CN109715989A - Planet carrier and the technique and equipment for manufacturing the planet carrier - Google Patents

Planet carrier and the technique and equipment for manufacturing the planet carrier Download PDF

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Publication number
CN109715989A
CN109715989A CN201880003561.3A CN201880003561A CN109715989A CN 109715989 A CN109715989 A CN 109715989A CN 201880003561 A CN201880003561 A CN 201880003561A CN 109715989 A CN109715989 A CN 109715989A
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
planet carrier
prefabricated component
bending
integral type
forging
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Pending
Application number
CN201880003561.3A
Other languages
Chinese (zh)
Inventor
巴巴萨海布·尼尔康德·卡利亚尼
巴萨夫拉吉·普拉巴卡·卡利亚尼
马丹·乌马坎特·塔卡尔
维贾库马尔·汉努曼特·哈斯尼斯
拉姆达斯·尼扬德夫·萨特
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Barrett Forging Co Ltd
Bharat Forge Ltd
Original Assignee
Barrett Forging Co Ltd
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to IN201721010239 priority Critical
Priority to IN201721010239 priority
Application filed by Barrett Forging Co Ltd filed Critical Barrett Forging Co Ltd
Priority to PCT/IB2018/051882 priority patent/WO2018172945A1/en
Publication of CN109715989A publication Critical patent/CN109715989A/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

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Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21CMANUFACTURE OF METAL SHEETS, WIRE, RODS, TUBES OR PROFILES, OTHERWISE THAN BY ROLLING; AUXILIARY OPERATIONS USED IN CONNECTION WITH METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL
    • B21C23/00Extruding metal; Impact extrusion
    • B21C23/02Making uncoated products
    • B21C23/18Making uncoated products by impact extrusion
    • B21C23/183Making uncoated products by impact extrusion by forward extrusion
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21CMANUFACTURE OF METAL SHEETS, WIRE, RODS, TUBES OR PROFILES, OTHERWISE THAN BY ROLLING; AUXILIARY OPERATIONS USED IN CONNECTION WITH METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL
    • B21C23/00Extruding metal; Impact extrusion
    • B21C23/02Making uncoated products
    • B21C23/18Making uncoated products by impact extrusion
    • B21C23/186Making uncoated products by impact extrusion by backward extrusion
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21JFORGING; HAMMERING; PRESSING METAL; RIVETING; FORGE FURNACES
    • B21J1/00Preparing metal stock or similar ancillary operations prior, during or post forging, e.g. heating or cooling
    • B21J1/06Heating or cooling methods or arrangements specially adapted for performing forging or pressing operations
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21JFORGING; HAMMERING; PRESSING METAL; RIVETING; FORGE FURNACES
    • B21J5/00Methods for forging, hammering, or pressing; Special equipment or accessories therefor
    • B21J5/02Die forging; Trimming by making use of special dies ; Punching during forging
    • B21J5/025Closed die forging
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21KMAKING FORGED OR PRESSED METAL PRODUCTS, e.g. HORSE-SHOES, RIVETS, BOLTS OR WHEELS
    • B21K1/00Making machine elements
    • B21K1/26Making machine elements housings or supporting parts, e.g. axle housings, engine mountings
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21KMAKING FORGED OR PRESSED METAL PRODUCTS, e.g. HORSE-SHOES, RIVETS, BOLTS OR WHEELS
    • B21K1/00Making machine elements
    • B21K1/76Making machine elements elements not mentioned in one of the preceding groups
    • B21K1/762Coupling members for conveying mechanical motion, e.g. universal joints
    • B21K1/765Outer elements of coupling members
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21DWORKING OR PROCESSING OF SHEET METAL OR METAL TUBES, RODS OR PROFILES WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21D11/00Bending not restricted to forms of material mentioned in only one of groups B21D5/00, B21D7/00, B21D9/00; Bending not provided for in groups B21D5/00 - B21D9/00; Twisting
    • B21D11/02Bending by stretching or pulling over a die
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F05INDEXING SCHEMES RELATING TO ENGINES OR PUMPS IN VARIOUS SUBCLASSES OF CLASSES F01-F04
    • F05BINDEXING SCHEME RELATING TO WIND, SPRING, WEIGHT, INERTIA OR LIKE MOTORS, TO MACHINES OR ENGINES FOR LIQUIDS COVERED BY SUBCLASSES F03B, F03D AND F03G
    • F05B2260/00Function
    • F05B2260/40Transmission of power
    • F05B2260/403Transmission of power through the shape of the drive components
    • F05B2260/4031Transmission of power through the shape of the drive components as in toothed gearing
    • F05B2260/40311Transmission of power through the shape of the drive components as in toothed gearing of the epicyclic, planetary or differential type
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16HGEARING
    • F16H57/00General details of gearing
    • F16H57/08General details of gearing of gearings with members having orbital motion
    • F16H57/082Planet carriers

Abstract

The present invention relates to the integral type planet carriers of no linking part, the equipment for manufacturing the method for the integral type planet carrier and manufacturing the integral type planet carrier.Compared with the planet carrier of the more than one piece connection routinely produced or the integral type planet carrier made of casting technique, this integrally manufactured component has better intensity.The present invention provides a kind of hot forging process that can be used to manufacture planet carrier.The manufacturing process includes forward extrusion then backward extrusion blank.Followed by bending operation, being then followed by is to flatten operation.It is followed by other processing of heat treatment after forging and such as bead.Implement machining finally to obtain final integrally formed planet carrier.Forward extrusion operation, backward extrusion operation, bending operation and pressing operation are completed on the press or forging hammer with enough energy and load capacity.Preferably, these operations are executed on a hydraulic press to realize required accuracy and precision.

