CN109047870B - Fir groove processing method for rotor spindle of turbine axial flow expander - Google Patents

Fir groove processing method for rotor spindle of turbine axial flow expander Download PDF

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Publication number
CN109047870B
CN109047870B CN201810834974.8A CN201810834974A CN109047870B CN 109047870 B CN109047870 B CN 109047870B CN 201810834974 A CN201810834974 A CN 201810834974A CN 109047870 B CN109047870 B CN 109047870B
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milling machine
fir
machining
planer type
preset
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CN109047870A (en
Inventor
范海宇
舒鑫
王强
郭峰
张威
金星
白俊峰
李琳
薛吉
刘巍
梁辰
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Shenyang Turbo Machinery Co Ltd
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Shenyang Turbo Machinery Co Ltd
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23CMILLING
    • B23C3/00Milling particular work; Special milling operations; Machines therefor
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23QDETAILS, COMPONENTS, OR ACCESSORIES FOR MACHINE TOOLS, e.g. ARRANGEMENTS FOR COPYING OR CONTROLLING; MACHINE TOOLS IN GENERAL CHARACTERISED BY THE CONSTRUCTION OF PARTICULAR DETAILS OR COMPONENTS; COMBINATIONS OR ASSOCIATIONS OF METAL-WORKING MACHINES, NOT DIRECTED TO A PARTICULAR RESULT
    • B23Q3/00Devices holding, supporting, or positioning work or tools, of a kind normally removable from the machine
    • B23Q3/02Devices holding, supporting, or positioning work or tools, of a kind normally removable from the machine for mounting on a work-table, tool-slide, or analogous part
    • B23Q3/06Work-clamping means
    • B23Q3/062Work-clamping means adapted for holding workpieces having a special form or being made from a special material

Abstract

The invention discloses a fir groove machining method for a rotor spindle of a turbine axial flow expander, relates to the technical field of turbine axial flow expanders, and mainly aims to improve machining precision and machining efficiency of fir grooves. The main technical scheme of the invention is as follows: the machining method comprises the steps that a main shaft to be machined is clamped and fixed on a workbench of a planer type milling machine through a positioning tool, wherein the positioning tool is clamped at shaft sections of sealing areas at two ends of the main shaft to be machined; processing a preset number of reference planes at the excircle of the central section of the spindle to be processed by using the planer type milling machine; processing a step platform on each datum plane by using the planer type milling machine; and processing a fir tree groove in each step platform by using the planer type milling machine. The invention is mainly used for improving the processing precision and the processing efficiency of the fir tree groove.

Description

Fir groove processing method for rotor spindle of turbine axial flow expander
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of turbine axial flow expanders, in particular to a fir groove machining method for a rotor spindle of a turbine axial flow expander.
Background
The rotor spindle of the axial flow turbine expander is a core component in the whole expander unit, and the running stability of the rotor spindle plays a crucial role in the unit.
The axial flow expander rotor spindle comprises a central section with a larger middle diameter and used for assembling a moving blade, wherein a plurality of blade root grooves used for inserting the blade are arranged on the outer peripheral surface of the central section, and the blade root grooves are also called fir grooves due to multi-stage positioning. In order to ensure the assembly of the rotor blade, a high machining accuracy of the fir-tree slot is generally required. At present, a fir tree groove is machined mainly by using a horizontal numerical control turning and milling composite center, and the precision requirement of a workpiece is ensured mainly by using the precision of a turning and milling composite machine tool.
However, the fir tree grooves are complex in structure and large in machining amount, and vibration is likely to occur many times in the process of turning and milling the fir tree grooves in a combined manner, so that the machining size of a workpiece is out of tolerance, the roughness is insufficient, and the like, and therefore the machining precision of the fir tree grooves is low, and the machining efficiency is low.
Disclosure of Invention
In view of this, the embodiment of the present invention provides a method for machining a firtree groove of a rotor spindle of a turbine axial flow expander, and mainly aims to improve the machining accuracy and the machining efficiency of the firtree groove.
In order to achieve the purpose, the invention mainly provides the following technical scheme:
the embodiment of the invention provides a fir groove machining method for a rotor spindle of a turbine axial flow expander, which comprises the following steps:
clamping and fixing a main shaft to be processed on a workbench of a planer type milling machine through a positioning tool, wherein the positioning tool is clamped at shaft sections of sealing areas at two ends of the main shaft to be processed;
processing a preset number of reference planes at the excircle of the central section of the spindle to be processed by using the planer type milling machine;
processing a step platform on each datum plane by using the planer type milling machine;
and processing a fir tree groove in each step platform by using the planer type milling machine.
