CN107907880B - One kind is spaceborne to condense polarization SAR fuzziness analysis system, method and memory - Google Patents

One kind is spaceborne to condense polarization SAR fuzziness analysis system, method and memory Download PDF

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CN107907880B
CN107907880B CN201710913798.2A CN201710913798A CN107907880B CN 107907880 B CN107907880 B CN 107907880B CN 201710913798 A CN201710913798 A CN 201710913798A CN 107907880 B CN107907880 B CN 107907880B
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polarization
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antenna
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CN107907880A (en
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闫伟
高阳
冯帆
谭小敏
王万林
胡继伟
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Xian Institute of Space Radio Technology
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01SRADIO DIRECTION-FINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCE-DETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
    • G01S13/00Systems using the reflection or reradiation of radio waves, e.g. radar systems; Analogous systems using reflection or reradiation of waves whose nature or wavelength is irrelevant or unspecified
    • G01S13/88Radar or analogous systems specially adapted for specific applications
    • G01S13/89Radar or analogous systems specially adapted for specific applications for mapping or imaging
    • G01S13/90Radar or analogous systems specially adapted for specific applications for mapping or imaging using synthetic aperture techniques, e.g. synthetic aperture radar [SAR] techniques
    • G01S13/904SAR modes
    • G01S13/9076Polarimetric features in SAR
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01SRADIO DIRECTION-FINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCE-DETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
    • G01S13/00Systems using the reflection or reradiation of radio waves, e.g. radar systems; Analogous systems using reflection or reradiation of waves whose nature or wavelength is irrelevant or unspecified
    • G01S13/88Radar or analogous systems specially adapted for specific applications
    • G01S13/89Radar or analogous systems specially adapted for specific applications for mapping or imaging
    • G01S13/90Radar or analogous systems specially adapted for specific applications for mapping or imaging using synthetic aperture techniques, e.g. synthetic aperture radar [SAR] techniques
    • G01S13/904SAR modes

Abstract

One kind is spaceborne to condense polarization SAR fuzziness analysis system, method and memory, it controls spaceborne polarization SAR system of condensing and generates mapping band, mapping is obtained with the corresponding useful signal energy of interior each point, it controls spaceborne polarization SAR system of condensing and generates multiple fuzzy regions, the corresponding blurred signal energy of each point in each fuzzy region is obtained, the corresponding fuzziness of current point is obtained according to the corresponding useful signal energy in mapping band midpoint, the corresponding blurred signal energy balane in each fuzzy region midpoint.

Description

One kind is spaceborne to condense polarization SAR fuzziness analysis system, method and memory
Technical field
The present invention relates to Space Microwave remote sensing technology field, especially a kind of spaceborne polarization SAR fuzziness of condensing analyzes system System, method and memory.
Background technique
In order to meet the SAR quantification application such as global biomass disturbance monitoring, marine environmental monitoring, satellite-borne SAR load is needed Have a multipolarization mode, including single polarization, dual polarization, complete polarization and condenses polarization mode.SAR complete polarization mode is in the application Good effect is obtained, but faces the problems such as data transfer rate is big, mapping band is smaller, power consumption is larger.It is a kind of for condensing polarization mode Completely new operating mode can obtain the quasi- complete polarization information of target, and there is no added due to complete polarization pulse recurrence frequency (PRF) Cause to survey and draw the problem of band halves again.However, due to condensing the factors shadow such as crosstalk and non-circular polar transmitter that polarizes in polarization mode It rings, the fuzziness index of system is poor, affects effectiveness, and lack effective fuzziness analysis means.It is existing to condense pole Changing SAR system method for analyzing ambiguity is divided by establishing the method combination satellite-Earth model of target polarization scattering matrix Analysis, but do not consider that the factors brings such as the non-circular polar transmitter of antenna present in real system and antenna polarization crosstalk influence, it leads SAR system fuzziness analysis distortion under polarization mode is condensed in cause, and then is affected and condensed polarization mode SAR system in agricultural and sea The application of foreign aspect.