Description

Planet carrier and the technique and equipment for manufacturing the planet carrier
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of planet carriers.Particularly, the present invention relates to the planets in the power drive system for being used in vehicle Frame.More particularly, it relates to a kind of integral type planet carrier and manufacture the hot forging process of the integral type planet carrier.
Background technique
Planet carrier is used in epicyclic gear system.Epicyclic gear system or planetary gear system include three provided as follows The gear of seed type:
1, sun gear (usual only one)
2, planetary gear (more than one)
3, gear ring.
The gear train is worked in a manner of the planetary system of the sun and various planets that are similar in the solar system.Sun tooth Wheel is at the center of system (similar to the sun in the solar system).Planetary gear (usually two or more) is engaged with sun gear And it encloses and rotates about.Gear ring is engaged with planetary gear.Rotary motion is transmitted to planetary gear to gear ring or with it from sun gear Its mode surrounds.
Planetary gear is generally mounted on the referred to as moveable part of frame.The rotary shaft phase of sun gear and planet carrier Together, but they can be rotated independently of each other.In epicyclic gear system the cogged rotary shaft of institute it is generally parallel to each other (for Some specific conditions they can be it is angled).
When needing the very transmission of high torque or very high transmission ratio, planetary gear system or epicyclic train of gears are used System.During motion transmission, multiple planetary gears by rotary motion from sun gear be transmitted to gear ring (or vice versa).Transmission Torque is supported between planetary gear impartial distribution.Compared with standard parallel shaft gear system, planetary gear system or turnover tooth Wheel system is designed to the biography for providing high power density, and being suitably employed in very big dump truck, tipping lorry etc. In dynamic system.
As previously explained, planet carrier carries all planetary gears.There are two cylindrical part/sections for its tool.As shown in figure 1 Show, larger cylindrical sector (1A) be it is hollow, both ends are closed or are capped.One in closed end has axis can With the centre bore passed through.On the other hand, spindle-type extension (2) is provided.Hollow cylindrical portion (1A) has on its side surface There are window (3).Planetary gear is installed in hollow cylindrical portion (1A) by window (3).Sun gear, which is installed in, to be worn It crosses on the axis of the centre bore of planet carrier.The axis of planet carrier and the axis of sun gear are identical, and each planetary gear axis and the sun The axis of gear is parallel to each other.
Planet carrier is used in the transmission system of large-scale tipping lorry or dump car etc..Since the complexity of planet carrier is several What mechanism, is usually manufactured into two parts typically via forging and (is represented as part 1 and part in Figure 1A and Figure 1B 2) it, is then attached at together to realize final shape.Then, separately fabricated various pieces (part 1 and part 2) pass through weldering It connects or is bolted and be attached at together.In some cases, metal sheet forging technology is also used for manufacture various pieces (part 1 and part 2).
Several patents or patent application disclose planet carrier.However, being not publicly made using hot forging method and being used in vapour Integral type planet carrier in turner industry.
Patent CN103615525A and CN104148797B, which are disclosed, manufactures planet carrier with two parts, then by EBW or It welds or is bolted and link them.
Patent US3667324, US3842481, US4043021, US5558593, US7214160 and US4721014 are equal It is open to form manufactured planet carrier using metal sheet, and two board members for being typically formed planet carrier use connection (weldering Connecing, be bolted) method is attached at together.These patents are without open integrally formed planet carrier.
United States Patent (USP) 9702451, which discloses, to be opened in a kind of structure and will need closed planet carrier.In addition, the patent does not have The method of open manufacture planet carrier.
