CN107322059B - Enveloping worm hob CAD/CAM approach based on universal numerical control milling machine - Google Patents

Enveloping worm hob CAD/CAM approach based on universal numerical control milling machine Download PDF

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Publication number
CN107322059B
CN107322059B CN201710542592.3A CN201710542592A CN107322059B CN 107322059 B CN107322059 B CN 107322059B CN 201710542592 A CN201710542592 A CN 201710542592A CN 107322059 B CN107322059 B CN 107322059B
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tooth
cutter
race
corner
cutting edge
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CN107322059A (en
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李海涛
龙新佳妮
魏文军
芮成杰
杨杰
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China Agricultural University
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China Agricultural University
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23CMILLING
    • B23C3/00Milling particular work; Special milling operations; Machines therefor
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06FELECTRIC DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
    • G06F30/00Computer-aided design [CAD]
    • G06F30/10Geometric CAD
    • G06F30/17Mechanical parametric or variational design
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06FELECTRIC DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
    • G06F30/00Computer-aided design [CAD]
    • G06F30/20Design optimisation, verification or simulation

Abstract

The present invention relates to a kind of enveloping worm hob CAD/CAM approach based on the general CNC milling machine that more than four axis and four axis links, and belong to enveloping worm hob designs and manufactures method.Using enveloping worm hob helicoid and side relief Forming Theory, the point race on uniformly distributed hobboing cutter left and right sides helicoid, left and right land terminated line and left and right side relief is acquired respectively;Race is imported in three-dimensional software and is fitted to hobboing cutter left and right sides helicoid, left and right land terminated line and left and right side relief;Remainder curved surface structure is established by simple feature order according to parameter, obtains complete enveloping worm hob threedimensional model.Model is imported four axis or four axis or more to link in general CNC milling machine system, only by rough milling, being heat-treated and finish-milling three process realizes hobboing cutter automation processing.Hobboing cutter processing technology is simplified, the hobboing cutter accuracy of manufacture is improved.