Summary of the invention
A kind of spaceborne polarization SAR mould is condensed technical problem solved by the present invention is having overcome the deficiencies of the prior art and provide Paste degree analysis system, method and memory solve existing fuzziness analytical technology and do not consider day present in real system The factors bring such as the non-circular polar transmitter of line and antenna polarization crosstalk influences, and leads to condense SAR system fuzziness under polarization mode Analysis distortion, and then affect the application for condensing polarization mode SAR system in terms of agricultural and ocean.
The technical solution of the invention is as follows: one kind is spaceborne to condense polarization SAR method for analyzing ambiguity, including walks as follows It is rapid:
(1) the spaceborne mapping band for condensing the generation of polarization SAR system and multiple fuzzy regions are obtained;
(2) according to the corresponding useful signal energy in mapping band midpoint, the corresponding blurred signal energy in each fuzzy region midpoint The corresponding fuzziness of current point is calculated in amount.
One kind is spaceborne to condense polarization SAR fuzziness analysis system, including non-circular polar transmitter analysis module, reception crosstalk point Analyse module, fuzziness computing module, in which:
Polarization is condensed in non-circular polar transmitter analysis module, the antenna axial ratio parameter introduced using non-circular polar transmitter, calculating Mode issues incident polarization vector, and send to fuzziness computing module;
Crosstalk analysis module is received, using polarization cross-talk parameters, polarization scattering matrix under polarization mode is condensed in calculating, and is sent To fuzziness computing module;
Fuzziness computing module issues incident polarization vector, condenses Polarization scattering under polarization mode according to polarization mode is condensed Matrix, mapping the useful signal energy with midpoint, each fuzzy region midpoint blurred signal energy balane obtain current point pair The fuzziness answered.
Useful signal energy P of the mapping with midpointsig(i) calculation method are as follows:
PavFor the spaceborne average emitted power for condensing polarization SAR system,It is corresponding with interior i-th point to survey and draw Transmitting antenna directivity factor,It is mapping with interior i-th point corresponding receiving antenna directivity factor, λ is spaceborne letter The transmitting signal wavelength of contracting polarization SAR system, c are the light velocity, and L condenses polarization SAR system loss, V to be spacebornesPole is condensed to be spaceborne The speed of satellite platform movement, θ where changing SAR systemi0To survey and draw with interior i-th point corresponding ground incidence angle, MRH、MRVPoint The Polarization scattering parameter of polarization SAR system spaceborne Wei not be condensed;
The corresponding blurred signal energy P in the fuzzy region midpointambThe calculation method of (i, j) are as follows:
Wherein,For i-th point in j-th of fuzzy region corresponding antenna direction of the launch property coefficient,For I-th point of corresponding antenna receiving direction property coefficient, θ in j-th of fuzzy regionijFor i-th point of correspondence of j-th of fuzzy region Ground incidence angle, RijThe oblique distance value formed for i-th point in j-th of fuzzy region with satellite.
The spaceborne Polarization scattering parameter M for condensing polarization SAR systemRH、MRVCalculation method are as follows:
Wherein, δ1To receive antenna cross talk when vertically polarized wave, δ2To receive antenna cross talk when horizontal polarized wave, f1 It is the degree of unbalancedness between two-way receiving channel, THEmit polarization vector, T to condense horizontal direction in polarization modeVTo condense polarization Vertical direction emits polarization vector in mode.
The horizontal direction in polarization mode of condensing emits polarization vector TH, condense in polarization mode vertical direction and emit Polarization vector TVCalculation method are as follows:
Wherein,EmaxAntenna electric field forms elliptical major semiaxis, E when for non-circular polar transmitterminIt is non-circular Antenna electric field forms elliptical semi-minor axis when polar transmitter.
A kind of non-transitory memory, is stored with computer program, which makes the requirement of computer perform claim 1, any means in claim 3, claim 4 or claim 5.