Chinese patent CN103769825 will be needed using the cold forging method of planet carrier of the manufacture without enclosed construction Individual closing cap.
Chinese patent CN102829171, CN203809666 and CN204327937 are disclosed using one made of casting The planet carrier that body is formed.Forging part, which has, uses the not obtainable preferable performance of foundry engieering.
Chinese patent 103963233 discloses a kind of integral type planet carrier being made of plastics using injection molding technology.Device It can not be applied to metal planet carrier.
Finally, German patent application DE102011011438 discloses a kind of manufacturing method using roll forming operation, it should Rolling formation operation utilizes increment forging technology.Planet carrier is not to be made into integration and includes the connection of multiple portions.
The conventional method as disclosed in the prior art has the shortcomings that following associated therewith:
1, since frame is made into two parts, then link, so intensity is inherently smaller compared with unitary members, Because weld strength depends on welding quality and its position.
2, manufacturing process becomes tediously long, this is because two parts must be separately fabricated, then must implement connection technique.
3, when casting method be used to manufacture integral type planet carrier, then it will have " as cast condition " microscopic structure, this is aobvious Micro-assembly robot has many casting flaws and lower mechanical performance.The microscopic structure of the part will include Dendritic TiC and such as gap, split The casting flaws such as seam, microporosity.
Therefore, in the prior art there are room for promotion, because integral type planet carrier and manufacturing the one by hot forging process The method of formula planet carrier will not only increase the intensity of component and reduce the manufacturing cycle.
Summary of the invention
The some targets for the disclosure that at least one embodiment of this paper meets are as follows:
It is an object of the present invention to provide a kind of one (single-piece) formula planet carriers.
Another target of the disclosure is to provide the method for manufacturing integral type planet carrier by hot forging process.
The another target of the disclosure is to provide a kind of integral type planet carrier with the preferable ratio of strength to weight.
The additional objects and advantages of the disclosure will be apparent from by the following description for being not intended to be limited to disclosure range.
The present invention relates to a kind of integral type planet carrier of no linking part and the methods for manufacturing the integral type planet carrier.With routine The planet carrier or the integral type planet carrier made of casting technique of the more than one piece connection of production are compared, this integrally manufactured component tool There is better intensity.
The present invention provides the hot forging process that can be used to manufacture planet carrier.The manufacturing process, which includes that forward extrusion is then anti-, squeezes Green compact material (not shown).Followed by bending operation, being then followed by is to flatten operation.
Forward extrusion operation, backward extrusion operation, bending operation and pressing operation are in the pressure with enough energy and load capacity It is completed on machine or forging hammer.Preferably, these operations are executed on a hydraulic press to realize required accuracy and precision.
Detailed description of the invention
Figure 1A and Figure 1B shows the typical planet carrier of the prior art.
Fig. 1 C and Fig. 1 D show integral type planet carrier of the invention.
Fig. 2 shows the flow charts of forging technology of the invention.
Fig. 3 A shows the schematic diagram for the mechanism (set-up) that forward extrusion technique uses.
Fig. 3 B and Fig. 3 C show the first prefabricated component obtained after forward extrusion technique.
Fig. 4 A shows the schematic diagram for the mechanism that backward extrusion technology uses.
Fig. 4 B and Fig. 4 C show the second prefabricated component obtained after backward extrusion technology.
Fig. 5 shows the integral type planet carrier of the forging obtained after flattening operation, and Fig. 5 A shows main view, and Fig. 5 B is shown The sectional view of integral type planet carrier.
The list of each section
1- planet carrier 7B- forges the head portion of the integral type planet carrier of state (as forged)
The processed integral type planet carrier of the cylindrical part 7C- of 1A- planet carrier
The spindle-type extension 7D- of 2- planet carrier final integral type planet carrier
Window FT- forward extrusion upper mold on the side surface of 3- cylindrical part (1A)
4- the first prefabricated component FB- forward extrusion lower die
The cylindrical part or head BT- backward extrusion upper mold of the first prefabricated component of 4A-
The small-diameter circular cylindricality part of the first prefabricated component of 4B- or axis BB- backward extrusion lower die
The second prefabricated component of 5- DT- is bent/deform upper mold
The second prefabricated component of 5A- band wall (walled) hollow space or blind hole DB- be bent/deform lower die
The small-diameter circular cylindricality part of the second prefabricated component of 5B- or axis FLT- flatten upper mold
6- third prefabricated component FU1- is for the upper chamber (the first upper chamber) in the lower die of forward extrusion
7- forges state integral type planet carrier FL1- for the lower chambers (the first lower chambers) in the lower die of forward extrusion
The flattened section of 7A- forging state integral type planet carrier
S1- is for the upper chamber (the first sub-chamber) in the lower die of backward extrusion
S2- is for the lower chambers (the second sub-chamber) in the lower die of backward extrusion
C1- is bent upper chamber (the second upper chamber) R- percussion hammer (Ram) in lower die
C2- is bent lower chambers (the second lower chambers) R1- recess portion in lower die
Specific embodiment
The present invention relates to the planet carriers (1) for using hot forging process manufacture to be used for planetary gear system.Crucial hair of the invention Bright feature be integral type planet carrier and manufacture the integral type planet carrier technique design and exploitation.