Further, the location frock includes first constant head tank and second setting element, first constant head tank with all be provided with the constant head tank that runs through on the second setting element, will treat that the processing main shaft is fixed in planer-type milling machine's workstation through location frock clamping on, include:
installing the first positioning piece and the second positioning piece on a workbench of the planer type milling machine oppositely;
and placing the main shaft to be processed in the first positioning piece and the second positioning piece, and sequentially and respectively clamping the shaft sections of the sealing areas at the two ends of the main shaft to be processed in the positioning grooves of the first positioning piece and the second positioning piece.
Further, after the spindle to be processed is placed in the first positioning element and the second positioning element, and the shaft sections of the sealing areas at the two ends of the spindle to be processed are sequentially and respectively clamped in the positioning grooves of the first positioning element and the second positioning element, the method further comprises:
the positions of two ends of the main shaft to be machined are measured, and the first positioning piece and the second positioning piece are matched and adjusted to be installed on the workbench of the planer type milling machine, so that the main shaft to be machined is straightened and two ends of the main shaft to be machined are concentric.
Further, the processing of a preset number of reference planes at the excircle of the central section of the spindle to be processed by using the planer type milling machine includes:
roughly milling the excircle of the central section of the spindle to be processed by using the planer type milling machine to obtain the preset number of first reference planes;
and finely milling each first reference plane by using the planer type milling machine to obtain a second reference plane, and ensuring that a machining allowance with a preset thickness is reserved on each second reference plane, wherein the surface roughness of each second reference plane is greater than or equal to a preset roughness.
Further, the processing the step table on each reference plane by using the planer type milling machine comprises:
according to the radial size requirement of the fir tree groove, roughly milling on each second reference plane by using the planer type milling machine and a first nonstandard cutter to obtain a first step table;
and according to the radial size requirement of the fir tree groove, roughly milling each first step by using the planer type milling machine and a second nonstandard cutter to obtain a second step.
Further, the step of roughly milling each second reference plane by using the planer type milling machine and a first nonstandard tool according to the radial dimension requirement of the fir tree groove to obtain a first step table comprises:
and according to the radial size requirement of the fir tree grooves, carrying out symmetrical rough milling on the preset number of the second reference planes by using the planer type milling machine and the first non-standard cutter according to the directions of 0 degree and 180 degrees respectively to obtain the preset number of the first step platforms.
Further, according to the requirement of the radial dimension of the fir tree groove, roughly milling each first step by using the planer type milling machine and a second nonstandard cutter to obtain a second step, comprising:
and according to the radial size requirement of the fir tree grooves, carrying out symmetrical rough milling on the preset number of the first step platforms according to the directions of 0 degree and 180 degrees by utilizing the planer type milling machine and the second non-standard cutter to obtain the preset number of the second step platforms.
Further, the processing of the fir tree grooves on the step platforms by using the planer type milling machine comprises:
roughly milling the preset number of first fir grooves in the preset number of second step tables respectively in the clockwise direction by using the planer type milling machine and a palm type forming milling cutter, and reserving a machining allowance with a second preset thickness at the inner part line of each first fir groove;
and finish milling the preset number of second fir grooves in the preset number of first fir grooves respectively clockwise by using the planer type milling machine and a palm type forming milling cutter.
Further, before the pre-set number of first fir tree grooves are obtained by using the planer type milling machine and a palm type forming milling cutter through rough milling in the clockwise direction in the pre-set number of second step beds, the method further comprises:
and measuring the flatness of each second reference plane by using a measuring tool, when the flatness of the second reference plane is less than or equal to the preset flatness, finely milling each second reference plane by using a finish milling cutter by using the planer type milling machine, wherein the surface roughness of the second reference plane after the finish milling is greater than or equal to the preset roughness.
