CN107817629B - Liquid crystal display device - Google Patents

Liquid crystal display device Download PDF

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Publication number
CN107817629B
CN107817629B CN201710900199.7A CN201710900199A CN107817629B CN 107817629 B CN107817629 B CN 107817629B CN 201710900199 A CN201710900199 A CN 201710900199A CN 107817629 B CN107817629 B CN 107817629B
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China
Prior art keywords
light
liquid crystal
grating
crystal display
sub
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CN201710900199.7A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN107817629A (en
Inventor
谭纪风
王维
高健
孟宪东
陈小川
赵文卿
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京东方科技集团股份有限公司
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02FDEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS, THE OPTICAL OPERATION OF WHICH IS MODIFIED BY CHANGING THE OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF THE MEDIUM OF THE DEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE CONTROL OF THE INTENSITY, COLOUR, PHASE, POLARISATION OR DIRECTION OF LIGHT, e.g. SWITCHING, GATING, MODULATING OR DEMODULATING; TECHNIQUES OR PROCEDURES FOR THE OPERATION THEREOF; FREQUENCY-CHANGING; NON-LINEAR OPTICS; OPTICAL LOGIC ELEMENTS; OPTICAL ANALOGUE/DIGITAL CONVERTERS
    • G02F1/00Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics
    • G02F1/01Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour 
    • G02F1/13Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour  based on liquid crystals, e.g. single liquid crystal display cells
    • G02F1/133Constructional arrangements; Operation of liquid crystal cells; Circuit arrangements
    • G02F1/1333Constructional arrangements; Manufacturing methods
    • G02F1/1335Structural association of cells with optical devices, e.g. polarisers or reflectors
    • G02F1/1336Illuminating devices
    • G02F1/133615Edge-illuminating devices, i.e. illuminating from the side
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02FDEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS, THE OPTICAL OPERATION OF WHICH IS MODIFIED BY CHANGING THE OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF THE MEDIUM OF THE DEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE CONTROL OF THE INTENSITY, COLOUR, PHASE, POLARISATION OR DIRECTION OF LIGHT, e.g. SWITCHING, GATING, MODULATING OR DEMODULATING; TECHNIQUES OR PROCEDURES FOR THE OPERATION THEREOF; FREQUENCY-CHANGING; NON-LINEAR OPTICS; OPTICAL LOGIC ELEMENTS; OPTICAL ANALOGUE/DIGITAL CONVERTERS
    • G02F1/00Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics
    • G02F1/01Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour 
    • G02F1/13Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour  based on liquid crystals, e.g. single liquid crystal display cells
    • G02F1/133Constructional arrangements; Operation of liquid crystal cells; Circuit arrangements
    • G02F1/1333Constructional arrangements; Manufacturing methods
    • G02F1/1335Structural association of cells with optical devices, e.g. polarisers or reflectors
    • G02F1/1336Illuminating devices
    • G02F1/13362Illuminating devices providing polarised light, e.g. by converting a polarisation component into another one

Abstract

The embodiment of the invention provides a liquid crystal display device, relates to the technical field of liquid crystal display, and can realize transparent display without reducing the resolution and brightness of the display. The backlight module comprises a light emitting component and a light guide plate; the light emitted by the light emitting component is totally reflected after being emitted into the light guide plate in a certain angle range; the display panel includes: a first substrate, a second substrate and a liquid crystal layer; the second substrate is close to the backlight module; the first substrate comprises color photoresist patterns and shading patterns used for spacing the color photoresist patterns, and the shading patterns are used for enabling polarized light in a first polarization direction to transmit; the light guide plate is arranged on the display panel and comprises a light shielding pattern, a first grating and a second grating, wherein the first grating is arranged on one side of the light guide plate close to the display panel or one side of the light guide plate far away from the display panel; the first grating is used for enabling the light totally reflected in the light guide plate to be emitted as collimated polarized light, the polarization direction of the collimated polarized light is a second polarization direction, and the first polarization direction is perpendicular to the second polarization direction.

Description

Liquid crystal display device

Technical Field

The invention relates to the technical field of liquid crystal display, in particular to a liquid crystal display device.

Background

The structure of the current liquid crystal display device is shown in fig. 1, and includes a backlight module 01 and a display panel 02, where the backlight module 01 includes a light source 10 and a light guide plate 20, and the display panel 02 includes a first substrate 30, a second substrate 40, a liquid crystal layer 50 disposed between the first substrate 30 and the second substrate 40, a first polarizer 60 disposed on a side of the first substrate 30 away from the liquid crystal layer 50, and a second polarizer 70 disposed on a side of the second substrate 40 away from the liquid crystal layer 50.

The existing liquid crystal display device needs to use two layers of polaroids, so that the cost of the liquid crystal display device is high, and the transmittance of the polaroids is low, so that the liquid crystal display device realizes transparent display and the transmittance of external environment light is low. In order to improve the overall transmittance of the liquid crystal display device, a pixel division method is generally adopted in the prior art when a pixel is designed, as shown in fig. 2, one pixel is divided into a display area 03 and a transparent area 04, and only the brightness and the color change exist in the display area 03.

