CN110082907A - A kind of optical waveguide structure and display device - Google Patents

A kind of optical waveguide structure and display device Download PDF

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Publication number
CN110082907A
CN110082907A CN201810078000.1A CN201810078000A CN110082907A CN 110082907 A CN110082907 A CN 110082907A CN 201810078000 A CN201810078000 A CN 201810078000A CN 110082907 A CN110082907 A CN 110082907A
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CN
China
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waveguide
light
layer
decoupling
spectro
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CN201810078000.1A
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Chinese (zh)
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戴杰
郭帮辉
阮望超
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华为技术有限公司
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Priority to CN201810078000.1A priority Critical patent/CN110082907A/en
Publication of CN110082907A publication Critical patent/CN110082907A/en

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    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B27/00Other optical systems; Other optical apparatus
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B27/00Other optical systems; Other optical apparatus
    • G02B27/01Head-up displays
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B27/00Other optical systems; Other optical apparatus
    • G02B27/42Diffraction optics, i.e. systems including a diffractive element being designed for providing a diffractive effect
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B5/00Optical elements other than lenses
    • G02B5/30Polarising elements
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B6/00Light guides
    • G02B6/10Light guides of the optical waveguide type
    • G02B6/12Light guides of the optical waveguide type of the integrated circuit kind
    • G02B6/122Basic optical elements, e.g. light-guiding paths
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B6/00Light guides
    • G02B6/24Coupling light guides
    • G02B6/26Optical coupling means
    • G02B6/34Optical coupling means utilising prism or grating

Abstract

A kind of optical waveguide structure and display device, are difficult to inhibit in the prior art stray light in augmented reality waveguide to solve the problems, such as.The optical waveguide structure includes upper layer waveguide, lower layer's waveguide and the first beam splitter layer between the upper layer waveguide and lower layer's waveguide;The upper layer waveguide includes the first upper surface, the first lower surface and the second light splitting membrane array between first upper surface and first lower surface, the second light splitting membrane array includes at least two wavelength spectro-films, the at least two wavelength spectro-film and first lower surface form an acute angle, the at least two wavelength spectro-film is for it will be seen that the light in light at least three wave bands reflects, remaining wave band penetrates, which is the wave band for projection imaging;Lower layer's waveguide includes the second upper surface and the second lower surface, and second upper surface is parallel with second lower surface;First beam splitter layer is used to reflect a part of incident ray, and rest part penetrates.

Description

A kind of optical waveguide structure and display device

Technical field

This application involves optical technical field more particularly to a kind of optical waveguide structure and display devices.

Background technique

Augmented reality (augmented reality, AR) technology is a kind of by real world information and virtual world information " seamless " integrated new technology, is the entity information that script is difficult to experience in the certain time spatial dimension of real world (such as: visual information, three-dimensional appearance, sound, taste, tactile etc.), by optics, computer, electronics etc., folds again after analog simulation Add, not only presents the information of real world, but also virtual information is shown simultaneously, two kinds of information are complementary to one another, fold Add.In the augmented reality of visualization, user utilizes optical display, and real world and virtual image are combined together, Form the immersion visual experience that actual situation combines.

Stacked reflection waveguide shown in fig. 1 is a kind of widely applied AR waveguide implementation, referring to Fig.1, stacked Reflection waveguide is provided with light splitting membrane array, which can reflect a part of incident light, a part transmission.To enter It penetrates for light a, after incident stacked back wave is led, reflexes to light splitting membrane array through optical path b, a portion light is through light Road c reflexes to human eye, and another part light is transmitted through optical path d, and the light continuation of transmission is propagated forward, is divided membrane array in incidence every time Shi Fasheng separation, a portion light reflex to human eye along optical path d-e-f-g-h, and a part of light is anti-along optical path d-e-f-g-i-j It is incident upon human eye, these light are ordinary ray.But after light e incidence light splitting membrane array, some light occurs anti- It penetrates, reflexes to human eye along optical path k-l-m, the exit direction of light m deflects, and leads to that deviation, this portion is imaged after incident human eye Light splitter is spurious rays.In the prior art, above-mentioned stray light is difficult to inhibit.

Summary of the invention

The application provides a kind of optical waveguide structure and display device, is difficult to inhibit in the prior art in AR waveguide to solve The problem of stray light.

In a first aspect, the application provides a kind of optical waveguide structure, including upper layer waveguide, lower layer's waveguide and it is located on described The first beam splitter layer between layer waveguide and lower layer's waveguide.The upper layer waveguide include the first upper surface, the first lower surface with And between first upper surface and first lower surface second light splitting membrane array, first upper surface with it is described First lower surface is parallel, and the second light splitting membrane array includes at least two wavelength spectro-films, at least two wavelength light splitting Film is parallel to each other, and forms an acute angle with first lower surface, and at least two wavelength spectro-film is for will be seen that Light reflection in light at least three wave bands, remaining wave band penetrate, wherein at least three wave band is for projection imaging Wave band, for example, at least three wave band is respectively a wave band in red-light spectrum, a wave band and blue light in green spectrum A wave band in spectrum.Lower layer's waveguide include the second upper surface and the second lower surface, second upper surface with it is described Second lower surface is parallel.The two sides of first beam splitter layer is contacted with first lower surface, second upper surface respectively, institute The first beam splitter layer is stated for reflecting a part of incident ray, rest part penetrates.

In above-mentioned optical waveguide structure, the side of lower layer's waveguide can receive projected light, and projected light is in incident first beam splitter layer Later, projected light is divided into two parts by the first beam splitter layer, and a part of light enters upper layer waveguide through the first beam splitter layer, and in incidence After second light splitting membrane array, it is reflected back lower layer's waveguide, is emitted from the second lower surface and human eye can be eventually entered into;By the first beam splitter layer Isolated another part projected light is reflected back the second lower surface, and is reflected back the first beam splitter layer through the second lower surface, continues by the The separation of one beam splitter layer.When projected light is propagated in above-mentioned optical waveguide structure, spurious rays are less.Moreover, the first beam splitter layer It only needs to penetrate a part reflection a part of incident ray, technology difficulty is low, and cost is relatively low;Moreover, if adopted The optical cement bonded is not required to have since the characteristic of the first beam splitter layer is easily achieved with the first beam splitter layer of optics glue bond There is high refractive index, cost is relatively low for optical cement.

In some optional implementations of first aspect, first beam splitter layer includes spectro-film or grating array. The spectro-film can be light intensity spectro-film, polarization beam splitter etc..

In some optional implementations of first aspect, the first beam splitter layer is used for: by incidence angle at 0 ° to θ1Range 90% to 99% part of interior light penetrates, 10% to 1% part reflection, and, by incidence angle in θ1To 90 ° of ranges 5% to 20% part of interior light penetrates, 95% to 80% part reflection, θ1Greater than 0 ° and less than 90 °.This technology side Case can be with the energy hole of stray light in extremely low level, and enables to projected light can be from the second lower surface of lower layer's waveguide Wider range in outgoing, improve the display effect from the second lower surface emergent ray of lower layer's waveguide.Furthermore the first beam splitter layer Above-mentioned angle selective properties can also significantly improve the visual field (field of view, FOV) of optical waveguide, improve the sight of user Shadow feeling of immersion.

