CN107461304B - Inhibit the surrounding body, equipment, the method for lifting tower of building enclosure vibration - Google Patents

Inhibit the surrounding body, equipment, the method for lifting tower of building enclosure vibration Download PDF

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Publication number
CN107461304B
CN107461304B CN201710813635.7A CN201710813635A CN107461304B CN 107461304 B CN107461304 B CN 107461304B CN 201710813635 A CN201710813635 A CN 201710813635A CN 107461304 B CN107461304 B CN 107461304B
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China
Prior art keywords
surrounding
tower
building enclosure
vibration
inhibiting
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CN201710813635.7A
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CN107461304A (en
Inventor
马盛骏
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Beijing Goldwind Science and Creation Windpower Equipment Co Ltd
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Beijing Goldwind Science and Creation Windpower Equipment Co Ltd
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F03MACHINES OR ENGINES FOR LIQUIDS; WIND, SPRING, OR WEIGHT MOTORS; PRODUCING MECHANICAL POWER OR A REACTIVE PROPULSIVE THRUST, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F03DWIND MOTORS
    • F03D80/00Details, components or accessories not provided for in groups F03D1/00 - F03D17/00
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F03MACHINES OR ENGINES FOR LIQUIDS; WIND, SPRING, OR WEIGHT MOTORS; PRODUCING MECHANICAL POWER OR A REACTIVE PROPULSIVE THRUST, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F03DWIND MOTORS
    • F03D13/00Assembly, mounting or commissioning of wind motors; Arrangements specially adapted for transporting wind motor components
    • F03D13/10Assembly of wind motors; Arrangements for erecting wind motors
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F03MACHINES OR ENGINES FOR LIQUIDS; WIND, SPRING, OR WEIGHT MOTORS; PRODUCING MECHANICAL POWER OR A REACTIVE PROPULSIVE THRUST, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F03DWIND MOTORS
    • F03D13/00Assembly, mounting or commissioning of wind motors; Arrangements specially adapted for transporting wind motor components
    • F03D13/20Arrangements for mounting or supporting wind motors; Masts or towers for wind motors
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/70Wind energy
    • Y02E10/72Wind turbines with rotation axis in wind direction
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/70Wind energy
    • Y02E10/728Onshore wind turbines

Abstract

The present invention discloses surrounding body equipment, surrounding body and the method for lifting building enclosure of a kind of inhibition building enclosure vibration, the surrounding body can surround the building enclosure, the surrounding body is towards the interior aspect face of the building enclosure, the lower several elastomers for squeezing the building enclosure are acted on to incoming flow equipped with that can be in the wind, when extruding, the scaling runner of air stream is formed between the elastomer.The air-flow of scaling runner has the function of " blowing " to top building enclosure boundary layer, so that top be interfered to stream the air-flow of building enclosure wall, destroys boundary layer herein, inhibits and destroy the formation of Karman vortex street.This programme makes full use of natural force, under the premise of environmentally protective, reaches optimal flow-disturbing execution, inhibits the generation of Karman vortex street phenomenon, hinders the generation of vortex-induced vibration or reduces vibration.

Description

Inhibit the surrounding body, equipment, the method for lifting tower of building enclosure vibration
Technical field
The present invention relates to technical field of wind power, and in particular to a kind of surrounding body, the equipment, lifting of the vibration of inhibition building enclosure The method of tower.
Background technique
Fig. 1-1 is please referred to, Fig. 1-1 is that wind-power electricity generation equipment constitutes schematic diagram.
The basis of wind-power electricity generation equipment is tower 10, plays carrying to complete machine, serves and go along with sb. to guard him, as an example, with one For a circular cross-section tower 10, tower 10 can be steel cylinder, be also possible to the combination of steel cylinder Yu concrete tower.Tower 10 is held Carry cabin 30, the generator, wind turbine 20 of wind-power electricity generation equipment.By tower 10, wind turbine 20, cabin 30 and generating set at Wind power generating set complete to obtain wind energy and be converted to the task of electric energy.The electric energy being converted to is through power transmission cable 40 or electricity Power conveys busbar transmission, and power transmission cable 40 shown in figure is limited after the extraction of cabin 30 by the cable retaining ring at 10 top of tower Position, cable retaining ring are fixed on cable retaining ring fixed plate 50, and then the inner wall after saddle camber bracket 60 along tower 10 hangs down to change It flows at cabinet 70.The lower end of tower 10 is additionally provided with tower door 80.
Switchgear control of the electric energy obtained Jing Guo wind power generating set is converted, it is defeated by power transmission cable 40 or electric power The current transformer (in converter cabinet 70) for sending busbar conductors carry extremely to complete electric power transformation of electrical energy task, after being handled using current transformer It can get the electric energy that rule requirement can be docked with power grid.Therefore, the tower 10 of wind-power electricity generation equipment can be described as being wind-power electricity generation Tower bar, wind power generating set equipment in mainly play a supportive role.
Meanwhile tower 10 carries the wind loads on structure generated by cabin 30, wind turbine 20, generator or thus causes suitable Wind direction vibration and beam wind are to vibration, it may be assumed that wind-induced structural vibration problem.
Fig. 1-2 is please referred to, Fig. 1-2 is the schematic diagram of tower segmental hoisting.
The general segmentation installation at present of tower 10, as shown in Fig. 2, sequentially consisting of the first tower segments 11, the second tower Section 12, third tower segments 13, the 4th tower segments 14, the 5th tower segments 15.In the installation process of wind-power electricity generation equipment, first by the One tower segments 11 are installed on the foundation 90 of tower 10, and then other tower segments are lifted paragraph by paragraph, after interconnection, 10 top (the 5th tower segments 15 in Fig. 2) of tower is connect with the yaw system of cabin 30, and cabin 30 is docked with generator, power generation Machine (or gear-box) is docked with wind turbine 20 again.
Specific hoisting process is as follows:
Before lifting tower 10, the foundation ring for the foundation 90 that first cleaning is connect with the first tower segments 11, more bolts It is placed at foundation ring inner ring after putting the oil at (such as 120) screw thread, while the control cabinet that wind-power electricity generation is equipped is hung in into foundation ring It is interior;
To the upper end mounting hanger of the first tower segments 11, hangs to undertake by master herein and 11 upper end of the first tower segments is sling, Also the task of slinging that undertakes being hung by tower is auxiliary herein to the lower end mounting hanger of the first tower segments 11 simultaneously, two cranes lift by crane simultaneously, It is main to hang the height for promoting 11 upper end of the first tower segments after the height of the first tower segments 11 is greater than the first 11 maximum gauge of tower segments Degree, auxiliary hang stop, auxiliary hang are removed after the first tower segments 11 hang position perpendicular to the ground, lays down 11 lower end of the first tower segments Suspender;
After the flange face of first tower segments 11 is connected, bolt is worn from the bottom up, with using electric wrench after good nut It tightens, 3 times processes at least is tightened to nut implementation and (after the completion of whole typhoon power power generating equipment lifting process, then are pulled with torque Hand implements the moment values for being tightened to requirement to tower attaching nut);
Remaining tower segments is identical as 11 hoisting process of the first tower segments, quasi- after the tower segments rigging out of uppermost Standby lifting cabin.
The above docking, the installation procedure connected are all in the situation unpredictable to the small territorial environment local wind of wind power plant Lower development construction.Therefore, in lifting installation process, the indefinite fitful wind of size variation or lasting small wind can be often encountered, and such as Upper described, these fitful winds or sustained wind are possible to destroy building enclosure stabilization to tower induced vibration, jeopardize the live person and set Standby safety postpones installation period.For example, the 4th tower segments 14 have vibration after the 4th tower segments 14 of lifting, lead to the 5th tower Cylinder section 15 can not be aligned;Even, the bolt of fastening may be broken under shock effect, to jeopardize safety.
Currently, wind-powered electricity generation industry hoisting process engineering safety requires clear stipulaties: wind speed forbids blade group to hang when being greater than 6m/s Dress;Wind speed forbids cabin to lift when being greater than 8m/s;Wind speed forbids tower to lift when being greater than 10m/s.As it can be seen that on-site hoisting progress, Installation period is obviously limited by regional area wind regime.For the construction of High aititude, high mountain region wind power plant, the duration is more It is susceptible to influence.
Fig. 2~Fig. 3-6 is please referred to, Fig. 2 is with certain tower structural schematic diagram for inhibiting vibrating function;Fig. 3-1~3-6 The respectively cylinder whirlpool relation schematic diagram that takes off (flow separation) and six sections of Reynolds number, six sections of Reynolds number (Re) are from figure 3-1 to Fig. 3-6 is Re < 5,5 < Re < 15,40 < Re < 150,150 < Re ﹤ 3 × 10 respectively5、3×105< Re ﹤ 3 × 106, Re > 3 ×106
According to object structures surrounding flow around the difference of stream mode, structure is divided into bluff body and as the wing or ship of aircraft Fairing as sail.
As Re < 5, fluid flowing will be attached in the whole surface of cylindrical body, that is, is flowed and do not separated.
As 5 < Re < 40, flowing is still symmetrical, but flow separation occurs, forms two symmetrical rows in leeward As the increase whirlpool of Reynolds number elongates outward deformity occurs for the stabilization whirlpool of column.
