CN109290854B - Zirconia ceramic integral cutter, preparation method thereof and application of cutter in graphite - Google Patents

Zirconia ceramic integral cutter, preparation method thereof and application of cutter in graphite Download PDF

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Publication number
CN109290854B
CN109290854B CN201811123355.4A CN201811123355A CN109290854B CN 109290854 B CN109290854 B CN 109290854B CN 201811123355 A CN201811123355 A CN 201811123355A CN 109290854 B CN109290854 B CN 109290854B
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cutter
cutting
ceramic
graphite
zro
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CN109290854A (en
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王成勇
周玉海
郑李娟
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Guangdong University of Technology
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Guangdong University of Technology
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B28WORKING CEMENT, CLAY, OR STONE
    • B28DWORKING STONE OR STONE-LIKE MATERIALS
    • B28D1/00Working stone or stone-like materials, e.g. brick, concrete or glass, not provided for elsewhere; Machines, devices, tools therefor
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B24GRINDING; POLISHING
    • B24BMACHINES, DEVICES, OR PROCESSES FOR GRINDING OR POLISHING; DRESSING OR CONDITIONING OF ABRADING SURFACES; FEEDING OF GRINDING, POLISHING, OR LAPPING AGENTS
    • B24B1/00Processes of grinding or polishing; Use of auxiliary equipment in connection with such processes
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B24GRINDING; POLISHING
    • B24BMACHINES, DEVICES, OR PROCESSES FOR GRINDING OR POLISHING; DRESSING OR CONDITIONING OF ABRADING SURFACES; FEEDING OF GRINDING, POLISHING, OR LAPPING AGENTS
    • B24B3/00Sharpening cutting edges, e.g. of tools; Accessories therefor, e.g. for holding the tools
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B35/00Shaped ceramic products characterised by their composition; Ceramics compositions; Processing powders of inorganic compounds preparatory to the manufacturing of ceramic products
    • C04B35/01Shaped ceramic products characterised by their composition; Ceramics compositions; Processing powders of inorganic compounds preparatory to the manufacturing of ceramic products based on oxide ceramics
    • C04B35/48Shaped ceramic products characterised by their composition; Ceramics compositions; Processing powders of inorganic compounds preparatory to the manufacturing of ceramic products based on oxide ceramics based on zirconium or hafnium oxides, zirconates, zircon or hafnates
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B2235/00Aspects relating to ceramic starting mixtures or sintered ceramic products
    • C04B2235/02Composition of constituents of the starting material or of secondary phases of the final product
    • C04B2235/30Constituents and secondary phases not being of a fibrous nature
    • C04B2235/32Metal oxides, mixed metal oxides, or oxide-forming salts thereof, e.g. carbonates, nitrates, (oxy)hydroxides, chlorides
    • C04B2235/3224Rare earth oxide or oxide forming salts thereof, e.g. scandium oxide
    • C04B2235/3225Yttrium oxide or oxide-forming salts thereof

Abstract

A zirconium oxide ceramic integral cutter, a preparation method thereof and application of the cutter in graphite relate to the field of ceramic cutters, wherein a matrix of the ceramic cutter is t-ZrO2A base ceramic of composition including Zr0.92Y0.08O1.962. The ceramic cutting tool is doped with metal oxide as a stabilizer, so that not only can the zirconium oxide tend to be stable, but also the ionic conductivity of the zirconium oxide can be improved. ZrO (ZrO)2Best quality of graphite for ceramic cutting tool machining, Diamond (Si)3N4) Ceramic cutting tools secondly, worst, are Si3N4A ceramic cutting tool. ZrO (ZrO)2The ceramic cutter is used for processing the graphite with the smoothest surface and small surface roughness. The ceramic integral cutter has good wear resistance, is suitable for high-speed processing of graphite, can effectively overcome the friction and abrasion of graphite dust to the surface of the cutter, and is an ideal cutter for manufacturing cutting graphite.