The advantages of the present invention over the prior art are that:
(1) compared with prior art, the present invention by establish SAR antenna system polarize crosstalk under collision matrix, by it It is introduced into fuzziness analysis equation, solves the problems, such as the influence that fuzziness is analyzed in antenna polarization crosstalk;
(2) compared with prior art, the present invention by establishing SAR antenna system since the axis under non-circular polar transmitter is than dissipating Matrix is penetrated, is introduced into fuzziness analysis equation, solves the influence that antenna analyzes fuzziness due to non-circular polar transmitter Problem;
(3) compared with prior art, the present invention by the way that antenna transmit-receive position property coefficient is introduced into fuzziness accounting equation In, have the advantages that can be applied to the analysis of digital beam froming SAR system fuzziness.
Detailed description of the invention
Fig. 1 is a kind of spaceborne flow chart for condensing polarization SAR method for analyzing ambiguity;
Fig. 2 (a) is the timing diagram of complete polarization mode;
Fig. 2 (b) is the timing diagram for condensing polarization mode;
Fig. 3 is the satellite-Earth model figure of satellite-borne SAR fuzziness analysis;
Fig. 4 is that fuzziness analyzes result;
Fig. 5 is spaceborne mapping band and confusion region schematic diagram.
Specific embodiment
In view of the deficiencies of the prior art, the present invention proposes it is a kind of it is spaceborne condense polarization SAR fuzziness analysis system, method and Memory solves existing fuzziness analytical technology and does not consider the non-circular polar transmitter of antenna present in real system and antenna The factors brings such as crosstalk that polarize influence, and lead to condense SAR system fuzziness analysis distortion under polarization mode, and then affect letter Application of the contracting polarization mode SAR system in terms of agricultural and ocean with reference to the accompanying drawing carries out the method for the present invention further Explanation and illustration.
It is as shown in Figure 1 a kind of spaceborne flow chart for condensing polarization SAR method for analyzing ambiguity, the first step is for full pole Change system considers antenna transmit-receive position property coefficient, mapping band geological information, target polarization scattering characteristics and satellite-orbit information, The wave position parameter of SAR system work, and according to star the influence of geometric parameters analysis fuzzy region are established, fuzziness meter is given Calculation method, second step are to consider the mistake introduced after polarization crosstalk and non-circular polar transmitter for polarization SAR system performance is condensed Difference just improves polarization scattering matrix, to obtain condensing the method for analyzing ambiguity under polarization.It is of the invention a kind of spaceborne Polarization SAR method for analyzing ambiguity is condensed to include the following steps:
One, the fuzziness analytical procedure based on polarization scattering matrix
The fuzzy of satellite-borne SAR image is to make from the echo-signal surveyed and drawn outside band to interference of the mapping with interior echo-signal At image quality decrease, or even there is so-called " ghost image " phenomenon, causes difficulty to SAR image application.Fuzzy problem is SAR work The major issue to be solved in journey design, it is star that the problem especially obscured in borne polarization SAR design is even more important Carry the important indicator of polarization SAR system design.
For Spaceborne SAR System, in radar reception window, since distance is to the side lobe effect of antenna radiation pattern, it is assumed that survey Draw the echo-signal with interior target be useful energy signal, then survey and draw with several outer preceding exomonental echo-signals or after Several exomonental echo-signals are blurred signal energy, and blurred signal energy weighs in time with useful signal energy It is folded, it causes to interference of the mapping with useful signal.
For Spaceborne SAR System, it is illustrated in figure 3 the satellite-Earth model figure of satellite-borne SAR fuzziness analysis.In figure, defend The height of star platform is H, RnFor the corresponding oblique distance in mapping band proximal end, RfFor the corresponding oblique distance of mapping band distal end, Ri0For to mapping Band carries out i-th point of corresponding oblique distance after discretization.