Disclosure of Invention

Embodiments of the present invention provide a liquid crystal display device that can realize transparent display without reducing the resolution and brightness of the display.

In order to achieve the above purpose, the embodiment of the invention adopts the following technical scheme:

a liquid crystal display device is provided, which comprises a display panel and a backlight module; the backlight module comprises a light emitting part and a light guide plate; the light emitted by the light emitting component is totally reflected in the light guide plate after being emitted into the light guide plate in a certain angle range; the display panel includes: the liquid crystal display panel comprises a first substrate, a second substrate and a liquid crystal layer arranged between the first substrate and the second substrate; the second substrate is close to the backlight module; the first substrate comprises color photoresist patterns and shading patterns used for spacing the color photoresist patterns, and the shading patterns are used for enabling polarized light in a first polarization direction to penetrate; the liquid crystal display device further comprises a first grating arranged on one side, close to the display panel, of the light guide plate or one side, far away from the display panel, and the orthographic projection of the first grating on the shading pattern is located in the boundary of the shading pattern; the first grating is used for enabling the light totally reflected in the light guide plate to be emitted as collimated polarized light, the polarization direction of the collimated polarized light is a second polarization direction, and the first polarization direction is perpendicular to the second polarization direction.

Preferably, the material of the light-shielding pattern includes a dichroic dye.

Preferably, the light emitting part includes a light source and a dimming structure; the light source is used for emitting light; the light adjusting structure is used for adjusting the light emitted from the light source to be emitted into the light guide plate in a certain angle range.

Preferably, the light modulating structure is a coupling grating.

Further preferably, the coupling grating comprises a plurality of sub-coupling gratings; each sub-coupling grating is used for enabling the light which is emitted to the sub-coupling grating to be emitted in a certain angle range, and the angle ranges of the light which is emitted from the coupling gratings are the same.

Preferably, the light-adjusting structure is a lens; the light source is arranged on the focus of the lens.

Preferably, the first substrate includes an array layer; alternatively, the second substrate comprises an array layer; wherein the array layer includes a thin film transistor and a driving electrode.

Further preferably, the driving electrode includes a pixel electrode and a common electrode; the pixel electrode comprises a plurality of sub-strip electrodes, and the distance between every two adjacent sub-strip electrodes is 0.1-10 mu m.

Preferably, the color photoresist pattern includes a red photoresist pattern, a green photoresist pattern and a blue photoresist pattern; wherein, the material of at least the red light resistance pattern and the green light resistance pattern is quantum dot material.

Preferably, the display panel comprises a plurality of pixel units, each pixel unit comprises n sub-pixel units, wherein n is more than or equal to 3, and n is a positive integer; the n sub-pixel units are sequentially arranged along the vertical direction; each pixel unit is connected with a data line, and each sub-pixel unit is connected with a grid line; or, the n sub-pixel units are sequentially arranged along the horizontal direction; each pixel unit is connected with one grid line, and each sub-pixel unit is connected with one data line.

The embodiment of the invention provides a liquid crystal display device, because light emitted from a first grating in the liquid crystal display device is collimated polarized light, the polarization direction of the collimated polarized light is a second polarization direction, a light shielding pattern is used for enabling the polarized light in the first polarization direction to penetrate, and the first polarization direction is perpendicular to the second polarized light, the first grating and the light shielding pattern are equivalent to a first polarizer and a second polarizer in the prior art. In addition, compared with the prior art that one pixel needs to be divided into a display area and a transparent area when transparent display is realized, the embodiment of the invention can realize transparent display without dividing the display area and the transparent area because the external environment light can penetrate through the colorful light resistance pattern and the shading pattern, thereby realizing transparent display without reducing the resolution and the brightness of the display.

Drawings

In order to more clearly illustrate the embodiments of the present invention or the technical solutions in the prior art, the drawings used in the description of the embodiments or the prior art will be briefly described below, it is obvious that the drawings in the following description are only some embodiments of the present invention, and for those skilled in the art, other drawings can be obtained according to the drawings without creative efforts.

Fig. 1 is a schematic structural diagram of a liquid crystal display device provided in the prior art;

fig. 2 is a schematic structural diagram of a pixel divided into a display region and a transparent region according to the prior art;

fig. 3(a) is a first schematic structural diagram of a liquid crystal display device according to an embodiment of the present invention;

fig. 3(b) is a schematic structural diagram of a liquid crystal display device according to an embodiment of the invention;

