CN107888073A - A kind of alternating current-direct current mixed tensor router of comprehensive Sofe Switch - Google Patents

A kind of alternating current-direct current mixed tensor router of comprehensive Sofe Switch Download PDF

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Publication number
CN107888073A
CN107888073A CN201711129877.0A CN201711129877A CN107888073A CN 107888073 A CN107888073 A CN 107888073A CN 201711129877 A CN201711129877 A CN 201711129877A CN 107888073 A CN107888073 A CN 107888073A
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China
Prior art keywords
voltage
mode
switch
units
inductance
Prior art date
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Granted
Application number
CN201711129877.0A
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Chinese (zh)
Other versions
CN107888073B (en
Inventor
张钊
董天阳
邵宝珠
王刚
孙秋野
孙峰
张涛
戈阳阳
李胜辉
张潇桐
董鹤楠
张冠峰
白雪
张雪猛
程科
于双江
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State Grid Corp of China SGCC
Northeastern University China
Electric Power Research Institute of State Grid Liaoning Electric Power Co Ltd
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State Grid Corp of China SGCC
Northeastern University China
Electric Power Research Institute of State Grid Liaoning Electric Power Co Ltd
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Priority to CN201711129877.0A priority Critical patent/CN107888073B/en
Publication of CN107888073A publication Critical patent/CN107888073A/en
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Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02MAPPARATUS FOR CONVERSION BETWEEN AC AND AC, BETWEEN AC AND DC, OR BETWEEN DC AND DC, AND FOR USE WITH MAINS OR SIMILAR POWER SUPPLY SYSTEMS; CONVERSION OF DC OR AC INPUT POWER INTO SURGE OUTPUT POWER; CONTROL OR REGULATION THEREOF
    • H02M3/00Conversion of dc power input into dc power output
    • H02M3/22Conversion of dc power input into dc power output with intermediate conversion into ac
    • H02M3/24Conversion of dc power input into dc power output with intermediate conversion into ac by static converters
    • H02M3/28Conversion of dc power input into dc power output with intermediate conversion into ac by static converters using discharge tubes with control electrode or semiconductor devices with control electrode to produce the intermediate ac
    • H02M3/325Conversion of dc power input into dc power output with intermediate conversion into ac by static converters using discharge tubes with control electrode or semiconductor devices with control electrode to produce the intermediate ac using devices of a triode or a transistor type requiring continuous application of a control signal
    • H02M3/335Conversion of dc power input into dc power output with intermediate conversion into ac by static converters using discharge tubes with control electrode or semiconductor devices with control electrode to produce the intermediate ac using devices of a triode or a transistor type requiring continuous application of a control signal using semiconductor devices only
    • H02M3/33569Conversion of dc power input into dc power output with intermediate conversion into ac by static converters using discharge tubes with control electrode or semiconductor devices with control electrode to produce the intermediate ac using devices of a triode or a transistor type requiring continuous application of a control signal using semiconductor devices only having several active switching elements
    • H02M3/33576Conversion of dc power input into dc power output with intermediate conversion into ac by static converters using discharge tubes with control electrode or semiconductor devices with control electrode to produce the intermediate ac using devices of a triode or a transistor type requiring continuous application of a control signal using semiconductor devices only having several active switching elements having at least one active switching element at the secondary side of an isolation transformer
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J3/00Circuit arrangements for ac mains or ac distribution networks
    • H02J3/02Circuit arrangements for ac mains or ac distribution networks using a single network for simultaneous distribution of power at different frequencies; using a single network for simultaneous distribution of ac power and of dc power
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J3/00Circuit arrangements for ac mains or ac distribution networks
    • H02J3/28Arrangements for balancing of the load in a network by storage of energy
    • H02J3/32Arrangements for balancing of the load in a network by storage of energy using batteries with converting means
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02MAPPARATUS FOR CONVERSION BETWEEN AC AND AC, BETWEEN AC AND DC, OR BETWEEN DC AND DC, AND FOR USE WITH MAINS OR SIMILAR POWER SUPPLY SYSTEMS; CONVERSION OF DC OR AC INPUT POWER INTO SURGE OUTPUT POWER; CONTROL OR REGULATION THEREOF
    • H02M3/00Conversion of dc power input into dc power output
    • H02M3/02Conversion of dc power input into dc power output without intermediate conversion into ac
    • H02M3/04Conversion of dc power input into dc power output without intermediate conversion into ac by static converters
    • H02M3/10Conversion of dc power input into dc power output without intermediate conversion into ac by static converters using discharge tubes with control electrode or semiconductor devices with control electrode
    • H02M3/145Conversion of dc power input into dc power output without intermediate conversion into ac by static converters using discharge tubes with control electrode or semiconductor devices with control electrode using devices of a triode or transistor type requiring continuous application of a control signal
    • H02M3/155Conversion of dc power input into dc power output without intermediate conversion into ac by static converters using discharge tubes with control electrode or semiconductor devices with control electrode using devices of a triode or transistor type requiring continuous application of a control signal using semiconductor devices only
    • H02M3/156Conversion of dc power input into dc power output without intermediate conversion into ac by static converters using discharge tubes with control electrode or semiconductor devices with control electrode using devices of a triode or transistor type requiring continuous application of a control signal using semiconductor devices only with automatic control of output voltage or current, e.g. switching regulators
    • H02M3/158Conversion of dc power input into dc power output without intermediate conversion into ac by static converters using discharge tubes with control electrode or semiconductor devices with control electrode using devices of a triode or transistor type requiring continuous application of a control signal using semiconductor devices only with automatic control of output voltage or current, e.g. switching regulators including plural semiconductor devices as final control devices for a single load
    • H02M3/1582Buck-boost converters
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02MAPPARATUS FOR CONVERSION BETWEEN AC AND AC, BETWEEN AC AND DC, OR BETWEEN DC AND DC, AND FOR USE WITH MAINS OR SIMILAR POWER SUPPLY SYSTEMS; CONVERSION OF DC OR AC INPUT POWER INTO SURGE OUTPUT POWER; CONTROL OR REGULATION THEREOF
    • H02M3/00Conversion of dc power input into dc power output