Signal in satellite-borne SAR mapping band is useful echo-signal, and the signal surveyed and drawn outside band is fuzzy energy signal, such as Fig. 5 show spaceborne mapping band and confusion region schematic diagram.In figure, 0 indicates to survey and draw with corresponding region, and -1 ...,-j ..., - ∞ and 1 ..., j ..., ∞ indicates the corresponding region of blurred signal energy.Surveying and drawing the oblique distance with and satellite at interior i-th point is Ri0, right The ground incidence angle and substar visual angle answered are respectively θi0And γi0.I-th point of j-th of fuzzy region and the oblique distance of satellite are Rij, corresponding ground incidence angle and substar visual angle are respectively θijAnd γij
According to the definition of fuzziness, fuzziness is the ratio of blurred signal energy Yu useful signal energy, obtains mapping band Interior i-th point of fuzziness RASRmnFor
Wherein, m and n indicates transmitting and received polarization.For complete polarization system, m indicates H or V polar transmitter, n Indicate H or V polarization reception.
PsigIt (i) is mapping with interior i-th point corresponding useful signal energy, it is related to wave position parameter, it can be expressed as
Wherein, PavFor average emitted power,WithIndicate mapping with interior i-th point corresponding day line-spacing Descriscent direction of the launch property coefficient and receiving direction property coefficient, λ are the wavelength for emitting signal, and c is the light velocity, and L is system loss, VsFor The speed of satellite platform movement.For polarization SAR system, backscattering cross product of the target under HH, HV, VH and VV polarization can To be expressed asCorresponding Polarization scattering S parameter is respectively SHH、SHV、SVH、SVV
Pamb(i, j) is i-th point of corresponding fuzzy energy in j-th of fuzzy region, can be expressed as
Wherein,WithIndicate i-th point of corresponding antenna direction of the launch property coefficient in j-th of fuzzy region With receiving direction property coefficient.For spaceborne digital beam froming SAR system, since its launching beam is broad beam, covering is entire Band is surveyed and drawn, distance is to directivity factorReception wave beam is narrow beam, and distance is to directivity factorTherefore Directivity of antenna, which is subject to, to be emulated or surveys.Indicate i-th point of corresponding off-axis angle in j-th of fuzzy region.
RijIt indicates the i-th point of oblique distance value formed with satellite in j-th of fuzzy region, is expressed as
Wherein, Ri0Indicate mapping with interior i-th point of corresponding oblique distance;RnAnd RfRespectively indicate the proximal end oblique distance in mapping band With distal end oblique distance;ReEarth radius and orbit altitude are respectively indicated with h;RmaxIndicate satellite oblique distance corresponding with earth section, fpFor Pulse recurrence frequency is provided by wave position parameter.
According to satellite-Earth model, the distance definition of satellite to earth center is Rs=Re+h。
γijIt can be expressed as
Wherein off-axis angle calculation formula is
Wherein, r indicates the roll angle of satellite,
And then it obtains fuzziness and is
Wherein, AjFor FUZZY WEIGHTED coefficient, can be expressed as
Two, the polarization scattering matrix under polarization is condensed
For condensing polarization SAR system, the transmitting timing difference with complete polarization mode is as shown in Fig. 2 (a), Fig. 2 (b). Polarization mode transmitting circular polarisation is condensed, is indicated with CP, and two receiving channels receive H and V polar echo simultaneously.
Spaceborne polarization SAR system of condensing usually emits right-handed circular polarization, is indicated with R, and uses H and V polarization while carrying out It receives, corresponding fuzziness can be expressed as
For condensing polar system, m indicates right-handed circular polarization transmitting, and n indicates H or V polarization reception.Condense polar system Fuzziness has two, respectively RASRRHAnd RASRRV
Psig(i) it is mapping with interior i-th point corresponding useful signal energy, can be expressed as
Pamb(i, j) is i-th point of corresponding fuzzy energy in j-th of fuzzy region, can be expressed as
In condensing polarization SAR system, MRHAnd MRVThere is certain corresponding relationship with polarization scattering matrix in formula (2), it can be with table It is shown as
Wherein, THAnd TVTo emit polarization vector, can be expressed as
For condensing polarization mode, since receiving polarization isolation is not high, system is caused to there is polarization crosstalk, therefore Formula (12) can be expressed as after considering to receive crosstalk
Wherein, δ1And δ2Antenna cross talk when being reception vertically polarized wave and horizontal polarized wave respectively (receives a kind of polarization The ratio of another polar component is mixed into wave), f1It is the degree of unbalancedness (including amplitude and phase) between two-way receiving channel, it can To be expressed as
For condensing polarization SAR system, it is generally recognized that it meets
Wherein, RHHIt indicates the polarization of antenna emission level and is received as the power of horizontal polarization, RVHIndicate that antenna transmitting is vertical Polarize and be received as the power of horizontal polarization, RHVIt indicates the polarization of antenna emission level and is received as the power of vertical polarization, RVVTable Show antenna transmitting vertical polarization and is received as the power of vertical polarization.
