CN107673756B - 矿热炉用镁质无水炮泥及其制备方法 - Google Patents

矿热炉用镁质无水炮泥及其制备方法 Download PDF

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CN107673756B
CN107673756B CN201710812008.1A CN201710812008A CN107673756B CN 107673756 B CN107673756 B CN 107673756B CN 201710812008 A CN201710812008 A CN 201710812008A CN 107673756 B CN107673756 B CN 107673756B
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朱厚亮
苗文福
张厚兴
孙荣海
杨利朋
孙沣楠
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Puyang Pu High Temperature Resistant Materials (group) Co Ltd
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Abstract

本发明公开矿热炉用镁质无水炮泥及其制备方法,由A部分和B部分组成,A部分由骨料和粉料组成,B部分为液体结合剂,骨料为30‑70重量份,粉料为35‑55重量份,液体结合剂为5‑20重量份。本发明具有如下优点:1)无水炮泥易开孔,具有极好的耐高温、抗炉渣和铁水侵蚀和冲刷的性能,满足矿热炉高温冶炼条件下铁口孔径不变大、铁口深度不波动的要求。2)无水炮泥生产效率大大提高,供货能力大大增强,实现了无水炮泥生产效率提高和矿热炉炉缸长寿化的有机结合。

Description

矿热炉用镁质无水炮泥及其制备方法
技术领域
本发明涉及一种耐火材料,特别是一种矿热炉用镁质无水炮泥及其制备方法。
背景技术
矿热炉是采用碳质和镁质耐火材料作炉衬,使用自焙电极。电极插入炉料进行埋弧操作,利用电弧以及电流通过炉料的电阻而产生的能量来熔炼并提供化学反应条件。陆续加料,间歇式出铁渣,连续作业的一种工业电炉。目前矿热炉冶炼面对的现实情况是:1、原料贫矿化:冶炼用红土矿的品位降低,炉渣比例高达80%以上,不得不通过提高冶炼温度的办法提高金属回收率,金属铬含量由0.5~1.0%提升到1.0~2%,冶炼温度由1470~1500℃提升到1500~1550℃,有时采用低位电极熔炼;2、中修周期:以前的矿热炉炉缸使用周期为6个月,如今通过出铁口深度的延伸,炉缸使用周期延长到1年以上,甚至两年;3、矿热炉炉缸材质主要为镁碳质耐火材料;4、矿热炉冶炼贫矿化造成的出铁间隔时间延长,日出铁次数的减少,加速了高温渣铁对炮泥的损毁,出铁口深度不足0.5米,甚至只有0.3米。
目前矿热炉仍然普遍采用传统的无水炮泥,它以Al2O3-SiC-C为主要材质,以普通煤焦油为结合剂,由于其不能抵抗高温炉渣和铁水的长期渗透和侵蚀,使用过程中根本无法维持合理的铁口深度,经常发生铁口钻不开的现象,堵口冒烟,散发有毒有害气体,危害环境。
为了改进矿热炉用无水炮泥存在的缺点,国内越来越多的客户在大型矿热炉上采用了进口或者国产的含铬可塑料用来堵塞铁口,不仅不能改变出铁口深度浅的现象,而且更容易发生漏铁口、铁口难开的现象,被迫进行燃烧氧气管,破坏铁口泥包结构,明显增加了炉前工的劳动强度和冶炼成本。特别是矿热炉当采用低位电极高温冶炼的时候,铁口深度更是明显缩短,炉壁温度上升,出铁口法兰严重损毁现象时有发生。