By means of the technical scheme, the invention at least has the following beneficial effects:
according to the fir-tree groove processing method for the rotor spindle of the turbine axial flow expander, a spindle to be processed is fixed on a workbench of a planer type milling machine by utilizing a positioning tool to clamp, and the positioning tool is clamped at shaft sections of sealing areas at two ends of the spindle to be processed; then, processing a preset number of reference planes at the excircle of the central section of the spindle to be processed by using a planer type milling machine; processing the step platforms on each reference plane by using a planer type milling machine; and finally, machining the fir tree grooves in each step platform by using a planer type milling machine, compared with the prior art, the machining method provided by the embodiment of the invention shortens the distance between the machining position and the clamping position of the spindle to be machined, so that the clamping of the spindle to be machined is more stable, the vibration in the process of machining the fir tree grooves is effectively avoided, the problems of over-tolerance of machining size and insufficient roughness are avoided, and the machining precision of the fir tree grooves is improved. And moreover, the planer type milling machine is adopted to process the fir tree grooves, so that the processing efficiency is improved.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a flow chart of a fir-tree groove machining method for a rotor spindle of a turbine axial flow expander according to an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a flow chart of another method for machining a fir-tree groove of a rotor spindle of a turbine axial flow expander according to an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 3 is a schematic structural view of a spindle to be machined connected with a positioning tool;
fig. 4 is a schematic structural view of a first positioning element or a second positioning element of the positioning tool in fig. 3;
FIG. 5 is a schematic structural view of a reference plane machined on a spindle to be machined by a planer type milling machine;
FIG. 6 is a schematic structural diagram of a first step table machined on a spindle to be machined by a planer type milling machine;
FIG. 7 is a schematic structural diagram of a second step table machined on a spindle to be machined by a planer type milling machine;
FIG. 8 is a schematic structural view of a gantry milling machine used to machine a second datum plane on a machining spindle;
FIG. 9 is a schematic structural view of a first fir tree groove machined on a machining spindle by using a planer type milling machine;
FIG. 10 is a schematic structural view of a second fir-tree groove machined on a machining spindle by using a planer type milling machine.
Detailed Description
In order to make the objects, technical solutions and advantages of the present invention clearer, the technical solutions in the embodiments of the present invention will be described in more detail below with reference to the accompanying drawings in the preferred embodiments of the present invention. In the drawings, the same or similar reference numerals denote the same or similar elements or elements having the same or similar functions throughout. The described embodiments are only some, but not all embodiments of the invention. The embodiments described below with reference to the drawings are illustrative and intended to be illustrative of the invention and are not to be construed as limiting the invention. All other embodiments, which can be derived by a person skilled in the art from the embodiments given herein without making any creative effort, shall fall within the protection scope of the present invention. Embodiments of the present invention will be described in detail below with reference to the accompanying drawings.
In the description of the present embodiment, it is to be understood that the terms "center", "longitudinal", "lateral", "front", "back", "left", "right", "vertical", "horizontal", "top", "bottom", "inner", "outer", etc. indicate orientations or positional relationships based on those shown in the drawings, and are only for convenience of description and simplicity of description, and do not indicate or imply that the device or element being referred to must have a particular orientation, be constructed in a particular orientation, and be operated, and therefore, should not be construed as limiting the scope of the present embodiment.
As described in the background art, a main shaft of a rotor of an axial flow expander includes a central section having a large middle diameter for mounting a rotor blade, and a plurality of root grooves, also called fir tree grooves, for inserting the blades are provided on an outer circumferential surface of the central section. In order to ensure the assembly of the rotor blade, a high machining accuracy of the fir-tree slot is generally required. At present, a fir tree groove is machined mainly by using a horizontal numerical control turning and milling composite center, and the precision requirement of a workpiece is ensured mainly by using the precision of a turning and milling composite machine tool. However, the fir tree grooves are complex in structure and large in machining amount, and vibration is likely to occur many times in the process of turning and milling the fir tree grooves in a combined manner, so that the machining size of a workpiece is out of tolerance, the roughness is insufficient, and the like, and therefore the machining precision of the fir tree grooves is low, and the machining efficiency is low.
In order to solve the above problems, an embodiment of the present invention provides a fir tree groove machining method for a rotor spindle of a turbine axial flow expander, as shown in fig. 1 and with reference to fig. 3 to 10, the method including:
101. and clamping and fixing the main shaft 2 to be processed on a workbench of a planer type milling machine through a positioning tool 1.
