casting method for casting the aluminum-silicon alloy sequentially comprises the following steps of:
the first step is as follows: selecting 99.7% aluminum ingot, 99.9% crystalline silicon, 99.9% magnesium ingot, Al-10Zr alloy, Al-10Ta alloy, Al-5Nb alloy and Al-5Ru alloy as raw materials;
the second step is that: heating and melting an aluminum ingot at 720 ℃, adding 12.5 percent of crystalline silicon, 1.9 percent of magnesium ingot, 2 percent of Al-10Zr alloy, 4 percent of Al-5Ta alloy, 1 percent of Al-5Nb alloy and 2 percent of Al-5Ru alloy which account for the total weight of the raw materials, and stirring and melting the mixture into aluminum-silicon alloy liquid;
the third step: argon with the purity of 99.95 percent and an aluminum alloy refining agent accounting for 0.5 percent of the total weight of the raw materials are adopted to blow and refine the aluminum-silicon alloy liquid for 5 minutes to carry out degassing and deslagging treatment, and then the aluminum-silicon alloy liquid is kept still for 50 minutes after deslagging;
the fourth step: casting the aluminum-silicon alloy liquid into aluminum-silicon alloy under the conditions that the casting temperature is 680 ℃ and the casting temperature is 250 ℃;
the fifth step: heating the cast aluminum-silicon alloy to 450 ℃, preserving heat for 4 hours, then putting the cast aluminum-silicon alloy into water with the temperature of 90 ℃ for quenching, and carrying out solid solution treatment;
and a sixth step: heating the cast aluminum-silicon alloy to 160 ℃, preserving heat for 8 hours, carrying out aging treatment, and cooling along with the furnace to obtain the cast aluminum-silicon alloy of the embodiment.
Comparative example 1
The cast aluminum-silicon alloy of the embodiment comprises the following components in percentage by mass: 13.6 percent of Si, 1.8 percent of Mg, 0.3 percent of Zr, and the balance of Al and inevitable impurity elements, wherein the content of single impurity element is less than or equal to 0.05 percent, and the total content of impurity elements is less than or equal to 0.15 percent.
The casting method for casting the aluminum-silicon alloy sequentially comprises the following steps of:
the first step is as follows: selecting an aluminum ingot with the purity of 99.7 percent, crystalline silicon with the purity of 99.9 percent, a magnesium ingot with the purity of 99.9 percent and Al-10Zr alloy as raw materials;
the second step is that: heating and melting an aluminum ingot at 740 ℃, adding 13.6 percent of crystalline silicon, 1.8 percent of magnesium ingot and 3 percent of Al-10Zr alloy which account for the total weight of the raw materials, and stirring and melting the mixture into aluminum-silicon alloy liquid;
the third step: argon with the purity of 99.95 percent and an aluminum alloy refining agent accounting for 0.4 percent of the total weight of the raw materials are adopted to blow and refine the aluminum-silicon alloy liquid for 8 minutes to carry out degassing and deslagging treatment, and then the aluminum-silicon alloy liquid is kept still for 40 minutes after deslagging;
the fourth step: casting the aluminum-silicon alloy liquid into aluminum-silicon alloy under the conditions that the casting temperature is 690 ℃ and the casting temperature is 200 ℃;
the fifth step: heating the cast aluminum-silicon alloy to 440 ℃, preserving heat for 5 hours, then putting into water with the temperature of 80 ℃ for quenching, and carrying out solid solution treatment;
and a sixth step: heating the cast aluminum-silicon alloy to 165 ℃, preserving the heat for 7 hours, carrying out aging treatment, and cooling along with the furnace to obtain the cast aluminum-silicon alloy of the embodiment.
Comparative example 2
The cast aluminum-silicon alloy of the embodiment comprises the following components in percentage by mass: 14.5 percent of Si, 1.6 percent of Mg, 0.4 percent of Zr, 0.1 percent of Ta, and the balance of Al and inevitable impurity elements, wherein the content of single impurity element is less than or equal to 0.05 percent, and the total content of impurity elements is less than or equal to 0.15 percent.
The casting method for casting the aluminum-silicon alloy sequentially comprises the following steps of:
the first step is as follows: selecting 99.7% aluminum ingot, 99.9% crystalline silicon, 99.9% magnesium ingot, Al-10Zr alloy and Al-10Ta alloy as raw materials;
the second step is that: heating and melting an aluminum ingot at 760 ℃, adding 14.5 percent of crystalline silicon, 1.6 percent of magnesium ingot, 4 percent of Al-10Zr alloy and 2 percent of Al-5Ta alloy which account for the total weight of raw materials, and stirring and melting the mixture into aluminum-silicon alloy liquid;
the third step: blowing and refining the aluminum-silicon alloy liquid for 10 minutes by adopting nitrogen with the purity of 99.95 percent and an aluminum alloy refining agent accounting for 0.3 percent of the total weight of the raw materials to carry out degassing and deslagging treatment, and standing for 30 minutes after deslagging;
the fourth step: casting the aluminum-silicon alloy liquid into aluminum-silicon alloy under the conditions that the casting temperature is 700 ℃ and the casting temperature is 150 ℃;
the fifth step: heating the cast aluminum-silicon alloy to 430 ℃, preserving heat for 6 hours, then putting in water with the temperature of 70 ℃ for quenching, and carrying out solid solution treatment;
and a sixth step: heating the cast aluminum-silicon alloy to 170 ℃, preserving the heat for 6 hours, carrying out aging treatment, and cooling along with the furnace to obtain the cast aluminum-silicon alloy of the embodiment.
