CN107450098B - A kind of latent gushing water karst collapse col umn dynamic positioning method of seat earth - Google Patents

A kind of latent gushing water karst collapse col umn dynamic positioning method of seat earth Download PDF

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CN107450098B
CN107450098B CN201710657566.5A CN201710657566A CN107450098B CN 107450098 B CN107450098 B CN 107450098B CN 201710657566 A CN201710657566 A CN 201710657566A CN 107450098 B CN107450098 B CN 107450098B
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value
point
trend
positioning
monitoring
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CN107450098A (en
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程建远
胡继武
王保利
王盼
覃思
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Xian Research Institute Co Ltd of CCTEG
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01VGEOPHYSICS; GRAVITATIONAL MEASUREMENTS; DETECTING MASSES OR OBJECTS; TAGS
    • G01V1/00Seismology; Seismic or acoustic prospecting or detecting
    • G01V1/28Processing seismic data, e.g. analysis, for interpretation, for correction
    • G01V1/288Event detection in seismic signals, e.g. microseismics
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01VGEOPHYSICS; GRAVITATIONAL MEASUREMENTS; DETECTING MASSES OR OBJECTS; TAGS
    • G01V2210/00Details of seismic processing or analysis
    • G01V2210/10Aspects of acoustic signal generation or detection
    • G01V2210/14Signal detection
    • G01V2210/142Receiver location
    • G01V2210/1429Subsurface, e.g. in borehole or below weathering layer or mud line

Abstract

The present invention relates to a kind of localization methods, belong to technical field of geophysical exploration, and in particular to a kind of latent gushing water karst collapse col umn localization method of seat earth.This method acquires " secondary vibration " that seat earth hidden karst pillar is generated as high artesian conduit pipe by ground On Microseismic Monitoring Technique and is used as focus, pass through shortest path imaging, back analysis, so that it is determined that EXIT POINT that underground is lain concealed, dynamic, and then it is accurately positioned out hidden karst pillar position.

Description

A kind of latent gushing water karst collapse col umn dynamic positioning method of seat earth
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of localization methods, belong to technical field of geophysical exploration, and in particular to a kind of seat earth The dynamic positioning method of latent gushing water karst collapse col umn.
Background technique
In recent years, watered-out well accident of dashing forward caused by the high pressure-bearing Ordovician karst water of seat earth presents some new features, i.e., difficult to understand The top of grey Genesis of Karst Subsided Column is developed to 30~50m below seat earth, but and do not enter coal seam, therefore working face of coal seam is visited Also the karst collapse col umn of small scale is difficult to find when all going well when survey, carrying out grout transformation to seat earth;And after the back production of coal seam, The zone of fracture of seat earth, fissure zone are gradually linked up with potential, latent karst collapse col umn lateral, vertical, so that Gao Cheng The Ordovician karst water of pressure is lagged from goaf and is discharged by bottom plate " two bands ", is ultimately caused and is flooded well, floods face even personnel casualty accidents Occur.
Karst collapse col umn is a kind of very special isolated geologic body, and small with cross section, longitudinal extension is long, form is not advised Then, the features such as filler difference is big, conventional ground probing means are difficult to control.Around the geophysical exploration about exhausted of karst collapse col umn, coal The high-resolution three-dimension earthquake of ore mining area has played important function.Previous a large amount of three dimensional seismic data prospecting-mining ratios the result shows that:Ground The accuracy rate that the 3-D seismics karst collapse col umn above for major diameter 30m in face is detected is about 50% or so, other small-sized are subside The discovery degree of column is lower.In recent years, underground coal mine seam seismic exploration technology is close with its detection range, influence factor is few, divides The unique advantages such as resolution height, can be realized to karst collapse col umn latent, major diameter 10m or more inside underground coal mine working face can By detecting, and it is then helpless in the following karst collapse col umn of seat earth for lying concealed.
Therefore, after seat earth hidden karst pillar causes mine water inrush to flood well, how gushing water point is quickly and accurately determined It is set to as the key technical problem of mine water damage accident emergency rescue.