    • H02M3/02Conversion of dc power input into dc power output without intermediate conversion into ac
    • H02M3/04Conversion of dc power input into dc power output without intermediate conversion into ac by static converters
    • H02M3/10Conversion of dc power input into dc power output without intermediate conversion into ac by static converters using discharge tubes with control electrode or semiconductor devices with control electrode
    • H02M3/145Conversion of dc power input into dc power output without intermediate conversion into ac by static converters using discharge tubes with control electrode or semiconductor devices with control electrode using devices of a triode or transistor type requiring continuous application of a control signal
    • H02M3/155Conversion of dc power input into dc power output without intermediate conversion into ac by static converters using discharge tubes with control electrode or semiconductor devices with control electrode using devices of a triode or transistor type requiring continuous application of a control signal using semiconductor devices only
    • H02M3/156Conversion of dc power input into dc power output without intermediate conversion into ac by static converters using discharge tubes with control electrode or semiconductor devices with control electrode using devices of a triode or transistor type requiring continuous application of a control signal using semiconductor devices only with automatic control of output voltage or current, e.g. switching regulators
    • H02M3/158Conversion of dc power input into dc power output without intermediate conversion into ac by static converters using discharge tubes with control electrode or semiconductor devices with control electrode using devices of a triode or transistor type requiring continuous application of a control signal using semiconductor devices only with automatic control of output voltage or current, e.g. switching regulators including plural semiconductor devices as final control devices for a single load
    • H02M3/1584Conversion of dc power input into dc power output without intermediate conversion into ac by static converters using discharge tubes with control electrode or semiconductor devices with control electrode using devices of a triode or transistor type requiring continuous application of a control signal using semiconductor devices only with automatic control of output voltage or current, e.g. switching regulators including plural semiconductor devices as final control devices for a single load with a plurality of power processing stages connected in parallel
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02MAPPARATUS FOR CONVERSION BETWEEN AC AND AC, BETWEEN AC AND DC, OR BETWEEN DC AND DC, AND FOR USE WITH MAINS OR SIMILAR POWER SUPPLY SYSTEMS; CONVERSION OF DC OR AC INPUT POWER INTO SURGE OUTPUT POWER; CONTROL OR REGULATION THEREOF
    • H02M1/00Details of apparatus for conversion
    • H02M1/0048Circuits or arrangements for reducing losses
    • H02M1/0054Transistor switching losses
    • H02M1/0058Transistor switching losses by employing soft switching techniques, i.e. commutation of transistors when applied voltage is zero or when current flow is zero
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02BCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO BUILDINGS, e.g. HOUSING, HOUSE APPLIANCES OR RELATED END-USER APPLICATIONS
    • Y02B70/00Technologies for an efficient end-user side electric power management and consumption
    • Y02B70/10Technologies improving the efficiency by using switched-mode power supplies [SMPS], i.e. efficient power electronics conversion e.g. power factor correction or reduction of losses in power supplies or efficient standby modes
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/50Photovoltaic [PV] energy
    • Y02E10/56Power conversion systems, e.g. maximum power point trackers
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E70/00Other energy conversion or management systems reducing GHG emissions
    • Y02E70/30Systems combining energy storage with energy generation of non-fossil origin

Abstract

A kind of alternating current-direct current mixed tensor router of comprehensive Sofe Switch, including three-phase biphase rectification unit, double active full-bridge converter units, comprehensive Zero-voltage soft switch unit, crisscross parallel Boost units, four switch Buck Boost units, the two-way inversion unit of single-phase full bridge, high voltage dc bus, low-voltage direct bus, Hall current sampling, voltage sample, DSP control panels, drive circuit, accessory power supply.It is applied to the comprehensive Zero-voltage soft switch unit of double active full-bridge converters in the present apparatus, a cycle is divided into 7 mode, greatly reduces the switching loss of double active full-bridge conversion.New structure improves the ability of supports and the improvement quality of power supply of the SST to power distribution network, extracting dc bus out causes DC load, energy storage device, photovoltaic apparatus etc. to have access in local energy internet, realize in region Power Exchange between distributed apparatus and power distribution network, solve the problems, such as new energy on-site elimination simultaneously, hardware foundation has been laid for power economy optimization.

Description

A kind of alternating current-direct current mixed tensor router of comprehensive Sofe Switch
Technical field
The invention belongs to energy internet arena and power electronics transformation of electrical energy technical field, and in particular to a kind of comprehensive The alternating current-direct current mixed tensor router apparatus of Sofe Switch.
Background technology
Big region, multipotency can be realized as the network structure of interacted system becomes increasingly complex, power system capacity constantly rises Distributed rationally between source and realize more preferable economy, while potential safety hazard is brought to the safe operation of power network.Secondly, with new energy The novel energy such as continuous improvement, photovoltaic generation, the wind-power electricity generation equipment of source permeability in power network have distribution is wide, capacity is small, The features such as unstable, alternating current-direct current source mixes.Power system incorporates power electronics in the part such as generating, transmission of electricity, distribution, electricity consumption and set Standby, the power system of power electronics turns into Future Power System development trend.Solid-state transformer has high frequency and electric power Electronic two features, the small volume brought, quality is small, and the advantages such as controllability is strong, becoming can not in Future Power System One of visual plant of ignorance.
The current converting means using solid-state transformer as core, because its topology is simple, during transformation of electrical energy Energy loss is larger, it is impossible to meets now to the high efficiency of energy router, high power density, low-loss requirement;Tradition is solid The control method of state transformer is single, only goes to consider from grid-connected angle, and regenerative resource such as photovoltaic generation now, wind-force hair The access of electricity brings new challenge to power network normal operation, and traditional solid-state transformer can not be competent at well.
