CN108129132B - 烧结煤废膨胀珍珠岩保温装饰一体化板及其制备方法 - Google Patents

烧结煤废膨胀珍珠岩保温装饰一体化板及其制备方法 Download PDF

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CN108129132B
CN108129132B CN201810028734.9A CN201810028734A CN108129132B CN 108129132 B CN108129132 B CN 108129132B CN 201810028734 A CN201810028734 A CN 201810028734A CN 108129132 B CN108129132 B CN 108129132B
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expanded perlite
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贾冠华
李珠
赵林
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Shanxi Shengke Microbial Building Materials Technology Co.,Ltd.
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Abstract

本发明公开了一种烧结煤废膨胀珍珠岩保温装饰一体化板,由保温基层和装饰面层组成。保温基层由粉煤灰15~35份,煤矸石15~35份,膨胀珍珠岩20~60份,粘结剂10~20份,碱激发剂1.5~2.5,发泡剂0.5~1份,稳泡剂1~6份,增强纤维3~5份,助熔剂0.1~0.2份,水30~50份烧制而成;装饰面层由低温熔块60~80份,二氧化硅10~20份,氧化锌5~10份,氧化硼4~7份,氧化锂0.5~2份,着色剂0.5~3份,分散剂0.2~0.3份,消泡剂0.1~0.4份,水30~40份烧制而成。本发明高效利用粉煤灰、煤矸石的同时,制备的烧结煤废膨胀珍珠岩保温板兼具防火、保温、装饰一体化的功能。