Summary of the invention
Present invention is generally directed to the prior arts to be difficult to the technical issues of detecting to small-sized karst collapse col umn and hidden karst pillar, provides A kind of seat earth lies concealed the dynamic positioning method of gushing water karst collapse col umn.This method acquires coal seam by ground On Microseismic Monitoring Technique Bottom plate hidden karst pillar is used as focus as " the secondary vibration " that high artesian conduit pipe generates, be imaged by shortest path, Back analysis, so that it is determined that EXIT POINT that underground is lain concealed, dynamic, and then it is accurately positioned out hidden karst pillar position.
Above-mentioned technical problem of the invention is mainly to be addressed by following technical proposals:
(1) arrange that optimal micro seismic monitoring monitors system.The planar range of the Microseismic monitoring system of surface deployment " can wrap Enclose " EXIT POINT, and there are certain time differences for the first arrival time of different micro seismic monitoring points.
(2) it is arranged on each monitoring point reception device (wave detector);
(3) Microseismic monitoring system needs continuous uninterrupted recording;
(4) microseismic event is extracted inside collected record;
(5) coordinate (x in monitoring point is extracted from each microseismic eventi,yi,zi,ti) (i=1,2,3 ..., n);
(6) static correction is carried out to each monitoring point coordinate, is corrected to all receiving points all on a datum level, it is specific to walk Suddenly it is:
Wherein Δ t is positive correcting value;ziTo monitor point height;z0For benchmark face elevation;V is velocity of wave.
(7) focus shortest path imaging method is used, gushing water range is finely quickly determined on time isopleth plan view.
The above method the specific steps are:
1) under the assumed condition based on underground uniform dielectric model
2) the first arrival time plan view for the same microseismic event that different micro seismic monitoring points receive is drawn;
3) residual error extraction is carried out to microseismic event first arrival time isogram using trend surface analysis technology, found out in plane The position of time shortest point.
Trend surface analysis technology residual error extract the specific steps are:
1. the trend surface fitting method of first arrival time isopleth
If focus is to the first arrival time t of monitoring pointiIt is by its Trend value(ambient field), exceptional value uiWith interference value si(with Machine noise) composition, i.e.,
Wherein, tiMonitor value when to walk,Trend value when to walk, uiExceptional value when to walk, siFor random noise.
Because random noise is suppressed well when microseismic event is extracted, above formula can be approximately:
If there is n group monitor value (x on groundi,yi,zi,ti) (i=1,2,3 ..., n), wherein (xi,yi,zi) it is that monitoring point is sat Mark, tiMonitor value when to walk, due to data carry out static correction, so use P order polynomial it is carried out trend surface fitting method for:
Wherein, P is the number of trend surface;b0,b1,b2,...,bL-1For undetermined coefficient;L is the number of fitting coefficient, L= (P+1)(P+2)/2。
By n to monitoring point (xi,yi) and it is corresponding walk when monitor value tiBring formula (4) into, it is former according to least square method valuation Reason enables
According to extreme value theorem, to make Q reach minimum, large linear systems is resolved to (5) derivation, the L of (4) can be found out A coefficient value, finds out fitting surface.
2. degree of fitting calculates
If ti,Monitor value and Trend value when to be walked on i-th of monitoring point,For its average value, total sum of squares of deviations
Wherein, Q2 numerical value is bigger, then fitting degree is higher.
3. significance test
The effect of trend surface fitting method can carry out complementary inspection using F distribution:
In formula, L is the number of multi-trend equation coefficient;N is monitoring points;The freedom degree of Q1 is n-L;Q2 from By spending for L-1.
Under normal circumstances, significant property coefficient is divided into 0.05 and 0.01 two rank, for given insolation level α, can there is F (L-1, n-L) distribution table finds critical value Fα;As F > FαWhen, then it is assumed that the situation of change of trend surface reacting dose is significant, it is on the contrary then It is not significant.