The content of the invention
In view of the shortcomings of the prior art, the present invention proposes a kind of alternating current-direct current mixed tensor router dress of comprehensive Sofe Switch Put, i.e., increase comprehensive soft switch device in double active full-bridge converter modules, realize switching tube during energy conversion No-voltage is switched on and off.
Technical solution of the present invention is as follows:
A kind of alternating current-direct current mixed tensor router apparatus of comprehensive Sofe Switch, including three-phase biphase rectification unit, double have Source full-bridge converter unit, comprehensive Zero-voltage soft switch unit, crisscross parallel Boost units, four switch Buck-Boost units, The two-way inversion unit of single-phase full bridge, high voltage dc bus, low-voltage direct bus, Hall current sampling, voltage sample, DSP controls Plate, drive circuit, accessory power supply.
The input access 10KV power distribution networks of described three-phase biphase rectification unit, the output end of three-phase biphase rectification unit High voltage dc bus, double active full-bridge converter unit connection high voltage dc bus are connected, comprehensive Zero-voltage soft switch unit is made Used in double active full-bridge converter units, the output end of double active full-bridge converter units connects 400V low-voltage direct buses respectively, single The input connection 400V low-voltage direct buses of the two-way inversion unit of phase full-bridge, crisscross parallel Boost units, four switch Buck- The output end of Boost units is respectively connecting to 400V low-voltage direct buses, and Distributed-generation equipment connection crisscross parallel Boost is defeated Enter end, energy storage device connects the input of Buck-Boost units;
DSP control panels connect double active full-bridge converter units, crisscross parallel Boost units, four switches by drive circuit Buck-Boost units and the two-way inversion unit of single-phase full bridge;Double active full-bridge converter unit connection high voltage dc bus and low pressure Dc bus, high voltage dc bus and low-voltage direct bus are connected to DSP control panels, accessory power supply connection by sample circuit Drive circuit, DSP control panels and sample circuit.
Described three-phase biphase rectification unit, double active full-bridge converter units, comprehensive Zero-voltage soft switch unit, four open Closing Buck-Boost units and the two-way inversion unit of single-phase full bridge has forward conduction, reverse conductive and nonconductive three kinds of energy Mode of operation is flowed, wherein, it is forward conduction that energy flows to output end from input, and it is inverse that energy flows to input from output end To conducting, no energy is flowed through to be not turned on, different according to each unit energy flow mode of operation, is formed and is applied to energy interconnection The different working modes of the energy router apparatus of net.
The double active full-bridge converter units of described comprehensive Zero-voltage soft switch, including high-frequency inversion module, high frequency transformation Device module, rectification output module and Sofe Switch module, its operation mode are divided into 14, wherein forward and reverse each 7 mode, and It is identical;
Mode 1:Under this mode, energy is transferred into load end, and the primary current of high frequency transformer flows through switch S1, Inductance Llk, high frequency transformer and inductance Lm, S4 is switched, finally flows into ground wire;The secondary current of high frequency transformer flows through switching tube S5 resonant switch Q1 inductance L0, load, diode S6 finally flows into ground wire;
Mode 2;Under this mode, energy is transferred into load end, and the primary current of high frequency transformer flows through switch S1, Inductance Llk, high frequency transformer and inductance Lm, S4 is switched, finally flows into ground wire;The secondary current of high frequency transformer flows through switching tube S5, the electric capacity and electric capacity C, diode D6 of the Q1 in resonant type soft-switch unit, inductance L0, load, diode S6 finally flows into ground Line
Mode 3:Under this mode, energy is transferred into load end, and the primary current of high frequency transformer flows through switch S1, Inductance Llk, high frequency transformer and inductance Lm, S4 is switched, finally flows into ground wire;The secondary current of high frequency transformer flows through switching tube S5, electric capacity C, diode D5, D6, inductance L0, load, diode S6 finally flows into ground wire
Mode 4:Under this mode, only small magnetizing current flows through switching tube S1, inductance Llk, inductance Lm, switch Pipe S4, the primary side of high frequency transformer, it is achieved thereby that the switch of the zero current of main switch;In the secondary of high frequency transformer, two poles Pipe D5, D6, inductance L0, form closed loop;
Mode 5:Under this mode, high frequency transformer primary side switch pipe S1 and S4 are closed, and magnetizing current flows through S1 and S4 Electric capacity, while pass through inductance Llk, inductance Lm, switching tube S2 and S3 diode and electric capacity form loop;High frequency transformer pair Side, diode D5, D6, inductance L0, form closed loop;
Mode 6:Under this mode, high frequency transformer primary side switch pipe S2 and S3 are opened, and electric current flows through inductance Lik and electricity Feel Lm;The secondary of high frequency transformer, electric current flow through switching tube Q1, inductance L0, electric capacity C0, diode D5, and electric capacity C-shaped is into closed loop Loop;
Mode 7:Under this mode, high frequency transformer primary side switch S2 and S3 are opened, and electric current flows through inductance Llk, inductance Lm and high frequency transformer;High frequency transformer secondary-side switch pipe S6, S7 and switching tube Q1 open, electric current simultaneously flow through electric capacity C and Diode D5.
The control method of the double active full-bridge converter units of comprehensive Zero-voltage soft switch as described above, described three-phase Biphase rectification unit, for realizing the mutual power converter between 10KV power distribution networks and high voltage direct current, it is whole to realize that it is operated in Flow mode of operation or inversion mode of operation;Described double active full-bridge converter units, for realizing high voltage direct current and low pressure Mutual power converter between direct current, realize that it is operated in boost operating mode or decompression mode of operation;Described full side Position Zero-voltage soft switch unit unit, for realizing that double active full bridge units are being realized between high voltage direct current and low-voltage DC Power converter process Sofe Switch process described in crisscross parallel Boost units, for solving grid-connected access interface Problem, realize the MPPT trackings of photovoltaic cell;Four described switch Buck-Boost are used for providing interface for energy storage device, possess Charge and discharge control, Power quality management function, and realize comprehensive Sofe Switch;The two-way inversion unit of described single-phase full bridge, use In realizing the mutual conversion between low-voltage DC and 220V, 50HZ alternating voltage, realize its be operated in rectification mode of operation or Person's inversion mode of operation;Described high voltage dc bus, for stablizing the output voltage, double active complete of three-phase biphase rectification unit The input voltage of bridge converter unit;Described low-voltage direct bus:Output voltage, Buck- for crisscross parallel Boost units The input voltage of the two-way inversion unit of input voltage and single-phase full bridge of Boost units.