Comparative example 3
The cast aluminum-silicon alloy of the embodiment comprises the following components in percentage by mass: 12.5 percent of Si, 1.9 percent of Mg, 0.2 percent of Zr, 0.1 percent of Ru, and the balance of Al and inevitable impurity elements, wherein the content of single impurity element is less than or equal to 0.05 percent, and the total content of impurity elements is less than or equal to 0.15 percent.
The casting method for casting the aluminum-silicon alloy sequentially comprises the following steps of:
the first step is as follows: selecting 99.7% aluminum ingot, 99.9% crystalline silicon, 99.9% magnesium ingot, Al-10Zr alloy and Al-5Ru alloy as raw materials;
the second step is that: heating and melting an aluminum ingot at 720 ℃, adding 12.5 percent of crystalline silicon, 1.9 percent of magnesium ingot, 2 percent of Al-10Zr alloy and 2 percent of Al-5Ru alloy which account for the total weight of raw materials, and stirring and melting the mixture into aluminum-silicon alloy liquid;
the third step: argon with the purity of 99.95 percent and an aluminum alloy refining agent accounting for 0.5 percent of the total weight of the raw materials are adopted to blow and refine the aluminum-silicon alloy liquid for 5 minutes to carry out degassing and deslagging treatment, and then the aluminum-silicon alloy liquid is kept still for 50 minutes after deslagging;
the fourth step: casting the aluminum-silicon alloy liquid into aluminum-silicon alloy under the conditions that the casting temperature is 680 ℃ and the casting temperature is 250 ℃;
the fifth step: heating the cast aluminum-silicon alloy to 450 ℃, preserving heat for 4 hours, then putting the cast aluminum-silicon alloy into water with the temperature of 90 ℃ for quenching, and carrying out solid solution treatment;
and a sixth step: heating the cast aluminum-silicon alloy to 160 ℃, preserving heat for 8 hours, carrying out aging treatment, and cooling along with the furnace to obtain the cast aluminum-silicon alloy of the embodiment.
The cast aluminum-silicon alloys of examples 1 to 3 and comparative examples 1 to 3 were processed into standard tensile specimens according to the national Standard GC/T228-. The wear rate of the cast aluminum-silicon alloy was measured on a DNM-350 type frictional wear tester at a load of 8.9N, and the results are shown in table 1.
TABLE 1 tensile mechanical properties and wear rates of cast aluminum-silicon alloys of examples and comparative examples
Tensile strength/MPa Elongation/percent Wear rate/. times.10-6g/m
Example 1 402.8 10.1 0.17
Example 2 421.6 8.4 0.19
Example 3 413.4 9.3 0.18
Comparative example 1 284.1 4.6 0.45
Comparative example 2 342.3 5.9 0.27
Comparative example 3 308.5 6.1 0.34
As seen from Table 1, the cast aluminum-silicon alloys of examples 1 to 3 of the present invention have a tensile strength of more than 400MPa at room temperature, an elongation of more than 8%, and a wear rate of less than 0.2X 10-6g/m。
The cast Al-Si alloy of comparative example 1 has no Ta, Nb, Ru pairThe Fe-rich phase, the eutectic Si phase and the primary Si phase are refined and modified, the tensile strength of the cast aluminum-silicon alloy at room temperature is only 284.1MPa, the elongation is only 4.6 percent, and the wear rate is as high as 0.45 multiplied by 10-6g/m。
The cast aluminum-silicon alloy of the comparative example 2 only adds Ta element to refine and modify the Fe-rich phase, does not add Nb and Ru element to refine and modify the eutectic Si phase and the primary Si phase, has the room-temperature tensile strength of only 342.3MPa, the elongation of only 5.9 percent and the wear rate as high as 0.27 multiplied by 10-6g/m。
The cast aluminum-silicon alloy of the comparative example 3 only adds Ru element to refine and modify the primary Si phase, does not add Ta and Nb elements to refine and modify the Fe-rich phase and the eutectic Si phase, has the room-temperature tensile strength of only 308.5MPa, the elongation of only 6.1 percent and the wear rate as high as 0.34 multiplied by 10-6g/m。
As can be seen from the comparison of the data of the examples and the comparative examples, the cast aluminum-silicon alloy can remarkably improve the strength, the plasticity and the wear resistance of the cast aluminum-silicon alloy by adding Ta, Nb and Ru elements to carry out refinement and modification treatment on the Fe-rich phase, the eutectic Si phase and the primary Si phase.
The above embodiments are preferred embodiments of the present invention, but the present invention is not limited to the above embodiments, and any other changes, modifications, substitutions, combinations, and simplifications which do not depart from the spirit and principle of the present invention should be construed as equivalents thereof, and all such changes, modifications, substitutions, combinations, and simplifications are intended to be included in the scope of the present invention.