When 40 < Re < 150, since reynolds number Re=40, whirlpool will alternately fall off from periphery rear, be flowed into Shear layer is formed near cylindrical body behind in fluid, unstable shear layer is rolled into whirlpool quickly, and flow further downstream forms toll bar Vortex street, i.e. vortex-induced vibration.Vortex shedding at this time is regular, and is had periodically.
It is the tour from laminar flow to turbulent transition, periodic vortex shedding is irregular at this time when 150 < Re < 300 Turbulent flow covered.
300<Re<3×105When, referred to as close-to-critical range, cylindrical body wake flow are mainly shown as turbulent wake flow, whirlpool after isolation Vortex shedding starts irregularly, and the period that whirlpool takes off frequency can substantially make, but perturbed force when whirlpool is de- will be no longer symmetrical, but with Machine.
3×105<Re<3×106When, referred to as supercritical region, vortex shedding point move backward, it has been beyond recognition vortex street, at The vortex of complete no periodic.
3×106< Re, referred to as Trans-critical cycle area, the very disorder of cylindrical body rear wake flow, but show regular whirlpool It falls off.
When uniform air flow flows through (horizontal plunder, stream) bluff body (cylindrical body), in the period that cylindrical body cross section generates behind Property vortex shedding can to works (tower surface contact surface) generate a cycle variation active force --- swash power in whirlpool.Quilt The foundation of the tower works lower end and underground streamed constitutes single free end vibration system, and (i.e. the upper end of tower is immersed in sky In air-flow, tower bottom is fixed on foundation), when certain rank natural frequency of vibration of vortex shedding frequency and tower works When consistent, swash the Vortex-excited vibration that power (out-of-balance force) will cause tower architecture in the periodic whirlpool that tower surface is subject to (vortex-induced vibration) response.
Whirlpool takes off the condition that frequency is equal to the tower of structural system and its intrinsic frequency of vibration of foundation system, is in certain wind It is just able to satisfy under speed, but the intrinsic frequency tower that is and its vibration of foundation system will generate certain feedback to falling off for whirlpool Effect, so that the frequency that whirlpool takes off " is captureed in certain wind speed range by the vibration frequency of tower and its vibration of foundation system institute Obtain ", change it with the change of wind speed in this wind speed range, this phenomenon, which is referred to as, to be locked, and locking will be enlarged by Tower structure is excited the wind speed range of raw resonance by whirlpool.
The tower height of modern large size MW grade wind driven generator unit up to 60~100m, be equipped at the top of tower 10 mainframe, The main components such as slave frame, wheel hub and blade (i.e. wind turbine 20).When wind power generating set is run, the load that tower 10 is subject to is removed It, will also be by natural wind action, including with the wind outside the dynamic loading that the gravity and wind wheel rotation that top components generate generate To with beam wind to two kinds of action modes.Wind movable vane wheel can generate moment of flexure and power to tower when rotating, this to be generated by down wind Moment of flexure and power be the main reason for tower 10 is destroyed.Wind, which bypasses the vortex generated when tower 10, can also cause to make tower 10 The oscillation crosswise that resonance destroys occurs.
Pairs of, alternately arranged and opposite direction of rotation opposition is generated when blowing air over tower 10, at left and right sides of wake flow Claim whirlpool, i.e. Von Karman vortices.Whirlpool is detached from tower 10 with certain frequency, makes tower 10 that the oscillation crosswise perpendicular to wind direction occur, The also referred to as oscillation crosswise of wind induction, i.e. vortex-induced vibration.When the disengaging frequency of whirlpool is close to tower intrinsic frequency, tower 10 is easy Resonance occurs and destroys.
In Fig. 3, setting helix 10a (or spiral plate) is wound in 10 outer wall of tower, for inhibiting 10 surface of tower to occur Vortex Shedding.Wherein, helix 10a (or spiral plate) has different swayings to inhibit effect in different screw pitch arrangements Fruit;Helix 10a height, which increases, is conducive to destroy vortex street issue cycle, and vortex street generates and granting is more irregular, is conducive to that whirlpool is inhibited to swash Vibration, while the resistance generated before and after noise, tower is also gradually increased, and will increase along wind direction pitch vibration amplitude.
There are following technical problems for above-mentioned technical proposal:
Coverage rate of the helix 10a (or spiral plate) on tower surface will affect swaying inhibitory effect, and coverage rate reaches When to (or being more than) 50%, the effect of oscillation crosswise is inhibited to reach most preferably, but helix 10a (or spiral plate) and air stream at this time Wind produced noise to natural environment biology to seriously affect be not permitted in ecological regulation;
In addition, the wind speed of air stream can change, if by characteristic parameter (screw pitch, height of helix 10a (or spiral plate) Degree) it is processed as changing and changing according to the wind speed of air stream, then corresponding manufacturing cost, maintenance cost will increase dramatically.
It is art technology in view of this, how to improve the case where wind-power electricity generation equipment installation is limited by region wind regime Personnel's technical problem urgently to be resolved.
Summary of the invention
In order to solve the above technical problems, the present invention provides surrounding body equipment, the surrounding body of a kind of inhibition building enclosure vibration, And the method for lifting tower, this method can inhibit building enclosure to vibrate, improve installation by wind regime using upwind incoming flow itself The case where limitation.
The embodiment of the present invention provides a kind of surrounding body of inhibition building enclosure vibration, and the surrounding body can be enclosed around described Protection structure, the surrounding body act on lower squeeze to incoming flow towards the interior aspect face of the building enclosure, equipped with that can be in the wind Several elastomers of the building enclosure when extruding, form the scaling runner of air stream between the elastomer.
Optionally, the surrounding body is equipped with elastic sphere, and the exposed surrounding body in elastic sphere part forms described Elastomer, another part are fixed on inside the surrounding body.
Optionally, the elastic sphere is distributed along the entire ring week in the interior aspect face of the surrounding body, short transverse; And the surrounding body has always towards the windward side of upwind incoming flow, the density of the elastic sphere of the windward side is small In the density of the elastic sphere of remaining position.
Optionally, the surrounding body has always towards the windward side of wind direction, and the two sides of the windward side have protrusion, with Reinforce the extruding to two sides under the action of the upwind incoming flow.
Optionally, the windward side is the leading edge of the surrounding body, and the surrounding body further includes opposite with the leading edge Tail portion, the distance of the leading edge to the building enclosure are less than the distance of the tail portion to the building enclosure.
Optionally, then the leading edge of the surrounding body gradually collapses again in gradually expanding backward, expands to two sides flaring It opens and forms the tail portion;The exterior contour of the surrounding body is similar to fish shape.
Optionally, the surrounding body is annular in shape, and from the bottom to top, lateral dimension is gradually reduced middle through-hole.
Optionally, the surrounding body has interface, forms complete annular after interface docking locking.
Optionally, the surrounding body be can the upwind incoming flow effect under buoyance lift fairing.
Optionally, the surrounding body is annular in shape, and has toroidal cavity, and gassy inside the toroidal cavity is described The density of gas is less than atmospheric density.
Optionally, the surrounding body uses the material with air-tightness and wearability to be made.
Optionally, the surrounding body is annular in shape, and the lateral dimension of middle through-hole meets: at the top of the building enclosure When, the gap between the surrounding body and the building enclosure has preset distance, to destroy the upwind incoming flow generation Buoyancy lift realizes self-balancing.
The embodiment of the present invention also provides a kind of surrounding body equipment of inhibition building enclosure vibration, including described in any one as above Surrounding body;It further include the tether that the building enclosure or ground are fixed in one end, the other end of the tether connects the ring Around body.
Optionally, at least one section of the tether is stretch section;
And/or the surrounding body the leading edge and tail portion have the corresponding tether.
Optionally, the building enclosure is tower, television tower or the anemometer tower of wind power generating set.
The embodiment of the present invention also provide it is a kind of lift tower method, tower includes several tower segments, install tower when pair Tower carries out segmental hoisting, which is characterized in that in hoisting process, by surrounding body described in any of the above embodiments around corresponding tower Cylinder section.
Optionally, in the corresponding tower segments in lifting top just around the surrounding body;And tower rigging out, fitting machine Behind cabin, the surrounding body is unloaded.
The surrounding body of the building enclosure can reduce original runner by extrusion process, form scaling runner, reducing Process implements elastic compression, adiabatic compression to gas, and air-flow is accelerated.The air-flow of scaling runner is squeezed out to top tower boundary Layer has the function of " blowing ", so that top be interfered to stream the air-flow of tower wall, destroys boundary layer herein, inhibits and destroy card The formation of door vortex street inhibits the generation of tower oscillation crosswise, i.e. inhibition vortex-induced vibration.Here wish of the invention is abundant benefit Reach optimal flow-disturbing execution under the premise of environmentally protective with natural force, inhibits the generation of Karman vortex street phenomenon, resistance Hinder the generation of vortex-induced vibration or reduces vibration.