FIG. 4 is a schematic structural diagram of a dichroic dye molecule according to an embodiment of the present invention;

fig. 5 is a third schematic structural diagram of a liquid crystal display device according to an embodiment of the present invention;

fig. 6(a) is a schematic structural diagram illustrating a liquid crystal display device according to an embodiment of the present invention in a dark state;

fig. 6(b) is a schematic structural diagram of an lcd device according to an embodiment of the present invention for realizing a bright state;

fig. 7(a) is a first schematic structural diagram of a dimming structure according to an embodiment of the present invention;

fig. 7(b) is a schematic structural diagram of a dimming structure according to an embodiment of the present invention;

fig. 8(a) is a schematic structural diagram of a coupling grating according to an embodiment of the present invention;

fig. 8(b) is a schematic structural diagram of a coupling grating according to an embodiment of the present invention;

fig. 9(a) is a fourth schematic structural diagram of a liquid crystal display device according to an embodiment of the present invention;

fig. 9(b) is a schematic structural diagram of a liquid crystal display device according to an embodiment of the present invention;

fig. 10(a) is a first schematic structural diagram of a pixel unit according to an embodiment of the present invention;

fig. 10(b) is a schematic structural diagram of a pixel unit according to an embodiment of the present invention.

Reference numerals:

01-backlight module; 02-display panel; 03-a display area; 04-transparent area; 05-a light emitting component; 10-a light source; 20-a light guide plate; 30-a first substrate; 40-a second substrate; 50-a liquid crystal layer; 60-a first polarizer; 70-a second polarizer; 80-color photoresist pattern; 90-a light-blocking pattern; 100-a first grating; 110-an orientation layer; 120-a filler layer; 130-a dimming structure; 1301-a sub-coupling grating; 140-a reflector sheet; 150-an array layer; 1501-pixel electrodes; 1502-common electrode; 1503-an insulating layer; 160-pixel cells; 1601-a sub-pixel cell; 170-a gate line; 180-data line.

Detailed Description

The technical solutions in the embodiments of the present invention will be clearly and completely described below with reference to the drawings in the embodiments of the present invention, and it is obvious that the described embodiments are only a part of the embodiments of the present invention, and not all of the embodiments. All other embodiments, which can be derived by a person skilled in the art from the embodiments given herein without making any creative effort, shall fall within the protection scope of the present invention.

An embodiment of the invention provides a liquid crystal display device, as shown in fig. 3(a) and 3(b), including a display panel 02 and a backlight module 01.

The backlight module 01 includes a light emitting part 05 and a light guide plate 20; light emitted from the light emitting part 05 is totally reflected in the light guide plate 20 after being incident on the light guide plate 20 within a certain angle range; the display panel 02 includes: a first substrate 30, a second substrate 40, and a liquid crystal layer 50 disposed between the first substrate 30 and the second substrate 40; the second substrate 40 is close to the backlight module 01; the first substrate 30 includes color photoresist patterns 80 and light-shielding patterns 90 for spacing the color photoresist patterns 80, the light-shielding patterns 90 for transmitting polarized light of a first polarization direction; the liquid crystal display device further comprises a first grating 100 arranged on one side of the light guide plate 20 close to the display panel 02 or one side far away from the display panel 02, wherein the orthographic projection of the first grating 100 on the light shielding pattern 90 is positioned in the boundary of the light shielding pattern 90; the first grating 100 is configured to emit light totally reflected in the light guide plate 20 as collimated polarized light, a polarization direction of the collimated polarized light is a second polarization direction, and the first polarization direction is perpendicular to the second polarization direction.

First, the structure of the light emitting member 05 is not limited, and light emitted from the light emitting member 05 may be incident on the light guide plate 20 in a certain angle range, and may be totally reflected in the light guide plate 20. For example, the light enters the light guide plate 20 at 50 ° to 70 °. Here, since the light emitted from the light emitting member 05 enters the light guide plate 20 in a certain angular range, the light totally reflected in the light guide plate 20 is totally reflected in a certain angular range.

In addition, the light emitting part 05 may be the light source 10, the light emitted from the light source 10 is within a certain angle range, for example, the light emitted from the light source 10 is parallel light, and the angle of the parallel light is adjusted so that the parallel light is totally reflected in the light guide plate 20 after entering the light guide plate 20; the light emitting member 05 may include a light source 10 and a light modulating structure, and the light emitted from the light source 10 may have an angle within a certain range, and may be totally reflected in the light guide plate 20 after the light enters the light guide plate 20.

Second, the light-shielding pattern 90 is used for transmitting the polarized light in the first polarization direction, and at this time, the light-shielding pattern 90 is equivalent to a polarizer. The material of the light-shielding pattern 90 is not limited, and may include, for example, dichroic dye or iodine.