In some optional implementations of first aspect, the refractive index of the upper layer waveguide is equal to lower layer's waveguide Refractive index, reduce because between upper layer waveguide and lower layer's waveguide refractive index deviation due to the stray light that is formed.

In some optional implementations of first aspect, first beam splitter layer is a spectro-film, and described one Open the splitting ratio ascending variation along a first direction of spectro-film;Or, first beam splitter layer includes at least two spectro-films, And the splitting ratio of the spectro-film of first side of the two adjacent spectro-films close to lower layer's waveguide, no more than under described The splitting ratio of the spectro-film of second side of layer waveguide;Or, first beam splitter layer includes at least two spectro-films, and adjacent Spacing distance between two spectro-films is along the descending variation of the first direction;Or, first beam splitter layer is grating Array, and the energy proportion of 0 grade of reflected light of the grating array is along the descending variation of the first direction, and/or, it states The diffraction efficiency of effective diffraction time of grating array is along the ascending variation of the first direction;Wherein, the first party To the direction for being directed toward second side for first side.The variation of the splitting ratio of above-mentioned spectro-film can be based on spectro-film The variation such as thickness, refractive index and realize.

In above-mentioned technical proposal, the first beam splitter layer laterally propagates the transmissivity of light along projected light in lower layer's waveguide The ascending variation in direction, it is possible to reduce the energy for the light being emitted from the close projection light incident side end position of the second lower surface Amount, makes it be unlikely to too strong, and increases from the second lower surface far from the light of outgoing from the projection light incident side end position Energy makes it be unlikely to weak, so that the energy for the light being emitted from the different location of lower layer's waveguide is more balanced, improves outgoing The imaging effect of light.

In some optional implementations of first aspect, the first upper surface of upper layer waveguide and/or lower layer's waveguide Second lower surface is additionally provided with antireflective coating, to enhance the transmitance of the first upper surface and/or the second lower surface.

In a kind of optional design, the second light splitting membrane array in the upper layer waveguide of first aspect is replaced with into reflectance coating Array, to reduce the cost of yellow waveguiding structure.

Second aspect, the application provide a kind of display device, comprising: frame, first aspect or its any optional realization side Optical waveguide structure and projection module in formula.Wherein, the optical waveguide structure and projection module are fixed on frame, projection Module is used for lower layer's waveguide incidence projected light, which includes the light at least three wave bands, such as red blue green three Coloured light.

It, can be by the first light splitting after the projected light incidence lower layer waveguide 120 that projection module generates in above-mentioned display device Layer 130 separates, and is finally emitted from a position in the second lower surface more than 122, into human eye, and environment light can from the first upper surface into Enter upper layer waveguide 110, and be finally emitted from the second lower surface 122, the projection optical superposition with the outgoing of the second lower surface 122 is realized The effect of augmented reality, and display device can effectively increase the FOV of projected light and can effectively inhibit the production of stray light It is raw.

In some optional implementations of second aspect, display device further include: the first even photosphere, including setting exist The even smooth film of the first of second lower surface is arranged in below lower layer's waveguide and fixed on said frame first even Mating plate, the transmitance ascending variation along a first direction of the first even photosphere, the first direction are lower layer's wave It is directed toward the direction of the second side of lower layer's waveguide in the first side led.The transmitance of the first even smooth film or the first even mating plate Variation can be realized based on the variation such as shape, thickness, refractive index.The first even photosphere enables to the projected light into human eye Light intensity it is more uniform.

In some optional implementations of second aspect, display device further includes the when including the first even photosphere Two even photospheres, the second even photosphere can be that the second even smooth film of first upper surface is arranged in or is arranged in the upper layer wave Lead top and fixed the second even mating plate on said frame, the transmitance of the second even photosphere along the first direction by Small variation is arrived greatly.The second even photosphere can compensate for influence of the first even photosphere to environment light distribution, so that the ring of incident human eye Border light is more balanced.

In some optional implementations of second aspect, display device further includes decoupling waveguide, is located at described second It below lower surface and fixes on said frame, for receiving, propagating and exporting the light being emitted from second lower surface. The decoupling waveguide can change optical path, convenient for products such as design AR glasses.In addition, decoupling waveguide is single layer waveguide, thickness is small In the double-deck waveguiding structure of upper layer waveguide and formation, due to using the decoupling wave oriented users emergent ray of single layer, compared to From lower layer's waveguide directly to user's emergent ray, user can be substantially reduced and check thickness at picture position.Furthermore pass through coupling Waveguide changes the optical path of lower layer's waveguide emergent ray out, can check via decoupling waveguide by the environment light of upper layer waveguide incidence, Realize the augmented reality based on latent prestige.

In some optional implementations of second aspect, the decoupling waveguide includes being coupled into grating, is arranged described The third upper surface of second lower surface described in the face of decoupling waveguide, for that will be coupled into from the received light in the second lower surface In the decoupling waveguide.The structure realize it is simple, and couple light rays into be coupled into grating effect it is preferable.

In some optional implementations of second aspect, the decoupling waveguide includes the first face and the second face, In, first face is used to receive the light of second lower surface outgoing, and by received light transmission to second face, institute The second face is stated for the light total reflection of coming will to be transmitted through first face, first face is located at the surface of the decoupling waveguide, Second face is located at the surface or inside of the decoupling waveguide, and first face and second face are not parallel.It is above-mentioned to be coupled into Light is coupled into inside using the film layer of itself by waveguide, light can not be additionally arranged and is coupled into structure, and cost is relatively low, and by light Be coupled into be coupled into grating effect it is preferable.

In some optional implementations of second aspect, it is located at the surface of the decoupling waveguide in second face When, first face for wedge surface or is provided with the optical texture containing wedge surface with one in second face.

In some optional implementations of second aspect, the decoupling waveguide includes that the decoupling waveguide is arranged in The decoupling grating of wave guide wall, for by a part of the light of the decoupling grating propagated in the decoupling waveguide, incident from institute State wave guide wall outgoing, another part reflection.The structure by beam projecting of above-mentioned decoupling waveguide is simple, and by the effect of beam projecting Fruit is preferable.

Optionally, propagation side of the energy proportion of 0 grade of reflected light of above-mentioned decoupling grating along light in decoupling waveguide To descending variation, and/or, biography of the diffraction efficiency of effective diffraction time of decoupling grating along light in decoupling waveguide Broadcast the ascending variation in direction.Above-mentioned decoupling grating can make the energy from its light being emitted more balanced, improve user's Viewing experience.

In some optional implementations of second aspect, the decoupling waveguide includes being set in the decoupling waveguide The third in portion is divided membrane array, and the third light splitting membrane array is used for the third propagate in the decoupling waveguide, incident The a part for being divided the light of membrane array reflexes to the wave guide wall outgoing of the decoupling waveguide, and rest part penetrates.Above-mentioned decoupling wave The structure by beam projecting led is simple, and the effect of beam projecting is preferable.