Detailed description of the invention
Fig. 1-1 is that wind-power electricity generation equipment constitutes schematic diagram;
Fig. 1-2 is the schematic diagram of tower segmental hoisting;
Fig. 2 is with certain tower structural schematic diagram for inhibiting vibrating function;
Fig. 3-1~3-6 is respectively the relation schematic diagram that cylinder whirlpool takes off (flow separation) and six sections of Reynolds number;
Fig. 4 is a kind of structural schematic diagram of specific embodiment of the tower provided by the present invention for being surrounded with surrounding body;
Fig. 5-1 is the top view of Fig. 4;
Fig. 5-2 is the top view of surrounding body in Fig. 4;
Fig. 5-3 is the partial enlargement diagram at the position I in Fig. 5-2;
Fig. 5-4 is the partial enlargement diagram at the position II in Fig. 4;
Fig. 5-5 is the schematic diagram that surrounding body is swung with upwind incoming flow wind vector in Fig. 4;
Fig. 6 is the expanded schematic diagram in Fig. 4 around body portion interior aspect face, and elastic sphere at this time is not affected by extruding;
Fig. 7 be Fig. 6 in elastic sphere be squeezed after schematic diagram;
Fig. 8 is the partial enlargement diagram at the position III in Fig. 7;
Fig. 9 is the structural schematic diagram of another surrounding body;
Surrounding body buoyance lift or the schematic diagram of sinking in Figure 10 Fig. 4;
The signal that tower forms the weakening of total pulsation wind-force is streamed to upwind incoming flow when Figure 11 floats up and down for surrounding body Figure;
Figure 12 is the tower structural schematic diagram equipped with the tether for holding surrounding body;
Figure 13 is that surrounding body is at sinking and buoyance lift different location in Fig. 4, the change of gap S size between tower and surrounding body Change schematic diagram;
Figure 14 is the schematic diagram that air-flow flows upwards out from the S of gap;
Figure 15 is wing angle of attack schematic diagram;
Figure 16 is aerodynamic configuration schematic diagram when tower 100 does not surround surrounding body 200;
Figure 17 is the schematic diagram that the upwind incoming flow angle of attack and aerodynamic configuration change in Fig. 4;
Figure 18 is the relation schematic diagram of tower outer surface Si Tuoluoha number and Reynolds number;
Figure 19 is the top view of another surrounding body;
Figure 20 is the tower schematic diagram of the recyclable device with recycling surrounding body;
Figure 21 is the partial enlargement diagram at the position IIII in Figure 20;
Figure 22 is the top view of surrounding body in Figure 20;
Figure 23 is the schematic diagram of tower pitch vibration;
Figure 24 be equipped with surrounding body after, vibration be suppressed to cabin installation process schematic.
The reference numerals are as follows in Fig. 1-Fig. 3-6:
10 towers, 11 first tower segments, 12 second tower segments, 13 third tower segments, 14 the 4th tower segments, 15 the 5th towers Section, 10a helix, 20 wind turbines, 30 cabins, 40 power transmission cables, 50 cable retaining ring fixed plates, 60 saddle camber brackets, 70 Converter cabinet, 80 tower doors, 90 foundations;
The reference numerals are as follows in Fig. 4-Figure 24:
100 towers, 101 first tower segments, 102 second tower segments, 103 third tower segments, 104 the 4th tower segments, 105 Five tower segments;
200 surrounding body, 201 leading edges, 202 tail portions, 203 elastic spheres, the built-in portion 203a, the exposed portion 203b, 204 valves Core, 205 internal ducts, 206 Wireless electronic locks, 207 middle through-holes, 208 protrusions, 200a outer exterior surface, 200b interior aspect Face, 200c interface;
300 foundations;
400 cabins, 401 gas collectors, 402 recovery ports, 403 recovery tubes;
500 impellers;
600 tethers, 601 tether sections, 602 stretch sections;
The gap S;
R scales runner, the tapered runner of R1, R2 throat, R3 flaring runner.
Specific embodiment
It is with reference to the accompanying drawing and specific real in order to make those skilled in the art more fully understand technical solution of the present invention Applying example, the present invention is described in further detail.
Referring to FIG. 4, the structure that Fig. 4 is a kind of specific embodiment of the tower provided by the present invention for being surrounded with surrounding body is shown It is intended to;Fig. 5-1 is the top view of Fig. 4;Fig. 5-2 is the top view of surrounding body in Fig. 4;Fig. 5-3 is the part at the position I in Fig. 5-2 Enlarged diagram;Fig. 5-4 is the partial enlargement diagram at the position II in Fig. 4;Fig. 5-5 is surrounding body in Fig. 4 with upwind incoming flow Wind vector and the schematic diagram swung.
As shown in figure 4, tower 100 is installed on foundation 300, tower 100 is by five sections of tower segments successively phase from bottom to up It connects to be formed, the first tower segments 101 respectively shown in figure, the second tower segments 102, third tower segments 103, the 4th tower segments 104, the 5th tower segments 105, it will be understood that the segmentation of tower 100 is not limited to five sections.
Tower 100 is arranged with surrounding body 200, as shown in figure 4, fourth tower segments 104 of the surrounding body 200 around tower 100. Fig. 5-2 is please referred to, surrounding body 200 has middle through-hole 207 in complete ring-type, to realize surrounding to tower 100, accommodates Tower 100.Surrounding body 200 in the present embodiment is in specifically " fish " shape, be can be seen that from Fig. 5-2, and surrounding body 200 is biomimetic features, Left end is the leading edge 201 of surrounding body 200, corresponds to the position of " fish mouth ", and right end is the tail portion 202 of surrounding body 200, is corresponded to " fish tail ".
When upwind incoming flow touches the leading edge 201 of surrounding body 200, it is based on streamlined design, it will be at least divided into four Part: a part of air-flow tilts upwards after the leading edge 201 of surrounding body 200, and a part of air-flow is after 200 leading edge 201 of surrounding body It tilts down, there are also fractions to divide right and left, and flows to the two sides of surrounding body 200.
Please continue to refer to Fig. 4, Fig. 5-3, Fig. 5-4, surrounding body 200 has the interior aspect face 200b towards tower 100, with And the outer exterior surface 200a away from tower 100.Interior aspect face 200b is equipped with several elastomers that can squeeze tower 100. Elastomer herein can be the entity of elastic material, be also possible to cavity, can sealing gas in the cavity when being cavity.This Specific that elastic sphere 203 is arranged in embodiment, 203 a part of elastic sphere (can be half or other ratios, this programme With the exposed example of half) the interior aspect face 200b of exposed surrounding body 200, it may be defined as exposed portion 203b, exposed portion 203b shape At the elastomer, another part is then fixed on inside the annular housing of surrounding body 200, may be defined as built-in portion 203a.
Understanding incorporated by reference to Fig. 6-Fig. 8, Fig. 6 is the expanded schematic diagram of 200 sections inner side outer surface 200b of surrounding body in Fig. 4, Elastic sphere 203 at this time is not affected by extruding;Fig. 7 be Fig. 6 in elastic sphere 203 be squeezed after schematic diagram;Fig. 8 is Fig. 7 The partial enlargement diagram at the middle position III.
As shown in fig. 6, elastic sphere 203 is distributed along 100 interior aspect face 200b of tower entire ring week, short transverse, i.e., Several columns elastic sphere 203 is disposed with along ring circumferential direction, and elastic sphere 203 includes exposed portion 203b, when arrangement, makes adjacent two rows Exposed portion 203b between be capable of forming scaling runner R, i.e. preference rule arrangement to substantially form the scaling runner R of linear, Pass through convenient for air-flow.
As shown in Fig. 5-4, when upwind incoming flow passes through surrounding body 200, a part of air-flow is along (the G- as shown in the figure of leading edge 201 The region A-B) after flowing, tilt down, the region approach C-D-E-F, for a part around flowing to 100 rear of tower, there are also parts can quilt The annular gap S (understanding in conjunction with Fig. 5-1) sucked between surrounding body 200 and 100 outer wall of tower from bottom to top, and out of gap S It flows up, i.e. air stream H shown in Fig. 5-4.Actually no matter whether leading edge 201 tilts down, the gas of upwind incoming flow Flow through after leading edge 201 shunts downwards, all can some air-flow be inhaled into the S of gap, the only surrounding body 200 in the present embodiment Shape will increase into the throughput in the S of gap.Air stream H can be along scaling runner R flowing shown in Fig. 6-8, such as Fig. 8 institute Show, the flow passage unit formed between the exposed portion 203b of six elastic spheres 203, when upwind incoming flow acts on surrounding body When 200, then 200 part of surrounding body (mainly leading edge 201 windward and two sides) in the corresponding orientation of active force can recline to The outer wall of tower 100, then with 100 outer wall of tower generate extruding, then the scaling runner R between exposed portion 203b will from Fig. 6 to The condition conversion of Fig. 7, runner narrow.
It is appreciated that when the exposed portion 203b of elastic sphere 203 and 100 outer wall of tower recline and squeeze, at the position pair The gap S answered is actually divided into several columns scaling runner R by the exposed portion 203b of several columns herein.