It is preferable in the embodiment of the present invention that the material of the light shielding pattern 90 includes dichroic dye. As shown in fig. 4, which is a schematic structural diagram of dichroic dye molecules, when the polarization direction of incident polarized light is parallel to the long axis of the dichroic dye molecules, the incident polarized light is strongly absorbed; when the polarization direction of the incident polarized light is perpendicular to the long axis of the dichroic dye molecules, the incident polarized light is not absorbed, and therefore, when the material of the light blocking pattern 90 includes the dichroic dye, the long axis of the dichroic dye molecules is parallel to the second polarization direction, that is, the transmission axis of the dichroic dye is perpendicular to the second polarization direction. When the light shielding pattern 90 includes the dichroic dye, the light shielding pattern 90 may include a polymerizable liquid crystal and a photoinitiator in addition to the dichroic dye. The dichroic dye can be selected from dichroic dyes with type X11(BASF) or S-428, the polymerizable liquid crystal can be selected from LC242(merck) or other common nematic liquid crystal, and the photoinitiator can be selected from photoinitiator with type 184. For example, the material of the light-shielding pattern 90 may include 1 to 20% by mass of a dichroic dye, 75 to 95% by mass of a polymerizable liquid crystal, and 0.1 to 5% by mass of a photoinitiator. As another example, the material of the light-shielding pattern 90 includes 10% by mass of a dichroic dye, 87.5% by mass of a polymerizable liquid crystal, and 2.5% by mass of a photoinitiator.

Based on the above, when the material of the light shielding pattern 90 includes the dichroic dye, a dichroic dye layer may be formed first, and then the region for forming the color photoresist pattern may be etched away by using an etching method to form the light shielding pattern 90.

Third, the position of the first grating 100 is not limited, and as shown in fig. 3(a), the first grating 100 may be disposed on the side of the light guide plate 20 close to the display panel 02; as shown in fig. 3(b), the first grating 100 may be disposed on a side of the light guide plate 20 away from the display panel 02. Since the first light barrier 100 is disposed on the side of the light guide plate 20 away from the display panel 02, in order to allow the light emitted from the first light barrier 100 to be directed to the display panel 02, the side of the first light barrier 100 away from the light guide plate 20 is made of a light reflective material or the side of the first light barrier 100 away from the light guide plate 20 is provided with a reflective layer. Based on this, in order to reduce the process difficulty, in the embodiment of the invention, preferably, the first grating 100 is disposed on a side of the light guide plate 20 close to the display panel 02, where the first grating 100 is a transmission grating.

Here, the type of the first grating 100 is not limited, and may be, for example, a simple grating, a multi-step grating, or a holographic grating. In order to enable light passing through the first grating 100 to exit as collimated polarized light, the grating period requirement is preferably in the sub-micron order.

The first grating 100 is configured to enable light totally reflected at a certain angle in the light guide plate 20 to exit as collimated polarized light, and the light totally reflected at a certain angle in the light guide plate 20 can be ensured to exit as collimated polarized light after passing through the first grating 100 by optimizing grating parameters of the first grating 100 and adjusting an angle of incident light entering the light guide plate 20. For example, the first grating 100 may emit collimated polarized light at a total reflection angle of 60 ° to 65 °, and adjust the angle of light emitted from the light emitting part 05 such that the light emitted from the light emitting part 05 enters the light guide plate 20 and then totally reflects at 60 ° to 65 °.

Fourth, the type of liquid crystal in the liquid crystal layer 50 is not limited, and may be, for example, nematic liquid crystal or other types of liquid crystal. The thickness of the liquid crystal layer 50 is preferably 0.1 to 10 μm for forming a liquid crystal grating.

It will be understood by those skilled in the art that in the related art liquid crystal display panel, in order to enable display, the long or short axes of the liquid crystal molecules are parallel to the polarization direction of the lower polarizer, and the phase retardation of the liquid crystal layer is λ/2. The liquid crystal display panel of the embodiment of the invention is similar to the liquid crystal display panel of the prior art, so the second polarization direction of the collimated polarized light emitted from the first grating 100 is parallel to the long axis or the short axis of the liquid crystal molecules, and the phase retardation of the liquid crystal layer is λ/2. In order to make the long or short axes of the liquid crystal molecules parallel to the second polarization direction of the collimated polarized light emitted from the first grating 100, the display panel 02 according to the embodiment of the present invention further includes alignment layers 110 disposed on both sides of the liquid crystal layer 50, as shown in fig. 5.

Fifth, as shown in fig. 5, the liquid crystal display device provided in the embodiment of the invention may further include a filling layer 120 disposed on the first grating 100 for planarizing the grating layer. The filler layer 120 is preferably a low refractive index material, such as air, and the thickness of the filler layer 120 is preferably ≧ 1 μm.

The principle of the liquid crystal display device provided by the embodiment of the invention for realizing display is as follows: as shown in fig. 6(a), when no voltage is applied to the liquid crystal layer 50, since the long or short axes of the liquid crystal molecules in the liquid crystal layer 50 are parallel to the second polarization direction, the polarization direction of the collimated light emitted from the first grating 100 in the second polarization direction passes through the liquid crystal layer 50 without change, and the light shielding pattern 90 allows the polarized light in the first polarization direction to pass through, while the second polarization direction is perpendicular to the first polarization direction, so that the collimated polarized light emitted from the first grating 100 is absorbed by the light shielding pattern 90 and cannot pass through the light shielding pattern 90, thereby realizing dark state display. Since the external ambient light is emitted to the first grating 100 at different angles and different wavelengths, the external ambient light does not exit as polarized collimated light after passing through the first grating 100, and a part of the external ambient light still passes through the light-shielding pattern 90 after passing through the first grating 100, so that the external ambient light can pass through the light-shielding pattern 90 and the color photoresist pattern 80 to realize transparent display when the liquid crystal display device is in a dark state, and the background behind the liquid crystal display device can be seen through the light-shielding pattern 90 and the color photoresist pattern 80 when the liquid crystal display device is in a dark state.