Description

Zirconia ceramic integral cutter, preparation method thereof and application of cutter in graphite
Technical Field
The invention relates to the field of ceramic cutters, in particular to a zirconia ceramic integral cutter, a preparation method thereof and application of the cutter in graphite.
Background
Ceramic tools are widely used in high speed dry machining of various hard and brittle materials due to their excellent chemical stability and good mechanical properties. At present, zirconium oxide (ZrO)2) Is widely applied to ceramic cutting tool materials, ZrO2The ceramic cutter has higher hardness, high fracture toughness and good wear resistance.
Isotropic graphite produced by CIP (Cold Isostatic pressing) process has excellent mechanical and physical properties such as high compressive strength and uniform physicochemical properties, and is widely applied to the fields of die electric spark discharge Machining (EDM) graphite electrodes, solar silicon cell preparation equipment, aerospace and the like. At present, high-speed machining has the advantages of high cutting speed, high machining quality and the like, and becomes a main machining method of precision graphite parts with complex shapes and fine structures. Graphite is a typical brittle material with a layered structure, and the hard graphite material is directly subjected to brittle fracture to generate fine granular crumbled chips during high-speed cutting processing, is easy to bond and accumulate on front and rear cutter faces and a processed surface, is easy to crumble during processing, is seriously abraded by a cutter, and is a typical difficult-to-process material.
In summary, most of the current studies on the mechanism of turning ceramic inserts have been focused on ceramic cutting tools. There are few reports on high speed graphite cutting by ceramic tools.
In the present invention, ZrO is used2The ceramic integrated end mill is used for processing ISO-63 graphite at a high speed, researching the cutter material, researching the service life and the abrasion mechanism of the cutter, comparing the abrasion mechanism with a hard alloy cutter, and researching the relationship between the abrasion of the ceramic cutter and the surface micro-morphology and the roughness of the processed graphite. And the basis and reference are provided for selecting the cutter for high-speed finish machining of graphite.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to avoid the defects in the prior art and provides a zirconia ceramic integral cutter, a preparation method thereof and application of the cutter in graphite, wherein the zirconia ceramic integral cutter has good stability; the preparation process is simple; the zirconia ceramic integral cutter can be applied to high-speed processing of curved-surface mobile phone hot-bending glass graphite molds with high precision requirements.
The purpose of the invention is realized by the following technical scheme: provides a zirconia ceramic integral cutter, wherein the ceramic cutter matrix is t-ZrO2A base ceramic of composition including Zr0.92Y0.08O1.962
The cutter comprises a cutting tool nose, a cutting part and a clamping tool handle, wherein the front angle gamma of the peripheral edge of the cutting part is 5-15 degrees, the rear angle α of the peripheral edge of the cutting part is 10-14 degrees, the helix angle β of the cutting part is 15-45 degrees, and the number of the cutting edges of the cutting part is 4.
Preferably, the cutter comprises a cutting knife tip, a blade part and a clamping knife handle, wherein the peripheral cutting rake angle gamma of the blade part is 8 degrees, the peripheral cutting relief angle α of the blade part is 10 degrees, the helix angle β of the blade part is 35 degrees, and the blades of the blade part are 4.
Wherein the arc radius R of the cutting tool nose is 0.18-0.22 mm.
Preferably, the radius R of the arc of the cutting tip is 0.2 mm.
Wherein the length H1 of the blade part is 4.7-5.3 mm.
Wherein the length H2 of the cutter is 49.5-50.5 mm.
In addition, the preparation method of the zirconia ceramic integral cutting tool comprises the following steps: the method comprises the steps of placing a blank of a zirconium oxide ceramic integral cutting tool bar on a five-axis precise numerical control grinding machine, adjusting parameters after trial cutting, starting an automatic operation numerical control program, starting cooling liquid, detecting the size and the machining precision after machining is completed, and enabling all size and precision indexes to meet the requirements of drawings.
Wherein, the numerical control program comprises three steps of rough grinding, semi-finish grinding and finish grinding.
In addition, the application of the zirconia ceramic integral cutter in graphite is further provided, and the zirconia ceramic integral cutter can be applied to high-speed machining of a curved-surface mobile phone hot-bending glass graphite mold.
The invention has the beneficial effects that: the zirconia ceramic integral cutter is characterized in that the ceramic cutter base material is t-ZrO2A base ceramic, the material composition including Zr0.92Y0.08O1.962Due to pure ZrO2The phase change is easy to occur and the ionic conductivity is poor, so that the doped metal oxide is required to be used as a stabilizer, and the zirconium oxide can be stabilized and the ionic conductivity can be improved.
The preparation method of the zirconia ceramic integral cutter comprises the following steps: ZrO2 is mixed with2The method comprises the steps of placing a blank of a ceramic cutter bar on a five-axis precise numerical control grinding machine, adjusting parameters after trial cutting, starting an automatic operation numerical control program, simultaneously starting cooling liquid, and monitoring the size and the machining precision after machining is completed.