According to the present invention, which starts from the forging blank as raw material.Raw material are heated in furnace Then the temperature needed carries out forward extrusion in press.As seen from Fig. 1, planet carrier have large cylindrical section (1A) and Compared with roundlet cylindrical sections (2).The diameter difference between the two sections is being generated in blank (by Fig. 3 during forward extrusion technique 4A&4B indicate).Therefore, the material that forward extrusion operation provides needs to raw material is distributed.Then, the blank quilt through forward extrusion It is transmitted to backward extruding die, completes backward extrusion operation here.
Then, the prefabricated component through backward extrusion is cooled to room temperature.The prefabricated component is heated, and is then passed to forging press, Here, bending operation is executed, operation is then flattened.The operation makes component become its final form.In another embodiment, it passes through The prefabricated component of backward extrusion is directly transferred to bending station and flattens station, and entire technique is performed and intermediate reheats without any.
It is heat treatment process after hot forging, followed by mechanical processing technique.
Planet carrier manufacturing process
As shown in Figure 2, the manufacturing process invented generally comprises the following steps:
1, blank or raw material heating
The forging blank of material requested chemistry is used for this technique.The section for the blank that the operation is taken and length be based on to The material of the part of production needs scheduled.The cross section of blank can be round or sphering cross section (RCS).Preferably, make Use circular cross section.Blank is heated within the temperature range of 1150 DEG C -1280 DEG C enough in oil and gas furnace or electric furnace The hot time is to realize the uniform temperature of the blank of heating.The output of this technique is the blank of heating.
2, forward extrusion
Forward extrusion is that blank is forced to the technique flowed in the same direction when percussion hammer be used to apply pressure.Forward extrusion Technique is completed using the combination of forward extrusion upper mold (FT) and forward extrusion lower die (FB) (see Fig. 3 A).It is connected to the forward extrusion of percussion hammer Thus the outer surface tight fit lower die chamber of upper mold prevents material from squeezing and passes through it, and controls material in side identical with percussion hammer It flows up.
The operation is equipped on the blank of heating at forward extrusion station using the forging with required energy and load capacity Implement.The blank of heating is placed in the coaxillay aligned lower die of longitudinal axis (FB) along the forward extrusion upper mold (FT), And forward extrusion is subjected to using upper mold-lower die combination.Forward extrusion upper mold (FT) is axially and coaxially towards the blank of the heating It is mobile, until generating first prefabricated component.The operation is given required material to backward extrusion step and is distributed.Forward extrusion operation Output is the first prefabricated component (4), with solid upper cylindrical sector or head (4A) and solid lower cylindrical sector or Axis (4B), the diameter of the part solid head (4A) are greater than the diameter of axis (4B).
Forward extrusion upper mold (FT) used in forward extrusion step is cylindrical cross-section, and the diameter having is equal to or slightly The diameter of the small blank in heating.
Lower die used in the operation (FB) includes that there are two the chambers of diameter for tool.Upper part (or the first epicoele of chamber Room FU1) diameter be equal to solid cylindrical head section 4A needed for diameter, and its length/depth is than the blank of heating Greatly at least 1.5 times of length.Further, it should be noted that the diameter of the blank of the heating of the input as the operation is also equal to or slightly Less than the diameter of upper chamber, the blank of heating is easily inserted into the first upper chamber (FU1).Chamber lower part (or First lower chambers FL1) diameter meet axis 4B needed for diameter, and its length/depth is 1mm bigger than length needed for axis 4B extremely 50mm。
3, backward extrusion
Then, the first prefabricated component (4) through forward extrusion is subjected to backward extrusion operation.It is important that minimizing the first prefabricated component (4) be transmitted to the time at backward extrusion station so that the first prefabricated component temperature reduce not more than its forward extrusion technique at the end of Temperature 5%-10%.Backward extrusion proposed by specification and forward extrusion on the contrary, and in backward extrusion metal be forced to The contrary side of percussion hammer flows up.The side surface of backward extrusion upper mold (BT) (being attached to percussion hammer) is from the backward extrusion upper mold (BT) bottom surface is circumferentially recessed until length L1, to generate the mirror of recess portion (or hollow portion-R1) in the first prefabricated component as needed Picture.The material on the head (4A) of the first prefabricated component flows into the gap under by the effect of the power of the mobile application of backward extrusion upper mold (BT) Or in recess portion (R1), to generate band wall hollow space (5A) (the second prefabricated component -5) with open end.