Description

烧结煤废膨胀珍珠岩保温装饰一体化板及其制备方法
技术领域
本发明属于建筑材料领域,具体为一种烧结煤废膨胀珍珠岩保温装饰一体化板及其制备方法。
背景技术
煤矸石和粉煤灰是采煤、燃煤过程中产生的固体废弃物。尽管煤矸石和粉煤灰已经被广泛应用于砂浆及混凝土材料,但是我国每年产生的煤矸石和粉煤灰等煤废物资源化综合利用率不足50%。这些煤废物不仅占用大量土地,而且还对空气、地下水产生恶劣影响。由于煤矸石和粉煤灰本身含有大量可燃碳,如果用于高温烧结制品不仅具有内燃料功能,而且还具有高温发泡功能。
膨胀珍珠岩保温板是建筑节能领域常用的一种无机保温板材。但是常用膨胀珍珠岩保温板一般采用粘结剂与膨胀珍珠岩混合,然后压制成型。为了提高板材强度,制备膨胀珍珠岩保温板时需要大量粘结剂并提高保温板的压缩比,这无疑会增加了保温板的导热系数,降低了保温板的保温性能。另外,传统采用水玻璃为粘结剂直接压制成型的膨胀珍珠岩保温板还具有耐水性差、固化时间长、易受潮返碱等缺点。由于上述原因膨胀珍珠岩保温板在建筑节能领域中的应用和推广受到了限制。
文献《粉煤灰基轻质泡沫多孔材料的制备及性能研究》(赵叶龙,大连理工大学,2010)报道了一种采用浆料发泡法制备烧结粉煤灰泡沫材料的方法。但是该方法采用的烧结温度较高(达到1050℃),消耗能源较多。虽然制备的烧结粉煤灰泡沫材料强度达到6.76MPa,但是吸水率和容重仍然较高(吸水率126.5%,容重496kg/m3),这无疑会影响其保温性能和耐久性。
发明专利CN103553544B公开了一种具有低导热系数的膨胀珍珠岩外墙保温板材及其制备方法,涉及到采用烧结方法制备膨胀珍珠岩外墙板。但是该方法的具有如下几个缺点:(1)采用压制成型制备膨胀珍珠岩板坯,这导致膨胀珍珠岩破碎而影响板的保温性能;(2)不具备发泡功能无机粘结剂在烧结过程中进一步增加了板的密实度,导致板的导热系数进一步增加;(3)不具备保温装饰一体效果,板材上墙之后还需要抹面、装饰,导致施工工艺繁琐,成本增加。
发明内容
本发明目的是提供一种烧结煤废膨胀珍珠岩保温装饰一体化板及其制备方法,以解决现有膨胀珍珠岩保温板存在的不足。
本发明是通过如下技术方案实现的:
一种烧结煤废膨胀珍珠岩保温装饰一体化板,是由保温基层和装饰面层组成。
其中,保温基层按以下原材料的重量份数烧制而成:粉煤灰15~35份,煤矸石15~35,膨胀珍珠岩20~60份,粘结剂10~20份,碱激发剂1.5~2.5,发泡剂0.5~1份,稳泡剂1~6份,增强纤维3~5份,助熔剂0.1~0.2,水30~50份。
装饰面层按以下原材料的重量份数烧制而成:低温熔块60~80份,二氧化硅10~20份,氧化锌5~10份,氧化硼4~7份,氧化锂0.5~2份,着色剂0.5~3份,分散剂0.2~0.3份,消泡剂0.1~0.4份,水30~40份。
上述烧结煤废膨胀珍珠岩保温装饰一体化板的制备方法如下:
(1)、将煤矸石磨成粉,过200目筛;
(2)、将粉煤灰和煤矸石粉与粘结剂、碱激发剂、发泡剂、稳泡剂、增强纤维、助熔剂、水按比例混合,通过化学发泡方式或物理发泡方式获得发泡浆料;
(3)、将步骤(2)的发泡浆料与膨胀珍珠岩均匀混合、包裹,直接注模成型或入模振动成型,然后固化24h,最后拆模获得发泡保温基层板坯;
(4)、将低温熔块、二氧化硅、氧化锌、氧化硼、氧化锂、着色剂、分散剂、消泡剂和水按比例混合,采用球磨机湿磨6h,获得装饰面层釉浆;
(5)、采用步骤(4)获得的釉浆在步骤(3)获得的保温基层板坯表面施釉;
(6)、将步骤(5)获得的板坯入高温炉烧结,烧结温度725~800℃,烧结时间0.5~1h,然后快速降温至500℃,保温0.5h,最后退火至常温,获得烧结煤废膨胀珍珠岩保温装饰一体化板。
膨胀珍珠岩还可以是球形闭孔膨胀珍珠岩、玻化微珠、纳米膨胀珍珠岩中的一种,粒径0.01~15mm,其中纳米膨胀珍珠岩是指通过在膨胀珍珠岩孔洞填充气凝胶复合而合成的纳米多孔材料。
粘结剂为水玻璃、水泥、石灰、石膏中的一种。
所述碱激发剂为烧碱或生石灰。
物理发泡方式采用的发泡剂是植物发泡剂、动物发泡剂中的一种或两种复合;化学发泡方式采用的发泡剂为双氧水。
稳泡剂可以是明胶、聚丙烯酸钠(PAAS)或者蛋白质稳泡剂。
增强纤维可以是玻璃纤维,莫来石纤维和玄武岩纤维中的一种。
助熔剂为玻璃粉。
着色剂为根据不同的呈色选择金属氧化物和颜料复配。
通过试验发现,本发明具有如下有益效果:
传统工艺通过粘结剂粘结、压制并烘干制备的膨胀珍珠岩保温板抗压强度一般在0.3~0.5MPa,导热系数一般在0.045~0.07W/(m·K)。而本发明制备的烧结煤废膨胀珍珠岩保温装饰一体化板导热系数≤0.042W/(m·K),抗压强度≥0.60MPa,吸水率≤5%。此外,与现有烧结的膨胀珍珠岩保温外墙板相比,本发明制备的烧结煤废膨胀珍珠岩保温装饰一体化板大量利用固体废弃物粉煤灰,并且兼具保温装饰功能,应用于外墙保温可以一次安装完成,省去二次抹灰和装饰施工,经济效益和社会效益显著。产生上述有益效果的原因主要包括以下六个方面:
第一、通过发泡注浆或振动成型,常温固化技术,有效避免传统压制成型带来的大量膨胀珍珠岩破损问题,显著降低膨胀珍珠岩保温板的密度和导热系数。
第二、通过预发泡技术获得发泡的保温基层板坯,然后进行烧结,使得膨胀珍珠岩粒间间隙充满高温烧结而成的高强度闭孔粉煤灰陶瓷气泡,这不仅提高了保温板的强度,而且闭孔气泡有效地限制了空气的对流,显著降低基层膨胀珍珠保温板的导热系数。
第三、充分利用粉煤灰和煤矸石的内燃料功能,通过添加少量助熔剂,有效降低烧结温度,节约烧结能源。
第四、采用高温烧结技术,使得膨胀珍珠岩颗粒表面玻化,粒间形成闭孔气泡,装饰面层形成釉面,这都会显著降低保温板的吸水率,提高保温板的耐久性。
第五、通过复合玻璃纤维、莫来石纤维和玄武岩纤维,有效提高板材的抗压强度、抗折强度和抗冲击性能。
第六、采用低温釉烧结技术,在烧结前施釉,保温基层和装饰面层一次烧结完成,提高制备效率,降低生产成本。
本发明设计合理,高效利用粉煤灰、煤矸石的同时,制备的烧结煤废膨胀珍珠岩保温板兼具防火、保温、装饰一体化的功能,具有很好的市场应用及推广价值。
具体实施方式
下面对本发明的具体实施例进行详细说明。
一种烧结煤废膨胀珍珠岩保温装饰一体化板,具体实施例见表1、表2和表3所示。其中碱激发剂采用生石灰,发泡剂方式采用物理发泡,发泡剂采用植物发泡剂,稳泡剂采用PAAS,增强纤维采用莫来石纤维。
表1所示为各实施例对应的保温基层原材料的重量份数。表2所示为各实施例对应的装饰面层原材料的重量份数。表3所示为各实施例对应的烧结温度、烧结时间,以及试验测得的烧结煤废膨胀珍珠岩保温装饰一体化板抗压强度和导热系数。
各实施例中烧结煤废膨胀珍珠岩保温装饰一体化板的制备方法具体步骤如下:
(1)、将煤矸石磨成粉,过200目筛;
(2)、将粉煤灰和煤矸石粉与粘结剂、碱激发剂、发泡剂、稳泡剂、增强纤维、助熔剂、水按比例混合,通过物理发泡方式,高速搅拌获得发泡浆料;
(3)、将步骤(2)的发泡浆料与膨胀珍珠岩均匀混合、包裹,入模振动成型,固化24h,然后拆模获得发泡保温基层板坯;
(4)、将低温熔块、二氧化硅、氧化锌、氧化硼、氧化锂、着色剂、分散剂、消泡剂及水按比例混合,采用球磨机湿磨6h,获得装饰面层釉浆;
(5)采用步骤(4)获得的釉浆在步骤(3)获得的保温基层板坯表面施釉;
(6)将步骤(5)获得的板坯入高温炉烧结,烧结温度725~800℃,烧结时间0.5~1h,然后以10℃/min快速降温至500℃,保温0.5h,最后退火至常温,获得烧结煤废膨胀珍珠岩保温装饰一体化板。
表1 实施例对应的保温基层原材料重量份数
注:*实施例3中以玻化微珠替代膨胀珍珠岩;
**实施例4中以纳米膨胀珍珠岩替代膨胀珍珠岩。
表2 施例对应的装饰面层原材料重量份数
表3 烧结膨胀珍珠岩保温板烧结温度、烧结时间及物理力学性能
由表3可知,本实施例制备的烧结煤废膨胀珍珠岩保温装饰一体化板导热系数≤0.042W/(m·K),抗压强度≥0.60MPa,吸水率≤5%。其中,实施例4制备的保温装饰一体化板的导热系数为0.035W/(m·K),抗压强度达到1.2MPa,吸水率低至1.1%,综合性能最优。
本发明实施例制备的烧结煤废膨胀珍珠岩保温装饰一体化板采用物理发泡注浆和振动成型,结合高温烧结工艺,显著提高了自身保温性能、力学性能和耐久性,高效利用粉煤灰、煤矸石的同时,还兼具防火、保温、装饰一体化的功能特点。
最后所应说明的是,以上实施例仅用以说明本发明的技术方案而非限制,尽管参照本发明实施例进行了详细说明,本领域的普通技术人员应当理解,对本发明的技术方案进行修改或者等同替换,都不脱离本发明的技术方案的精神和范围,其均应涵盖权利要求保护范围中。