4. residual error is extracted
After microseismic event carries out trend surface analysis, it is 0 that the abnormal Traveltime data separated, which has mathematical expectation, side The smallest statistical property of difference, integrally tends to normal distribution.This is that the quantitative criterion that travel time anomaly threshold value divides can be determined as:
For abnormal point, time most short point as on first arrival time plan view.
This point is the monitoring point nearest apart from underground EXIT POINT floor projection.
(8) at the time of generation by the available rock mass micro rupture of inversion method, position and property, and according to micro rupture Size, intensity, failure density, so definitely under latent projective water point spatial position.
The inversion method of seismic source location much has at present:Three circle intersection positioning modes, longitudinal and shear wave time difference method, the homotype wave time difference The methods of method, polarization analysis positioning mode, Geiger seismic source positioning method, Geiger revised law, joint inversion.It can be according to different situations Different inversion methods is selected to determine the spatial position of latent projective water point.
Therefore, the invention has the advantages that:It can be accurately positioned seat earth hidden karst pillar below, drawn a circle to approve rapidly The range of gushing water karst collapse col umn, the position for determining projective water point.
Detailed description of the invention
Fig. 1 seat earth lies concealed gushing water karst collapse col umn localization method schematic diagram;
Fig. 2 T mine W6 water gush face point microseism positioning figure.
Specific embodiment
Below with reference to the embodiments and with reference to the accompanying drawing the technical solutions of the present invention will be further described.
Embodiment:
Prominent watered-out well occurs for T mine, is Ordovician karst water by hydrologic monitoring hole preliminary judgement water bursting source, thus it is speculated that water inrush channel is Karst collapse col umn.When the high pressure-bearing Ordovician karst water gushing water of seat earth, projective water point can impact back and form " secondary focus ", using ground On Microseismic Monitoring Technique when being nearby unfolded long to gushing water karst collapse col umn, dynamic micro seismic monitoring and quickly positions, it is determined that doubtful prominent at 2 Water spot.By drilling verification, the karst collapse col umn position that microseism determines differs 26m with probing control point, projective water point for seat earth with Lower 77m, small-sized karst collapse col umn is lain concealed for 19m × 7m.
The present embodiment proposes a kind of localization method of latent gushing water karst collapse col umn of seat earth.Specifically include following steps:
(1) arrange that optimal micro seismic monitoring monitors system.In order to rapidly determine projective water point position, it is desirable that surface deployment it is micro- The planar range of shake monitoring system " can surround " EXIT POINT, and the first arrival time of different micro seismic monitoring points there are it is certain when Difference.First in the sparse laying micro seismic monitoring point of larger range, " coarse positioning " is carried out to latent EXIT POINT;Then, according to first circle The microseismic event that fixed working face nearby occurs nearby carries out " fine positioning " to working face by encrypting micro seismic monitoring point;Most Afterwards, on the basis of preceding positioning twice, micro seismic monitoring point is further encrypted, realizes " fine positioning " of latent projective water point;
(2) it is arranged on each monitoring point reception device (wave detector);
(3) Microseismic monitoring system needs continuous uninterrupted recording;
(4) microseismic event is extracted inside collected record;
(5) coordinate (x in monitoring point is extracted from each microseismic eventi,yi,zi,ti) (i=1,2,3 ..., n);
(6) static correction is carried out to each monitoring point coordinate, is corrected to all receiving points all on a datum level, it is specific to walk Suddenly it is:
Wherein Δ t is positive correcting value;ziTo monitor point height;z0For benchmark face elevation;V is velocity of wave.
(7) focus shortest path imaging method, fine quickly positioning are used.
The above method the specific steps are:
1) it selects to may be assumed that the subsurface model for uniform dielectric;
2) the first arrival time plan view for the same microseismic event that different micro seismic monitoring points receive is drawn;
3) residual error extraction is carried out to microseismic event first arrival time isogram using trend surface analysis technology, found out in plane The position of time shortest point.
Trend surface analysis technology residual error extract the specific steps are:
1. the trend surface fitting method of first arrival time isopleth
If focus is to the first arrival time t of monitoring pointiIt is by its Trend value(ambient field), exceptional value uiWith interference value si(with Machine noise) composition, i.e.,
Wherein, tiMonitor value when to walk,Trend value when to walk, uiExceptional value when to walk, siFor random noise.