As shown in figure 8, circumferentially, gap turn narrow between the exposed portion 203b of two neighboring elastic sphere 203, sky therebetween Gas receives extruding, inner flow passage of the scaling runner R formed at this time such as de Laval noz(zle).As shown in figure 8, since import, according to It is secondary for tapered runner R1 (runner narrow), throat R2 (width of flow path is substantially constant), flaring runner R3 (runner broadens), then again After tapered runner R1, throat R2, flaring runner R3, i.e. scaling runner R is defined as including the flow channel section shunk and expanded.The knot Structure can reduce original runner by extrusion process, implement elastic compression, adiabatic compression to gas in the process of reducing, air-flow obtains It must accelerate.When surrounding body 200 has longer tail portion 202, during the swing, the air-flow of 200 circumference all directions of surrounding body It actually can all be accelerated, be not limited to the position of leading edge 201.
The air-flow H for squeezing out scaling runner R has the function of " blowing " to 100 boundary layer of top tower, to interfere top The air-flow for streaming 100 wall of tower destroys boundary layer herein, inhibits and destroy the formation of Karman vortex street, inhibits tower 100 laterally The generation of vibration, i.e. inhibition vortex-induced vibration.Here wish of the invention is to make full use of natural force, in environmentally protective premise Under, reach optimal flow-disturbing execution, inhibit the generation of Karman vortex street phenomenon, hinders the generation of vortex-induced vibration or reduce vibration It is dynamic.
It is to be squeezed with 100 outer wall of tower, to form scalable stream as described above, the purpose of elastic sphere 203 is arranged here With the air stream accelerated between 100 outer wall of tower and surrounding body 200, therefore gas can be filled in road R in elastic sphere 203, but To guarantee to squeeze safety, safer gas not easy to explode, such as helium can be filled.
In addition, complete elastic sphere 203 is arranged here, only part is exposed, further includes being built in inside surrounding body 200 Built-in portion 203a, then when squeezing, the gas of exposed portion 203b is mobile to built-in portion 203a, increases activity space.Certainly, only It is that the part sphere that forms several hemispheres or other ratios in 200 interior aspect face 200b of surrounding body is also possible.Separately Outside, the formation of elastomer is not limited to elastic sphere 203, and the shape of sphere is easy for being capable of forming scalable stream when squeezing here Road, therefore elastomer can be spheroid, triangle body etc..In fact, when not being squeezed, between adjacent two rows elastic sphere 203 Scaling runner R is formed, but it is larger to scale runner R width, and there is also gaps with 100 outer wall of tower, are open runner, Acceleration does not have squeezed state obvious.
In addition, upwind incoming flow is after surrounding body 200, and in the position for corresponding to surrounding body 200, airflow direction and path Changed, destroys the correlation of upwind air-flow near surrounding body 200, upset surrounding body 200 and other positions gas The consistency of vortex shedding frequencies is flowed, so that their collective effects weaken, reduces or prevent 100 outer wall periphery of tower Vortex-excited vibration responds when layer flow separation, also it is prevented that the vibration induced is swashed in 100 whirlpool of tower.
Correlation is the important feature of fluctuating wind, herein it and space two o'clock (Z1、Z2) fluctuating wind speed or tower 100 The fluctuation pressure of place's two o'clock of surface different height is related.
Correlation coefficient ρ is defined as
(the Z at two different heights1、Z2), the covariance of fluctuating wind speed is defined as follows:
Therefore, covariance is that the time of fluctuating wind speed product at two height is average.Each air speed value on the right side of equation Respective average value is subtractedWith
Mathematically, the formula of standard deviation can be write as:
U (t) in formula --- the wind speed component on mean wind speed direction is equal to
U (t) is down wind turbulent flow component, i.e. fluctuating wind speed component on mean wind speed direction.
Molecule indicates that tower 100 has different wind speed, the covariance of fluctuating wind speed at two different heights.
Covariance is that the time of fluctuating wind speed product at two height is average.
The bulk strength of turbulent flow can be measured with wind speed deviation or root mean square, and average weight is subtracted from wind speed, Then quantify remainder with deviation, be averaged to after deviation square, last evolution show that has a wind speed unit Physical quantity obtains standard deviation.By related coefficient definition, the covariance of wind speed obtains different height divided by standard deviation at different height The relative coefficient at two between wind speed is spent, correlation is the smaller the better, and hinder vortex to form the frequency of whirlpool at rear different height, Break aggregation and growth of original frequency invariance to Vortex-excited vibration energy, it may be assumed that prevent the growth of Vortex-excited vibration, or even cause whirlpool Swash resonance to disappear.
Wind power plant is built in southern china cloud, expensive, river High aititude region, needs to surround high mountain and repairs the roads, while high mountain is hung oneself Filling the period would generally be longer, and the uncertainty of wind will affect lifting construction at any time, and lifting cost is used in ten thousand yuan/platform of 27-32, once Lifting is led to the problem of, and is lost huge.Inventor investigates on the spot to High aititude, high mountain region Construction of Wind Power, and proposes The scheme of surrounding body 200, so that on-site hoisting progress, installation period are no longer influenced by the limitation of regional area wind regime.Surrounding body 200 Setting can ensure or strive for the reliable lifting to cabin 400 when wind speed is less than 8m/s;To tower when wind speed is less than 10m/s 100 lifting.Under both the above wind speed, existing lifting mode can not be probably normally carried out.This programme can be improved limited The safety and lifting efficiency in the time are lifted, is shortened because the uncertainty of wind causes dragging for Construction of Wind Power period at any time Prolong, Wind turbines generate electricity by way of merging two or more grid systems waste caused by postponement, solve tower 100 of hoisting process wind power generating set bearing structure Destruction and hidden danger brought by the shaking that wind of experiencing induces to 100 base connection of tower;It reducings the construction costs, helps to invest Side is benefited early, generates electricity by way of merging two or more grid systems early.
Continuing with Fig. 5-1 is checked, it is less than remaining position in the density of the leading edge 201 of surrounding body 200, elastic sphere 203 The density of elastic sphere 203.For the leading edge 201 of surrounding body 200 towards upwind incoming flow, it is bigger that elastic sphere 203 is squeezed power, Deformation is also just bigger, therefore density can be set less than normal, remaining position stress is relatively small, deform it is small, it is relatively suitable in order to be formed Scaling runner R, density can be set bigger than normal.
Please continue to refer to Fig. 5-4, it can be seen that 200 middle through-hole 207 of surrounding body, from bottom to up, cross sectional dimensions is gradually Reduce.Then when upwind incoming flow acts on the leading edge 201 of surrounding body 200 and squeezes, 202 side of tail portion being not under compression and tower A tapered channels R ' is formed between 100 outer walls of cylinder, squeezes the air stream for flowing through the gap location, the principle with above-mentioned scaling runner R It is similar, acceleration air stream herein can be also played, and it is made to interfere the purpose in the boundary layer herein of tower 100, inhibit vortex-induced vibration. Certainly, in addition to 202 region of tail portion, surrounding body 200 is extruded between 100 outer wall of other orientation and tower of position and can all be formed gradually Contracting channel R ' (orientation of Fig. 5-4 only shows leading edge 201 and tail portion 202).That is, when upwind incoming flow acts on surrounding body 200, Scaling runner R and tapered channels R ' is acted on simultaneously, windward " air blowing ", is destroyed boundary layer and is streamed.
In addition, surrounding body 200 is set as fish shape in this programme, actually reaches and be in the wind to the lower buoyance lift of incoming flow effect Purpose.It is capable of the surrounding body 200 of buoyance lift, in field of fluid mechanics, belongs to the scheme of comparative maturity, i.e. surrounding body 200 is streamline Body, such as aircraft wing, using the biomimetic features of fish shape, (fish in ocean are based on its physical shapes, mostly may be used in this programme To realize buoyance lift in a fluid, such as inkfish), buoyance lift mainly relies on upper and lower surfaces to form pressure difference and generate buoyance lift Power.
Attached drawing 9 for another example, Fig. 9 are the structural schematic diagram of another surrounding body 200, are depression angle.The surrounding body 200 tool There are fusiform leading edge 201 and tail portion 202, the surrounding body 200 of the structure equally can be realized buoyance lift.From the point of view of depression angle, Gradually extend to two sides and widen, then change width is smaller, finally in opposite pointed in 201 part of leading edge of surrounding body 200 It is narrowed in tail portion 202,202 length of tail portion is relatively short, is similar to aircraft shape.
Either large or small variation often occurs for the wind speed of upwind incoming flow, when surrounding body 200 be designed as can buoyance lift knot When structure, the buoyancy lift of surrounding body 200 can correspondingly change, then surrounding body 200 can such as be schemed along the up and down direction play of tower 100 10, shown in Figure 11, Figure 10 is 200 buoyance lift of surrounding body or the schematic diagram of sinking in Fig. 4;When Figure 11 is that surrounding body 200 floats up and down The schematic diagram that tower 100 forms the weakening of total pulsation wind-force is streamed to upwind incoming flow.
In the present embodiment, tower 100 can float to the 5th tower segments 105 only around a surrounding body 200, can also be with Third tower segments 103 as shown in Figure 10 are sunk to, certain attached drawing only illustrates, and specific buoyance lift height region is not limited to This.