In a preferred embodiment, the lower die for forward extrusion step and backward extrusion step is identical physics mould.
However, it is possible to use physically different lower dies.In this scenario, lower die has the chamber made of Liang Ge sub-chamber Room, each sub-chamber have the diameter different from another sub-chamber.The diameter of first sub-chamber (S1) is equal to band wall hollow space Outer diameter needed for (5A).The length of first sub-chamber (S1) is greater than the length with wall hollow space (5A), i.e. L.Second sub-chamber (S2) diameter is convenient for receiving solid cylindrical axis (5B).The length of second sub-chamber is bigger than the length of solid cylindrical axis (5B) 1mm to 50mm.In another embodiment, the length of the second sub-chamber is equal to the length of solid cylindrical axis (5B).
In the case that physically different lower dies is used for backward extrusion operation, the first prefabricated component, which is centered, is placed on second In sub-chamber, so that the central longitudinal axis of the central longitudinal axis of the second sub-chamber and the first prefabricated component is aligned.
When percussion hammer pushes backward extrusion upper mold (BT), the material of solid cylindrical head (4A) is flowed into recess portion (R1), i.e., Gap between the inner wall and backward extrusion upper mold (BT) of lower die (BB).Backward extrusion operation generate have band wall hollow space (5A) and The second prefabricated component (5) (see Fig. 4 B and Fig. 4 C) of solid cylindrical axis (5B), the band wall hollow space (5A) have outer length L and Interior length L1.
The length of the peripheral recess (R1) provided in backward extrusion upper mold (BT) is substantially and with the interior of wall hollow space (5A) Length (L1) is identical.
During backward extrusion, the small diameter of prefabricated component does not change, i.e. diameter of the diameter of axis 4B equal to axis 5B.The operation It can be completed on there is load enough and any forging of energy ability equipment.Preferably, which completes on a hydraulic press. The output of the technique is the second prefabricated component (5).
4, the second prefabricated component is heated
The temperature of the second prefabricated component minimum forging temperature is maintained above in any stage to be important.Preferably, most Low forging temperature is 900 DEG C.If the temperature of the second prefabricated component drops below this value, the second prefabricated component is heated to 1150 DEG C -1280 DEG C of temperature range.1150 DEG C -1280 DEG C of temperature range will can be simply heated to wall hollow space (5A) and Not heated mandrel 5B.The heating of second prefabricated component is completed using induction heater or fuel oil or gas furnace.In the second prefabricated component quilt In the case where heating, the output of the operation is the second prefabricated component of heating.
5, it is bent
Bending operation can be completed in the equipment of any casting with enough energy and load capacity.Preferably, exist It is completed on hydraulic press.The output of the operation is third prefabricated component (6).In this operation, the second of the second prefabricated component or heating is pre- The some parts close to its open end of the hollow space or blind hole (5A) of product are using bending upper mold towards in the prefabricated component Heart longitudinal axis deformation (or bending or inclination), it is at an angle with the central longitudinal axis shape relative to the second prefabricated component, thus Generate inclined wall.
Second prefabricated component is placed in bending lower die.Bending lower die includes the chamber (C) having there are two different-diameter, with Just the shaft portion (5B) of the second prefabricated component is accommodated completely and partly accommodates band wall hollow space (5A).
The lower curtate (C1) (the second lower chambers) of the chamber (C) meets the cylindrical region 5B's of the second prefabricated component of heating Diameter.Further, the length of the chamber is equal to or more than the length of 5B.
The upper curtate (C2) (the second upper chamber) of bending lower die chamber, which has, to be met with the straight of wall hollow space (5A) outer diameter Diameter.Upper chamber (C2) length is the about 30%-80% with wall hollow space (5A) length (L).Therefore, the second prefabricated component is hollow Partially (5A) protrudes past the top surface of bending lower die with the length of a protruding portion, and the length of the protruding portion is band wall hollow space The amount (0.2L to 0.7L, referring to fig. 4 A) of the 20%-70% of the outer length L of (5A).As explained above, hollow space (5A) Part inwardly (towards the central longitudinal axis) bending/inclination being projected into outside bending lower die.