The zirconia ceramic integral cutter is applied to graphite, and can be applied to high-speed processing of curved-surface mobile phone hot-bending glass graphite molds. Working of graphite, ZrO2The ceramic tool wear area is mainly distributed on the rear tool face, the front tool face and the tool tip, and the wear machineThe micro-tipping generated along the crystal fracture caused by mechanical impact is eliminated, the abrasive wear is avoided, the diffusion wear does not exist, the wear resistance of the zirconia ceramic integral cutter is good, the quality is reliable, and the micro-tipping can be applied to the high-speed processing of the hot-bending glass graphite mold of the curved-surface mobile phone.
Drawings
The invention is further illustrated by means of the attached drawings, but the embodiments in the drawings do not constitute any limitation to the invention, and for a person skilled in the art, other drawings can be derived on the basis of the following drawings without inventive effort.
FIG. 1 is a partial schematic view of the peripheral edge of the blade portion of the cutting tool in the embodiment;
FIG. 2 is a schematic view of the angle of the helix of the cutting edge of the cutting tool in the embodiment;
FIG. 3 is a schematic view of a cutter in an embodiment;
FIG. 4 is an XRD pattern of a zirconia ceramic bulk tool substrate;
FIG. 5 is a schematic view of a zirconia ceramic solid cutting tool machining system;
FIG. 6 is a graph of tool life for high speed graphite cutting;
FIG. 7 is a flank wear profile of a bottom edge of a zirconia ceramic solid cutting tool;
FIG. 8 is an enlarged view of the flank wear profile of a bottom edge of a zirconia ceramic solid cutting tool;
FIG. 9 is a wear pattern diagram of a side edge of a zirconia ceramic integral cutting tool near a tool tip;
FIG. 10 is an enlarged view of the wear profile of the side edge of the zirconia ceramic integral cutting tool near the tip;
FIG. 11 is a graph of graphite surface roughness versus tool wear;
FIG. 12 is a graph of the microscopic morphology of graphite machined by a zirconia ceramic integral tool before wear;
FIG. 13 is a graph of the microscopic morphology of graphite machined by a zirconia ceramic integral tool after abrasion;
FIG. 14 is a detailed spectral data plot of the worn zirconia ceramic solid cutting tool of FIG. 8;
the figure includes: 1-cutting tip, 2-blade, 3-holder shank, ALL peaks, cutting length, Flank wear width, Spindle-Spindle, End Mill, Graphite-Graphite, vacuum geometry-clamp, CNC milling cutter CNC-CNC machining center, Flank wear boundary, Chip-tipping, additive wear, BUE-chipping, Surface roughness (um) -Surface roughness, Before wear of form wear ZrO 2-zirconia tool, after wear of afterwear ZrO 2-zirconia tool.
Detailed Description
The following description will further explain embodiments of the present invention by referring to the drawings and examples, but the present invention is not limited thereto.
The zirconia ceramic integral cutting tool of the embodiment has a t-ZrO base body2A base ceramic of composition including Zr0.92Y0.08O1.962X-ray diffraction Spectrum (XRD), zirconium oxide (ZrO) as shown in FIG. 42) All diffraction peaks of the ceramic tool correspond to tetragonal zirconia ceramics. Thus, ZrO2The cutter material is t-ZrO2The base ceramic has a certain stabilizing agent.
The zirconia ceramic integral cutting tool of the embodiment is doped with metal oxide yttria as a stabilizer, so that not only can zirconia tend to be stable, but also the ionic conductivity of the zirconia can be improved.
As shown in fig. 1 to 3, the cutting tool includes a cutting edge 1, a cutting part 2, and a holder handle 3, wherein a peripheral cutting rake angle γ of the cutting part 2 is 8 °, a peripheral cutting relief angle α of the cutting part 2 is 10 °, a helix angle β of the cutting part 2 is 35 °, a circular arc radius R of the cutting edge 1 is 0.2mm, a length H1 of the cutting part 2 is 5mm, a length H2 of the cutting tool is 50mm, and 4 cutting edges of the cutting part are provided.
The graphite cutter selects a proper geometric angle, which is beneficial to reducing the vibration of the cutter, and in turn, the graphite workpiece is not easy to collapse, so that the overall cutting performance of the cutter is greatly improved.
The preparation method of the zirconia ceramic integral cutting tool comprises the following steps: the method comprises the steps of putting a blank of a zirconium oxide ceramic integral cutter bar on a five-axis precision numerical control grinding machine (ReloMatal grimtuts 69 xS), purchasing the blank of the zirconium oxide ceramic integral cutter bar commercially by Japan company, adjusting parameters after trial cutting, starting an automatic operation numerical control program, wherein the numerical control program comprises three steps of coarse grinding, semi-fine grinding and fine grinding, starting cooling liquid simultaneously, monitoring the size and the processing precision after the processing is finished, and enabling the size to be in a geometric angle according to requirements.
In the embodiment, the preparation method only needs to place the ceramic cutter on a numerical control grinding machine, then the equipment automatically performs coarse grinding, semi-fine grinding and fine grinding, and the whole process is convenient and simple to operate.
The zirconium oxide ceramic integral cutter can be applied to high-speed processing of a curved-surface mobile phone hot-bending glass graphite mold.