Description

Enveloping worm hob CAD/CAM approach based on universal numerical control milling machine
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of enveloping worm hob CAD/CAM based on the general CNC milling machine that more than four axis or four axis links Method, belong to enveloping worm hob designs and manufactures method.
Background technique
Enveloping worm drive is compared with cylindrical worm gearing transmission, and bearing capacity is strong, small in size, transmission efficiency is high and uses the longevity Life length, is widely used in efficient, heavily loaded occasion.But enveloping worm drive mesh theory is complicated, and engaged transmission performance is to error It is very sensitive with deforming, need high-precision processing and manufacturing.However, enveloping worm hob used in the processing of anchor ring worm gear is The special tool that a kind of structure is complicated, to design and manufacture difficulty big.The processing technology mistake of existing monoblock type enveloping worm hob Journey is cumbersome, needs using different equipment such as worm screw numerically-controlled machine tool, milling machine, heat treatment equipments, by turning, grinding, milling, Re Chu Reason and the kinds of processes such as hand grinding combine and manufacture hobboing cutter, multiple card engaging workpiece, are not easy to guarantee precision, complex procedures and Obtained hobboing cutter precision is low.The not high cutting ability for leading to rolling cut worm gear of hobboing cutter precision is not high, obtained enveloping worm pair precision Not high, meshing performance is not good enough, needs running-in could normal use.Therefore, it is necessary to seek, a kind of disengaging tradition is complicated cumbersome to be added Work technique, and the enveloping worm hob that can be improved hobboing cutter precision and cutting ability designs and manufactures new method.
China Agricultural University's doctoral thesis " research of double enveloping worm pair worm gear hob Computerized Numerical Control processing technology " in 2013 A kind of design method of the turnery processing of hobboing cutter rear corner surface is proposed, the hobboing cutter threedimensional model comprising cutter tooth side relief is established, And it is straight on four-axle linked milling machine using hobboing cutter key curved surface of the method Primary Study of milling comprising cutter tooth side relief It is connected into shape, but this method is to pay close attention to the milling forming of hobboing cutter cutter tooth side relief, does not account for knife top rear corner surface, does not roll The entire manufacturing process of knife can't be used for the rolling cut of worm gear.Chinese patent ZL201410613061.5 " plane-generated double enveloping ring The numerical control grinding and machining method of face worm gear hob side relief " proposes a kind of plane two based on four-axle linked enveloping worm grinding machine Secondary double enveloping worm gear hob rear corner surface grinding technique realizes the automatic grinding of hobboing cutter rear corner surface, and can be by the sword of design Bandwidth and relief angles are ground, but the only grinding of rear corner surface.All it is not carried out the ring based on universal numerical control milling machine The complete design and manufacture of face worm gear hob.
Summary of the invention
The invention aims to provide one kind to link on general CNC milling machine more than four axis and four axis, only by twice The method that clamping and a heat treatment process realize enveloping worm hob automation processing.It is adopted to reach the purpose of the present invention The technical solution taken is as follows:
Enveloping worm hob CAD: enveloping worm hob helicoid Forming Theory is utilized, the left side for being distributed in hobboing cutter is calculated The three-dimensional coordinate data of spiral millet cake race 1 and right side spiral millet cake race 2, according to given cutter tooth number of rows, rake face and margin width, Calculate the three-dimensional coordinate data of the left side land terminated line point race 3 and right side land terminated line point race 4 that are distributed in each cutter tooth, root According to hobboing cutter helicoid lead angle calculation method and using the method and rear corner surface angle of Lathe tool tip turning hobboing cutter rear corner surface, meter The left side relief angle millet cake race 5 of uniformly distributed each cutter tooth and the three-dimensional coordinate data of right side relief angle millet cake race 6 are calculated, hobboing cutter will be calculated The left side land terminated line point race 3 of the three-dimensional coordinate data of left side spiral millet cake race 1 and right side spiral millet cake race 2, each cutter tooth The three-dimensional of the three-dimensional coordinate data of race 4, cutter tooth left side relief angle millet cake race 5 and side relief point race 6 is selected with right side land terminated line Coordinate data imports in 3 d modeling software, fits the left side helicoid 7 of hobboing cutter and a left side for right side helicoid 8, cutter tooth respectively Left side rear corner surface 11 and right side rear corner surface 12 of the side edge with terminated line 9 and right side land terminated line 10, cutter tooth, according to hobboing cutter correlation Parameter establishes tooth top anchor ring 13 and tooth root anchor ring 14, the rake face 15 of cutter tooth and flank 16 of hobboing cutter, passes through rake face 15 and 11 pairs of left side rear corner surface left side helicoid 7 shearing, obtain the left side cutting edge surface 17 of cutter tooth, pass through rake face 15 and right side The shearing of 12 pairs of rear corner surface right side helicoid 8, obtains the right side cutting edge surface 18 of cutter tooth, by rake face 15 to the direction of flank 16 The distance for translating a margin width intersects the top land terminated line 19 for obtaining cutter tooth, tooth top anchor ring 13 with tooth top anchor ring 13 Part between rake face 15 and top land terminated line 19 is exactly the top cutting edge surface 20 of cutter tooth, by tooth top anchor ring 13 Part is terminated around top land between top land terminated line 19, left side helicoid 7, right side helicoid 8 and flank 16 Line 19 to tooth root anchor ring 14 turn over a rear corner surface angle to get arrive cutter tooth top rear corner surface 21, in this way, by rake face 15, Left side cutting edge surface 17, left side rear corner surface 11, top cutting edge surface 20, top rear corner surface 21, right side cutting edge surface 18, right side rear corner surface 12 The three-dimensional entity model of a cutter tooth is defined with flank 16, similarly, the three-dimensional entity model of other available cutters tooth, from And obtain the three-dimensional entity model 22 of hobboing cutter.