Optionally, in multiple spectro-films of third light splitting membrane array, close to light by lower layer's waveguide incidence decoupling waveguide position The transmitance for setting the spectro-film at place is smaller, far from light by lower layer's waveguide incidence decoupling waveguide position spectro-film transmitance It is larger.Above-mentioned third light splitting membrane array can make the energy for the light being emitted from decoupling waveguide more balanced, improve the sight of user Shadow experience.

Detailed description of the invention

Fig. 1 is the schematic diagram of optical waveguide structure in the prior art;

Fig. 2 is the schematic diagram of the reflected light wave-length coverage of spectro-film;

Fig. 3-Fig. 4 is the schematic diagram of optical waveguide structure in the embodiment of the present application;

Fig. 5 a- Fig. 5 b is the schematic diagram of the possibility implementation of the first beam splitter layer in the embodiment of the present application;

Fig. 6 is the propagation schematic diagram of projected light in the embodiment of the present application;

Fig. 7 a- Fig. 7 d is the propagation schematic diagram of the embodiment of the present application ambient light;

Fig. 8 is the schematic diagram of the display device of the embodiment of the present application;

Fig. 9-Figure 10 is the schematic diagram of the possibility implementation of display device;

Figure 11 a- Figure 11 d is the structural schematic diagram of decoupling waveguide.

Specific embodiment

It is multiple involved in the application, refer to two or more.In addition, in the description of the present application, " first ", Vocabulary such as " second " are only used for distinguishing the purpose of description, are not understood to indicate or imply relative importance, can not understand For indication or suggestion sequence.Term "and/or" in the application, only it is a kind of describe affiliated partner incidence relation, expression can With there are three kinds of relationships, for example, A and/or B, can indicate: individualism A exists simultaneously A and B, these three feelings of individualism B Condition.

In the prior art, in order to inhibit spurious rays shown in FIG. 1, one layer of incident angle is plated on the surface of light splitting membrane array Sensitive reflectance coating, the reflectance coating can be by 10% or so reflections of small incident angles light, by big incident angles light 95~99% transmission.The characteristic of the overwhelming majority transmission to big incident angles light of the reflectance coating, it is possible to reduce in Fig. 1 Since light e incidence is divided after membrane array through spurious rays caused by reflection occur as optical path k.But big incidence angle is high thoroughly Very difficult realization is penetrated, the process costs of the reflectance coating of incident angle sensitivity are very high, furthermore, it would be desirable to the optical cement of high refractive index The reflectance coating is bonded on light splitting membrane array by water, and the process costs of the optical glue of the high refractive index are equally very high.

Technical solution provided by the present application in order to facilitate understanding first introduces some concepts below.

Optical waveguide, referred to as waveguide in the embodiment of the present application is guidance light wave in the medium apparatus wherein propagated.Waveguide Including upper and lower surface, in waveguide when light incidence waveguide upper and lower surfaces, if incidence angle is greater than critical angle, light is in waveguide Surface and the interface of air are totally reflected, which depends on the refractive index of waveguide.

Spectro-film is can to transmit a part reflection of incident ray, a part, and light is divided into two-part by realization Film.According to spectroscopic modes difference, spectro-film includes wavelength spectro-film, light intensity spectro-film, polarization beam splitter etc. again.

Wavelength spectro-film is that light is divided into two-part film according to wavelength region.For example, light is in incident wavelength point After light film, wavelength spectro-film reflects light of the wavelength in the first range, rest part transmission.It should be noted that wavelength Spectro-film is not limited to the light (referring to fig. 2 left side) within the scope of one continuous bandwidth of reflection, can also by spectrum it is multiple separately The light reflection (right side referring to fig. 2) of narrow bandwidth range.

Light intensity spectro-film is that incident ray is divided into transmitting two light, transmitted ray parts according to certain beam intensity ratio. For example, light intensity spectro-film can reflect the light of 10% light intensity in incident ray, the light transmission of remaining 90% light intensity.

Polarization beam splitter is the film for mutually separating the parallel direction component of light with vertical direction component.

Grating array, including a large amount of wide equidistant parallel slits can be a large amount of parallel quarters carved on sheet glass Trace is made.Grating array can reflect back a part of incident ray, and rest part is penetrated by diffraction.

It should be understood that above-mentioned spectro-film or grating separate light, the energy of reflection light and transmitted light after separation The sum of amount may be less than the energy of incident ray, film or absorption in wire grid one this is because the energy of light may be split Point, cause energy loss.

Even mating plate, also known as uniform light board are a kind of light guide plates, since size, shape, density of even mating plate etc. design, are made Ray Of Light is obtained by after even mating plate, the intensity distribution of light changes.

Even smooth film is a kind of light-transmissive film, since thickness, refractive index of even smooth film etc. change, equally can light be existed It changes through intensity distribution after even smooth film.

Fig. 3 and Fig. 4 shows optical waveguide structure 100 provided by the embodiments of the present application, wherein Fig. 4 is optical waveguide structure 100 Schematic diagram of component when mutually separating.Referring to Fig. 3 and Fig. 4, optical waveguide structure 100 includes: upper layer waveguide 110, lower layer's waveguide 120 and the first beam splitter layer 130 between upper layer waveguide and lower layer's waveguide.

Upper layer waveguide 110 includes the first upper surface 111, the first lower surface 112 and the second light splitting membrane array 113.Wherein, First upper surface 111 is parallel with the first lower surface 112, and the second light splitting membrane array 113 includes two or more wavelength point Light film, these wavelength spectro-films are parallel to each other and with the first lower surface 112 in an acute angle, and wavelength spectro-film is for will be seen that Light reflection in light at least three wave bands, remaining wave band penetrate, wherein at least three wave band is the wave for projection imaging Section, as be used for will be one in a wave band in a wave band in red-light spectrum, green spectrum and blue spectrum for wavelength reflective membrane The light of wave band reflects, the light transmission of remaining range in spectrum.In some embodiments, reference Fig. 3, above-mentioned wavelength spectro-film Both ends connect with the first upper surface 111 with the first lower surface 112 respectively.And in further embodiments, above-mentioned wavelength spectro-film Both ends can not connect with the first upper surface 111, the first lower surface 112.A kind of possible implementation of upper layer waveguide 110 Are as follows: optical glass or tree by multilayer certain thickness (thickness of such as 0.5~5mm, different layers can be equal or unequal) The optical element (such as commercial optical plate, window) of rouge material, by precise finiss polishing, (the lower planes depth of parallelism is less than 1 jiao point) and plate above-mentioned wavelength spectro-film (such as metal film, deielectric-coating or optical grating construction), by optical glue bonding or directly Optical contant, then cut by certain angle (between 10 ° to 45 ° of angle), it is (flat up and down then to carry out precise finiss polishing to cut surface The face depth of parallelism is less than 1 jiao point), form the upper layer waveguiding structure for including stacking wavelength spectro-film.It should be understood that Fig. 3 show waveguide One segment of structure, the number of the second light splitting 113 medium wavelength spectro-film of membrane array is not limited to shown in Fig. 3 in upper layer waveguide 110 2, can be more, for example, the number of the wavelength spectro-film shown in Fig. 4 be 4.