As shown in fig. 6(b), when a voltage is applied to the liquid crystal layer 50, the liquid crystal layer 50 forms a liquid crystal grating, the collimated polarized light emitted from the first grating 100 can be emitted through the color resist pattern 80 by the diffraction of the liquid crystal layer 50, and the polarization state of the collimated polarized light emitted from the first grating 100 is changed due to the deflection of the liquid crystal layer 50 to the polarization direction of the collimated polarized light, so that the light emitted from the first grating 100 can also pass through the light shielding pattern 90, thereby greatly increasing the transmittance of the bright display state, controlling the voltage applied to the liquid crystal layer 50, and realizing gray scale display. As mentioned above, since the ambient light still has a part of the light passing through the light-shielding pattern 90 after passing through the first grating 100, when the liquid crystal display device is in a bright state, the ambient light can pass through the light-shielding pattern 90 and the color photoresist pattern 80 to realize transparent display, and when the liquid crystal display device is in a bright state, the background behind the liquid crystal display device can also be seen clearly through the light-shielding pattern 90 and the color photoresist pattern 80.

The embodiment of the invention provides a liquid crystal display device, because the light emitted from a first grating 100 in the liquid crystal display device is collimated polarized light, the polarization direction of the collimated polarized light is a second polarization direction, a light shielding pattern 90 is used for enabling the polarized light in the first polarization direction to penetrate, and the first polarization direction is perpendicular to the second polarization direction, the first grating 100 and the light shielding pattern 90 are equivalent to a first polarizer 60 and a second polarizer 70 in the prior art. In addition, compared with the prior art that one pixel needs to be divided into the display area 03 and the transparent area 04 when the transparent display is realized, in the embodiment of the invention, since the external environment light can transmit the color photoresist pattern 80 and the shading pattern 90, the transparent display can be realized without dividing the display area 03 and the transparent area 04, so that the resolution and the brightness of the display are not reduced while the transparent display is realized.

Preferably, the light emitting part 05 is for emitting monochromatic light.

The wavelength of the monochromatic light emitted from the light emitting unit 05 is not limited and may be set as needed.

The first grating 100 is used to enable the light totally reflected in the light guide plate 20 within a certain angle range to be emitted as the collimated polarized light when the light strikes the first grating 100, and since the first grating 100 is sensitive to the angle of total reflection and the wavelength of the light, in order to enable the light totally reflected in the light guide plate 20 within a certain angle to be emitted as the collimated polarized light when the light strikes the first grating 100, it is preferable in the embodiment of the present invention that the light emitting component 05 is used to emit monochromatic light.

Alternatively, as shown in fig. 7(a) and 7(b), the light emitting part 05 includes the light source 10 and the dimming structure 130; the light source 10 is for emitting light; the light adjusting structure 130 is used to adjust light emitted from the light source 10 to be incident into the light guide plate 20 at a certain angle range.

The type of the Light source 10 is not limited, and may be, for example, an OLED (Organic Light-Emitting Diode), an LED (Light-Emitting Diode), a Micro LED (miniaturized Light-Emitting Diode), or the like.

Here, since the light emitting part 05 includes the light adjusting structure 130, the light adjusting structure 130 can adjust the light emitted from the light source 10 so that the light emitted from the light source 10 is incident on the light guide plate 20 within a certain angle range, and thus the angle of the light emitted from the light source 10 can be arbitrary.

In addition, the type of the light adjusting structure 130 is not limited as long as the light emitted from the light source 10 can be adjusted to be incident on the light guide plate 20 within a certain angle range. The embodiment of the present invention provides two types of dimming structures 130, which are specifically as follows:

the first method comprises the following steps: as shown in fig. 7(a), the dimming structure 130 is a coupling grating.

The coupling grating can adjust the light emitted from the light source 10 to a certain wide-angle range, and couple the light into the light guide plate 20. For example, light rays incident from a point source at-60 to 60 can be diffracted by the coupling grating and emitted at an exit angle, such as 57 to 76. Here, the angle at which the light adjusted by the coupling grating is incident into the light guide plate 20 is larger than the total reflection angle of the light in the light guide plate 20.

In addition, it should be noted that the coupling grating period is typically in the sub-micron order. The type of the coupling grating is not limited, and may be, for example, a simple grating, a multi-step grating, a holographic grating, or the like.