Described control method, comprises the following steps:
Step 1:The double active full-bridge converter units of comprehensive Zero-voltage soft switch are initialized, it is female to HVDC Line equivalent capacity and low-voltage direct bus equivalent capacity enter line precharge;
Step 2:The voltage signal of sample circuit collection high voltage dc bus and the voltage signal of low-voltage direct bus, and pass Transport to DSP;
Step 3:DSP calculates the active power and reactive power that high voltage dc bus and low-voltage direct bus flow through in real time, Judge the energy flow direction of the double active full-bridge converter units of comprehensive Zero-voltage soft switch, and PWM is exported to drive circuit Signal, if energy flows to output end by the input of the double active full-bridge converter units of comprehensive Zero-voltage soft switch, for drop Mode of operation is pressed, performs step 4, if the output end flow direction of the double active full-bridge converter units of the comprehensive Zero-voltage soft switch of energy Input, then it is boost operating mode, performs step 5, otherwise, if to flow through comprehensive Zero-voltage soft switch double active for no energy Full-bridge converter unit, then it is shutdown mode;
Step 4:The double active full-bridge converter units of comprehensive Zero-voltage soft switch work in the case where being depressured mode of operation, Quan Fang The high-frequency inversion module of the double active full-bridge converter units of position Zero-voltage soft switch presses different operating Modality work, rectification output mould Block is in natural commutation state;
Step 5:The double active full-bridge converter units of comprehensive Zero-voltage soft switch work under boost operating mode, Quan Fang The rectification output module of the double active full-bridge converter units of position Zero-voltage soft switch presses different operating Modality work, high-frequency inversion mould Block is in natural commutation state.
Advantage of the present invention:
The alternating current-direct current mixed tensor router of comprehensive Sofe Switch disclosure satisfy that energy router during transformation of electrical energy Low switching losses, the advantages of so as to realize high efficiency, high power density.In structure, the New Solid transformation of modularized design Device more easily extends, while can provide single phase ac interface and three-phase alternating current interface respectively in low-voltage alternating-current side interface, so as to Avoid the load unbalanced three-phase imbalance problem brought.It can be enabled simultaneously at low-voltage direct bus using droop control method Each equipment realizes adaptive power distribution in amount router.It is applied to the comprehensive of double active full-bridge converters in the present apparatus Zero-voltage soft switch unit, a cycle are divided into 7 mode, greatly reduce the switching loss of double active full-bridge conversion.It is new Structure improve supports of the SST to power distribution network and improve the ability of the quality of power supply, extract out dc bus cause DC load, Energy storage device, photovoltaic apparatus etc. are had access in local energy internet, realize in region work(between distributed apparatus and power distribution network Rate is exchanged, while solves the problems, such as new energy on-site elimination, and hardware foundation has been laid for power economy optimization.
Brief description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is the structured flowchart of the energy router general arrangement of the specific embodiment of the invention;
Fig. 2 is the circuit theory diagrams of the energy router general arrangement of the specific embodiment of the invention;
Fig. 3 is the energy flow graph of the specific embodiment of the invention
Fig. 4 is the circuit theory diagrams of the three-phase biphase rectification unit of the specific embodiment of the invention;
Fig. 5 is the circuit theory diagrams of double active full bridge units of the specific embodiment of the invention;
Fig. 6 is the circuit theory diagrams of the crisscross parallel Boost units of the specific embodiment of the invention;
Fig. 7 is the circuit theory diagrams of four switch Buck-Boost converter units of the specific embodiment of the invention;
Fig. 8 is the circuit theory diagrams of the two-way inversion unit of single-phase full bridge of the specific embodiment of the invention;
Fig. 9 is the control flow chart of the specific embodiment of the invention
Figure 10 is the double active full-bridge converter unit modal graphs of the comprehensive Zero-voltage soft switch of the present invention
Embodiment
The specific embodiment of the invention is described in detail below in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.
The energy router apparatus of the alternating current-direct current mixing of a kind of comprehensive Sofe Switch, as shown in figure 1, two-way whole including three-phase Flow unit, double active full-bridge converter units, comprehensive Zero-voltage soft switch unit, crisscross parallel Boost units, four switches The two-way inversion unit of Buck-Boost units, single-phase full bridge, high voltage dc bus, low-voltage direct bus.
As shown in figure 9, the router also includes Hall current sampling, voltage sample, DSP control panels, drive circuit and auxiliary Help power supply;
The input access 10KV power distribution networks of three-phase biphase rectification unit, the output end connection of three-phase biphase rectification unit are high Dc bus is pressed, double active full-bridge converter unit connection high voltage dc bus, comprehensive Zero-voltage soft switch unit acts on double Active full-bridge converter unit, the output end of double active full-bridge converter units connect 400V low-voltage direct buses, single-phase full bridge respectively The input connection 400V low-voltage direct buses of two-way inversion unit, crisscross parallel Boost units, four switch Buck-Boost are mono- The output end of member is respectively connecting to 400V low-voltage direct buses, Distributed-generation equipment connection crisscross parallel Boost inputs, storage The inputs of the switch Buck-Boost units of energy equipment connection four;
DSP control panels connect double active full-bridge converter units, crisscross parallel Boost units, four switches by drive circuit Buck-Boost units and the two-way inversion unit of single-phase full bridge;Double active full-bridge converter unit connection high voltage dc bus and low pressure Dc bus, high voltage dc bus and low-voltage direct bus are connected to DSP control panels, accessory power supply connection by sample circuit Drive circuit, DSP control panels and sample circuit.