Implement to deform by the way that upper mold will be bent towards lower die movement in bending operation.Being bent upper mold has the interior of cone Chamber, the central longitudinal axis inclined surface at an angle relative to bending upper mold are pushed to the second prefabricated component.When therefrom When heart longitudinal axis measures, the angle is less than 90 degree, preferably at 15 degree to 55 degree.When it contacts the second prefabricated component, second The part for extending over bending lower die of prefabricated component deforms under the power effect applied mobile due to upper mold.The output of the operation is Third prefabricated component (6).Remaining undeformed part of hollow space (5A) maintains substantially parallel to the longitudinal direction of third prefabricated component (6) Axis.
In this operation, the smaller diameter portion of third prefabricated component (6) also keeps undeformed.
6, it flattens
Lower die for flattening operation is identical as the lower die of bending operation.Only upper mold by have the second annular recessed portion or The pressing upper mold substitution of annular compartment is for flattening operation.The outer diameter of the annular compartment is equal to forging state integral type planet carrier (7) Head portion (7B) outer diameter.The internal diameter of the annular compartment is equal to the internal diameter D of 7A (as shown in Fig. 5 B).It is operated flattening In, deformation/bending/inclined wall part of third prefabricated component (6) is further modified and forms flattened section to be flattened (7A).Applanation surface is substantially perpendicular to longitudinal axis.In this operation, the smaller diameter portion of prefabricated component is also kept unchanged Shape.The output of the operation is the integral type planet carrier (7) being hot-forged as shown in Figure 5.
7, it is operated after heat treatment operation and forging
Then, the integral type planet carrier (7) of resulting hot forging is heat-treated to realize required mechanical performance.Such as spray It operates after the forging of ball etc. and optionally also implements on the components.The output of the operation is processed integral type planet carrier.
8, it is machined
The section of the integral type planet carrier of hot forging is engraved (carve out) and is machined, to generate such as Fig. 1 (C And D) shown in final integral type planet carrier.
Therefore processes disclosed herein produces a kind of planet carrier (1), which is integral type object or is integrally formed Object, be made without linking part and using heat forging technology.
As another aspect of the present invention, the open equipment for producing integrally formed planet carrier.It includes that sequence is put The following tool set:
For heating the blank heating station of blank;
It is used for the blank forward extrusion into the forward extrusion station of the first prefabricated component (4);
It is used for the first prefabricated component (4) backward extrusion into the backward extrusion station of the second prefabricated component (5);
Band wall hollow space (5A) for making second prefabricated component (5) deform to generate with deformed or bent or The bending station of the third prefabricated component (6) of tilting band wall hollow space;
For described deformed or bent or tilting band wall hollow space being flattened to generate the integral type planet carrier of forging state (7) pressing station;
For by it is described forging state integral type planet carrier be processed into processed integral type planet carrier (7C) heat treatment and Forging post-processing station;
For the processed integral type planet carrier (7C) to be machined into the final integral type planet carrier The machining station of (7D).
By discussed above it is evident that bending station disclosed herein needs to forge equipment, preferably hydraulic press, bending upper mold (DT) it is placed in forging equipment with bending lower die (DB), bending upper mold and bending lower die are described by coaxial placement, and wherein Being bent upper mold (DT) has the conical chamber towards bending lower die (DB), wherein when second prefabricated component (5) is put It sets when on the bending lower die (DB), the bending upper mold (DT) can be mobile to accommodate towards the bending lower die (DB) State the protruding portion of the second prefabricated component (5).Further, when from its central longitudinal axis, the surface of the cone chamber has Angle less than 90 degree, preferably 15 degree to 55 degree of angle.In the another aspect of equipment disclosed herein, flattening station has It flattens upper mold (FLT), which has the second annular recessed portion or annular compartment.Finally, if it is desired, heating station is set To heat second prefabricated component (5) between backward extrusion station and bending station, to ensure that the temperature of the second prefabricated component does not reduce To lower than minimum required forging temperature.
The benefit of the invention is as follows:
1, a kind of manufacturing process in this invention, is proposed, which allows using entirety/hot forging method manufacture without even The planet carrier of knot.Therefore, the output of this technique is the integral type row with the excellent product performance realized due to hot forging process Carrier (as shown in Fig. 1 C& Fig. 1 D).
2, the integrated property of component improves the intensity of component, this increases its service life.
3, the forging structure of component is (that is, discontinuous crystal grain streamline, equiax crystal/microstructure anisotropy and without any sky Gap, micropore or crack) mechanical performance and fatigue behaviour of component are also improved, therefore increase its service life.