Wherein, the structural style of location frock 1 can have the multiple, as long as can realize waiting to process 2 clamping location of main shaft on planer-type milling machine's workstation, and its clamping wait to process the position of main shaft 2 be located the sealed district shaft section at main shaft both ends can, in order to realize shortening the distance between the processing position of waiting to process main shaft 2 and the clamping position, the clamping mode of lathe top and centre frame among the prior art has thoroughly been changed, make to wait to process main shaft 2 and can stabilize more man-hour adding, avoid producing the vibration, in order to improve the machining precision in fir groove.
102. And processing a preset number of reference planes at the excircle of the central section of the main shaft 2 to be processed by using the planer type milling machine.
103. And processing the step platforms on each datum plane by using the planer type milling machine.
104. And processing a fir tree groove in each step platform by using the planer type milling machine.
The preset number is the number of the fir-tree grooves to be machined, and the reference planes with the preset number are machined at the excircle of the central section of the spindle 2 to be machined, so that the purpose of providing reference for machining each fir-tree groove is achieved; and then, processing a step platform on each reference plane, namely processing a step groove similar to the fir-tree groove on the reference plane, and processing the fir-tree groove in the step platform by adopting a corresponding cutter, so that the fir-tree groove is conveniently processed. And moreover, the whole processing process of the fir-tree groove is completed by adopting the planer type milling machine, so that the processing precision of the fir-tree groove is further improved, and meanwhile, the processing efficiency is also improved.
According to the fir-tree groove processing method for the rotor spindle of the turbine axial flow expander, a spindle to be processed is fixed on a workbench of a planer type milling machine by utilizing a positioning tool to clamp, and the positioning tool is clamped at shaft sections of sealing areas at two ends of the spindle to be processed; then, processing a preset number of reference planes at the excircle of the central section of the spindle to be processed by using a planer type milling machine; processing the step platforms on each reference plane by using a planer type milling machine; and finally, machining the fir tree grooves in each step platform by using a planer type milling machine, compared with the prior art, the machining method provided by the embodiment of the invention shortens the distance between the machining position and the clamping position of the spindle to be machined, so that the clamping of the spindle to be machined is more stable, the vibration in the process of machining the fir tree grooves is effectively avoided, the problems of over-tolerance of machining size and insufficient roughness are avoided, and the machining precision of the fir tree grooves is improved. And moreover, the planer type milling machine is adopted to process the fir tree grooves, so that the processing efficiency is improved.
Further, in order to better explain the processing of the fir tree grooves of the rotor spindle of the turbine axial flow expander, as a refinement and extension of the above embodiment, another processing of the fir tree grooves of the rotor spindle of the turbine axial flow expander is provided in the embodiment of the present invention, as shown in fig. 2, and with reference to fig. 5 to 10, wherein the reference numeral "3" represents a cutter part of a planer type milling machine, but is not limited thereto, and specifically as follows:
201. and relatively installing the first positioning piece 11 and the second positioning piece 12 of the positioning tool 1 on a workbench of a planer type milling machine.
202. And placing the main shaft 2 to be processed in the first positioning piece 11 and the second positioning piece 12, and sequentially and respectively clamping the shaft sections of the sealing areas at the two ends of the main shaft 2 to be processed in the positioning grooves of the first positioning piece 11 and the second positioning piece 12.
In an optional embodiment, referring to fig. 3 and 4, the positioning tool 1 may include a first positioning element 11 and a second positioning element 12, and positioning grooves are respectively disposed on the first positioning element 11 and the second positioning element 12, so that before machining, the first positioning element 11 and the second positioning element 12 may be relatively installed on a workbench of a planer type milling machine, then a shaft section of a sealing area at one end of the spindle 2 to be machined is clamped in the positioning groove of the first positioning element 11, and a shaft section of a sealing area at the other end of the spindle 2 to be machined is clamped in the positioning groove of the second positioning element 12, thereby realizing clamping and positioning of the spindle 2 to be machined, shortening a distance between a machining position of the spindle 2 to be machined and the clamping position, avoiding vibration during machining, and ensuring machining accuracy of the fir-tree groove. Wherein, the structure of first setting element 11 and second setting element 12 can be the same or inequality, and the structure of the two can be multiple, as long as can realize through the fixed main shaft 2 of treating of constant head tank can, in an optional embodiment, the structure of the two is the same, and it all includes the engaging lug that is located bottom both ends, is provided with bolt hole 15 on the engaging lug for be connected with planer-type milling machine's workstation, the top be provided with constant head tank 13 for the bearing joint treats processing main shaft 2. Specifically, the structural style of constant head tank 13 also has the multiple, as long as can realize the bearing joint treat the sealed district shaft section at processing main shaft 2 both ends can, in an optional embodiment, constant head tank 13 can be for setting up the V-arrangement groove at the setting element top, for the convenience of processing and weight reduction, the tank bottom in V-arrangement groove passes through cambered surface 16 transition, and, in order to avoid treating the sealed district morning damage at processing main shaft 2 both ends, can paste on the surface of constant head tank and establish brass cushion 14, make and treat that processing main shaft 2 compresses tightly in constant head tank 13 through the copper sheet.