Lower layer's waveguide 120 includes parallel the second upper surface 121 and the second lower surface 122.One kind of lower layer's waveguide 120 Possible implementation are as follows: (lower planes are parallel by polishing with certain thickness (such as 0.5~20mm), by precise finiss Spend less than 1 jiao point) optical glass or resin material optical element (such as commercialization optical plate, window) formation, lower layer The material of waveguide 120 can be identical or different with upper layer waveguide 110, and the refractive index of lower layer's waveguide 120 can be with upper layer waveguide 110 Refractive index is same or similar.

First beam splitter layer 130 can be spectro-film, or grating array.The spectro-film that first beam splitter layer 130 includes It can be light intensity spectro-film, or polarization beam splitter, the application the following contents are illustrated by taking light intensity spectro-film as an example.? When first beam splitter layer 130 is light intensity spectro-film, and can be there are many implementation, for example, first beam splitter layer 130 is one Light intensity spectro-film or first beam splitter layer 130 are formed by multiple light intensity spectro-films, as shown in Figure 5 a, multiple light intensity point Light film can be stitched together, and as shown in Figure 5 b, which can not also be stitched together, adjacent light intensity point There is a spacing between light film.It is described so that the first beam splitter layer is spectro-film as an example in the application the following contents.

First beam splitter layer 130 is arranged between the first lower surface 112 and the second upper surface 121, and the first beam splitter layer 130 Two sides is contacted with the first lower surface 112 with the second upper surface 121 respectively.Wherein, the first beam splitter layer 130 can pass through optical glue Be bonded on the first lower surface 112 or the second upper surface 121, alternatively, by way of physical impact by the first lower surface 112, First beam splitter layer 130 and the second upper surface 121 press together, for example, can be by fixing piece (such as fixture) by upper layer wave It leads the 110, first beam splitter layer 130 and lower layer's waveguide 120 is fixed together.

Referring to Fig. 6, projected light can be coupled into lower layer's waveguide 120 from the side of lower layer's waveguide 120, wherein light a1 After incident first beam splitter layer 130, a part of light is transmitted through upper layer waveguide 110 along optical path b1, and the of incident upper layer waveguide 110 It is reflected back lower layer's waveguide 120 along optical path c1 after two light splitting membrane arrays 113, and is gone out from the second lower surface 122 of lower layer's waveguide 120 It penetrates.Another part d1 of projected light a1 is reflexed to the second lower surface 122 of lower layer's waveguide 120 by the first beam splitter layer 130, and through complete Reflection is reflected back the first beam splitter layer 130 along e1, after e1 the first beam splitter layer 130 of incidence, continues to separate, a part of light is along optical path F1-g1 is emitted from the second lower surface 122 of lower layer's waveguide 120, and another part is reflected by the first beam splitter layer 130 along optical path h1, after Continue and is propagated in lower layer's waveguide 120.Similarly, after the waveguide of projected light a2 incidence lower layer, occur repeatedly to divide in the first beam splitter layer 130 From can be respectively along optical path a2-b2-c2, a2-d2-e2-f2-g2, a2-d2-e2-h2-i2-j2-k2 from lower layer's waveguide 120 The outgoing of second lower surface 122.In addition, from the second lower surface of lower layer's waveguide 120 122 emergent ray (such as d1, d2, g1, g2, k2 Deng) may be reflected because of lower layer's waveguide 120 and the refractive index difference of air.Wherein, enter upper layer waveguide 110 to realize Light can be reflected by the second light splitting membrane array 113, it is desirable that wavelength point of the wave-length coverage of projected light in the second light splitting membrane array 113 Within the scope of the reflected light wavelength of light film, or, it is desirable that the reflected light wavelength model of the wavelength spectro-film of the second light splitting membrane array 113 Enclose the wave-length coverage that can cover projected light.In addition, in order to realize in lower layer's waveguide shape after projected light the first beam splitter layer 130 of incidence At reflected light can be totally reflected in the second lower surface 122, the incidence angle of projected light can be greater than the second lower surface 122 and send out The critical angle of raw total reflection.

In above-mentioned optical waveguide structure 100, the first beam splitter layer 130 is for realizing to the projected light incident from lower layer's waveguide 120 It is separated, projected light a part after separation enters upper layer waveguide 110, is reflected back lower layer's wave through the second light splitting membrane array 113 It leads 120 and is emitted from the second lower surface 122 of lower layer's waveguide 120, another part projected light after the separation of the first beam splitter layer 130 It is reflected back the second lower surface 122 of lower layer's waveguide 120, and is reflected back the first beam splitter layer 130 through the second lower surface 122, first point Photosphere 130 continues to separate light.When projected light is propagated in above-mentioned optical waveguide structure 100, spurious rays are less.Not only In this way, the first beam splitter layer 130 only need by incident ray a part reflection a part penetrate, technology difficulty is low, cost compared with It is low;Moreover, if using the first beam splitter layer of optics glue bond 130, since the characteristic of the first beam splitter layer 130 is easily achieved, Do not require the optical cement bonded that there is high refractive index, cost is relatively low for optical cement.

As a kind of optional design, the first beam splitter layer 130 can be by incidence angle at 0 ° to θ1Light in range 90% to 99% part penetrates, 10% to 1% part reflection, and, by incidence angle in θ1Light within the scope of to 90 ° 5% to 20% part penetrates, 95% to 80% part reflection, θ1Greater than 0 ° and less than 90 °.Above-mentioned angle selective properties Implementation is referred to various existing technological means, the embodiment of the present application not with detailed description.

It, can be by θ in the embodiment of the present application1Be set greater than 45 °, so in lower layer's waveguide 120 projected light compared with big angle Degree (is greater than θ1) the first beam splitter layer of incident angles 130 after, small part through the first beam splitter layer 130 enter upper layer waveguide 110, After being reflected by the second light splitting membrane array 113, θ (is less than with smaller angle1) incidence the second light splitting membrane array 113, then, exhausted big portion Divide (90% to 99%) light to enter lower layer's waveguide 120 through the first beam splitter layer 130, and be emitted from the second lower surface 122, due to warp The projected light overwhelming majority that second light splitting membrane array 113 reflects can be emitted through the first beam splitter layer 130 and from the second lower surface, Light intensity loss can be reduced, guarantees the brightness of imaging, and the first beam splitter layer can be inhibited to be reflected back the second light splitting membrane array Projected light carry out reflection be formed by stray light, by the energy hole of the stray light in extremely low level.In addition, due to first Beam splitter layer 130 can will from most of reflection of the incident projected light of lower layer's waveguide 120, the projected light reflected can constantly by It is reflected back the first beam splitter layer 130 to continue to separate, so that projected light can be from the second lower surface 122 of lower layer's waveguide 120 Outgoing in wider range, improves the display effect from 122 emergent ray of the second lower surface of lower layer's waveguide 120.