High voltage dc bus is adjustable high-voltage dc voltage, and in present embodiment, high voltage dc bus is about 18KV.
Low-voltage direct bus is adjustable low-voltage DC, about 400V~600V, and in present embodiment, the low-voltage direct is female Line is 400V.
Shown in Fig. 2, three-phase biphase rectification unit input interface voltage exchanges for 10KV, 50HZ, and output interface voltage is can Tune high-voltage dc voltage is about 18KV, the double active transducer unit output interface voltages of comprehensive Sofe Switch are adjustable low-pressure direct Stream electricity, 600V~800V, four switch Buck-Boost unit input interfaces connect energy storage or DC load, and output interface is connected on On low-voltage direct bus, crisscross parallel Boost unit input interfaces connect other distributed power generation energy such as photovoltaic, wind energy, output Interface is connected on low-voltage direct bus, and the two-way inversion unit output interface of single-phase full bridge is power frequency 50HZ, 220V exchange;
Five unit energy types of flow in comprehensive Sofe Switch router apparatus, as shown in figure 3, three-phase biphase rectification list First, double active full-bridge converter units, from crisscross parallel Boost units, four switch Buck-Boost units and single-phase full bridge it is two-way Inversion unit has forward conduction, reverse conductive and nonconductive three kinds of energy flow mode of operations, wherein, energy is from input stream It is forward conduction to output end, energy flows to input from output end and flowed through for reverse conducting, no energy to be not turned on, according to The energy flow mode of operation of each unit is different, specific as follows:
Pattern a three-phase biphase rectification units and double active full-bridge converter unit forward conductions, system is in defeated from power distribution network Enter energy state pattern a1 crisscross parallel Boost units, the two-way inverter unit of single-phase full bridge, Buck-Boost units to be in just To conducting state;
Pattern a2 crisscross parallel Boost units, the two-way inverter unit of single-phase full bridge are in forward conduction state, Buck- Boost units are in reverse-conducting state;
Pattern a3 crisscross parallel Boost units, Buck-Boost units are in forward conduction state, and single-phase full bridge is two-way inverse Become device unit and be in reverse-conducting state;
Pattern a4 crisscross parallel Boost units are in forward conduction state, and Buck-Boost units, single-phase full bridge are two-way inverse Become device unit and be in reverse-conducting state;
Pattern a5 crisscross parallel Boost units are in forward conduction state, and Buck-Boost units are in reverse-conducting shape The two-way inverter unit of state, single-phase full bridge is in forward conduction state;
Pattern a6 crisscross parallel Boost units are in not on-state, the two-way inversion of Buck-Boost units, single-phase full bridge Device unit is in forward conduction state;
Pattern a7 crisscross parallel Boost units are in not on-state, Buck-Boost units be in forward conduction state, The two-way inverter unit of single-phase full bridge is in reverse-conducting state;
Pattern a8 crisscross parallel Boost units are in not on-state, the two-way inversion of Buck-Boost units, single-phase full bridge Device unit is in reverse-conducting state;
Pattern a9 crisscross parallel Boost units are in not on-state, Buck-Boost units be in reverse-conducting state, The two-way inverter unit of single-phase full bridge is in forward conduction state;
Pattern b three-phase biphase rectification units and double active full-bridge converter units are not turned on, and system is in piconet island state.
Pattern b1 crisscross parallel Boost units, the two-way inverter unit of single-phase full bridge, Buck-Boost units are in forward direction Conducting state;
Pattern b2 crisscross parallel Boost units, the two-way inverter unit of single-phase full bridge are in forward conduction state, Buck- Boost units are in reverse-conducting state;
Pattern b3 crisscross parallel Boost units, Buck-Boost units are in forward conduction state, and single-phase full bridge is two-way inverse Become device unit and be in reverse-conducting state;
Pattern b4 crisscross parallel Boost units are in forward conduction state, and Buck-Boost units, single-phase full bridge are two-way inverse Become device unit and be in reverse-conducting state;
Pattern b5 crisscross parallel Boost units are in forward conduction state, and Buck-Boost units are in reverse-conducting shape The two-way inverter unit of state, single-phase full bridge is in forward conduction state;
Pattern b6 crisscross parallel Boost units are in not on-state, the two-way inversion of Buck-Boost units, single-phase full bridge Device unit is in forward conduction state;
Pattern b7 crisscross parallel Boost units are in not on-state, Buck-Boost units be in forward conduction state, The two-way inverter unit of single-phase full bridge is in reverse-conducting state;
Pattern b8 crisscross parallel Boost units are in not on-state, the two-way inversion of Buck-Boost units, single-phase full bridge Device unit is in reverse-conducting state;
Pattern b9 crisscross parallel Boost units are in not on-state, Buck-Boost units be in reverse-conducting state, The two-way inverter unit of single-phase full bridge is in forward conduction state;
Pattern c three-phase biphase rectification units and double active full-bridge converter unit reverse-conductings, system is in defeated to power distribution network Go out energy state pattern c1 crisscross parallel Boost units, the two-way inverter unit of single-phase full bridge, Buck-Boost units to be in just To conducting state;
Pattern c2 crisscross parallel Boost units, the two-way inverter unit of single-phase full bridge are in forward conduction state, Buck- Boost units are in reverse-conducting state;
Pattern c3 crisscross parallel Boost units, Buck-Boost units are in forward conduction state, and single-phase full bridge is two-way inverse Become device unit and be in reverse-conducting state;
Pattern c4 crisscross parallel Boost units are in forward conduction state, and Buck-Boost units, single-phase full bridge are two-way inverse Become device unit and be in reverse-conducting state;
Pattern c5 crisscross parallel Boost units are in forward conduction state, and Buck-Boost units are in reverse-conducting shape The two-way inverter unit of state, single-phase full bridge is in forward conduction state;
Pattern c6 crisscross parallel Boost units are in not on-state, the two-way inversion of Buck-Boost units, single-phase full bridge Device unit is in forward conduction state;
Pattern c7 crisscross parallel Boost units are in not on-state, Buck-Boost units be in forward conduction state, The two-way inverter unit of single-phase full bridge is in reverse-conducting state;
Pattern c8 crisscross parallel Boost units are in not on-state, the two-way inversion of Buck-Boost units, single-phase full bridge Device unit is in reverse-conducting state;
Pattern c9 crisscross parallel Boost units are in not on-state, Buck-Boost units be in reverse-conducting state, The two-way inverter unit of single-phase full bridge is in forward conduction state;
Fig. 4 corresponds to a kind of three-phase PWM biphase rectification of the alternating current-direct current mixed tensor router apparatus of comprehensive Sofe Switch Element circuit schematic diagram;
The connected mode of main circuit module:The colelctor electrode and high voltage dc bus of 1st, 3,5 insulated gate bipolar transistor Positive pole is connected;The emitter stage of 2,4,6th insulated gate bipolar transistor is connected with high voltage dc bus negative pole;1st insulation The emitter stage of grid bipolar transistor is connected with the colelctor electrode of the 2nd insulated gate bipolar transistor, and the 3rd insulated gate bipolar is brilliant The emitter stage of body pipe is connected with the colelctor electrode of the 4th insulated gate bipolar transistor;
The inlet wire of power distribution network the 1st is connected to the emitter stage of the 1st insulated gate bipolar transistor, and the inlet wire of power distribution network the 2nd is connected to The emitter stage of 3rd insulated gate bipolar transistor, the inlet wire of power distribution network the 3rd are connected to the transmitting of the 5th insulated gate bipolar transistor Pole.