203. The positions of two ends of the main shaft 2 to be processed are measured, and the installation positions of the first positioning piece 11 and the second positioning piece 12 on the workbench of the planer type milling machine are adjusted in a matching mode, so that the main shaft 2 to be processed is straightened and two ends of the main shaft are concentric.
For the embodiment of the invention, after the main shaft 2 to be processed is positioned by the positioning tool 1, the main shaft 2 to be processed is straightened and two ends of the main shaft are concentric by adjusting the position of the positioning tool 1 on the workbench of the planer type milling machine, so that the processing precision of the fir tree grooves is further ensured. Specifically, during implementation, a dial indicator can be used for measuring the position of the spindle 2 to be machined, and the positions of the first positioning piece 11 and the second positioning piece 12 on the workbench of the planer type milling machine are continuously adjusted until the spindle 2 to be machined is straightened through the dial indicator and the shaft diameters of the two ends of the spindle are concentric, and then the adjustment is stopped.
In order to facilitate the position adjustment of the first positioning element 11 and the second positioning element 12 on the planer type milling machine workbench, in an optional embodiment, the bolt holes 15 formed in the connecting lugs can be designed to be strip-shaped, and one end of each bolt hole penetrates through the outer side surface of the connecting lug, so that the first positioning element 11 or the second positioning element 12 can move relative to the bolt through the strip-shaped bolt holes 15, the position adjustment of the first positioning element 11 and the second positioning element 12 on the planer type milling machine workbench is facilitated, and the position adjustment of the spindle 2 to be processed is facilitated.
204. And roughly milling the excircle of the central section of the spindle 2 to be processed by using the planer type milling machine to obtain the preset number of first reference planes.
205. And finely milling each first reference plane by using the planer type milling machine to obtain a second reference plane, and ensuring that a machining allowance with a preset thickness is reserved on each second reference plane, wherein the surface roughness of each second reference plane is greater than or equal to a preset roughness.
For the embodiment of the invention, referring to fig. 5, first, a preset number of first datum planes are roughly milled on the outer circumference of the spindle 2 to be processed by a planer type milling machine, then, each first datum plane is refined to obtain a preset number of second datum planes, datum planes are provided for the processing of the fir tree grooves through the second datum planes, in addition, when the second datum planes are finely milled, machining allowance is ensured to be reserved on the planes for the subsequent processing of the fir tree grooves, meanwhile, the group roughness of the second datum planes can be more than or equal to the preset roughness, the preset roughness can be ra3.2, so that the flatness of the datum planes can be measured by measuring tools such as dial gauges in the subsequent processing process.
206. And according to the radial dimension requirement of the fir tree groove, roughly milling on each second reference plane by using the planer type milling machine and a first nonstandard cutter to obtain a first step table.
207. And according to the radial size requirement of the fir tree groove, roughly milling each first step by using the planer type milling machine and a second nonstandard cutter to obtain a second step.