Referring to fig. 8(a), since the light emitted from the light source 10 is emitted to the coupling grating at different angles, the angles of the light emitted after being adjusted by the coupling grating are different, so that the light can be totally reflected after entering the light guide plate 20, but part of the totally reflected light is emitted to the first grating 100 and cannot be emitted as the collimated polarized light. In order to allow the light adjusted by the coupling grating to be emitted to the light guide plate 20 and then to be emitted as collimated polarized light after being emitted to the first grating 100 when the light is totally reflected in the light guide plate 20, it is preferable that the light emitted from the light source 10 at different angles be adjusted.

Based on the above, optionally, as shown in fig. 8(b), the coupling grating includes a plurality of sub-coupling gratings 1301; each sub-coupling grating 1301 is used for emitting light which impinges on the sub-coupling grating 1301 in a certain angle range, and the angle ranges of the light emitted from the sub-coupling gratings 1301 are the same.

It should be noted that although the angle of light incident on each sub-coupling grating 1301 is different, the light incident on each sub-coupling grating 1301 can be emitted in a certain angle range by adjusting the grating parameters of each sub-coupling grating 1301. Specifically, the projection area of the light emitted by the light source 10 may be divided into N parts, each part corresponds to a different light-emitting angle, and a sub-coupling grating structure is optimized for the principal light in each projection area, so that each sub-coupling grating has the same diffraction coupling modulation effect and emits light in the same angle range.

For example, referring to fig. 8(b), in an example where the sub-coupling gratings are arranged according to 3 × 3, the grating azimuth angles in the horizontal direction may be the same, the grating parameters are different, the grating parameters in the vertical direction are the same, and the grating azimuth angles are different, and fig. 8(b) takes an example where the grating azimuth angles are shifted by ± 45 °. Here, the smaller the azimuthal offset, the greater the coupling efficiency.

On the basis, the requirement on the grating period of the sub-coupling grating 1301 is generally that p is more than or equal to 100nm and less than or equal to 2 mu m; where p is the grating period.

And the second method comprises the following steps: as shown in fig. 7(b), the light-adjusting structure 130 is a lens (i.e., a parabolic reflector); the light source 10 is disposed at the focal point of the lens.

The light adjusting structure 130 is a lens, and the light source 10 is disposed at a focal point of the lens, such that light emitted from the light source 10 is reflected by the lens to emit to the light guide plate 20 within a certain angle range after being emitted to the lens, so as to generate total reflection in the light guide plate 20.

Here, since the first grating 100 can emit the total reflection light of a certain angle range as the collimated polarized light, the angle range of the incident light incident into the light guide plate 20 can be determined according to the angle range of the total reflection light which can be emitted as the collimated polarized light, and the corresponding lens can be selected according to the angle range of the incident light incident into the light guide plate 20.

Based on the above, in order to improve the utilization rate of the light emitted by the light source 10, in the embodiment of the invention, optionally, the light emitting component 05 may further include a reflective sheet 140 disposed on the side surface of the light source 10, the light emitted by the light source 10 is reflected by the reflective sheet 140 after being directed to the reflective sheet 140, and if the reflected light is directed to the light adjusting structure 130, the light enters the light guide plate 20 after being adjusted by the light adjusting structure 130, so that the utilization rate of the light emitted by the light source 10 is improved.

Alternatively, as shown in fig. 9(a), the first substrate 30 includes an array layer 150; alternatively, as shown in fig. 9(b), the second substrate 40 includes an array layer 150; the array layer 150 includes a thin film transistor and a driving electrode (the thin film transistor is not illustrated in the drawings according to the embodiment of the present invention).

Here, the driving electrode includes a pixel electrode 1501 and a common electrode 1502. The pixel electrode 1501 and the common electrode 1502 may be provided in the same layer or in different layers. When the pixel electrode 1501 and the common electrode 1502 are provided in different layers, as shown in fig. 9(a) and 9(b), an insulating layer 1503 is further provided between the pixel electrode 1501 and the common electrode 1502.

The embodiment of the invention can fabricate the array layer 150 and the color photoresist pattern 80 on one substrate, or fabricate the array layer 150 and the color photoresist pattern 80 on two substrates respectively.

Based on the above, further, as shown in fig. 9(a) and 9(b), the driving electrodes include the pixel electrode 1501 and the common electrode 1502; the pixel electrode 1501 includes a plurality of sub-strip electrodes, and a distance between adjacent sub-strip electrodes is 0.1 to 10 μm.