Furthermore the above-mentioned angle selective properties of the first beam splitter layer can also significantly improve visual field (the field of of optical waveguide View, FOV), referring to Fig. 6, FOV is one of the key index of AR optical waveguide, and bigger FOV can be more close to the observation of human eye Habit improves feeling of immersion.It is explained below with reference to table 1 and table 2.The FOV that table 1 shows the conventional waveguide structure of Fig. 1 is related Parameter.

Table 1

As shown in table 1, traditional structure shown in FIG. 1 is at FOV=50 °, the substrate refractive index 1.72 of waveguide, in the substrate Angle of half field-of view be θ '=14.22 °.The high angle scattered light incidence angle on light separating interface (i.e. light splitting membrane array in Fig. 1) The maximin for spending e meets: emin>=h+t=55.55 °;emax=emin+2·θ。

Such as emin=55.55 °, then emax=84 °.To keep most energy in high angle scattered light saturating from light separating interface It penetrates, few part (1%-3%) energy reflects to form stray light by light separating interface, it is desirable that light separating interface film layer exists emin=55.55 ° to emaxHigh transmittance (97-99%) is kept within the scope of=84 °.In conventional waveguide, when FOV is further increased When, angle emaxAlso it will be further increased.Work as emaxAt 85 ° of > or more, comprehensive existing plated film processing technology is difficult to meet can Plated film requirement of (400nm-700nm) transmitance higher than 97%-99%, stray light intensity increase with reflectivity in light-exposed wave-length coverage It increases rapidly greatly, forms strong ghost image, directly deteriorate the viewing quality under big FOV.Therefore, because light separating interface and Light reflecting interface is same interface, and not parallel with waveguide upper and lower surface, and high angle scattered light minimax angle is respectively by complete The limitation of conditioned reflex and plated film working ability, the FOV angle of conventional waveguide shown in FIG. 1 are theoretically limited to 50 ° or so, hardly possible To continue to expand.

Table 2 shows a kind of relevant parameter of FOV in the cards of waveguiding structure of Fig. 3.

Table 2

The double-deck optical waveguide structure 100 in the application, the first beam splitter layer 130 and optical waveguide knot as light separating interface Structure 100 upper and lower surface (that is: the first upper surface 111 of upper layer waveguide 110, lower layer's waveguide 120 the second lower surface 122) it is flat Row, so angle t=0, and the first beam splitter layer 130 is separated with the second light splitting membrane array 113 as light reflecting interface.Cause This, incidence angle maximin limitation of the light on the first beam splitter layer 130 is respectively as follows: emin>=h=35.55;emax=emin+ 2·θ。

When FOV is 80 °, upper layer waveguide 110 and lower layer's waveguide 120 are similarly 1.72 substrate using refractive index, Angle of half field-of view in substrate is θ2=21.94 °.Take emin> 35.55=38.06 °, then emax=81.94 °.Light is in lower layer's wave Lead 120 second lower surfaces 122 total reflection after, after being incident on the first beam splitter layer 130, small part light (10%-20%) transmit into Enter upper layer waveguide 110, is largely reflected back lower layer's waveguide 120 and continues to transmit.Pass through the second light splitting membrane array 113 of design and upper layer The angle of first lower surface 112 of waveguide 110, it is ensured that be reflected back 120 light of lower layer's waveguide at first point from upper layer waveguide 110 Incidence angle at photosphere 130 is less than 22 °.First beam splitter layer 130 meets low-angle (0 ° -22 °) interior incident ray transmitance and is higher than When 99%, it is ensured that for stray light less than 1%, which has higher realizability in full FOV, such as the first beam splitter layer 130 is Part reflectance coating, above-mentioned characteristic easy to accomplish under the conditions of prior art.Therefore, using the substrate of identical refractive index, the application is mentioned FOV can be expanded to 80 ° from 50 °, improve use by the double-deck optical waveguide structure 100 supplied under the premise of forcing down ghost image light energy The viewing at family is experienced.

Environment light (extraneous natural light) is described below in the circulation way of optical waveguide structure 100, referring to Fig. 7 a, the second light splitting The reflected spectral range of membrane array can only cover the wave-length coverage of projected light, and projected light includes three or more reference light Line, the datum ray of same intensity are superimposed to form white light, and therefore, environment light enters upper layer by the first upper surface 111 Waveguide 110, and after incidence the second light splitting membrane array 113, only (wavelength is Chong Die with the wave-length coverage of projected light for fewer parts light Light) it is reflected, remaining most of light is through the second light splitting membrane array 113, since the effect that reflection light stacks up is White light, therefore can ignore through the imaging aberrations of the light of the second light splitting membrane array 113.Through the second light splitting membrane array 113 Incident first beam splitter layer 130 of light, since incidence angle is smaller (being less than θ 1), the overwhelming majority of environment light penetrates the first beam splitter layer 130 enter lower layer's waveguide 120, and are emitted from the second lower surface 122.

In above-mentioned implementation, environment light can through optical waveguide structure 100 together with projected light from the of lower layer's waveguide 120 The outgoing of two lower surfaces 122 forms real world images (natural light) and merges with virtual world image (projected light), realizes that enhancing is existing Real function.

Optionally, the reflected spectral range of the second light splitting membrane array is the set of multiple narrowbands.With RGB color (red Green blue, RGB) for mode, the spectral region of projected light can control in narrower range, that is, the feux rouges in projected light Wavelength account for narrower range in entire red-light spectrum, the wavelength of the green light in projected light accounts for narrower range in entire green spectrum, The wavelength of blue light in projected light accounts for narrower range in entire blue spectrum, corresponding, the second light splitting membrane array medium wavelength light splitting The wavelength of the feux rouges of the reflection of film accounts for narrower range in entire red-light spectrum, and the wavelength of the green light of reflection accounts in entire green spectrum Narrower range, the wavelength of the blue light of reflection account for narrower range in entire blue spectrum.Therefore, in environment light, only a fraction is red Light, blue and green light are reflected by the second light splitting membrane array 113, the color and intensity through the light of the second light splitting membrane array 113 Deviation is smaller, it might even be possible to ignore, and then improve display effect when optical waveguide structure 100 is imaged for AR.

Alternatively, the second light splitting membrane array 113 could alternatively be reflectance coating.Referring to Fig. 7 b to Fig. 7 d, in the realization side In formula, environment light can also be incident from the first upper surface 111 and be emitted from the second lower surface 122.In Fig. 7 b, environment light can be with It is not incident on reflectance coating, but is directly incident in the first lower surface 112 of upper layer waveguide 110, and then be transmitted through lower layer's waveguide 120, and transmitted from the second lower surface 122 of lower layer's waveguide 120.Such as Fig. 7 c, Fig. 7 d, although the incident reflectance coating of environment light, Be after reflectance coating reflects, may finally incident another reflectance coating again, can incident upper layer waveguide after reflectance coating reflection 110 the first lower surface 112, and then it is transmitted through lower layer's waveguide 120, and transmit from the second lower surface 122 of lower layer's waveguide 120 Out.