Claims (10)

1. A high-strength wear-resistant cast aluminum-silicon alloy is characterized in that: the composite material comprises the following components in percentage by mass: 12.5 to 14.5 percent of Si, 1.6 to 1.9 percent of Mg, 0.2 to 0.4 percent of Zr, 0.1 to 0.2 percent of Ta, 0.05 to 0.1 percent of Nb, 0.05 to 0.1 percent of Ru, less than or equal to 0.05 percent of single impurity element, less than or equal to 0.15 percent of total impurity element and the balance of Al;
the high-strength wear-resistant cast aluminum-silicon alloy is prepared by the following casting method:
1) selecting aluminum ingots, crystallized silicon, magnesium ingots, Al-10Zr alloy, Al-10Ta alloy, Al-5Nb alloy and Al-5Ru alloy as aluminum-silicon alloy raw materials;
2) heating and melting an aluminum ingot, adding crystalline silicon accounting for 12.5-14.5 percent of the total mass of the aluminum-silicon alloy raw materials, magnesium ingot accounting for 1.6-1.9 percent of the total mass of the aluminum-silicon alloy raw materials, Al-10Zr alloy accounting for 2-4 percent of the total mass of the aluminum-silicon alloy raw materials, Al-5Ta alloy accounting for 2-4 percent of the total mass of the aluminum-silicon alloy raw materials, Al-5Nb alloy accounting for 1-2 percent of the total mass of the aluminum-silicon alloy raw materials and Al-5Ru alloy accounting for 1-2;
3) degassing and deslagging the aluminum-silicon alloy liquid, and standing after slagging off;
4) casting the aluminum-silicon alloy liquid subjected to degassing and deslagging treatment into aluminum-silicon alloy;
5) quenching the cast aluminum-silicon alloy, and carrying out solution treatment;
6) and (4) carrying out aging treatment on the cast aluminum-silicon alloy after the solution treatment.
2. A method of casting high strength wear resistant cast aluminium silicon alloy as claimed in claim 1, characterised in that: the method comprises the following steps:
1) selecting aluminum ingots, crystallized silicon, magnesium ingots, Al-10Zr alloy, Al-10Ta alloy, Al-5Nb alloy and Al-5Ru alloy as aluminum-silicon alloy raw materials;
2) heating and melting an aluminum ingot, adding crystalline silicon accounting for 12.5-14.5 percent of the total mass of the aluminum-silicon alloy raw materials, magnesium ingot accounting for 1.6-1.9 percent of the total mass of the aluminum-silicon alloy raw materials, Al-10Zr alloy accounting for 2-4 percent of the total mass of the aluminum-silicon alloy raw materials, Al-5Ta alloy accounting for 2-4 percent of the total mass of the aluminum-silicon alloy raw materials, Al-5Nb alloy accounting for 1-2 percent of the total mass of the aluminum-silicon alloy raw materials and Al-5Ru alloy accounting for 1-2;
3) degassing and deslagging the aluminum-silicon alloy liquid, and standing after slagging off;
4) casting the aluminum-silicon alloy liquid subjected to degassing and deslagging treatment into aluminum-silicon alloy;
5) quenching the cast aluminum-silicon alloy, and carrying out solution treatment;
6) and carrying out aging treatment on the cast aluminum-silicon alloy after the solution treatment to obtain the cast aluminum-silicon alloy with high strength and wear resistance.
3. The casting method according to claim 2, characterized in that: in the step 1), the purity of the aluminum ingot is more than or equal to 99.7 percent; the purity of the crystalline silicon is more than or equal to 99.9 percent; the purity of the magnesium ingot is more than or equal to 99.9 percent.
4. The casting method according to claim 2, characterized in that: in the step 2), the heating and melting temperature of the aluminum ingot is 720-760 ℃.
5. The casting method according to claim 2, characterized in that: the step 3) is specifically as follows: and blowing and refining the aluminum-silicon alloy liquid for 5-10 minutes by adopting protective gas and an aluminum alloy refining agent to perform degassing and deslagging treatment, and standing for 30-50 minutes after deslagging.
6. The casting method according to claim 5, wherein: in the step 3), the protective gas is selected from one or more of argon, helium, neon and nitrogen.
7. The casting method according to claim 5, wherein: in the step 3), the dosage of the aluminum alloy refining agent accounts for 0.3-0.5% of the total mass of the aluminum-silicon alloy raw materials.
8. The casting method according to claim 2, characterized in that: in the step 4), the casting temperature is 680-700 ℃; the casting temperature is 150-250 ℃.
9. The casting method according to claim 2, characterized in that: step 5) heating the cast aluminum-silicon alloy to 430-450 ℃, preserving the heat for 4-6 hours, and then putting water with the temperature of 70-90 ℃ for quenching.
10. The casting method according to claim 2, characterized in that: in the step 6), the aging treatment is to heat the cast aluminum-silicon alloy to 160-170 ℃ and preserve the temperature for 6-8 hours.
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