Fig. 5 corresponds to a kind of double active full-bridge converters of the alternating current-direct current mixed tensor router apparatus of comprehensive Sofe Switch Unit and comprehensive soft switching cell circuit theory diagrams;
The connected mode of double active full-bridge DC-DC units:Double active full-bridge converter units, including 8 insulated gate bipolars Transistor (IGBT power tubes), a high frequency transformer;It is divided into high-frequency inversion module, high frequency transformer module, rectification output mould Block;High-frequency inversion module includes 2 bridge arm (bridge arms:The colelctor electrode of upper switch pipe is connected with the positive pole of high voltage dc bus, on The emitter stage of insulated gate bipolar transistor is connected to the colelctor electrode of lower insulated gate bipolar transistor, and lower insulated gate bipolar is brilliant The emitter stage of body pipe is connected to high voltage dc bus negative pole);The colelctor electrode of 12,14th insulated gate bipolar transistor and high straightening Stream bus positive pole is connected, and the emitter stage of the 13rd, 15 insulated gate bipolar transistor is connected to high voltage dc bus negative pole;12nd is exhausted The emitter stage of edge grid bipolar transistor is connected to the colelctor electrode of the 13rd insulated gate bipolar transistor;14th insulated gate bipolar The emitter stage of transistor is connected to the colelctor electrode of the 15th insulated gate bipolar transistor;
The connected mode of comprehensive soft switching cell:Comprehensive soft switching cell, including an insulated gate bipolar crystal Manage (IGBT power tubes), an electric capacity, two diodes;The transmitting base of 16th insulated gate bipolar transistor connects the 1st two pole The negative electrode of pipe, the anode of the 1st diode are connected with the anode of the 2nd diode, and one end of electric capacity connects the 16th insulated gate bipolar The colelctor electrode of transistor npn npn, the other end connect the anode of the 1st diode;
The crisscross parallel boost that Fig. 6 corresponds to a kind of alternating current-direct current mixed tensor router apparatus of comprehensive Sofe Switch is mono- The circuit theory diagrams of member
The connected mode of crisscross parallel boost units:Crisscross parallel boost units, including two inductance, two two poles Pipe, two insulated gate bipolar transistors;One end of two inductance is commonly connected to distributed power source positive pole, and the other end connects respectively The colelctor electrode of the 17th, 18 insulated gate bipolar transistor is connected to, the anode of two diodes is connected respectively to the 17th, 18 insulated gate The colelctor electrode of bipolar transistor, the emitter stage of the 17th, 18 insulated gate bipolar transistor are connected to the negative pole of distributed power source;
Fig. 7 corresponds to a kind of four switch Buck-Boost of the alternating current-direct current mixed tensor router apparatus of comprehensive Sofe Switch The circuit theory diagrams of unit
The connected mode of four switch Buck-Boost units:Four switch Buck-Boost units, including four insulated gates are double Bipolar transistor, an inductance, two electric capacity;Two electric capacity are coupled with the both ends of input and output, the 19th insulated gate bipolar Transistor npn npn emitter stage connects inductance, the colelctor electrode of the insulated gate bipolar transistor of inductance connection the 20th, the 21st, 22 insulated gate pair Bipolar transistor parallel connection is in circuit;
Fig. 8 corresponds to a kind of two-way inversion of single-phase full bridge of the alternating current-direct current mixed tensor router apparatus of comprehensive Sofe Switch Circuit theory diagrams
The connected mode of main circuit module is:The colelctor electrode of 23rd, 25 insulated gate bipolar transistor is connected to low-pressure direct Flow bus positive pole;The emitter stage of 24th, 26 insulated gate bipolar transistor is connected to low-voltage direct bus negative pole, the 23rd insulated gate The emitter stage of bipolar transistor is connected to the colelctor electrode of the 24th insulated gate bipolar transistor, the 25th insulated gate bipolar crystal The emitter stage of pipe is connected to the colelctor electrode of the 26th insulated gate bipolar transistor;The two-way inverter output end of single-phase full bridge is filtered with L Ripple device is connected;
A kind of control circuit of the energy router apparatus of the alternating current-direct current mixing of comprehensive Sofe Switch, as shown in figure 9, including DSP, drive circuit, power circuit and sample circuit.DSP models TMS320F28335 in present embodiment.