Cutting experiments are all carried out on a CNC three-axis graphite high-speed processing center (Beijing engraving and finishing: JDPGT 600), the highest rotating speed of a machine tool is 28,000rpm, and an HSK32E-ER16 knife handle is adopted. The graphite block is clamped and positioned on a machine tool workbench by a vacuum clamp, 2 high-pressure air nozzles and powerful negative pressure suction pipes are arranged to effectively blow away cuttings in a cutter-graphite contact area and suck graphite dust on the workbench, and a schematic diagram of a processing system is shown in fig. 5.
The lifetime curve of the graphite machined is shown in FIG. 6, and the photograph corresponds to a tool bottom edge flank width wear of approximately 0.3 mm. When the cutting distance of the hard alloy cutter is 64.8 meters, the abrasion width of the rear cutter surface of the cutter is close to 0.3 mm. It has fast wear speed and short service life. It is believed that this tool has poor wear resistance and is not suitable for graphite finishing. ZrO (ZrO)2The ceramic tool reached a wear width of 0.302mm at 325 m. It can be seen that under the given cutting conditions, the service life of the common hard alloy is poor, the graphite finish machining requirement cannot be met, and ZrO2The cutting life of the ceramic cutter is obviously longer than that of the common hard alloy. Tool life: ZrO (ZrO)2>WC-Co。
ZrO after graphite high-speed milling2The wear profile of the ceramic tool. ZrO are shown in FIGS. 7 and 8, respectively2The flank face of the bottom edge of the ceramic tool is worn. Crater wear on the rake face is also observed due to the extrusion and friction of the chips and the tool rake face formed during graphite cutting. Flank wear is the most dominant wear of graphite high speed cutting toolsThe wear degree of the tool can be measured by the width VB of the flank wear strip. Literature reports ZrO2The wear resistance of the ceramic cutter is closely related to the hardness, the grain size and the phase structure. The apparent wear boundary can be seen in fig. 8. The contents of carbon elements from the cutting area A point, the transition area B point and the uncut area C point are respectively 0%, 18.3% and 32.4% through analysis, and detailed energy spectrum data are shown in FIG. 14. The results show that carbon is detected only outside the cutting zone and not on the wear strip. Therefore, the carbon in the graphite does not diffuse into the tool during milling, and there is no diffusion wear.
ZrO as shown in FIGS. 9 and 102The shape of the side edge of the ceramic cutter close to the cutter point is a micro gap, ZrO2The crystal grains are protruded outwards, the crystal forms are relatively complete, and the ZrO is shown2The matrix is microscopically broken in the form of along-the-grain fracture. This is mainly due to mechanical shock. Impact of ink particles can cause ZrO2The ceramic cutting tool generates micro cracks, and the abrasion of the cutting tool aggravates the micro tipping of the cutting tool. The probability of occurrence of micro-tipping can be reduced by reducing the feeding amount, changing the main deflection angle of the cutter and selecting the cutter material with good toughness.
ZrO2The abrasion area of the ceramic cutter is mainly distributed on the rear cutter face, the front cutter face and the cutter tip, the abrasion mechanism has mechanical impact to cause micro tipping generated along crystal fracture, abrasive particles are abraded, and diffusion abrasion does not exist.
As shown in FIG. 11, ZrO2Best quality of graphite for ceramic cutting tool machining, Diamond (Si)3N4) Ceramic cutting tools secondly, worst, are Si3N4A ceramic cutting tool. It has also been found that the quality of the machined graphite surface decreases as the cutting distance increases and the tool wear increases. But of Si3N4The ceramic cutter increases the speed fastest because the cutter is not hard enough and has poor wear resistance. ZrO (ZrO)2The ceramic cutter has the smoothest graphite surface, and the main reasons are that the cutter has good wear resistance and reliable quality.
FIG. 12 is ZrO2The microscopic appearance of the graphite surface processed by the ceramic new cutter can show that the graphite surface is smooth, has no Ra0.97 mu m corresponding to obvious pit defects and has the highest surface qualityGood results are obtained. FIG. 13 is ZrO2After the ceramic cutter cuts 325 meters, the graphite surface Ra1.6 mu m when the abrasion width of the flank face is 0.302 mm. Thus, ZrO2The ceramic tool has the best quality for processing the graphite surface because the tool surface is smooth and wear-resistant and has no obvious breakage.
Graphite is a typical brittle material with a layered structure, is easy to break during processing, is easy to cause serious abrasion of a cutter, and is a typical difficult-to-process material. Tool wear is the most important issue in graphite electrode machining. Wear affects not only the tool wear cost, machining time, but also the surface quality of the workpiece material. Factors influencing tool wear mainly relate to cutting speed, tool path, geometric angle, cutting depth, cutting amount, graphite material and the like. Graphite materials have high hardness, so that the cutter needs higher wear resistance and impact resistance. The zirconium oxide ceramic integral cutter of the embodiment has good wear resistance and reliable quality, and is suitable for being applied to high-speed processing of a curved-surface mobile phone hot-bending glass graphite mold.
Finally, it should be noted that the above embodiments are only used for illustrating the technical solutions of the present invention, and not for limiting the protection scope of the present invention, although the present invention is described in detail with reference to the preferred embodiments, it should be understood by those skilled in the art that modifications or equivalent substitutions can be made on the technical solutions of the present invention without departing from the spirit and scope of the technical solutions of the present invention.