Claims (3)

1.一种烧结煤废膨胀珍珠岩保温装饰一体化板,其特征在于:由保温基层和装饰面层组成;
其中,保温基层按以下原材料的重量份数烧制而成:粉煤灰20份,煤矸石30份,纳米膨胀珍珠岩60份,水玻璃12份,碱激发剂1.7,植物发泡剂1份,聚丙烯酸钠4份,莫来石纤维4份,助熔剂0.1份,水35份;
装饰面层按以下原材料的重量份数烧制而成:低温熔块60份,二氧化硅20份,氧化锌8份,氧化硼5份,氧化锂1份,着色剂1.5份,分散剂0.2份,消泡剂0.2份,水35份;
制备方法如下:
(1)、将煤矸石磨成粉,过200目筛;
(2)、将粉煤灰和煤矸石粉与水玻璃、碱激发剂、植物发泡剂、聚丙烯酸钠、莫来石纤维、助熔剂、水按比例混合,通过物理发泡方式获得发泡浆料;
(3)、将步骤(2)的发泡浆料与纳米膨胀珍珠岩均匀混合、包裹,直接注模成型或入模振动成型,然后固化24h,最后拆模获得发泡保温基层板坯;
(4)、将低温熔块、二氧化硅、氧化锌、氧化硼、氧化锂、着色剂、分散剂、消泡剂和水按比例混合,采用球磨机湿磨6h,获得装饰面层釉浆;
(5)、采用步骤(4)获得的釉浆在步骤(3)获得的保温基层板坯表面施釉;
(6)、将步骤(5)获得的板坯入高温炉烧结,烧结温度780℃,烧结时间1h,然后快速降温至500℃,保温0.5h,最后退火至常温,获得烧结煤废膨胀珍珠岩保温装饰一体化板。
2.根据权利要求1所述的烧结煤废膨胀珍珠岩保温装饰一体化板,其特征在于:所述碱激发剂为烧碱或生石灰。
3.根据权利要求1所述的烧结煤废膨胀珍珠岩保温装饰一体化板,其特征在于:所述助熔剂为玻璃粉。
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