4, the inventive features of forging technology stream are that sequence forging step and forge mould, the forge mould cause under the conditions of forging state The formation (as shown in Fig. 5 B) for closing or covering structure formed, to eliminate to using as welded, being bolted The needs of any linking method.
5, equipment disclosed herein allows to produce planet carrier, the planet carrier be integral type object or integrally formed object, It no linking part and is made using heat forging technology.
Although above description includes many specificity, these are not necessarily to be construed as limiting the scope of the invention, but Example as its preferred embodiment.It should be appreciated that without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention, be based on more than The disclosure provided is able to carry out change and variation.Correspondingly, the scope of the present invention should not be determined by the embodiment shown, And it is determined by appended claim and its legal equivalents.

Claims (24)

1. a kind of planet carrier, which is characterized in that the planet carrier is integral type planet carrier (7D), without linking part and using hot forging skill Art is made, and the planet carrier (1) includes the cylindrical part or head (7B) and axis (5B) with flattened section (7A), and Wherein the section of the planet carrier (1) is carved and is machined to generate final integral type planet carrier (7D).
2. planet carrier as described in claim 1, which is characterized in that it is with discontinuous crystal grain streamline.
3. it is a kind of manufacture integral type planet carrier (7D) technique, which is characterized in that the technique the following steps are included:
Blank is heated to generate the blank of heating;
The blank of heating described in forward extrusion is to generate the first prefabricated component (4) with head (4A) and axis (4B);
First prefabricated component (4) described in backward extrusion has the second prefabricated component with wall hollow space (5A) and axis (5B) to generate (5);
Ensure that the temperature of second prefabricated component (5) is maintained at minimum forging temperature or is higher than minimum forging temperature;
Band wall hollow space (5A) of second prefabricated component (5) is set to be bent or deform to generate third prefabricated component (6), this Three prefabricated components (6) include the head with bending or deformation or inclined wall part;
The bending or deformation or inclined wall part are flattened to generate the integral type planet carrier of hot forging, the one of the hot forging Formula planet carrier includes the head (7B) with flattened section (7A);
The integral type planet carrier (7) for having the hot forging for flattening head (7A) is heat-treated, is then sprayed Ball, to generate processed integral type planet carrier (7C);
The processed integral type planet carrier (7C) is machined to generate final integral type planet carrier (7D);
Thus the technique brings integrally formed planet carrier (7D).
4. technique as claimed in claim 3, which is characterized in that in heating stepses, the blank is heated in furnace 1150 DEG C to 1280 DEG C of temperature.
5. the technique as described in any one of claim 3 and 4, which is characterized in that the forward extrusion step is at forward extrusion station Implemented using the combination of forward extrusion upper mold (FT) and lower die (FB), is just being squeezed wherein the blank of the heating is placed on along described It presses in the lower die (FB) of central longitudinal axis alignment of upper mold (FT), and the forward extrusion upper mold (FT) is axially and together Axis towards the heating blank it is mobile until generating first prefabricated component (4), first prefabricated component (4) has solid Upper cylindrical sector or head (4A) and lower cylindrical sector or axis (4B), wherein the diameter of the part the head (4A) is greater than The diameter of the axis (4B).
6. the technique as described in any one of claim 3 to 5, which is characterized in that the backward extrusion step makes in hydraulic press Implemented with the combination of backward extrusion upper mold (BT) and backward extrusion lower die (BB), wherein the side surface of the backward extrusion upper mold (BT) from this The bottom surface of backward extrusion upper mold (BT) is circumferentially recessed until length (L1), thus in the side surface and the backward extrusion lower die (BB) Upper chamber inner face between generate recess portion or gap (R1), and wherein the material of the head (4A) by the backward extrusion The power effect of the mobile application of upper mold (BT) is lower to be flowed into the gap (R1) to generate as the one of second prefabricated component (5) Partial band wall hollow space (5A) with open end.
7. the technique as described in any one of claim 3 to 6, which is characterized in that ensuring the second prefabricated component (5) maintenance It, should if the temperature of the second prefabricated component (5) falls below the minimum forging temperature in the step of higher than minimum forging temperature Second prefabricated component (5) is heated, and heating is preferably implemented into the temperature between 1150 DEG C and 1280 DEG C.
8. the technique as described in any one of claim 3 to 7, which is characterized in that for generating the third prefabricated component (6) The bending step is implemented on forging equipment using bending upper mold (DT) and bending lower die (DB), and the forging equipment is preferably Hydraulic press, wherein when according to circumstances the second prefabricated component (5) of second prefabricated component (5) or heating is placed under the bending When on mould (DB), so that there are the protruding portion of the band wall hollow space (5A), which protrudes past the bending lower die (DB) top surface.