In the embodiment of the present invention, when the pixel electrode 1501 includes a plurality of sub-strip electrodes, and the distance between adjacent sub-strip electrodes is 0.1 μm to 10 μm, as shown in fig. 9(b), under the influence of the field effect at the edges of the pixel electrode and the common electrode, an electric field distribution with weak sides and strong middle is formed from the middle position of the sub-electrode to the middle position of two adjacent sub-electrodes (as shown by the dotted line in fig. 9 (b)), the liquid crystal is arranged along the electric field direction, so that an equivalent phase distribution of the liquid crystal grating is formed, when incident collimated polarized light enters the liquid crystal grating, the diffraction effect of the liquid crystal grating scatters the incident light (multiple diffraction orders), the incident light is emitted from the position of the adjacent shielding pattern 90, the period of the liquid crystal grating is determined, so that the smaller the period of the sub-electrode, the stronger the diffraction effect of the liquid crystal grating, the higher the light efficiency, and the diffraction effect of the liquid crystal grating plays a certain light, so that the light emitted from the liquid crystal display device is uniform. Therefore, compared with the prior art, the liquid crystal display device provided by the embodiment of the invention can omit a plurality of film layers such as prism films, scattering films or reflecting sheets, thereby further reducing the blocking of external environment light and being beneficial to better realizing transparent display.

Alternatively, the color photoresist pattern 80 includes a red photoresist pattern, a green photoresist pattern, and a blue photoresist pattern; wherein, the material of at least the red photoresist pattern and the green photoresist pattern is quantum dot material.

The quantum dot material can emit light when excited by light having a relatively small wavelength.

Here, when the color photoresist pattern 80 includes a red photoresist pattern, a green photoresist pattern, and a blue photoresist pattern, the material that may be the red photoresist pattern and the green photoresist pattern is a quantum dot material; the materials of the red photoresist pattern, the green photoresist pattern and the blue photoresist pattern can be quantum dot materials.

Based on the above, when the material of the red photoresist pattern and the green photoresist pattern is the quantum dot material, the light emitting part 05 can emit blue, the red quantum dot material is excited by blue light to emit red light, the laser green quantum dot material emits green light, and the blue light-transmitting blue photoresist pattern emits blue light. When the materials of the red photoresist pattern, the green photoresist pattern, and the blue photoresist pattern are quantum dot materials, the light emitting part 05 can emit blue light or light with a wavelength smaller than that of the blue light, the red quantum dot material emits red light, the green quantum dot material emits green light, and the blue quantum dot material emits blue light. In the embodiment of the present invention, since the light emitted from the first grating 100 is collimated polarized light, and the directivity of the light is strong, in order to make the light uniformly emitted from the liquid crystal display device, it is preferable that the materials of the red photoresist pattern, the green photoresist pattern and the blue photoresist pattern are quantum dot materials.

In the embodiment of the invention, at least the red photoresist pattern and the green photoresist pattern in the color photoresist pattern 80 are made of quantum dot materials, so that, on one hand, when the light emitted by the light source 10 is short wavelength light, the light emitted by the light source 10 is emitted onto the quantum dot materials, and the quantum dot materials are excited to emit light, thereby improving the brightness of the liquid crystal display device; on the other hand, in the embodiment of the present invention, the light emitted from the first grating 100 is collimated polarized light, and the collimated polarized light has a certain directivity, so that scattering processing is required, and the quantum dot material has a good scattering characteristic, so that scattering processing can be performed on the light, the viewing angle of the liquid crystal display device is increased, and the light emitted from the liquid crystal display device is uniform.

Optionally, the display panel 02 includes a plurality of pixel units, each pixel unit includes n sub-pixel units, where n ≧ 3, n is a positive integer; as shown in fig. 10(a), n sub-pixel units 1601 are arranged in order in the vertical direction; each pixel unit 160 is connected to one data line 180, and each sub-pixel unit 1601 is connected to one gate line 170; alternatively, as shown in fig. 10(b), n sub-pixel units 1601 are arranged in order in the horizontal direction; each pixel unit 160 is connected to one gate line 170, and each sub-pixel unit 1601 is connected to one data line 180.

The number of the sub-pixel units included in each pixel unit is not limited, and each pixel unit may include 3 sub-pixel units, such as a red sub-pixel unit, a green sub-pixel unit, and a blue sub-pixel unit; each pixel unit may also include 4 sub-pixel units, such as a red sub-pixel unit, a green sub-pixel unit, a blue sub-pixel unit, and a white sub-pixel unit (fig. 10(a) and 10(b) in the present specification illustrate an example in which one pixel unit 160 includes 3 sub-pixel units 1601).

Here, when each pixel unit 160 is connected to one data line 180 and each sub-pixel unit 1601 is connected to one gate line 170, the gate line 170 inputs a scan signal line by line, and one data line 180 time-divisionally inputs a data signal to each sub-pixel unit 1601 in the pixel unit 160; when each pixel unit 160 is connected to one gate line 170 and each sub-pixel unit 1601 is connected to one data line 180, the gate line 170 inputs a scan signal, and the n data lines simultaneously input n data signals to the sub-pixel units 1601 of the pixel unit 160, respectively.

It should be noted that when the pixel electrode 1501 includes a plurality of sub-stripe electrodes, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that for positive liquid crystal, the long axes of the liquid crystal molecules are parallel to the length direction of the sub-stripe electrodes. In order to ensure that the liquid crystal molecules can be normally polarized, generally, the long axis of the liquid crystal molecules opposite to the adjacent sub-strip-shaped electrodes has a certain included angle with the length direction of the sub-strip-shaped electrodes, and the included angle is preferably smaller than 90 °. For the negative liquid crystal, similarly to the above-described positive liquid crystal, a detailed description thereof is omitted.