The input of sample circuit connects 18KV high voltage dc bus and 400V low-voltage direct buses respectively, sample circuit Output end connects TMS320F28335 input, the input of TMS320F28335 output end connection drive circuit, driving The output end of circuit connects three-phase biphase rectification unit, double active full-bridge converter units, crisscross parallel Boost units, list respectively The two-way inversion unit of phase full-bridge, four switch Buck-Boost units, power circuit are respectively connecting to DSP, drive circuit, sampling electricity Road.
TMS320F28335, for producing the pwm signal of driving insulated gate bipolar transistor.
Drive circuit, for amplifying pwm signal caused by DSP, control three-phase biphase rectification unit, double active full-bridge conversion Unit, comprehensive Zero-voltage soft switch unit, crisscross parallel Boost units, Buck-Boost units, the two-way inversion of single-phase full bridge The insulated gate bipolar transistor of unit is opened or turned off.
Described power circuit, for providing electric energy for DSP, sample circuit, drive circuit.
The double active full-bridge converter unit modal graphs of comprehensive Zero-voltage soft switch, as shown in Figure 10.
Mode 1:Under this mode, energy is transferred into load end, and the primary current of high frequency transformer flows through switch S1, Inductance Llk, high frequency transformer and inductance Lm, S4 is switched, finally flows into ground wire;The secondary current of high frequency transformer flows through switching tube S5 resonant switch Q1 inductance L0, load, diode S6 finally flows into ground wire.
Mode 2;Under this mode, energy is transferred into load end, and the primary current of high frequency transformer flows through switch S1, Inductance Llk, high frequency transformer and inductance Lm, S4 is switched, finally flows into ground wire;The secondary current of high frequency transformer flows through switching tube S5, the electric capacity and electric capacity C, diode D6 of the Q1 in resonant type soft-switch unit, inductance L0, load, diode S6 finally flows into ground Line
Mode 3:Under this mode, energy is transferred into load end, and the primary current of high frequency transformer flows through switch S1, Inductance Llk, high frequency transformer and inductance Lm, S4 is switched, finally flows into ground wire;The secondary current of high frequency transformer flows through switching tube S5, electric capacity C, diode D5, D6, inductance L0, load, diode S6 finally flows into ground wire
Mode 4:Under this mode, only small magnetizing current flows through switching tube S1, inductance Llk, inductance Lm, switch Pipe S4, the primary side of high frequency transformer, it is achieved thereby that the switch of the zero current of main switch;In the secondary of high frequency transformer, two poles Pipe D5, D6, inductance L0, form closed loop.
Mode 5:Under this mode, high frequency transformer primary side switch pipe S1 and S4 are closed, and magnetizing current flows through S1 and S4 Electric capacity, while pass through inductance Llk, inductance Lm, switching tube S2 and S3 diode and electric capacity form loop;High frequency transformer pair Side, diode D5, D6, inductance L0, form closed loop.
Mode 6:Under this mode, high frequency transformer primary side switch pipe S2 and S3 are opened, and electric current flows through inductance Lik and electricity Feel Lm;The secondary of high frequency transformer, electric current flow through switching tube Q1, inductance L0, electric capacity C0, diode D5, and electric capacity C-shaped is into closed loop Loop.
Mode 7:Under this mode, high frequency transformer primary side switch S2 and S3 are opened, and electric current flows through inductance Llk, inductance Lm and high frequency transformer;High frequency transformer secondary-side switch pipe S6, S7 and switching tube Q1 open, electric current simultaneously flow through electric capacity C and Diode D5.

Claims (5)

  1. A kind of 1. alternating current-direct current mixed tensor router of comprehensive Sofe Switch, it is characterised in that:It is two-way that the router includes three-phase Rectification unit, double active full-bridge converter units, comprehensive Zero-voltage soft switch unit, crisscross parallel Boost units, four switches The two-way inversion unit of Buck-Boost units, single-phase full bridge, high voltage dc bus, low-voltage direct bus, sample circuit, voltage are adopted Sample, DSP control panels, drive circuit and power circuit;
    The input access 10KV power distribution networks of three-phase biphase rectification unit, the output end of three-phase biphase rectification unit connect high straightening Bus is flowed, double active full-bridge converter unit connection high voltage dc bus, comprehensive Zero-voltage soft switch unit acts on double active Full-bridge converter unit, the output end of double active full-bridge converter units connect 400V low-voltage direct buses respectively, and single-phase full bridge is two-way The input connection 400V low-voltage direct buses of inversion unit, crisscross parallel Boost units, four switch Buck-Boost units Output end is respectively connecting to 400V low-voltage direct buses, Distributed-generation equipment connection crisscross parallel Boost inputs, and energy storage is set The input of the standby switch of connection four Buck-Boost units;
    DSP control panels connect double active full-bridge converter units, crisscross parallel Boost units, four switch Buck- by drive circuit Boost units and the two-way inversion unit of single-phase full bridge;Double active full-bridge converter unit connection high voltage dc bus and low-voltage direct Bus, high voltage dc bus and low-voltage direct bus are connected to DSP control panels by sample circuit, and accessory power supply connection is only driven Dynamic circuit, DSP control panels and sample circuit.
  2. A kind of 2. alternating current-direct current mixed tensor router of comprehensive Sofe Switch according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:Institute Three-phase biphase rectification unit, double active full-bridge converter units, comprehensive Zero-voltage soft switch unit, the four switch Buck- stated Boost units and the two-way inversion unit of single-phase full bridge have forward conduction, reverse conductive and nonconductive three kinds of energy flows work Pattern, wherein, it is forward conduction that energy flows to output end from input, and energy flows to input as reverse conducting from output end, There is no energy to flow through to be not turned on, it is different according to each unit energy flow mode of operation, form the energy applied to energy internet The different working modes of source router device.