For the embodiment of the present invention, step 206 may specifically include: and according to the radial size requirement of the fir tree grooves, carrying out symmetrical rough milling on the preset number of the second reference planes by using the planer type milling machine and the first non-standard cutter according to the directions of 0 degree and 180 degrees respectively to obtain the preset number of the first step platforms. Referring to fig. 6, the first step may be a linear groove roughly milled on the second reference surface by using a first non-standard tool, and referring to fig. 7, the second step may be a stepped groove roughly milled on the first step by using a second non-standard tool, so that a fir-tree groove is obtained by rough finish milling on the stepped groove by using a palm-tree-shaped forming milling cutter subsequently; also, the first non-standard cutter and the second non-standard cutter may be the same. Meanwhile, after a preset number of second reference surfaces are roughly milled according to the directions of 0 degree and 180 degrees, a preset number of first step tables are obtained, namely after a first step table is roughly milled on a second reference surface, another second reference surface symmetrical to the second reference surface is selected by rotating 180 degrees to roughly mill another first step table, then another second reference surface adjacent to the first second reference surface is selected to roughly mill another first step table, and after another second reference surface symmetrical to the another second reference surface is selected again by rotating 180 degrees to roughly mill the next first step table, so as to analogize until all the first step tables are processed, similarly, the preset number of second step tables can be obtained by roughly milling according to the directions of 0 degree and 180 degrees on the preset number of first step tables, so as to reduce the processing stress brought by processing and avoid the stress concentration of the main shaft 2 to be processed, thereby avoiding the deformation of the main shaft 2 to be processed due to stress concentration. Of course, in order to ensure the machining precision, a measuring tool such as a dial indicator is used to align the second reference surface of the step to be machined after rotation, and then the machining is started.
208. And measuring the flatness of each second reference plane by using a measuring tool, when the flatness of the second reference plane is less than or equal to the preset flatness, finely milling each second reference plane by using a finish milling cutter by using the planer type milling machine, wherein the surface roughness of the second reference plane after the finish milling is greater than or equal to the preset roughness.
In the embodiment of the present invention, referring to fig. 8, before the fir tree grooves are machined, the flatness of the second reference surface may be measured by using a measuring tool such as a dial gauge, and when the flatness is less than or equal to a preset flatness, specifically, may be 0.02mm, the second reference surface may be finish-milled by using a finish milling cutter, and it is ensured that the roughness of the second reference surface after the finish-milling is uniquely greater than or equal to a preset roughness, which may be ra3.2, so as to ensure the machining precision of the subsequently machined fir tree grooves.
209. And roughly milling the preset number of first fir grooves in the preset number of second step tables respectively in the clockwise direction by utilizing the planer type milling machine and a palm type forming milling cutter, and reserving a machining allowance with a second preset thickness at the inner part line of each first fir groove.
In the embodiment of the present invention, referring to fig. 9, before each first fir-tree groove is roughly milled, the flatness of the second reference surface may be measured using a measuring tool such as a dial gauge, and when the flatness is less than or equal to 0.02mm, the fir-tree grooves are roughly milled again to ensure the machining accuracy of the fir-tree grooves. Furthermore, a preset number of first fir tree grooves can be obtained by clockwise rough milling one by one, and a machining allowance with a preset thickness is left on one side of an inner part line of the first fir tree grooves obtained by rough milling, so that fir tree grooves can be obtained by subsequent finish milling, and specifically, the thickness of the machining allowance can be 0.5 mm.
210. And finish milling the preset number of second fir grooves in the preset number of first fir grooves respectively clockwise by using the planer type milling machine and a palm type forming milling cutter.
In the embodiment of the present invention, referring to fig. 10, before each second fir-tree groove is finish-milled, the flatness of the second reference surface may be measured again using a measuring tool such as a dial gauge, and when the flatness is less than or equal to 0.02mm, the fir-tree grooves are finish-milled again to ensure the machining accuracy of the fir-tree grooves. And moreover, the second fir tree grooves can be obtained by finish milling one by one in the clockwise direction, and the roughness of the inner parts of the second fir tree grooves is ensured to be more than Ra3.2, and the second fir tree grooves are the fir tree grooves to be processed, so that the processing precision of the fir tree grooves is ensured.
All the above embodiments can be realized by adopting the X-axis, Y-axis and Z-axis three-axis linkage of the numerical control planer type milling machine, the processing precision of the fir-tree groove is improved, the processing efficiency of the fir-tree groove is also improved, and the labor intensity of operators is also reduced.
Finally, it should be noted that: the above examples are only intended to illustrate the technical solution of the present invention, but not to limit it; although the present invention has been described in detail with reference to the foregoing embodiments, it will be understood by those of ordinary skill in the art that: the technical solutions described in the foregoing embodiments may still be modified, or some technical features may be equivalently replaced; and such modifications or substitutions do not depart from the spirit and scope of the corresponding technical solutions of the embodiments of the present invention.