It is found that after surrounding body 200 is designed to the shape of buoyance lift, it will erratically carry out buoyance lift, sink, quite It is moved up and down in along 100 short transverse of tower (at least on the top of tower 100), is similar to " brush " brush up and down, constantly Ground changes different height tower segments boundary layer airflow situation, the formation of 100 rear two sides whirlpool of tower is hindered, so that tower 100 Upper and lower vortex shedding frequency invariance is disturbed, and inhibits the generation of vortex-induced vibration.Moreover, surrounding body 200 is sunk in upper and lower buoyance lift When, it can also swing, be collided with 100 outer wall of tower, destroy tower 100 and nearby stream in boundary layer, and whirlpool can be hindered to be formed, Inhibit vibration.
As shown in figure 11, when generating vibration due to 100 top of tower, oscillatory torque is maximum, destroy it is stronger, therefore by surrounding body 200 in the top of tower 100, the height region L shown in the figure, float up and down, when in δ y1When, air-flow corresponds to f1 Position, the interference by surrounding body 200 up and down, sinks to δ y hereiniWhen, interfere fiThe air-flow of position, and so on δ yj、δyn Position, while disturbed, the consistency of upper-lower section is destroyed each position, and wind-force of always pulsing in the height region L is weakened.
Moreover, the floating type design based on surrounding body 200 can be to tower 100 when a surrounding body 200 is only arranged The outer wall boundary layer of different height streams generation destruction, inhibits vortex-induced vibration.Certainly, the quantity of surrounding body 200 not by More than two surround also can be set when tower 100 is highly higher, needs to inhibit the bout length of vibration longer in limitation Body 200, common buoyance lift up and down, destroys the outer wall boundary layer of tower 100 and streams.
It should be noted that boundary layer damage capability can be further increased by being set as floating type surrounding body 200, inhibit whirlpool Excited vibration, it is to be understood that, it is also possible even if surrounding body 200 cannot float.Above-mentioned vibration attenuation mechanism mainly " air blowing " is broken The laminar flow of bad selvedge interlayer, even if therefore surrounding body 200 fix with respect to 200 position of tower, the boundary layer of 200 top of surrounding body It is destroyed, and breaks the air-flow correlation of 200 upper-lower section of surrounding body, inhibit vibration.Certainly, in order to more disturb tower Boundary layer airflow near 100, cannot up and down buoyance lift play in the case where, surrounding body 200 needs to have higher height, or Person arranges more quantity, in contrast, it is clear that buoyance lift is designed as the scheme more optimized, in addition to that can disturb with negligible amounts Except the advantage of dynamic wider area, upper and lower play mode to stream effect also more preferable.
With upper type when reducing vortex-induced vibration influences, compared to the helical manner in background technique, upwind incoming flow Squeeze can surrounding body 200, the resistance of upwind incoming flow can be reduced, can inherently reduce noise, meet ecological laws and regulations requirement; The scaling runner R extrusion of formation, which is blown, directly destroys boundary layer, and whirlpool is prevented to be formed, and directly inhibits the origin cause of formation of vortex-induced vibration, tool There is preferable vibration suppressioning effect, moreover, the variation of wind speed and the performance of 200 vibration-damping function of surrounding body have no very strong corresponding relationship (characteristic parameter of helix corresponds to certain wind speed interval in background technique), no matter how wind speed changes, as long as can squeeze Pressure surrounding body 200 can inhibit vibration.
In addition, when surrounding body 200 be can floating structure when, can also adaptive wind speed variation, float up and down, rest on more High position or lower position play corresponding effect;Upper downstream phase can be broken by floating up and down in certain altitude region simultaneously Effect is streamed in Guan Xing, raising, and equally, the variation of wind speed and the performance of 200 vibration-damping function of surrounding body have no very strong corresponding relationship, nothing How to change by wind speed, the surrounding body 200 of buoyance lift can normally inhibit to vibrate in its flying height region.
When surrounding body 200 is floating structure, tether 600 can be set.Figure 12 is please referred to, Figure 12 is circular equipped with holding 100 structural schematic diagram of tower of the tether 600 of body 200.
As shown, ground (lower end that can also be fixed on tower 100) is fixed in one end of tether 600, tether 600 The other end is attached around body 200.So set, surrounding body 200 can be prevented when gust velocity is excessive, from 100 top of tower It falls off, and leaves tower 100.It, can leading edge 201 in surrounding body 200 and tail portion 202 in order to improve reliability and keep balance It is respectively provided with tether 600, tether 600 is only set at one end certainly, or the setting of many places including two sides is also possible.
Tether 600 may be configured as at least one section as stretch section, and as shown in figure 12, tether 600 specifically includes rope 601 He of body section Stretch section 602 (such as spring section), i.e. rope body section 601 and stretch section 602 are arranged in series, and stretch section 602 is connected on two sections in figure Between body section 601 of restricting.Here, as long as stretch section 602 and rope body section 601 are connected, each segment number and sequence of positions are unlimited.If After setting stretch section 602, the generated shaking in buoyance lift sinking watching of surrounding body 200 can pass to stretch section 602, be based on The resilient property of stretch section 602, even if surrounding body 200 no longer has the buoyancy variation for rising and sinking, but stretch section 602 is still It can persistently be shaken, so that surrounding body 200 is in the case where wind speed is constant or the lesser situation of variation, it is still lasting to keep shaking Dynamic state carries out disturbance up and down to upwind incoming flow, destroys 100 boundary layer of tower and stream, inhibit vortex-induced vibration.
Certainly, stretch section 602 herein, can also be according to other than sprung return movement occurs under the shaking of surrounding body 200 It is outer advocate it is dynamic so that its is generated movement, to keep or increase teetertottering for surrounding body 200.
In Figure 12, tether 600 is equipped with one section of spring, as described above, quantity is unlimited, one section of series connection or multistage are can be with 's.Here, the length, coefficient of elasticity of stretch section 602 and the overall length of tether 600, can be according to required for surrounding body 200 Because usually determining, final purpose is to require tether 600 that can prevent for 200 weight of height and surrounding body of buoyance lift, wind-force etc. Surrounding body 200 is detached from the top of tower 100, in addition, not interfering the buoyance lift of surrounding body 200, and can be produced by stretch section 602 It is raw to shake.
It can also be in Fig. 4 with reference to Figure 13,14, Figure 13 for the measure for preventing surrounding body 200 to be detached from 100 top of tower Surrounding body 200 is at sinking and buoyance lift different location, the variation schematic diagram of gap S size between tower 100 and surrounding body 200; Figure 14 is the schematic diagram that air-flow flows upwards out from the S of gap.
As shown in figure 13, from the bottom to top, barrel dliameter is gradually reduced tower 100, when 200 upward buoyance lift of surrounding body, surrounding body Gap S between 200 and 100 outer wall of tower can be gradually increased, and when floating to 100 top of tower, gap S is maximum.This programme In, for the middle through-hole 207 of surrounding body 200, lateral dimension design preferably meets: at 100 top of tower, surrounding body Gap S between 200 and tower 100 has preset distance, to destroy the buoyancy lift of upwind incoming flow generation.Work as surrounding body When gap S between 200 and 100 outer wall of tower is sufficiently large, the buoyancy lift of surrounding body 200 can be weakened.Specifically, gap S It when sufficiently large, be equivalent to and be connected to the upper and lower surface of surrounding body 200, destroy the condition that upper and lower surface generates fluid pressure difference, then float Lift no longer increases, to realize self-balancing.
" transverse direction " of above-mentioned lateral dimension is to calculate the direction with 100 outer wall spacing of tower.Surrounding body 200 When middle through-hole 207 is round, lateral dimension, that is, radial dimension, middle through-hole 207 is also possible to other shapes, such as oval Shape, lateral dimension at this time be not unique.
When 207 size of middle through-hole of surrounding body 200 is arranged, can be determined according to the outer diameter at 100 top of tower, for For field of fluid mechanics, it can specifically be calculated by size or analogue simulation obtains required 207 size of middle through-hole.It should Mode, it can be achieved that self-balancing, can be used alone, can also combine jointly in the case where not needing external force with tether 600 Surrounding body 200 is prevented to be detached from.
Surrounding body 200 described in above-described embodiment is in have the fish shape of middle through-hole 207, i.e. profile substantially fish shape, It is in closed ring shape around tower 100, realize buoyance lift.It is appreciated that when this programme is mainly squeezed using surrounding body 200, The scaling runner R that " can be blown " is formed, to destroy 100 boundary layer airflow of tower of 200 position of surrounding body, and it is related up and down Property, inhibit vortex-induced vibration, and surrounding body 200 can buoyance lift then can be further improved upset the outer wall boundary layer of tower 100 effect Fruit.Here closed circular mainly prevents surrounding body 200 from falling off from tower 100, it will be understood that under there is a requirement that, surrounding body 200 are also not limited to closed circular, such as have opening in its tail portion 202, but can radially block tower 100 be also can be with 's.For another example, surrounding body 200 can be non-annularity, also not have tail portion 202, and the two sides of surrounding body 200 pass through drawstring drift bolt, Or not buoyance lift, it is positioned directly in tower 100, or be not only positioned at tower 100 to realize that yaw rotates wind, can Realize the purpose for inhibiting vortex-induced vibration to a certain extent.