In condensing polarization SAR system, since the electromagnetic wave of actual antennas transmitting is unlikely to be ideal circularly polarised wave, lead to Antenna axial ratio is commonly used to measure circular polarisation degree, can be expressed as
Wherein, EmaxAnd EminAntenna electric field forms elliptical major semiaxis and semi-minor axis when for non-circular polar transmitter.
After the non-circular polar transmitter of consideration system, antenna axial ratio can cause to emit vector distortion, cause formula (13) that can indicate For
Formula (10), formula (11), formula (14) are brought into formula (9), the spaceborne fuzziness condensed under polarization SAR mode can be calculated Parameter.
It in order to be further illustrated, is emulated here with one group of satellite-borne SAR parameter, obtains the mould under wherein RV polarization It is as shown in Figure 4 to paste curve.In emulation, the height of satellite platform is 850km, mapping swath width 25km, and mapping band center is corresponding Incidence angle be 35 degree, receiving polarization crosstalk δ is -10dB, and the axis ratio of antenna is 2.0dB.It is seen that SAR system exists It condenses under polarization mode, fuzziness is superior to -17.5dB, can satisfy the application requirements such as agricultural and ocean.
The content that description in the present invention is not described in detail belongs to the well-known technique of those skilled in the art.

Claims (3)

1. one kind is spaceborne to condense polarization SAR method for analyzing ambiguity, it is characterised in that include the following steps:
(1) the spaceborne mapping band for condensing the generation of polarization SAR system and multiple fuzzy regions are obtained;
(2) according to the corresponding useful signal energy in mapping band midpoint, the corresponding blurred signal energy meter in each fuzzy region midpoint Calculation obtains the corresponding fuzziness of current point;Useful signal energy P of the mapping with midpointsig(i) calculation method are as follows:
PavFor the spaceborne average emitted power for condensing polarization SAR system,To survey and draw with interior i-th point corresponding transmitting day Line directivity factor,It is mapping with interior i-th point corresponding receiving antenna directivity factor, λ condenses polarization to be spaceborne The transmitting signal wavelength of SAR system, c are the light velocity, and L condenses polarization SAR system loss, V to be spacebornesPolarization SAR is condensed to be spaceborne The speed of satellite platform movement, θ where systemi0To survey and draw with interior i-th point corresponding ground incidence angle, MRH、MRVRespectively star Carry the Polarization scattering parameter for condensing polarization SAR system;
The corresponding blurred signal energy P in the fuzzy region midpointambThe calculation method of (i, j) are as follows:
Wherein,For i-th point in j-th of fuzzy region corresponding antenna direction of the launch property coefficient,It is j-th I-th point of corresponding antenna receiving direction property coefficient, θ in fuzzy regionijCorrespondingly for i-th point of j-th of fuzzy region Face incidence angle, RijThe oblique distance value formed for i-th point in j-th of fuzzy region with satellite;It is in j-th of fuzzy region i-th The corresponding off-axis angle of a point;
The spaceborne Polarization scattering parameter M for condensing polarization SAR systemRH、MRVCalculation method are as follows:
Wherein, δ1To receive antenna cross talk when vertically polarized wave, δ2To receive antenna cross talk when horizontal polarized wave, f1It is two Degree of unbalancedness between the receiving channel of road, THEmit polarization vector, T to condense horizontal direction in polarization modeVTo condense polarization mode Middle vertical direction emits polarization vector, and Polarization scattering S parameter of the target under HH, HV, VH, VV polarization is respectively SHH、SHV、SVH、 SVV
It condenses horizontal direction in polarization mode and emits polarization vector TH, condense in polarization mode vertical direction and emit polarization vector TV Calculation method are as follows:
Wherein,EmaxAntenna electric field forms elliptical major semiaxis, E when for non-circular polar transmitterminFor non-circular polarisation Antenna electric field forms elliptical semi-minor axis when transmitting.