In above-mentioned implementation, the wavelength spectro-film in upper layer waveguide 110 is replaced by reflectance coating, and cost further drops It is low, and still be able to realize that environment light is incident from the first upper surface 111 and is emitted from the second lower surface 122, realize that enhancing is existing The function of real AR.

As a kind of optional design, the transmission ratio (also known as transmitance) of the first incident light of 130 pairs of beam splitter layer can It, can be so-called referring to Fig. 6 along projected light ascending variation on the lateral direction of propagation of lower layer's waveguide 120 with uneven The lateral direction of propagation is that the left-hand end (side that projected light enters lower layer's waveguide) of lower layer's waveguide is directed toward the right-hand end of lower layer's waveguide Direction.The implementation of above-mentioned light transmission ratio variation can be with are as follows:

Mode 1, the first beam splitter layer are a light intensity spectro-film, and the splitting ratio of a light intensity spectro-film is along first The ascending variation in direction, splitting ratio refer to spectro-film to the transmissivity of incident ray and the ratio of reflectivity.Wherein, so-called First direction is that the direction of the second side is directed toward in the first side of lower layer's waveguide 120, in the embodiment of the present application, under the first side is The side for being designed as receiving projected light of layer waveguide, such as the left-hand end of Tu6Zhong lower layer waveguide 120, the second side is and the first side Opposite side is held, such as the right-hand end of Tu6Zhong lower layer waveguide.It should be understood that the splitting ratio of spectro-film changes in the embodiment of the present application Can be there are many implementation, such as the thickness descending variation along a first direction of spectro-film, alternatively, the refraction of spectro-film Rate changes along a first direction, and other implementations that the splitting ratio about light intensity spectro-film changes are referred to various existing skills Art means.

Mode 2, first beam splitter layer include at least two light intensity spectro-films, and two adjacent light intensity spectro-films are close The splitting ratio of the light intensity spectro-film of first side of lower layer's waveguide, no more than close to the second side of lower layer's waveguide The splitting ratio of light intensity spectro-film.By taking Fig. 5 a or Fig. 5 b as an example, position is divided in right wavelength in two adjacent wavelength spectro-films The splitting ratio of film is not less than position in the splitting ratio of left wavelength spectro-film.In a kind of possible implementation, each wavelength point The splitting ratio of light film can be fixed value, wherein the light splitting of the wavelength spectro-film of the first side far from lower layer's waveguide is bigger; In another possibility implementation, the ascending variation along a first direction of the splitting ratio of part or all of wavelength spectro-film itself.

Mode 3, the first beam splitter layer 130 include at least two light intensity spectro-films, and between two adjacent light intensity spectro-films Spacing distance along the descending variation of the first direction.As shown in Figure 5 b, the spacing between the light intensity spectro-film in left side Larger, the spacing between the light intensity spectro-film on right side is smaller so that the duty ratio of light intensity spectro-film along aforementioned first direction by It is small to change to big.

Mode 4, first beam splitter layer are grating array, and the energy proportion edge of 0 grade of reflected light of the grating array The descending variation of the first direction, and/or, the diffraction efficiency of effective diffraction time of the grating array is along described The ascending variation of first direction.The energy proportion of 0 grade of reflected light of grating array changes and the diffraction of effectively diffraction time The implementation of efficiency change is referred to the various prior arts.

Benefit of the transmitance along the ascending variation of first direction of the first beam splitter layer is described below.Assuming that the first beam splitter layer 130 pairs with 0~θ1The transmitance of the light of incident angles in range is uniform, is 10%, i.e., light is with 0~θ1Entering in range After firing angle the first beam splitter layer 130 of incidence, 10% energy is transmitted, and 90% energy is reflected.It is with light a2 shown in fig. 6 Example, it is assumed that its light energy is 100 units, and after incident first beam splitter layer 130, the light of 10 energy units is through optical path b2-c2 Outgoing, the light of 100*90%*10%=9 energy unit are emitted through optical path d2-e2-f2-g2,100*90%*90%*10%= The light of 8.1 energy units is emitted through optical path d2-e2-h2-i2-j2-k2, and so on.As can be seen that Ray Of Light a2 is incident After lower layer's waveguide, it is separated into multi beam light and is emitted from the different location of the second lower surface 122 of lower layer's waveguide 120, and is different The energy of emergent ray is different at position, this will affect the imaging effect of emergent ray.

Any design in 1~mode 4 through the above way, the first beam splitter layer 130 is to 0~θ1Incidence angle in range enters The transmissivity for the light penetrated lateral ascending variation in the direction of propagation in lower layer's waveguide along the projected light, it is possible to reduce from the The energy for the light (light c1, c2 in such as Fig. 6) of two lower surfaces 122 being emitted at the first pendant positions, was unlikely to it By force, and increase from the second lower surface 122 far from the light (such as light g1, g2, k2 in Fig. 6) being emitted from the first pendant positions Energy makes it be unlikely to weak, so that the energy for the light being emitted from the different location of lower layer's waveguide 120 is more balanced, improves The imaging effect of emergent light.

It is optionally designed as a kind of, under the first upper surface 111 of upper layer waveguide 110 and/or the second of lower layer's waveguide 120 Surface 122 is additionally provided with antireflective coating, to enhance the transmitance of the first upper surface 111 and/or the second lower surface 122.

Fig. 8 is the schematic diagram of display device provided by the embodiments of the present application, which includes: frame 200, projective module Block 300 and aforementioned optical waveguide structure 100, wherein projection module 300 and optical waveguide structure 100 are fixed on frame 200, The specific form of frame 200 for example, the form of frame 200 can be intelligent glasses, or is helmet-type display dress without limitation It sets.Projection module 300 is used to generate projected light, and will be in projected light incidence lower layer waveguide 120.

It, can be by the first light splitting after the projected light incidence lower layer waveguide 120 that projection module generates in above-mentioned display device Layer 130 separates, and is finally emitted from a position in the second lower surface more than 122, into human eye, and environment light can from the first upper surface into Enter upper layer waveguide 110, and be finally emitted from the second lower surface 122, the projection optical superposition with the outgoing of the second lower surface 122 is realized The effect of augmented reality, and display device can effectively increase the FOV of projected light and can effectively inhibit the production of stray light It is raw.

As a kind of optional design, referring to Fig. 9, display device further include: the first even photosphere 400, the first even photosphere 400 It can be the first even smooth film being arranged on the second lower surface 122, or be arranged in first even below the second lower surface Mating plate.The ascending variation along a first direction of the transmitance of the first even photosphere, the first direction are lower layer's waveguide 120 It is directed toward the direction of the second side of lower layer's waveguide in the first side.

In this optional design, the projected light being emitted from the first lower surface is after the first even photosphere, light distribution hair Raw to change, the light intensity of the light of close 120 first pendant positions of lower layer's waveguide is relative to the light far from 120 first side of lower layer's waveguide Light intensity die down, and then play the role of it is identical with 1~mode of foregoing manner 4 so that into human eye projected light light intensity more It is uniform.