Claims (3)

1. The zirconia ceramic integral cutter is characterized in that: the ceramic cutter base body is t-ZrO2A base ceramic of composition including Zr0.92Y0.08O1.962
All diffraction peaks of the zirconia ceramic cutter correspond to tetragonal zirconia ceramic;
the cutter comprises a cutting tool nose, a cutting part and a clamping tool handle, wherein the front angle gamma of the peripheral edge of the cutting part is 5-15 degrees, the rear angle α of the peripheral edge of the cutting part is 10-14 degrees, the helix angle β of the cutting part is 15-45 degrees, and the edges of the cutting part are 4;
the arc radius R of the cutting tool nose is 0.18-0.22 mm;
the length H1 of the blade part is 4.7-5.3 mm;
the length H2 of the cutter is 49.5-50.5 mm;
the preparation method of the zirconia ceramic integral cutter comprises the following steps: placing a blank of a zirconium oxide ceramic integral cutting tool bar on a five-axis precise numerical control grinding machine, adjusting parameters after trial cutting, starting an automatic operation numerical control program, starting cooling liquid at the same time, and monitoring the size and the machining precision after machining is finished;
the numerical control program comprises three steps of coarse grinding, semi-fine grinding and fine grinding;
the zirconia ceramic integral cutter is applied to the high-speed processing of the curved-surface mobile phone hot-bending glass graphite mold.
2. The zirconia ceramic solid cutting tool according to claim 1, wherein the cutting tool comprises a cutting tip, a cutting edge and a holder handle, the peripheral cutting edge rake angle γ of the cutting edge is 8 °, the peripheral cutting edge relief angle α of the cutting edge is 10 °, the helix angle β of the cutting edge is 35 °, and the cutting edges of the cutting edge are 4.
3. The zirconia ceramic monolith cutter of claim 1, wherein: the arc radius R of the cutting tool nose is 0.2 mm.
CN201811123355.4A 2018-09-26 2018-09-26 Zirconia ceramic integral cutter, preparation method thereof and application of cutter in graphite Active CN109290854B (en)

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WO2020102924A1 (en) * 2018-11-22 2020-05-28 广东工业大学 Zirconia ceramic solid tool and manufacturing method therefor, and use of tool in graphite

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CN105563665B (en) * 2015-12-14 2018-02-27 广东工业大学 Diamond-coated tools and preparation method and its application in graphite High-speed machining
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