9. technique as claimed in claim 8, which is characterized in that bending upper mold (DT) has the inner cavity chamber of cone, should The inner cavity chamber of cone has the central longitudinal axis inclined surface at an angle relative to second prefabricated component (5).
10. the technique as described in any one of claim 8 to 9, which is characterized in that the angle is less than 90 degree.
11. the technique as described in any one of claim 8 to 10, which is characterized in that the angle is between 15 degree and 55 degree.
12. the technique as described in any one of claim 8 to 11, which is characterized in that the length of protruding portion is in the band wall The 20% to 70% of the outer length of empty part (5A).
13. the technique as described in any one of claim 8 to 12, which is characterized in that the bending upper mold (DT) is pushed to institute The second prefabricated component (5) are stated until the protruding portion is substantially in the chamber of the cone, so that being formed has the bending Or the third prefabricated component (6) of inclined wall part.
14. the technique as described in any one of claim 3 to 13, which is characterized in that in the described of the third prefabricated component (6) The pressing executed in bending or inclined wall part operates with and the identical lower die used in the bending step Implement, and the pressing upper mold (FLT) wherein with annular chamber or annular compartment be used to implement the inclined wall part Pressing, with generate hot forging integral type planet carrier (7).
15. the technique as described in any one of claim 3 to 14, which is characterized in that the integral type planet carrier (7) of the hot forging It is heat-treated and is subjected to the forging post-processing of such as shot-peening, to generate processed integral type planet carrier (7C).
16. the technique as described in any one of claim 3 to 15, which is characterized in that the processed integral type planet carrier (7C) is machined to generate final integral type planet carrier (7D).
17. the technique as described in any one of claim 3 to 16, which is characterized in that the minimum forging temperature is 900 DEG C.
18. the technique as described in any one of claim 3 to 17, which is characterized in that ensuring the second prefabricated component maintenance In the step of higher than minimum forging temperature, if the temperature of second prefabricated component (5) falls below the minimum forging temperature Degree, the band wall hollow space (5A) of second prefabricated component (5) are heated, and heating is preferably implemented into 1150 DEG C and 1280 Temperature between DEG C.
19. a kind of hot forging equipment, for manufacturing to the manufacture of the technique according to any one of claim 3 to 18 such as right It is required that planet carrier described in any one of 1 to 2 (7D), which is characterized in that the equipment includes the following tool sequentially placed:
For heating the blank heating station of the blank;
It is used for the blank forward extrusion into the forward extrusion station of first prefabricated component (4);
It is used for the first prefabricated component (4) backward extrusion into the backward extrusion station of second prefabricated component (5);
The band wall hollow space (5A) for making second prefabricated component (5) deform to generate with deformed or bent or The bending station of the inclined third prefabricated component (6) with wall hollow space;
It is used for the described deformed or bent or inclined integral type planet carrier for generating the forging state with the pressing of wall hollow space (7) pressing station;
For the heat treatment and forging by the integral type planet carrier post-processing of the forging state at processed integral type planet carrier (7C) Post-processing station;
For the processed integral type planet carrier (7C) to be machined into the final integral type planet carrier (7D) Machining station.
20. hot forging equipment as claimed in claim 19, which is characterized in that the bending station includes forging equipment, forging dress Standby preferably hydraulic press, bending upper mold (DT) and bending lower die (DB) are placed on during the forging equips, the bending upper mold with By coaxial placement, and wherein, bending upper mold (DT) has the circular cone towards bending lower die (DB) to the bending lower die The chamber of shape, wherein when second prefabricated component (5) is placed on the bending lower die (DB), the bending upper mold (DT) It can be towards the mobile protruding portion to accommodate second prefabricated component (5) of bending lower die (DB).
21. the hot forging equipment as described in any one of claim 19 to 20, which is characterized in that when the chamber from the cone Central longitudinal axis measurement when, the surface of the chamber of the cone is with the angle less than 90 degree.
22. the hot forging equipment as described in any one of claim 19 to 21, which is characterized in that the angle is in 15 degree and 55 degree Between.
23. the hot forging equipment as described in any one of claim 19 to 22, which is characterized in that the pressing station, which has, to be flattened Mould (FLT), the pressing upper mold have cyclic annular second recess portion or annular compartment.
24. the hot forging equipment as described in any one of claim 19 to 23, wherein heating station is provided at the backward extrusion station Between the bending station, to heat second prefabricated component (5).
CN201880003561.3A 2017-03-23 2018-03-21 Planet carrier and the technique and equipment for manufacturing the planet carrier Pending CN109715989A (en)

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IN201721010239 2017-03-23
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