Therefore, " circular " described in the present embodiment, it is not required that 200 closed circular of surrounding body is surround, and can surround half Or above 100 range of tower, preferably flow separation orientation is extended over always from side windward.
In the surrounding body 200 of " fish shape ", also further with following technical effects for inhibiting vibration:
When a part inclination upwards of the air-flow of upwind incoming flow, positive incidence is formed, the part tilted down forms negative attack Angle.During explaining that above-mentioned surrounding body 200 is able to suppress tower 100 and vibrates concrete principle, it can be related to " angle of attack ", " pneumatic The technical terms such as shape ", are hereafter illustrated together.
Concrete principle can refer to Figure 15-Figure 17, and Figure 15 is wing angle of attack schematic diagram;Figure 16 is tower 100 not around ring Aerodynamic configuration schematic diagram when around body 200;Figure 17 is the schematic diagram that the upwind incoming flow angle of attack and aerodynamic configuration change in Fig. 4.
The angle of attack (English: Attack Angle), the sometimes referred to as angle of attack, are hydrodynamics noun.Aerofoil cross section S is come It says, angle of attack is defined as the angle between wing chord L and upwind speed of incoming flow, and new line is positive, and bows and is negative.As shown in figure 17, exist The position of surrounding body 200 is set, and the air-flow through 200 leading edge of surrounding body, 201 hypsokinesis obliquely forms positive incidence (with left and right horizontal side To angle), the air-flow that tilts down after 200 leading edge 201 of surrounding body forms negative angle of attack, and tower 100 is correspondingly formed ellipse Aerodynamic configuration.
Aerodynamic configuration (AerodynamicConfigurations) refers to the object moved in gas medium to reduce fortune Dynamic resistance, and the suitable shape moved in the medium used.Aerodynamic configuration primarily directed to aircraft such as guided missile, aircrafts and The concept of proposition is then applied to tower 100 herein.It is suffered under state of flight that aerodynamic configuration specifically refers to aircraft, guided missile Lift, resistance, the direction of power, size, section, length, thrust, stability with itself etc. will affect the visitor of flying object flight A functional value composed by sight factor, the shape of flying object is determined by this functional value.
When upwind direction of flow changes, aerodynamic configuration is changed correspondingly, when upwind direction of flow level, aerodynamic configuration Be it is round, as shown in figure 16, when upwind incoming flow flat contact tower 100, it is bluff body, Tu17Zhong that aerodynamic configuration, which is round, The not set surrounding body 200 in 5th tower segments, 105 position, aerodynamic configuration are also rounded (i.e. the cross-sectional shape of tower 100);When to When above or tilting down, aerodynamic configuration will be oval.The pneumatic outer of tower 100 is caused by the streamline shape of surrounding body 200 Deformationization is also not quite similar, and as shown in figure 17, the aerodynamic configuration of middle part ellipse, the angle of attack is relatively small;Downside ellipse is pneumatic Shape, ratio of long axis to short axis is bigger compared to middle part, and the angle of attack is relatively large, more streamlining.
, it should be understood that submergence 100 works of tower in a fluid, since fluid (such as: the air stream of wind power plant) flows through or horizontal Generated air stream vortex is alternately fallen off from (the belonging to bluff body) two sides of tower 100 when plunderring the outer surface of 100 structure of tower Imbalance stress caused by 100 surface of tower, it will the transverse direction for being directed toward the side is generated at 100 two sides vortex shedding of tower Power, the vortex that alternately falls off make 100 structure of tower work be similar to simple harmonic quantity (i.e. sinusoidal) beam wind to (in tower 100 in this way Lower part is drawn at portion, middle part) forced vibration, referred to as Vortex-excited vibration.The toll bar Vortex-excited vibration being previously mentioned in background technique.
When Vortex-excited vibration occurs for 100 works of tower, acts on the whirlpool in 100 structural outer surface of tower and swash power (i.e. not Force balance) be approximately a simple harmonic quantity power F (t):
F (t)=F0sinωt (1)
In formula: ω (Re, St) is the frequency of Vortex Shedding, ω t generally variable;
Re is Reynolds number, and St is Si Tuoluoha number;
F0Power amplitude, F are swashed for whirlpool0=(ρ U2/2)CD;
ρ is that 100 upwind of tower carrys out current density;
U is 100 upwind arrives stream wind speed of tower;
C is the aerodynamic coefficient of 100 structural section of tower;Aerodynamic coefficient is also referred to as wind load Shape Coefficient, it It is the pressure (or suction) and the ratio of the theoretic wind pressure calculated by arrives stream wind speed that wind is formed on engineering structure surface.It reflects Distribution of the steady wind pressure in engineering structure and building surface, and with building shape, scale, shielding situation and air-flow side To equal and different;
D be 100 structural outer surface of tower by fluid is horizontal plunder when characteristic dimension, be fluid by barrier, stream obstacle The characteristic dimension for the space structure that barrier when object is formed in face of fluid, is thermal conduction study field generic term.In the present embodiment, The characteristic dimension for referring to building enclosure (being tower external surface shape here) and fluid contact level (being air stream here), usually takes Perpendicular to the structure width of wind direction, outer diameter of the tower 100 at corresponding height.
Swash 100 structure lateral amplitude of vibration of tower caused by power and change in whirlpool are as follows:
In formula: K is the rigidity of 100 structural system of tower (may include cabin 400);
δ is logarithmic decrement (about 0.05).
After the wind speed of upwind incoming flow reaches certain suitably numerical value and continuous action is for a period of time, 100 structure of tower Vortex-excited vibration may occur, the amplitude A vibrated at this time:
As can be seen that the sectional dimension when structure has been determined, stiffness K can be improved or increase damping, such as 100 wall thickness of tower Increase, the measure that tower 100 internal diameter increases reduces Vortex-excited vibration amplitude.
Above formulaThat is Si Tuoluoha number, the definition of Si Tuoluoha number describe vortex shedding frequency, wind speed and Relationship between cylinder diameter.
In formula: f is that whirlpool takes off frequency, Hz;
U is 100 upwind arrives stream wind speed of tower;
D be 100 structural outer surface of tower by fluid is horizontal plunder when characteristic dimension.
D refers to the outer diameter at 100 different height of tower in the present embodiment.This outer diameter can change, when upwind incoming flow is non-aqueous When putting down, but streaming tower 100 in a manner of certain inclination angle, the path for streaming 100 periphery of tower forms approximate ellipse, such as above-mentioned The description of aerodynamic configuration, it (is a kind of imaginary circular cross-section that at this moment characteristic size D, which is just the elliptical equivalent diameter of aerodynamic configuration, Diameter).At this point, becoming more streamlining by the boundary that fluid soaks, far from passivation.From vibration mode, Vortex-excited vibration It is that the clipping with self-excitation and forced double properties vibrates.
Si Tuoluoha number can be obtained according to Reynolds number, can refer to Figure 18 with the relationship of Reynolds number, Figure 18 is outside tower The relation schematic diagram of surface Si Tuoluoha number and Reynolds number, horizontal axis are Reynolds number, and the longitudinal axis is Si Tuoluoha number.Reynolds number reaches 2 ×105Before, Si Tuoluoha number is constant 0.20;Later, as Reynolds number increases, Si Tuoluoha number first jumps to 0.30, then increases 0.43 is added to, then when Reynolds number is equal to 2 × 106When drop to 0.2 again.Therefore, Si Tuoluoha number, D, U can be obtained Parameter, f can also be calculated according to the formula of Si Tuoluoha number and be obtained, and correspondingly, amplitude A can also calculate acquisition.
Accordingly, for this programme around surrounding body 200 in tower 100, the principle analysis for reaching effectiveness in vibration suppression is as follows:
1, upwind incoming flow streams tower 100 and when surrounding body 200 contacts, and obtains the variation of aerodynamic configuration, 100 phase of tower To bypass gas rheology obtain it is streamlined after aerodynamic coefficient C become smaller, it can be understood as resistance is minimized, to can also drop Low Vortex-excited vibration amplitude A reduces vibration.
Can further quantitative analysis, when aerodynamic configuration becomes ellipse, aerodynamic coefficient C can be from general 1.2 It is reduced to 0.6 or so, it is even more small, resistance is greatly reduced, reduces vibration.Image understands, when upwind incoming flow horizontal swipe tower When cylinder 100, it is round aerodynamic configuration with 100 appearance face contact of tower, belongs to bluff body, wind direction needs to be mutated, and will cause larger Out-of-balance force, and after the angle of attack changes, aerodynamic configuration is ellipse, and fluid moves forwards track and is elongated, and wind direction is slowly varying, from And reduce out-of-balance force, reduce vibration.
2, upwind incoming flow is after surrounding body 200, in the position for corresponding to surrounding body 200, airflow direction and path hair Variation has been given birth to, the correlation of upwind air-flow near surrounding body 200 has been destroyed, has upset surrounding body 200 and other positions air-flow The consistency of vortex shedding frequencies reduces or prevents 100 outer wall periphery layer of tower so that their collective effects weaken Vortex-excited vibration responds when flow separation, also it is prevented that the vibration induced is swashed in 100 whirlpool of tower.