It should be understood that when the first even photosphere 400 is arranged, the transmitance of the first beam splitter layer 130 can be remained unchanged, can also be with Using mode described in front mode (1)~(4), so that the transmitance of the first beam splitter layer 130 is along the first direction by small To big variation, and latter situation can further enhance the energy for the light being emitted from the different location of lower layer's waveguide 120 Harmony improves the imaging effect of emergent light.

As a kind of optional design, with continued reference to Fig. 9, when the first even photosphere 400 is arranged, display device further include: Second even photosphere 500, the second even photosphere 500 can be the second even smooth film being arranged on the first upper surface 111, or set Set the first even mating plate above the first upper surface 111.The transmitance of the second even photosphere 500 is along the first direction by big To small variation.

Since the transmitance of the first even photosphere 400 close to first side is smaller, so from the first even photosphere 400 The ambient light energy amount being emitted at the first side is smaller, and therefore, the first even photosphere 400 will lead to the environment of incident user's human eye Light is unbalanced.The effect of second even photosphere 500 be the even photosphere 400 of Contrary compensation first on the balanced influence of environment light, such as Shown in Fig. 9, the transmitance in the second even 500 left side of photosphere is high, and the transmitance on right side is low, and then 110 left side of incident upper layer waveguide Ambient light energy amount is better than the environment light on incident 110 right side of upper layer waveguide, and then the first even light is emitted on the left of lower layer's waveguide 120 The energy of the environment light of layer 400 is better than the energy that the environment light of the first even photosphere 400 is emitted on the right side of lower layer's waveguide, and passes through After the dodging of first even photosphere 400, the energy of the environment light penetrated from the first even photosphere 400 tends to be balanced, it is seen then that passes through Second even photosphere 500 is set, the intensity into the environment light of eyes of user can be made more balanced, improves imaging effect and use The viewing at family is experienced.

As a kind of optional design, referring to Fig.1 0, display device further includes decoupling waveguide 600, and decoupling waveguide 600 is used for The light (projected light and natural light) being emitted by the second lower surface 122 of lower layer's waveguide 120 is received, inside decoupling waveguide 600 It propagates and is emitted, so as to user's viewing.The material of the decoupling waveguide 600 can be optical glass or optical resin etc..Decoupling wave Optical path can be changed by leading 600, convenient for products such as design AR glasses.In addition, decoupling waveguide 600 is single layer waveguide, thickness is less than The double-deck waveguiding structure that upper layer waveguide 110 and lower layer's waveguide 120 are formed, due to using the decoupling waveguide 600 of single layer to user Emergent ray, directly to user's emergent ray, can be substantially reduced user and check at picture position compared to from lower layer's waveguide 120 Thickness.Furthermore the optical path for changing 120 emergent ray of lower layer's waveguide by decoupling waveguide 600, can be via decoupling waveguide 600 It checks the environment light incident by upper layer waveguide 110, realizes the augmented reality based on latent prestige.

Figure 11 a to Figure 11 d shows a variety of possible circulation ways of the light in decoupling waveguide 600.Wherein, lower layer's wave The mode for being optically coupled into decoupling waveguide 600 for leading 120 outgoing includes:

It is coupled into mode 1, referring to Fig.1 1a, decoupling waveguide 600 includes being coupled into grating 610, for receiving the outgoing of lower layer's waveguide Light changes the direction of received light, is optically coupled into decoupling waveguide 600 for received.

It being coupled into mode 2, referring to Fig.1 1b to Figure 11 d, decoupling waveguide 600 includes the first face 630 and the second face 640, In, the first face 630 is used to receive the emergent light of lower layer's waveguide, and by received light transmission to the second face 640, the second face 640 is used In the light total reflection that will come through the transmission of the first face 630.Wherein, the first face 630 is located at the surface of decoupling waveguide, and the second face 640 can To be located at the surface (structure as shown in Figure 11 c, Figure 11 d) of decoupling waveguide 600,600 inside of decoupling waveguide can also be located at (as schemed Structure shown in 11b), the first face 630 and the second face 640 are not parallel.Optionally, when the second face is located at the surface of decoupling waveguide, First face for wedge surface or is provided with the optical texture containing wedge surface with one in the second face.

The emission mode for the light propagated in decoupling waveguide 600 includes:

Emission mode 1,1a, decoupling waveguide 600 include the decoupling grating 620 that wave guide wall is arranged in referring to Fig.1, are used for coupling A part of the light of decoupling grating 620 propagate in waveguide 600 out, incident is emitted from wave guide wall, and another part is reflected.

Emission mode 2,1b to Figure 11 d, decoupling waveguide 600 include the third being set to inside decoupling waveguide 600 referring to Fig.1 It is divided membrane array 650, third is divided membrane array 650 and is used to third propagate in decoupling waveguide 600, incident being divided membrane array A part of 650 light reflexes to the outgoing of decoupling wave guide wall, and another part is penetrated, which is divided point in membrane array 650 Light film can be light intensity spectro-film, or polarization beam splitter.

By taking Figure 11 a as an example, 120 emergent ray incidence decoupling waveguide 600 of lower layer's waveguide is coupled into grating 610, changes direction The side wall of incident decoupling waveguide, is reflexed to the decoupling grating 620 being arranged on the wall of the decoupling waveguide other side, and one Divide and be emitted from decoupling grating 620, another part, which is reflected back inside decoupling waveguide 600, to be continued to propagate, and the light for continuing to propagate is again After secondary incidence decoupling grating, continue to separate, a part is emitted from decoupling grating 620, and another part continues in decoupling waveguide Middle propagation.

Optionally, propagation of the energy proportion of 0 grade of reflected light of decoupling grating 620 along light in decoupling waveguide 600 The descending variation in direction, and/or, the diffraction efficiency of effective diffraction time of decoupling grating 620 is along light in decoupling waveguide The ascending variation in the direction of propagation in 600.Above-mentioned decoupling grating 620 can make the energy from its light being emitted more equal Weighing apparatus improves the viewing experience of user.

By taking Figure 11 b to Figure 11 d as an example, the light that lower layer's waveguide 120 is emitted is transmitted through from the first face 630 of decoupling waveguide 600 Second face 640 is incident to third light splitting membrane array 650 through total reflection, and a part of light is reflected with low-angle incidence decoupling waveguide Side wall, and transmitted away from side wall, another part continues to propagate in decoupling waveguide through the third light splitting transmission of membrane array 650, And the incident third light splitting subsequent supervention of membrane array 650 again it is estranged from, a part of light through third light splitting membrane array 650 reflection from The side wall of decoupling waveguide projects away, and another part continues to propagate in decoupling waveguide through the third light splitting transmission of membrane array 650.