Because random noise is suppressed well when microseismic event is extracted, above formula can be approximately:
If there is n group monitor value (x on groundi,yi,zi,ti) (i=1,2,3 ..., n), wherein (xi,yi,zi) it is that monitoring point is sat Mark, tiMonitor value when to walk, due to data carry out static correction, so use P order polynomial it is carried out trend surface fitting method for:
Wherein, P is the number of trend surface;b0,b1,b2,...,bL-1For undetermined coefficient;L is the number of fitting coefficient, L= (P+1)(P+2)/2;
By n to monitoring point (xi,yi) and it is corresponding walk when monitor value tiBring formula (4) into, it is former according to least square method valuation Reason enables
According to extreme value theorem, to make Q reach minimum, large linear systems is resolved to (5) derivation, the L of (4) can be found out A coefficient value, finds out fitting surface.
2. degree of fitting calculates
If ti,Monitor value and Trend value when to be walked on i-th of monitoring point,For its average value, then total sum of squares of deviations Q is:
Wherein, Q1 is residual sum of squares (RSS), and the more big then fitting degree of value is lower, and Q2 is regression sum of square, is worth bigger fitting journey It spends higher.
3. significance test
The effect of trend surface fitting method can carry out complementary inspection using F distribution:
In formula, L is the number of multi-trend equation coefficient;N is monitoring points;The freedom degree of Q1 is n-L;Q2 from By spending for L-1.
Under normal circumstances, significant property coefficient is divided into 0.05 and 0.01 two rank, for given insolation level α, can there is F (L-1, n-L) distribution table finds critical value Fα;As F > FαWhen, then it is assumed that the situation of change of trend surface reacting dose is significant, it is on the contrary then It is not significant.
4. residual error is extracted
After microseismic event carries out trend surface analysis, it is 0 that the abnormal Traveltime data separated, which has mathematical expectation, side The smallest statistical property of difference, integrally tends to normal distribution.This is that the quantitative criterion that travel time anomaly threshold value divides can be determined as:
For abnormal point, time most short point as on first arrival time plan view.
This point is the monitoring point nearest apart from underground EXIT POINT floor projection.
(8) at the time of generation by the available rock mass micro rupture of inversion method, position and property, and according to micro rupture Size, intensity, failure density, so definitely under latent projective water point spatial position.
Specific embodiment described herein is only an example for the spirit of the invention.The neck of technology belonging to the present invention The technical staff in domain can make various modifications or additions to the described embodiments or replace by a similar method In generation, however, it does not deviate from the spirit of the invention or beyond the scope of the appended claims.

Claims (5)

1. a kind of seat earth lies concealed gushing water karst collapse col umn dynamic positioning method, which is characterized in that including:
Monitor preparation process:In the microtremor observation system of surface deployment monitoring range covering projective water point;
Signal acquisition step:Using the microseismic signals of the secondary focus of microtremor observation system acquisition, the secondary focus is by height Bearing bottom plate water slug roof is formed;
Signal analysis step:Analyze the microseismic signals so that definitely under latent projective water point position;
The signal analysis step specifically includes:Microseismic event is extracted in the record of continuous uninterrupted sampling;From each microseism Coordinate (x in monitoring point is extracted in eventi,yi,zi,ti), wherein i=1,2,3 ... n;Static correction is carried out to monitoring point coordinate, is made All receiving points are all on a datum level;It is imaged using focus shortest path, finely quickly on time isopleth plan view Determine gushing water range;
It is described to be specifically included using focus shortest path image-forming step:Step 5.1, it selects to may be assumed that the ground lower die for uniform dielectric Type;Step 5.2, the first arrival time plan view for the same microseismic event that different micro seismic monitoring points receive is drawn;Step 5.3 uses Trend surface analysis technology carries out residual error extraction to first arrival time plan view, finds out the position of the shortest point of time in plane;Residual error Extraction specifically includes:
Step 6.1, the trend surface fitting method of first arrival time isopleth;