发明内容
本发明的一个目的在于提供一种工作层能够实现自致密化的MgO-Al2O3-C材质的环保型无水炮泥,具备良好的可塑性能、易打泥、抗高温熔渣渗透和侵蚀能力强、易开铁口以满足低位电极、更高温度、更高炉渣比例矿热炉冶炼工艺要求。
为达到上述目的,本发明采用下述技术方案:
矿热炉用镁质无水炮泥,由A部分和B部分组成,A部分由骨料和粉料组成,B部分为液体结合剂,骨料为30-70重量份,粉料为35-55重量份,液体结合剂为5-20重量份。
上述矿热炉用镁质无水炮泥,骨料由如下重量份的组分组成:粒径大于1mm且小于或等于3mm的骨料为15-40份,粒径大于0.074mm且小于或等于1mm的骨料为15-30份。
上述矿热炉用镁质无水炮泥,骨料为镁尖晶石、镁砂、蛇纹石、橄榄石和焦炭中的任意一种或者几种复合。
上述矿热炉用镁质无水炮泥,粉料的粒径小于或等于0.074mm,其由如下重量分数的组分组成如下:氧化铝微粉2—10份、刚玉粉粒度2—15份、镁砂粉5—20份、粘土5—15份、氮化硅铁细粉5—15份、纳米碳粉1-3份、金属硅粉0.5-3份。
上述矿热炉用镁质无水炮泥,氧化铝微粉的粒度小于或等于0.045mm、氧化铝微粉中的Al2O3含量大于或等于98wt%,刚玉粉的粒度小于或等于0.074mm、刚玉粉中的Al2O3含量大于或等于94wt%,粘土的粒度小于或等于0.045mm,氮化硅铁粉的粒度小于或等于0.074mm、氮化硅铁粉中的Fe含量为12~17wt%,纳米碳粉中碳含量大于或等于95wt%,金属硅粉粒度小于或等于0.045mm、金属硅粉中单质硅含量大于或等于97wt%。
上述矿热炉用镁质无水炮泥,液体结合剂采用由溶剂和溶质组成的改性聚合物液体结合剂,溶剂为4~6重量份的植物油,溶质为6~9重量份的改性石油树脂;将改性石油树脂加入到植物油中,搅拌,加热到150℃,在压力为2Mpa的情况下,保温4小时,混合均匀后备用。改性石油树脂可以用市售产品,如燕山石化生产的石油松香改性GR-90系树脂。
矿热炉用镁质无水炮泥的制备方法,包括如下步骤:
(1)备料:骨料为30-70重量份,粉料为35-55重量份,液体结合剂为5-20重量份;
(2)将骨料加入到预先加热到70℃的混碾设备中混合2-3分钟;
(3)加入液体结合剂,混碾3-5分钟;
(4)再加入预先混合均匀的粉料,混碾45-50分钟;经过切块、压块和困料后得到矿热炉用无水炮泥。
上述矿热炉用镁质无水炮泥的制备方法,骨料由如下重量份的组分组成:粒径大于1mm且小于或等于3mm的骨料为15-40份,粒径大于0.074mm且小于或等于1mm的骨料为15-30份;骨料为镁尖晶石、镁砂、蛇纹石、橄榄石和焦炭中的任意一种或者几种复合。
上述矿热炉用镁质无水炮泥的制备方法,粉料的粒径小于或等于0.074mm,其由如下重量分数的组分组成如下:氧化铝微粉2—10份、刚玉粉粒度2—15份、镁砂粉5—20份、粘土5—15份、氮化硅铁细粉5—15份、纳米碳粉1-3份、金属硅粉0.5-3份;氧化铝微粉的粒度小于或等于0.045mm、氧化铝微粉中的Al2O3含量大于或等于98wt%,刚玉粉的粒度小于或等于0.074mm、刚玉粉中的Al2O3含量大于或等于94wt%,粘土的粒度小于或等于0.045mm,氮化硅铁粉的粒度小于或等于0.074mm、氮化硅铁粉中的Fe含量为12~17wt%,纳米碳粉中碳含量大于或等于95wt%,金属硅粉粒度小于或等于0.045mm、金属硅粉中单质硅含量大于或等于97wt%。