  3. A kind of 3. alternating current-direct current mixed tensor router apparatus of plug and play according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:Institute The double active full-bridge converter units of comprehensive Zero-voltage soft switch stated, including high-frequency inversion module, high frequency transformer module, rectification Output module and Sofe Switch module, its operation mode are divided into 14, wherein forward and reverse each 7 mode, and it is identical;
    Mode 1:Under this mode, energy is transferred into load end, and the primary current of high frequency transformer flows through switch S1, inductance Llk, high frequency transformer and inductance Lm, S4 is switched, finally flows into ground wire;It is humorous that the secondary current of high frequency transformer flows through switching tube S5 Shake switch Q1 inductance L0, load, diode S6 finally flows into ground wire;
    Mode 2;Under this mode, energy is transferred into load end, and the primary current of high frequency transformer flows through switch S1, inductance Llk, high frequency transformer and inductance Lm, S4 is switched, finally flows into ground wire;The secondary current of high frequency transformer flows through switching tube S5, humorous The Q1 to shake in soft switching cell electric capacity and electric capacity C, diode D6, inductance L0, load, diode S6 finally flows into ground wire
    Mode 3:Under this mode, energy is transferred into load end, and the primary current of high frequency transformer flows through switch S1, inductance Llk, high frequency transformer and inductance Lm, S4 is switched, finally flows into ground wire;The secondary current of high frequency transformer flows through switching tube S5, electricity Hold C, diode D5, D6, inductance L0, load, diode S6 finally flows into ground wire
    Mode 4:Under this mode, only small magnetizing current flows through switching tube S1, inductance Llk, inductance Lm, switching tube S4, The primary side of high frequency transformer, it is achieved thereby that the switch of the zero current of main switch;In the secondary of high frequency transformer, diode D5, D6, inductance L0, form closed loop;
    Mode 5:Under this mode, high frequency transformer primary side switch pipe S1 and S4 are closed, and magnetizing current flows through S1 and S4 electricity Hold, while loop is formed by inductance Llk, inductance Lm, switching tube S2 and S3 diode and electric capacity;High frequency transformer secondary, Diode D5, D6, inductance L0, form closed loop;
    Mode 6:Under this mode, high frequency transformer primary side switch pipe S2 and S3 are opened, and electric current flows through inductance Lik and inductance Lm;The secondary of high frequency transformer, electric current flow through switching tube Q1, inductance L0, electric capacity C0, diode D5, and electric capacity C-shaped is returned into closed loop Road;
    Mode 7:Under this mode, high frequency transformer primary side switch S2 and S3 are opened, and electric current flows through inductance Llk, inductance Lm and High frequency transformer;Opened in high frequency transformer secondary-side switch pipe S6, S7 and switching tube Q1, electric current simultaneously flows through electric capacity C and two poles Pipe D5.
  4. 4. the control method of the alternating current-direct current mixed tensor router of comprehensive Sofe Switch according to claim 1, its feature It is:Using three-phase biphase rectification unit, the mutual power converter between 10KV power distribution networks and high voltage direct current is realized, realizes it It is operated in rectification mode of operation or inversion mode of operation;Double active full-bridge converter units, realize high voltage direct current and low-pressure direct Mutual power converter between stream electricity, realize that it is operated in boost operating mode or decompression mode of operation;Described is comprehensive Zero-voltage soft switch unit, realize that double active full bridge units are realizing the power converter between high voltage direct current and low-voltage DC Crisscross parallel Boost units described in the Sofe Switch process of process, for solving the problems, such as grid-connected access interface, realize light Lie prostrate the MPPT trackings of battery;Four switch Buck-Boost units are used for providing interface for energy storage device, possess charge and discharge control, electricity Energy quality management function, and realize plug and play;The two-way inversion unit of single-phase full bridge, for realize low-voltage DC and 220V, Mutual conversion between 50HZ alternating voltages, realize that it is operated in rectification mode of operation or inversion mode of operation;HVDC Bus, for stablizing the input voltage of the output voltage of three-phase biphase rectification unit, double active full-bridge converter units;Low-voltage direct Bus:Output voltage, the input voltage and single-phase full bridge of four switch Buck-Boost units for crisscross parallel Boost units The input voltage of two-way inversion unit.
  5. 5. a kind of control method of the alternating current-direct current mixed tensor router of comprehensive Sofe Switch according to claim 4, its It is characterised by:Described control method comprises the following steps:
    Step 1:The double active full-bridge converter units of comprehensive ZVT are initialized, it is equivalent to high voltage dc bus Electric capacity and low-voltage direct bus equivalent capacity enter line precharge;
    Step 2:Sample circuit collection high voltage dc bus voltage signal and low-voltage direct bus voltage signal, and transmit to DSP;
    Step 3:DSP calculates the active power and reactive power that high voltage dc bus and low-voltage direct bus flow through in real time, judges The energy flow direction of the double active full-bridge converter units of the comprehensive auxiliary Sofe Switch of no-voltage, and believe to drive circuit output PWM Number, if energy flows to output end by the input of the double active full-bridge converter units of comprehensive Zero-voltage soft switch, for decompression Mode of operation, perform step 4, if the output end of the double active full-bridge converter units of energy comprehensive Zero-voltage soft switch flow to it is defeated Enter end, be then boost operating mode, perform step 5, otherwise, if to flow through comprehensive Zero-voltage soft switch double active complete for no energy Bridging exchange unit, then it is shutdown mode;
    Step 4:The double active full-bridge converter units of comprehensive Zero-voltage soft switch work in the case where being depressured mode of operation, and comprehensive zero The high-frequency inversion module of the double active full-bridge converter units of voltage soft-switching presses different operating Modality work, at rectification output module In natural commutation state;
    Step 5:The double active full-bridge converter units of comprehensive Zero-voltage soft switch work under boost operating mode, and comprehensive zero The rectification output module of the double active full-bridge converter units of voltage soft-switching presses different operating Modality work, at high-frequency inversion module In natural commutation state.
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CN108767863A (en) * 2018-06-25 2018-11-06 哈尔滨工程大学 It is a kind of using DAB converters as two district power distribution system power regulating strategies of node
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