Correlation is the important feature of fluctuating wind, herein 100 surface two of fluctuating wind speed or tower of it and space two o'clock The fluctuation pressure of point is related.
Related coefficient is defined as
Molecule indicates that tower 100 has different wind speed, the covariance of fluctuating wind speed at two different heights.
Covariance is that the time of fluctuating wind speed product at two height is average.
The bulk strength of turbulent flow can be measured with wind speed deviation or root mean square, and average weight is subtracted from wind speed, Then quantify remainder with deviation, be averaged to after deviation square, last evolution show that has a wind speed unit Physical quantity obtains standard deviation, reference can be made to above for the description of correlation.
According to above-mentioned vibration attenuation mechanism 1,2, as long as setting surrounding body 200 can change the pneumatic outer of a part of upwind incoming flow Shape forms positive incidence or negative angle of attack, the boundary layer of tower 100 and the air-flow of upper-lower section can be destroyed near surrounding body 200 Correlation inhibits vibration, it is clear that surrounding body 200 has fusiform leading edge 201, and being not limited to profile is " fish shape ";It can be with Understand, the scheme that boundary layer inhibits vibration is destroyed by blowing function, surrounding body 200 is by whether Streamline Design is limited.
As previously mentioned, surrounding body 200 is designed as the scheme more optimized as buoyance lift, in addition to that can disturb with negligible amounts Except the advantage of wider area, the flow-disturbing effect of upper and lower play mode is also more preferable.
As previously mentioned, this programme surrounding body 200 is specially the fish shape of biomimetic features, surrounding body 200 includes and 201 phase of leading edge Pair tail portion 202, as shown in Fig. 5-2 " fish tail bar ", for tower 100, the distance of leading edge 201 to tower 100 is small In tail portion 202 to the distance of tower 100.
So set, based on the presence of tail portion 202, upwind incoming flow is for tail portion when upwind direction of flow changes 202 torque can be greater than the torque of leading edge 201, so that surrounding body 200 generates swing, as illustrated in fig. 5-5, then surrounding body 200 can rotate to the alignment upwind incoming flow of leading edge 201, that is, realize and be automatically aligned to, the leading edge 201 of surrounding body 200 can be right always Quasi- upwind incoming flow, i.e. leading edge 201 are windward side, the purpose of above-mentioned the change angle of attack and aerodynamic configuration are realized, thus according to wind It turns to in due course to play the function that it inhibits vortex-induced vibration always.
Clearly as the unstability and surrounding body 200 of wind speed itself stress complexity in the sky, surrounding body 200 With the variation of wind direction, during rotation, there can be a ceaselessly dancing, surrounding body 200 also can all around and tower 100 outer walls of cylinder collide, to further upset the air-flow near surrounding body 200, inhibit the generation of Karman vortex street phenomenon, suppression Vortex-induced vibration processed.
It states and is automatically aligned on the basis of wind direction in realization, continuing with checking Fig. 5-1, in the leading edge 201 of surrounding body 200, The density of elastic sphere 203 can be set to the density of the elastic sphere 203 less than remaining position.201 court of leading edge of surrounding body 200 Windward is windward side to incoming flow, and elastic sphere 203 is squeezed that power is bigger, and deformation is also just bigger, therefore density can be set ground Less than normal, remaining position stress except windward side is relatively small, and deformation is small, and in order to form better suited scaling runner R, density can To be configured bigger than normal.The automatic right of windward side can be achieved above by leading edge 201 and tail portion 202 and the setting of 100 distance of tower It is quasi-, it will be understood that the windward side of alignment upwind incoming flow can also be realized under outer power drive always, such as when change of the wind, Rotation of surrounding body 200 etc. is driven by actuator.
Please continue to refer to Fig. 5-2, the leading edge 201 of surrounding body 200 is expanded to two sides is elongated, then gradually collapses backward, then It gradually expands again, forms tail portion 202.That is, the two sides of surrounding body 200 are also in streamlined, when upwind incoming flow is via preceding After edge 201, during flowing backward, transition is gentle, and in the tail portion of expansion 202 by certain resistance, thus receiving (" waist " of " fish ") accumulation between contracting, expansion segment, the whirlpool for hindering upwind incoming flow to be formed fall off, and inhibit vortex-induced vibration.
The outer rim of the tail portion 202 of surrounding body 200 is in cambered surface.
Surrounding body 200 is preferably designed for symmetrical structure, and symmetrical middle line is the line at 201 middle part to tail portion of leading edge, 202 middle part, When around to tower 100, symmetrical middle line is actually identical as upwind direction of flow.As shown in Fig. 5-2, fish shape surrounding body 200 be symmetrical structure.The surrounding body 200 of symmetrical structure is conducive to surrounding body 200 and more balances under air stream effect, it is ensured that Its leading edge 201 can be directed at upwind incoming flow always.
When aforementioned 200 structure of surrounding body, mentions surrounding body 200 or can be realized 200 various structures of surrounding body of buoyance lift Change, therefore the shape of surrounding body 200 is not limited to " fish shape " in attached drawing.For example, when only realizing that the angle of attack changes, surrounding body 200 Two sides do not need to be streamlined;Moreover, the formation of negative angle of attack can be realized in the lower surfaces inclined downward of leading edge 201, it is not required to It is to tilt down by the lower surface design of entire surrounding body 200, in Fig. 4, the lower surface of 200 leading edge 201 of surrounding body dips down Tiltedly, after then slightly raising up, then entirety tilts down, and changes airflow direction, is formed down biggish negative angle of attack (Fig. 8).
In addition, in 200 two sides of surrounding body, setting is similar to leading edge 201 from the perspective of swinging from tail portion 202 with box haul Protrusion 208 it is also possible, as shown in figure 19, Figure 19 is the top view of another surrounding body.
The two sides of 200 structure of surrounding body are equipped with protrusion 208, and surrounding body 200 can be made quickly to respond upwind incoming flow Change of the wind, realize the fast automatic alignment upwind incoming flow of leading edge 201.
In addition, protrusion 208 can distinguish setting with the projecting degree of leading edge 201, due to leading edge 201 and tail portion 202 away from From setting, surrounding body 200 is swung, in change of the wind, protrusion 208 facilitates leading edge 201 and is rocked to upwind position ?.After 201 face upwind incoming flow of leading edge, through leading edge 201, two sides shunt air-flow to the left and right, and the air-flow of shunting can impact convex 208 positions are played, so that reinforcing the extruding of 200 two sides of surrounding body.From the point of view of the origin cause of formation of vortex-induced vibration, upwind incoming flow is two Vortex shedding forms vortex-induced vibration at side, therefore the extruding for reinforcing 200 two sides of surrounding body is more conducive to inhibit to blow upwards Vortex-induced vibration.
As described above, when surrounding body 200 can buoyance lift after, can further flow-disturbing destroy whirlpool take off frequency invariance, inhibit Vibration.Then in order to improve the buoyance lift performance of surrounding body 200, cyclic annular surrounding body 200 can have toroidal cavity and (be similar to a swimming Circle), toroidal cavity inside gassy, and gas density is less than atmospheric density.The gas filled herein for example can be hydrogen Gas, helium etc..Then the buoyancy lift of surrounding body 200 is that the buoyancy lift of gas density difference generation and surrounding body 200 are based on windward at this time The sum of the buoyancy lift generated to incoming flow (speed is generally up to 3-4m/s), so that surrounding body 200 is easier to buoyance lift.
The purpose of based on buoyance lift and colliding, surrounding body 200 is whole can be using the material light, gas tightness is good, wear-resisting It is made.Such as can be canvas, high molecular material, flame retarded polymeric material etc..Gas tightness can well prevent inner inflatable Leakage is also prevented from sucking rainwater and increases weight, and the wear-resisting demand that can satisfy collision and shake also is avoided by branch in natural environment Equal objects scratch.
Figure 20-Figure 22 is please referred to, Figure 20 is 100 schematic diagram of tower of the recyclable device with recycling surrounding body 200;Figure 21 For the partial enlargement diagram at the position IIII in Figure 20;Figure 22 is the top view of surrounding body 200 in Figure 20.
Surrounding body 200 in the embodiment has interface 200c, can be formed after interface 200c docking locking complete Annular.As shown in figure 22, in the position interface 200c, surrounding body 200 can pairing lock to form annular, or unlock is beaten It opens, becomes open loop.The form of interface 200c is set, convenient for the operation of housing tower 100, is also convenient for recycling.
It can be inflated in the toroidal cavity of surrounding body 200, settable valve inside 204, valve inside 204 is connected to the interior of surrounding body Portion's pipeline 205 realizes inflation, deflates.
As shown in figure 21, cabin 400 is installed at the top of tower 100, impeller 500, cabin 400 are installed outside cabin 400 It is inside additionally provided with gas collector 401, and recovery tube 403 is arranged, is equipped with recovery port 402, recovery tube in the bottom of cabin 400 403 pass through the recovery port 402, and one end connects the valve inside 204 of 400 outside surrounding body 200 of cabin, and the other end connects cabin 400 Interior gas collector 401 can recycle gas in surrounding body 200 to gas collector 401.That is, do not need using When surrounding body 200, recovery tube 403 can be inserted into valve inside 204, discharge is pressed into the intracorporal gas of 200 annular chamber of surrounding body, just The lifting of surrounding body 200 is recycled in cabin 400 in the recovery port 402 from cabin 400.