2. one kind is spaceborne to condense polarization SAR fuzziness analysis system, it is characterised in that including non-circular polar transmitter analysis module, connect Receive crosstalk analysis module, fuzziness computing module, in which:
Polarization mode is condensed in non-circular polar transmitter analysis module, the antenna axial ratio parameter introduced using non-circular polar transmitter, calculating Incident polarization vector is issued, and is sent to fuzziness computing module;
Crosstalk analysis module is received, using polarization cross-talk parameters, polarization scattering matrix under polarization mode is condensed in calculating, and is sent to mould Paste degree computing module;
Fuzziness computing module, according to condense polarization mode issue incident polarization vector, condense polarization scattering matrix under polarization mode, Survey and draw the useful signal energy with midpoint, the blurred signal energy balane at each fuzzy region midpoint obtains the corresponding mould of current point Paste degree;Useful signal energy P of the mapping with midpointsig(i) calculation method are as follows:
PavFor the spaceborne average emitted power for condensing polarization SAR system,To survey and draw with interior i-th point corresponding transmitting day Line directivity factor,It is mapping with interior i-th point corresponding receiving antenna directivity factor, λ condenses polarization to be spaceborne The transmitting signal wavelength of SAR system, c are the light velocity, and L condenses polarization SAR system loss, V to be spacebornesPolarization SAR is condensed to be spaceborne The speed of satellite platform movement, θ where systemi0To survey and draw with interior i-th point corresponding ground incidence angle, MRH、MRVRespectively star Carry the Polarization scattering parameter for condensing polarization SAR system;
The corresponding blurred signal energy P in the fuzzy region midpointambThe calculation method of (i, j) are as follows:
Wherein,For i-th point in j-th of fuzzy region corresponding antenna direction of the launch property coefficient,It is j-th I-th point of corresponding antenna receiving direction property coefficient, θ in fuzzy regionijCorrespondingly for i-th point of j-th of fuzzy region Face incidence angle, RijThe oblique distance value formed for i-th point in j-th of fuzzy region with satellite;
The spaceborne Polarization scattering parameter M for condensing polarization SAR systemRH、MRVCalculation method are as follows:
Wherein, δ1To receive antenna cross talk when vertically polarized wave, δ2To receive antenna cross talk when horizontal polarized wave, f1It is two Degree of unbalancedness between the receiving channel of road, THEmit polarization vector, T to condense horizontal direction in polarization modeVTo condense polarization mode Middle vertical direction emits polarization vector, and Polarization scattering S parameter of the target under HH, HV, VH, VV polarization is respectively SHH、SHV、SVH、 SVV
It condenses horizontal direction in polarization mode and emits polarization vector TH, condense in polarization mode vertical direction and emit polarization vector TV Calculation method are as follows:
Wherein,EmaxAntenna electric field forms elliptical major semiaxis, E when for non-circular polar transmitterminFor non-circular polarisation Antenna electric field forms elliptical semi-minor axis when transmitting.
3. a kind of non-transitory memory, it is characterised in that: be stored with computer program, which execute computer Method of claim 1.
CN201710913798.2A 2017-09-30 2017-09-30 One kind is spaceborne to condense polarization SAR fuzziness analysis system, method and memory Active CN107907880B (en)

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