上述矿热炉用镁质无水炮泥的制备方法,液体结合剂采用由溶剂和溶质组成的改性聚合物液体结合剂,溶剂为4~6重量份的植物油,溶质为6~9重量份的改性石油树脂;将改性石油树脂加入到植物油中,搅拌,加热到150℃,在压力为2Mpa的情况下,保温4小时,混合均匀后备用。
本发明的有益效果如下:
本发明制备出的无水炮泥安全使用温度达到1600℃。镍铁、铬铁等矿热炉冶炼铁水温度一般在1470~1550℃,有时会达到1590℃。本发明炮泥在此高温环境下烧结后,形成了致密结构,结果无水炮泥的抗熔渣渗透、侵蚀能力显著提高,超过了传统Al2O3-SiC-C无水炮泥达到的水平,解决了矿热炉低位电极法高温冶炼过程中存在的铁口深度过浅的问题。
本发明具有如下优点:1)无水炮泥方便堵口打泥操作,堵口不返泥;2)开铁口容易,一根钻杆顺利打开铁口,无潮铁口现象;3)无水炮泥具有极强的抵抗高温渣铁渗透和侵蚀的能力,铁口深度稳定保持在1.3米以上,打泥量50~70kg即可;4)无水炮泥的生产和使用过程没有污染环境的有毒有害气体发生,环境友好;5)无水炮泥的生产效率提高、生产周期缩短,供货能力提高。
具体实施方式
实施例1:
矿热炉用镁质无水炮泥,由A部分和B部分组成,A部分由骨料和粉料组成,B部分为液体结合剂。
骨料由如下重量份的组分组成:粒径大于1mm且小于或等于3mm的镁尖晶石和蛇纹石为20千克,其中镁尖晶石和蛇纹石各占50wt%;粒径大于0.074mm且小于或等于1mm的镁尖晶石、蛇纹石和焦炭为25千克,其中镁尖晶石和蛇纹石各占30wt%,焦炭占40wt%。
粉料由如下重量分数的组分组成如下:氧化铝微粉5千克、棕刚玉粉粒度5千克、镁砂粉15千克、粘土8千克、氮化硅铁细粉5千克、纳米碳粉1.5千克、金属硅粉1.5千克。氧化铝微粉的粒度小于或等于0.045mm、氧化铝微粉中的Al2O3含量大于或等于98wt%,刚玉粉的粒度小于或等于0.074mm、刚玉粉中的Al2O3含量大于或等于94wt%,粘土的粒度小于或等于0.045mm,氮化硅铁粉的粒度小于或等于0.074mm、氮化硅铁粉中的Fe含量为12~17wt%,纳米碳粉中碳含量大于或等于95wt%,金属硅粉粒度小于或等于0.045mm、金属硅粉中单质硅含量大于或等于97wt%。
液体结合剂采用由溶剂(40wt%)和溶质(60wt%)组成的改性聚合物液体结合剂,溶剂为5.6千克的植物油,溶质为8.4千克的改性石油树脂;将改性石油树脂加入到植物油中,搅拌,加热到150℃,在压力为2Mpa的情况下,保温4小时,混合均匀后备用。
矿热炉用镁质无水炮泥的制备方法,包括如下步骤:
(1)备料:按照本实施例中的骨料、粉料和液体结合剂的组成准备原料;
(2)将骨料加入到预先加热到70℃的混碾设备中混合2-3分钟;
(3)加入液体结合剂,混碾3-5分钟;
(4)再加入预先混合均匀的粉料,混碾45-50分钟;经过切块、压块和困料后得到矿热炉用无水炮泥。
本实施子例所制备的无水炮泥1500℃×3h埋碳烧制后的显气孔率为:23.5~24.5%,体积密度为:2.15~2.25g/cm3,常温耐压强度为7~9MPa。安全使用温度最高为1600℃,打泥量为50~70kg时,铁口深度为1.4~1.8米。
实施例2:
矿热炉用镁质无水炮泥,由A部分和B部分组成,A部分由骨料和粉料组成,B部分为液体结合剂。
骨料由如下重量份的组分组成:粒径大于1mm且小于或等于3mm的镁砂和橄榄石为22千克,其中镁砂和橄榄石各占50wt%;粒径大于0.074mm且小于或等于1mm的镁尖晶石、蛇纹石和焦炭为24千克,其中镁砂和橄榄石各占30wt%,焦炭占40wt%。