As described above, in order to increase buoyancy lift, gas that can be small with packing ratio atmospheric density in surrounding body 200, such as hydrogen Gas, helium etc. can reuse after recycling, economize on resources, reduce cost.The material of surrounding body 200 can be selected foldable Material, be discharged gas recycling when, can fold convenient for storage, reduce occupied space.
Aforementioned surrounding body 200 has interface 200c, at this point, Wireless electronic lock 206 can also be arranged, interface 200c is logical It crosses Wireless electronic lock 206 and locks pairing, form complete annular;It is equipped with remote controler, in cabin 400 simultaneously with wireless control electricity Son lock when then recycling, can be opened remote-control radio electronics lock 206, so that surrounding body 200 may exit off tower in cabin 400 Cylinder 100, is recycled in cabin 400 by lifting.Certainly, the bottom in ground or tower 100 also can be set in remote controler, to grasp Make personnel more easily to manipulate.
Above-mentioned gas collection device 401 and remote controler etc. are all located at cabin 400, because 100 top of tower inhibits vibration Demand is maximum, therefore surrounding body 200 is preferably designed for floating to 100 top of tower, is recovered to the cabin 400 at top also conveniently In practical operation.
When above-mentioned surrounding body 200 is around tower 100, stage use can be lifted in tower 100.
As shown in figure 23, Figure 23 is the schematic diagram of 100 pitch vibration of tower;Figure 24 be equipped with surrounding body 200 after, vibrate quilt Inhibit the process schematic to install with cabin 400.
In not set surrounding body, described with background technique identical, vortex-induced vibration may occur for tower 100, and Figure 23 is shown Be entire 200 rigging out of tower after, be integrally in the wind and act on lower pitch vibration to incoming flow, at 300 position of foundation Bolt can destroy.In fact, mounted tower segments can also be vibrated in 100 hoisting process of tower, lead to this Tower segments are difficult to install above tower segments, after 100 rigging out of tower, above cabin 400, impeller 500 it is difficult to install.
As shown in figure 24, after surrounding body 200 being arranged, the vibration of tower 100 is inhibited, to avoid or reduce vibration Amplitude avoids generating destruction to connection bolt or other fasteners, to guarantee the reliability of installation, reduces weather for applying The influence of work greatly shortens construction period, reduces construction cost, also improves the safety of construction.
Specifically in construction, since lifting the first tower segments 101, it can surround surrounding body 200 on it, but such as preceding institute It states, the destructive power of vibration is mainly reflected in the relatively high upper position of height, so for Figure 24, in segmental hoisting, Can be since third tower segments 103 or the 4th tower segments 104, then around surrounding body 200, have buoyance lift around one When the surrounding body 200 of function, higher leveled tower segments can be floated to automatically, it is lasting to inhibit vibration.When all tower segments After rigging out, surrounding body 200 is located at highest 5th tower segments 105 in top, in the state that vibration is inhibited, fitting machine Cabin 400 and impeller 500 can unload surrounding body 200 after the installation is completed, recycle surrounding body 200 using way of recycling as described above To cabin 400, to reuse.
, it should be understood that surrounding body 200 can not also recycle, sustainable utilization, after tower 100 lifts for installing Complete tower 100 persistently plays the role of inhibiting vibration.Of course, it is possible to decide whether to carry out reclaimer operation according to actual needs.
To sum up, this case is specially concerned with wind power generating set and is in air stream in installation process, lifts from tower 100 Start, it is possible to the resonance after coupling with air stream, Karman vortex street breakoff phenomenon occur.Therefore, it is necessary to construct a kind of protection System, i.e. surrounding body 200 described in the present embodiment, during Construction of Wind Power, preparation is mounted on several sections of 100 top of tower Around, surrounding body 200 carries out flow field destruction by natural force air stream around tower 100, reaches the protection system and causes pair The change on 100 surface of tower and its neighbouring flow field prevents 100 vortex street phenomenon of tower from occurring, 100 whirlpool of tower is prevented to swash putting for response Greatly, inhibit the vortex-induced vibration of tower 100.
It should be noted that above-mentioned be illustrated by taking tower as an example, it will be understood that similar building enclosure can use Surrounding body realizes vibration suppression, for example, it is also possible to be television tower or anemometer tower etc., during installation with can be according to reality after installation Border demand uses or disassembly deactivates.
The above is only the preferred embodiment of the present invention, it is noted that those skilled in the art are come It says, various improvements and modifications may be made without departing from the principle of the present invention, these improvements and modifications also should be regarded as Protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (17)

1. inhibiting the surrounding body (200) of building enclosure vibration, the surrounding body (200) can surround the building enclosure, special Sign is, the surrounding body (200) is towards the interior aspect face (200b) of the building enclosure, equipped with can be in the wind to incoming flow The effect lower several row's elastomers for squeezing the building enclosure when extruding, form air stream between the adjacent two rows elastomer Scaling runner (R).
2. inhibiting the surrounding body (200) of building enclosure vibration as described in claim 1, which is characterized in that the surrounding body (200) elastic sphere (203) are equipped with, the exposed surrounding body (200) in elastic sphere (203) part forms the elasticity Body, it is internal that another part is fixed on the surrounding body (200).
3. inhibiting the surrounding body (200) of building enclosure vibration as claimed in claim 2, which is characterized in that the elastic sphere (203) the entire ring week along the interior aspect face (200b) of the surrounding body (200), short transverse distribution;And the surrounding body (200) have always towards the windward side of upwind incoming flow, the density of the elastic sphere (203) of the windward side is less than it The density of the elastic sphere (203) of remaining position.
4. inhibiting the surrounding body (200) of building enclosure vibration as described in claim 1, which is characterized in that the surrounding body (200) have always towards the windward side of wind direction.
5. inhibiting the surrounding body (200) of building enclosure vibration as claimed in claim 4, which is characterized in that the windward side is The leading edge (201) of the surrounding body (200), the surrounding body (200) further include the tail portion opposite with the leading edge (201) (202), the leading edge (201) is less than the distance of the tail portion (202) to the building enclosure to the distance of the building enclosure; And/or the two sides of the windward side have raised (208), to reinforce squeezing two sides under the action of the upwind incoming flow Pressure.
6. inhibiting the surrounding body (200) of building enclosure vibration as claimed in claim 5, which is characterized in that the surrounding body (200) then the leading edge (201) gradually collapses again in gradually expanding, expansion forms the tail portion backward to two sides flaring (202);The exterior contour of the surrounding body (200) is similar to fish shape.
7. inhibiting the surrounding body (200) of building enclosure vibration as described in claim 1, which is characterized in that the surrounding body (200) annularly, from the bottom to top, lateral dimension is gradually reduced middle through-hole (207).
8. inhibiting the surrounding body (200) of building enclosure vibration as described in claim 1, which is characterized in that the surrounding body (200) there is interface (200c), forms complete annular after the interface (200c) docking locking.
9. the surrounding body (200) for inhibiting building enclosure to vibrate as claim 1-8 is described in any item, which is characterized in that described Surrounding body (200) be can the upwind incoming flow effect under buoyance lift fairing.
10. inhibiting the surrounding body (200) of building enclosure vibration as claimed in claim 9, which is characterized in that the surrounding body (200) annularly, and there is toroidal cavity, gassy inside the toroidal cavity, it is close that the density of the gas is less than air Degree.
11. inhibiting the surrounding body (200) of building enclosure vibration as claimed in claim 9, which is characterized in that the surrounding body (200) it is made of the material with air-tightness and wearability.
12. inhibiting the surrounding body (200) of building enclosure vibration as claimed in claim 9, which is characterized in that the surrounding body (200) annularly, the lateral dimension of middle through-hole (207) meets: when at the top of the building enclosure, the surrounding body (200) gap between the building enclosure (S) has preset distance, to destroy the buoyance lift that the upwind incoming flow generates Power realizes self-balancing.
13. inhibiting the surrounding body equipment of building enclosure vibration, which is characterized in that described in any item including such as claim 1-12 Surrounding body (200);Further include the tether (600) that the building enclosure or ground are fixed in one end, the tether (600) it is another End connects the surrounding body (200).
14. inhibiting the surrounding body equipment of building enclosure vibration as claimed in claim 13, which is characterized in that the tether (600) at least one section is stretch section (602);
And/or the surrounding body (200) leading edge (201) and tail portion (202) have the corresponding tether (600).
15. inhibiting the surrounding body equipment of building enclosure vibration as claimed in claim 13, which is characterized in that the building enclosure For tower (100), television tower or the anemometer tower of wind power generating set.
16. a kind of method for lifting tower, tower (100) includes several tower segments, to tower (100) when installing tower (100) Carry out segmental hoisting, which is characterized in that in hoisting process, by the described in any item surrounding body of claim 1-12 (200) ring Around corresponding tower segments.
17. the method for lifting tower as claimed in claim 16, which is characterized in that only in the corresponding tower segments in lifting top Just around the surrounding body (200);And tower (100) rigging out unloads the surrounding body after installation cabin (400) (200)。
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