Claims (9)

1. A fir groove machining method for a rotor spindle of a turbine axial flow expander is characterized by comprising the following steps of:
clamping and fixing a main shaft to be machined on a workbench of a planer type milling machine through a positioning tool, wherein the positioning tool is clamped at shaft sections of a sealing area at two ends of the main shaft to be machined and comprises at least two positioning pieces;
processing a preset number of reference planes at the excircle of the central section of the spindle to be processed by using the planer type milling machine;
processing a step platform on each datum plane by using the planer type milling machine;
and processing a fir tree groove in each step platform by using the planer type milling machine.
2. The machining method according to claim 1, wherein the positioning tool comprises a first positioning piece and a second positioning piece, the first positioning piece and the second positioning piece are respectively provided with a through positioning groove, the spindle to be machined is fixed on a workbench of a planer type milling machine through the positioning tool, and the machining method comprises the following steps:
installing the first positioning piece and the second positioning piece on a workbench of the planer type milling machine oppositely;
and placing the main shaft to be processed in the first positioning piece and the second positioning piece, and sequentially and respectively clamping the shaft sections of the sealing areas at the two ends of the main shaft to be processed in the positioning grooves of the first positioning piece and the second positioning piece.
3. The machining method according to claim 2, wherein after the spindle to be machined is placed in the first positioning member and the second positioning member, and the shaft sections of the sealing areas at the two ends of the spindle to be machined are sequentially and respectively clamped in the positioning grooves of the first positioning member and the second positioning member, the method further comprises:
the positions of two ends of the main shaft to be machined are measured, and the first positioning piece and the second positioning piece are matched and adjusted to be installed on the workbench of the planer type milling machine, so that the main shaft to be machined is straightened and two ends of the main shaft to be machined are concentric.
4. The machining method according to claim 1, wherein machining a preset number of reference planes at an outer circle of a center section of the spindle to be machined by using the planer type milling machine comprises:
roughly milling the excircle of the central section of the spindle to be processed by using the planer type milling machine to obtain the preset number of first reference planes;
and finely milling each first reference plane by using the planer type milling machine to obtain a second reference plane, and ensuring that a machining allowance with a preset thickness is reserved on each second reference plane, wherein the surface roughness of each second reference plane is greater than or equal to a preset roughness.
5. The machining method according to claim 4, wherein the machining of the step table on each reference plane by the planer type milling machine comprises:
according to the radial size requirement of the fir tree groove, roughly milling on each second reference plane by using the planer type milling machine and a first nonstandard cutter to obtain a first step table;
and according to the radial size requirement of the fir tree groove, roughly milling each first step by using the planer type milling machine and a second nonstandard cutter to obtain a second step.
6. The machining method according to claim 5, wherein the roughly milling on each second reference plane by using the planer type milling machine and using a first non-standard tool to obtain a first step table according to the radial dimension requirement of the fir-tree groove comprises:
and according to the radial size requirement of the fir tree grooves, carrying out symmetrical rough milling on the preset number of the second reference planes by using the planer type milling machine and the first non-standard cutter according to the directions of 0 degree and 180 degrees respectively to obtain the preset number of the first step platforms.
7. The machining method according to claim 5, wherein the step of roughly milling each first step by using a planomiller and a second non-standard tool to obtain a second step according to the radial dimension requirement of the fir-tree groove comprises:
and according to the radial size requirement of the fir tree grooves, carrying out symmetrical rough milling on the preset number of the first step platforms according to the directions of 0 degree and 180 degrees by utilizing the planer type milling machine and the second non-standard cutter to obtain the preset number of the second step platforms.
8. The machining method according to claim 5, wherein said machining a fir tree groove on said step table using said planer type milling machine comprises:
roughly milling the preset number of first fir tree grooves in the preset number of second step tables respectively in the clockwise direction by using the planer type milling machine and a fir-type forming milling cutter, and reserving a machining allowance with a second preset thickness at one side of an inner part line of each first fir tree groove;
and finish milling the preset number of second fir tree grooves in the preset number of first fir tree grooves respectively clockwise by using the planer type milling machine and a fir type forming milling cutter.
9. The machining method according to claim 8, wherein before said rough milling with said planer milling machine and fir-tree type profile cutter in a clockwise direction in said predetermined number of said second steps to obtain said predetermined number of first fir-tree grooves, said method further comprises:
and measuring the flatness of each second reference plane by using a measuring tool, when the flatness of the second reference plane is less than or equal to the preset flatness, finely milling each second reference plane by using a finish milling cutter by using the planer type milling machine, wherein the surface roughness of the second reference plane after the finish milling is greater than or equal to the preset roughness.
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