粉料由如下重量分数的组分组成如下:氧化铝微粉4千克、棕刚玉粉粒度4千克、镁砂粉14千克、粘土8千克、氮化硅铁细粉5千克、纳米碳粉2千克、金属硅粉2千克。氧化铝微粉的粒度小于或等于0.045mm、氧化铝微粉中的Al2O3含量大于或等于98wt%,刚玉粉的粒度小于或等于0.074mm、刚玉粉中的Al2O3含量大于或等于94wt%,粘土的粒度小于或等于0.045mm,氮化硅铁粉的粒度小于或等于0.074mm、氮化硅铁粉中的Fe含量为12~17wt%,纳米碳粉中碳含量大于或等于95wt%,金属硅粉粒度小于或等于0.045mm、金属硅粉中单质硅含量大于或等于97wt%。
液体结合剂采用由溶剂(40wt%)和溶质(60wt%)组成的改性聚合物液体结合剂,溶剂为6千克的植物油,溶质为9千克的改性石油树脂;将改性石油树脂加入到植物油中,搅拌,加热到150℃,在压力为2Mpa的情况下,保温4小时,混合均匀后备用。
矿热炉用镁质无水炮泥的制备方法,包括如下步骤:
(1)备料:按照本实施例中的骨料、粉料和液体结合剂的组成准备原料;
(2)将骨料加入到预先加热到70℃的混碾设备中混合2-3分钟;
(3)加入液体结合剂,混碾3-5分钟;
(4)再加入预先混合均匀的粉料,混碾45-50分钟;经过切块、压块和困料后得到矿热炉用无水炮泥。
本实施例子所制备的无水炮泥1500℃×3h埋碳烧制后的显气孔率为:24.5~25.5%,体积密度为:2.17~2.27g/cm3,常温耐压强度为6~8MPa。安全使用温度最高为1600℃,打泥量为50~70kg时铁口深度为1.4~1.8米。
实施例3:
矿热炉用镁质无水炮泥,由A部分和B部分组成,A部分由骨料和粉料组成,B部分为液体结合剂。
骨料由如下重量份的组分组成:粒径大于1mm且小于或等于3mm的镁尖晶石和镁砂为22千克,其中镁尖晶石和镁砂各占50wt%;粒径大于0.074mm且小于或等于1mm的镁尖晶石、镁砂和焦炭为22千克,其中镁尖晶石和镁砂各占30wt%,焦炭占40wt%。
粉料由如下重量分数的组分组成如下:棕刚玉粉粒度5千克、镁砂粉20千克、粘土9千克、氮化硅铁细粉6千克、纳米碳粉2千克、金属硅粉1千克。刚玉粉的粒度小于或等于0.074mm、刚玉粉中的Al2O3含量大于或等于94wt%,粘土的粒度小于或等于0.045mm,氮化硅铁粉的粒度小于或等于0.074mm、氮化硅铁粉中的Fe含量为12~17wt%,纳米碳粉中碳含量大于或等于95wt%,金属硅粉粒度小于或等于0.045mm、金属硅粉中单质硅含量大于或等于97wt%。
液体结合剂采用由溶剂(40wt%)和溶质(60wt%)组成的改性聚合物液体结合剂,溶剂为5.2千克的植物油,溶质为7.8千克的改性石油树脂;将改性石油树脂加入到植物油中,搅拌,加热到150℃,在压力为2Mpa的情况下,保温4小时,混合均匀后备用。
矿热炉用镁质无水炮泥的制备方法,包括如下步骤:
(1)备料:按照本实施例中的骨料、粉料和液体结合剂的组成准备原料;
(2)将骨料加入到预先加热到70℃的混碾设备中混合2-3分钟;
(3)加入液体结合剂,混碾3-5分钟;
(4)再加入预先混合均匀的粉料,混碾45-50分钟;经过切块、压块和困料后得到矿热炉用无水炮泥。
本实施例子所制备的无水炮泥1500℃×3h埋碳烧制后的显气孔率为:22.5~23.5%,体积密度为:2.2~2.3g/cm3,常温耐压强度为7~9MPa。安全使用温度最高为1600℃,打泥量为50~70kg时,铁口深度为1.4~1.8米。