If focus is to the first arrival time t of monitoring pointiIt is by its Trend valueExceptional value uiWith interference value siComposition, i.e.,
I=1 in formula, 2,3 ... n;
Wherein, tiMonitor value when to walk,Trend value when to walk, uiExceptional value when to walk;
If there is n group monitor value (x on groundi,yi,zi,ti) wherein i=1,2,3 ... n, wherein (xi,yi,zi) it is monitoring point coordinate, tiMonitor value when to walk, due to data carry out static correction, so use P order polynomial it is carried out trend surface fitting method for:
Wherein, P is the number of trend surface;b0,b1,b2,...,bL-1For undetermined coefficient;L is the number of fitting coefficient, L=(P+1) (P+2)/2;
By n to monitoring point (xi,yi,zi) and it is corresponding walk when monitor value tiIt brings above formula into, according to least square method valuation principle, enables
According to extreme value theorem, to make Q reach minimum, large linear systems is resolved to above formula derivation, L coefficient can be found out Value, finds out fitting surface;
Step 6.2, degree of fitting calculates;
If ti,Monitor value and Trend value when to be walked on i-th of monitoring point,For its average value, total sum of squares of deviations
Wherein, Q2 numerical value is bigger, then fitting degree is higher;In formula,
Step 6.3, significance test
The effect of trend surface fitting method carries out complementary inspection using F distribution:
In formula, L ' is the number of multi-trend equation coefficient;N is monitoring points;The freedom degree of Q1 is n-L;The freedom of Q2 Degree is L-1;
For given insolation level α, table look-up to obtain critical value Fα;As F > FαWhen, then it is assumed that the variation feelings of trend surface reacting dose Condition is significant, on the contrary then not significant;
Step 6.4, residual error is extracted;
After microseismic event carries out trend surface analysis, it is 0 that the abnormal Traveltime data separated, which has mathematical expectation, and variance is most Small statistical property, integrally tends to normal distribution;This is that the quantitative criterion that travel time anomaly threshold value divides can be determined as:
For abnormal point, time most short point as on first arrival time plan view;
This point is the monitoring point nearest apart from underground EXIT POINT floor projection.
2. a kind of seat earth according to claim 1 lies concealed gushing water karst collapse col umn dynamic positioning method, it is characterised in that:Institute It states in monitoring preparation process, first lies concealed EXIT POINT for coarse positioning in the sparse laying micro seismic monitoring point of larger range;Then, foundation The microseismic event that the working face drawn a circle to approve when coarse positioning nearby occurs, encryption micro seismic monitoring point lie concealed EXIT POINT for fine positioning;Instead Coarse positioning and fine positioning are carried out again until positioning accuracy is met the requirements.
3. a kind of seat earth according to claim 1 lies concealed gushing water karst collapse col umn dynamic positioning method, which is characterized in that logical It crosses inversion method and obtains rock mass micro rupture at the time of occur, position and property, and according to the size of micro rupture, intensity, broken Split density, so definitely under latent projective water point spatial position.
4. a kind of seat earth according to claim 1 lies concealed gushing water karst collapse col umn dynamic positioning method, which is characterized in that institute Static correction step is stated to specifically include:
Step 4.1, datum elevation point Z is chosen0;Monitor the velocity of wave V that Earthquakes wave is propagated;
Step 4.2, the static correction value Δ t of each monitoring point, formula are calculated:
In formula, wherein Δ t is positive correcting value;ziTo monitor point height;z0For benchmark face elevation;V is velocity of wave;
Step 4.3, according to the static correction value of calculating, each monitoring point is corrected, makes it all on a datum level.
5. a kind of seat earth according to claim 1 lies concealed gushing water karst collapse col umn dynamic positioning method, which is characterized in that shake Source positioning inversion method has:Three circle intersection positioning modes, longitudinal and shear wave time difference method, homotype wave time difference method, polarization analysis positioning mode, Geiger seismic source positioning method, Geiger revised law, joint inversion method;Can be selected according to different situations different inversion methods come Determine the spatial position of latent projective water point.
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