Optionally, in multiple spectro-films of third light splitting membrane array 650, close to light by the incident decoupling of lower layer's waveguide 120 The transmitance of the spectro-film of (or first side) is smaller at 600 position of waveguide, far from light by the incident decoupling wave of lower layer's waveguide 120 The transmitance for leading at 600 positions the spectro-film of (or first side) is larger, for example, the phase of the third light splitting membrane array 650 of Figure 11 b In adjacent two spectro-films, the transmitance of the spectro-film in left side is not more than the transmitance of the spectro-film on right side.Above-mentioned third spectro-film Array 650 can make the energy for the light being emitted from decoupling waveguide 600 more balanced, improve the viewing experience of user.

It should be understood that decoupling waveguide 600 can also have other implementations other than the mode shown in Figure 11 a to Figure 11 d, For example, decoupling waveguide can in a manner of aforementioned be coupled into 1 realization 120 emergent light of lower layer's waveguide be coupled into, and be based on aforementioned decoupling side The outgoing of the realization light of formula 2.In another example decoupling waveguide can in a manner of aforementioned be coupled into 2 realize 120 emergent lights of lower layer's waveguide coupling Enter, and realizes the outgoing of light based on aforementioned decoupling mode 1.

Not only implementation is simple for above-mentioned a variety of decoupling waveguiding structures, and cost is relatively low, and can be emitted from wider region Light improves the region area of emergent ray, improves imaging effect, furthermore, by above-mentioned decoupling waveguiding structure, can effectively subtract Small user checks the thickness at picture position, and for the structure shown in Figure 11 a, the thickness that user checks at picture position is coupling The thickness of waveguide out, compared to the double-deck waveguiding structure that upper layer waveguide 110 and lower layer's waveguide 120 are formed, thickness is significantly reduced.

It should be understood that also may include the aforementioned first even photosphere 400 and/or in display device shown in Figure 10 to Figure 11 d Two even photospheres 500 etc. are no longer all shown in figure.

More than, the only specific embodiment of the application, but the protection scope of the application is not limited thereto, and it is any to be familiar with Those skilled in the art within the technical scope of the present application, can easily think of the change or the replacement, and should all cover Within the protection scope of the application.Therefore, the protection scope of the application should be subject to the protection scope in claims.

Claims (13)

1. a kind of optical waveguide structure, which is characterized in that including upper layer waveguide, lower layer's waveguide and be located at the upper layer waveguide and institute State the first beam splitter layer between lower layer's waveguide;
The upper layer waveguide, including the first upper surface, the first lower surface and be located at first upper surface and described first under The second light splitting membrane array between surface, first upper surface is parallel with first lower surface, the second spectro-film battle array Column include at least two wavelength spectro-films, and at least two wavelength spectro-film is parallel to each other, and with first lower surface shape Angle in an acute angle, at least two wavelength spectro-film are used for the light reflection it will be seen that in light at least three wave bands, remaining Wave band penetrates, wherein at least three wave band is the wave band for projection imaging;
Lower layer's waveguide includes the second upper surface and the second lower surface, and second upper surface and second lower surface are flat Row;
The two sides of first beam splitter layer is contacted with first lower surface, second upper surface respectively, first light splitting For reflecting a part of incident ray, rest part penetrates layer.
2. optical waveguide structure according to claim 1, which is characterized in that first beam splitter layer includes spectro-film or grating Array is used for: by incidence angle at 0 ° to θ190% to 99% part of the light in range penetrates, 10% to 1% part Reflection, and, by incidence angle in θ15% to 20% part of the light within the scope of to 90 ° penetrates, 95% to 80% part Reflection, θ1Greater than 0 ° and less than 90 °.
3. optical waveguide structure according to claim 1 or 2, which is characterized in that the refractive index of the upper layer waveguide is equal to institute State the refractive index of lower layer's waveguide.
4. optical waveguide structure according to claim 1 or 2, it is characterised in that:
First beam splitter layer is a spectro-film, and the splitting ratio ascending change along a first direction of a spectro-film Change;Or
First beam splitter layer includes at least two spectro-films, and two adjacent spectro-films are close to the first of lower layer's waveguide The splitting ratio of the spectro-film of side, no more than the splitting ratio of the spectro-film close to the second side of lower layer's waveguide;Or
First beam splitter layer includes at least two spectro-films, and the spacing distance between two adjacent spectro-films is along described The descending variation of first direction;Or
First beam splitter layer is grating array, and the energy proportion of 0 grade of reflected light of the grating array is along described first The descending variation in direction, and/or, the diffraction efficiency of effective diffraction time of the grating array along the first direction by It is small to change to big;
Wherein, the first direction is the direction that second side is directed toward in first side.
5. a kind of display device characterized by comprising
Frame;
Such as the described in any item optical waveguide structures of Claims 1-4, fix on said frame;And
Fixed projection module on said frame, for the light into incident at least three wave band of lower layer's waveguide Line.
6. display device according to claim 5, which is characterized in that further include:
First even photosphere, the first even smooth film including second lower surface is arranged in or be arranged below lower layer's waveguide and Fixed the first even mating plate on said frame, the transmitance ascending variation along a first direction of the first even photosphere, The first direction is the direction that the second side of lower layer's waveguide is directed toward in the first side of lower layer's waveguide.
7. display device according to claim 6, which is characterized in that further include:
Second even photosphere, the second even smooth film including first upper surface is arranged in or be arranged above the upper layer waveguide and Fixed the second even mating plate on said frame, the transmitance of the second even photosphere is along the descending change of the first direction Change.
8. display device according to any one of claims 5 to 7, which is characterized in that further include:
Decoupling waveguide, be located at below second lower surface and it is fixed on said frame, for receive, propagate and export from The light of the second lower surface outgoing.
9. display device according to claim 8, which is characterized in that the decoupling waveguide includes being coupled into grating, and setting exists The third upper surface of second lower surface described in the face of the decoupling waveguide, being used for will be from the received light in the second lower surface It is coupled into the decoupling waveguide.
10. display device according to claim 8, which is characterized in that the decoupling waveguide includes the first face and second Face, wherein first face is used to receive the light of second lower surface outgoing, and by received light transmission to described second Face, for that will transmit the light total reflection of coming through first face, first face is located at the decoupling waveguide in second face Surface, second face are located at the surface or inside of the decoupling waveguide, and first face and second face are not parallel.
11. display device according to claim 10, which is characterized in that be located at the decoupling waveguide in second face When surface, first face for wedge surface or is provided with the optical texture containing wedge surface with one in second face.
12. display device according to any one of claims 8 to 11, which is characterized in that the decoupling waveguide includes setting In the decoupling grating of the wave guide wall of the decoupling waveguide, for by the decoupling grating propagated in the decoupling waveguide, incident A part of light be emitted from the wave guide wall, another part reflection.
13. display device according to any one of claims 8 to 11, which is characterized in that the decoupling waveguide includes setting Third inside the decoupling waveguide is divided membrane array, and the third light splitting membrane array in the decoupling waveguide for will propagate , a part of the light of the incident third light splitting membrane array reflex to the wave guide wall outgoing of the decoupling waveguide, rest part Through.
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