In the embodiment of the present invention, when one pixel unit 160 includes n sub-pixel units 1601, one pixel unit 160 may be controlled by one data line and n gate lines, or one pixel unit 160 may be controlled by one gate line and n data lines.

The above description is only for the specific embodiments of the present invention, but the scope of the present invention is not limited thereto, and any person skilled in the art can easily conceive of the changes or substitutions within the technical scope of the present invention, and all the changes or substitutions should be covered within the scope of the present invention. Therefore, the protection scope of the present invention shall be subject to the protection scope of the appended claims.

Claims (10)

1. A liquid crystal display device comprises a display panel and a backlight module;
the backlight module comprises a light emitting part and a light guide plate; the light emitted by the light emitting component is totally reflected in the light guide plate after being emitted into the light guide plate in a certain angle range;
the display panel includes: the liquid crystal display panel comprises a first substrate, a second substrate and a liquid crystal layer arranged between the first substrate and the second substrate; the second substrate is close to the backlight module; it is characterized in that the preparation method is characterized in that,
the first substrate comprises color photoresist patterns and shading patterns used for spacing the color photoresist patterns, and the shading patterns are used for enabling polarized light in a first polarization direction to penetrate;
the liquid crystal display device further comprises a first grating arranged on one side, close to the display panel, of the light guide plate or one side, far away from the display panel, and the orthographic projection of the first grating on the shading pattern is located in the boundary of the shading pattern; the first grating is used for enabling the light totally reflected in the light guide plate to be emitted as collimated polarized light, the polarization direction of the collimated polarized light is a second polarization direction, and the first polarization direction is perpendicular to the second polarization direction.
2. The liquid crystal display device according to claim 1, wherein a material of the light shielding pattern comprises a dichroic dye.
3. The liquid crystal display device according to claim 1, wherein the light emitting part includes a light source and a dimming structure;
the light source is used for emitting light;
the light adjusting structure is used for adjusting the light emitted from the light source to be emitted into the light guide plate in a certain angle range.
4. The liquid crystal display device of claim 3, wherein the light modulating structure is a coupling grating.
5. The liquid crystal display device of claim 4, wherein the coupling grating comprises a plurality of sub-coupling gratings;
each sub-coupling grating is used for enabling the light which is emitted to the sub-coupling grating to be emitted in a certain angle range, and the angle ranges of the light which is emitted from the sub-coupling gratings are the same.
6. The liquid crystal display device according to claim 3, wherein the light adjusting structure is a lens; the light source is arranged on the focus of the lens.
7. The liquid crystal display device according to claim 1, wherein the first substrate includes an array layer; alternatively, the second substrate comprises an array layer;
wherein the array layer includes a thin film transistor and a driving electrode.
8. The liquid crystal display device according to claim 7, wherein the driving electrode includes a pixel electrode and a common electrode;
the pixel electrode comprises a plurality of sub-strip electrodes, and the distance between every two adjacent sub-strip electrodes is 0.1-10 mu m.
9. The liquid crystal display device according to claim 1, wherein the color resist pattern includes a red resist pattern, a green resist pattern, and a blue resist pattern;
wherein, the material of at least the red light resistance pattern and the green light resistance pattern is quantum dot material.
10. The liquid crystal display device according to claim 1, wherein the display panel comprises a plurality of pixel units, each pixel unit comprising n sub-pixel units, wherein n ≧ 3, n is a positive integer;
the n sub-pixel units are sequentially arranged along the vertical direction; each pixel unit is connected with a data line, and each sub-pixel unit is connected with a grid line;
or, the n sub-pixel units are sequentially arranged along the horizontal direction; each pixel unit is connected with one grid line, and each sub-pixel unit is connected with one data line.
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CN108663858A (en) * 2018-03-30 2018-10-16 京东方科技集团股份有限公司 Backlight module, display device and its driving method
CN110389469A (en) * 2018-04-20 2019-10-29 京东方科技集团股份有限公司 Display device and its display methods
CN108572482A (en) * 2018-04-20 2018-09-25 京东方科技集团股份有限公司 A kind of backlight module, display device and its driving method
CN108761946A (en) * 2018-05-15 2018-11-06 京东方科技集团股份有限公司 A kind of transparent display panel and transparent display
CN109031736A (en) * 2018-09-04 2018-12-18 京东方科技集团股份有限公司 Collimated backlight, display device and its driving method
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CN109799655A (en) * 2018-09-14 2019-05-24 京东方科技集团股份有限公司 Display base plate, display panel and display device
CN109799656A (en) * 2018-09-14 2019-05-24 京东方科技集团股份有限公司 A kind of display base plate, display panel and display device
CN109031770A (en) * 2018-09-26 2018-12-18 京东方科技集团股份有限公司 Liquid crystal display panel, display device and its working method
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