显然,本发明的上述实施例仅仅是为清楚地说明本发明所作的举例,而并非是对本发明的实施方式的限定,对于所属领域的普通技术人员来说,在上述说明的基础上还可以做出其它不同形式的变化或变动,这里无法对所有的实施方式予以穷举,凡是属于本发明的技术方案所引伸出的显而易见的变化或变动仍处于本发明的保护范围之列。

Claims (2)

1.矿热炉用镁质无水炮泥,其特征在于,由A部分和B部分组成,A部分由骨料和粉料组成,B部分为液体结合剂,骨料为30-70重量份,粉料为35-55重量份,液体结合剂为5-20重量份;
骨料由如下重量份的组分组成:粒径大于1mm且小于或等于3mm的骨料为15-40份,粒径大于0.074mm且小于或等于1mm的骨料为15-30份;
骨料为镁尖晶石、镁砂、蛇纹石、橄榄石中的任意一种或者几种和焦炭复合而成;
粉料的粒径小于或等于0.074mm,其由如下重量分数的组分组成如下:氧化铝微粉2—10份、刚玉粉2—15份、镁砂粉5—20份、粘土5—15份、氮化硅铁细粉5—15份、纳米碳粉1-3份、金属硅粉0.5-3份;
氧化铝微粉的粒度小于或等于0.045mm、氧化铝微粉中的Al2O3含量大于或等于98wt%,刚玉粉的粒度小于或等于0.074mm、刚玉粉中的Al2O3含量大于或等于94wt%,粘土的粒度小于或等于0.045mm,氮化硅铁粉的粒度小于或等于0.074mm、氮化硅铁粉中的Fe含量为12~17wt%,纳米碳粉中碳含量大于或等于95wt%,金属硅粉粒度小于或等于0.045mm、金属硅粉中单质硅含量大于或等于97wt%;
液体结合剂采用由溶剂和溶质组成的改性聚合物液体结合剂,溶剂为4~6重量份的植物油,溶质为6~9重量份的改性石油树脂;在130℃将改性石油树脂加入到植物油中,搅拌,加热到150℃,在压力为2Mpa的情况下,保温4小时,混合均匀后备用。
2.矿热炉用镁质无水炮泥的制备方法,其特征在于,包括如下步骤:
(1)备料:骨料为30-70重量份,粉料为35-55重量份,液体结合剂为5-20重量份;
(2)将骨料加入到预先加热到70℃的混碾设备中混合2-3分钟;
(3)加入液体结合剂,混碾3-5分钟;
(4)再加入预先混合均匀的粉料,混碾45-50分钟;经过切块、压块和困料后得到矿热炉用无水炮泥;
骨料由如下重量份的组分组成:粒径大于1mm且小于或等于3mm的骨料为15-40份,粒径大于0.074mm且小于或等于1mm的骨料为15-30份;骨料为镁尖晶石、镁砂、蛇纹石、橄榄石和焦炭中的任意一种或者几种复合;
粉料的粒径小于或等于0.074mm,其由如下重量分数的组分组成如下:氧化铝微粉2—10份、刚玉粉2—15份、镁砂粉5—20份、粘土5—15份、氮化硅铁细粉5—15份、纳米碳粉1-3份、金属硅粉0.5-3份;氧化铝微粉的粒度小于或等于0.045mm、氧化铝微粉中的Al2O3含量大于或等于98wt%,刚玉粉的粒度小于或等于0.074mm、刚玉粉中的Al2O3含量大于或等于94wt%,粘土的粒度小于或等于0.045mm,氮化硅铁粉的粒度小于或等于0.074mm、氮化硅铁粉中的Fe含量为12~17wt%,纳米碳粉中碳含量大于或等于95wt%,金属硅粉粒度小于或等于0.045mm、金属硅粉中单质硅含量大于或等于97wt%;
液体结合剂采用由溶剂和溶质组成的改性聚合物液体结合剂,溶剂为4~6重量份的植物油,溶质为6~9重量份的改性石油树脂;将改性石油树脂加入到植物油中,搅拌,加热到150℃,在压力为2Mpa的情况下,保温4小时,混合均匀后备用。
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