Enveloping worm hob CAM: enveloping worm hob three-dimensional entity model 22 is inputted in CAM software, is linked based on K axis Universal numerical control milling machine, wherein K is positive integer, and the value range of K is 4,5 and 6, gives rake face 15, the left side cutting edge surface of cutter tooth 17,20 allowance for finish L of right side cutting edge surface 18 and top cutting edge surface, wherein L gives within the scope of 0.05mm-1.00mm, establishment Numerical control milling program links on general CNC milling machine in K axis to enveloping worm hob roughing, then to enveloping worm hob heat at Reason, is zero by machining allowance, numerical programming program, then each to enveloping worm hob on the general CNC milling machine of K axis linkage The rake face 15 of cutter tooth, left side cutting edge surface 17, right side cutting edge surface 18 and the finishing of top cutting edge surface 20 to get to worm gear hob at Product.
The beneficial effects of the present invention are: it is based on CAD/CAM technology, merely with the general number more than four axis and four axis to link Milling machine is controlled, the processing of enveloping worm hob may be implemented by thick and finishing and a heat treatment process.This method is in letter While having changed hobboing cutter processing technology, it is ensured that the location and shape and margin width, relief angle angle of each cutter tooth cutting edge of hobboing cutter Degree, and then obtain the enveloping worm hob of the hobboing cutter more preferably accuracy of manufacture and cutting ability that go out compared with traditional processing.
Detailed description of the invention
Fig. 1 designs and manufactures method flow diagram for enveloping worm hob of the present invention
Fig. 2 is the distribution schematic diagram of enveloping worm hob shape key curved surface Shang Dian race of the present invention
Fig. 3 is to establish helicoid on the right side of hobboing cutter according to spiral millet cake race on the right side of hobboing cutter in three-dimensional software Rigen in the method for the present invention Process schematic
Fig. 4 is the single cutter tooth three-dimensional entity model schematic diagram of hobboing cutter established in the method for the present invention
Fig. 5 is the enveloping worm hob three-dimensional model diagram established in the method for the present invention
Position signal of the enveloping worm hob in CNC milling machine when Fig. 6 is based on CAM software programming numerical control milling program Figure
Specific embodiment
Example of the invention is described below according to attached drawing.
By taking planar secondary enveloping ring surface worm gear hob as an example, relevant parameter are as follows: the center of enveloping worm pair away from a=175mm, Hobboing cutter fillet radius Rf0=152.4mm, hobboing cutter outside circle arc radius Ra0=158mm, cutter tooth number of rows Nz=6, chip pocket is Straight trough, uniformly distributed in circumferencial direction, each rake face circumference angle is 60 °, wherein there is the rake face of row's cutter tooth by hobboing cutter throat Transverse tooth thickness point.Hobboing cutter one shares 31 cutters tooth, cutter tooth relief angles χ=5 °, margin width lE=1mm, cutter tooth transverse tooth thickness η=15mm.
Fig. 2 show the distribution schematic diagram of enveloping worm hob appearance curved surface Shang Dian race.Utilize enveloping worm hob spiral Face Forming Theory and given above-mentioned parameter calculate the left side spiral millet cake race 1 for being distributed in hobboing cutter and right side spiral millet cake The three-dimensional coordinate data of race 2, wherein on unilateral helicoid, 23, high direction of tooth point, axial 127 points of hobboing cutter, totally 23 × 127= 2921 points.The position that each rake face 15 is determined according to given cutter tooth number of rows, by each rake face 15 along rake face normal direction to Cutter tooth entity translates a margin width lEDistance, it is whole to intersect to obtain left side land with left side helicoid 7 and right side helicoid 8 Only line 9 and right side land terminated line 10, so as to calculate the left side land terminated line point race 3 and the right side that are distributed in each cutter tooth Each 17 points of three-dimensional coordinate data of land terminated line point race 4.According to hobboing cutter helicoid lead angle calculation method and use lathe tool The method of point of a knife turning hobboing cutter rear corner surface, the lead angle put in rear corner surface start line according to side relief angle χ and turning transmission The relationship of ratio obtains a series of helixes on side relief, to obtain the mathematical model of side relief, utilizes side relief number Model is learned, the left side relief angle millet cake race 5 of uniformly each cutter tooth and the three-dimensional coordinate data of right side relief angle millet cake race 6 are calculated, Middle high 17 points in direction of tooth, 16 points of hob teeth length direction, single one side relief of cutter tooth of hobboing cutter totally 17 × 16=272 point.
Fig. 3 show 8 fit procedure figure of helicoid on the right side of the hobboing cutter based on modeling software reverse-engineering principle.In right side spiral shell In radial facing point race 2, every 127 points are axially fitted to 1 helix along hobboing cutter, altogether 23 helixes, then by 23 spirals Line is fitted to right side helicoid 8, and left side helicoid 7 similarly can be obtained.In right side land terminated line point race 4, along the high direction of tooth 17 points are fitted to a curve, i.e. right side land terminated line 10, left side land terminated line 9 similarly can be obtained.In cutter tooth In right side relief angle millet cake race 6, every 16 points are fitted to a curve along tooth length direction, altogether 17 curves, then by 17 songs Line is fitted to right side rear corner surface 12, and left side rear corner surface 11 similarly can be obtained.
Fig. 4 show the single cutter tooth three-dimensional entity model schematic diagram of hobboing cutter of foundation.According to the center of enveloping worm pair away from a =175mm, hobboing cutter fillet radius Rf0=152.4mm, hobboing cutter outside circle arc radius Ra0=158mm, by " circular arc revolution at Sheet body " orders the tooth top anchor ring 13 and tooth root anchor ring 14 for establishing hobboing cutter.It is the preceding knife of straight trough, first row cutter tooth by chip pocket Face by hobboing cutter throat transverse tooth thickness point and each rake face circumference angle is 60 ° and cutter tooth transverse tooth thickness η is 15mm, by " linear stretch at Sheet body " orders the rake face 15 and flank 16 for establishing cutter tooth.Rake face 15 and left side relief angle are passed through by " cutting sheet body " order The shearing of the 11 pairs of left side helicoids 7 in face, obtains the left side cutting edge surface 17 of cutter tooth, passes through 12 pairs of right sides of rake face 15 and right side rear corner surface The shearing of side helicoid 8 obtains the right side cutting edge surface 18 of cutter tooth.It is ordered by " translation " order and " intersecting curve " by rake face 15 translate a margin width l to the direction of flank 16EDistance intersect the top sword for obtaining cutter tooth with tooth top anchor ring 13 Band terminated line 19, tooth top anchor ring 13 are located at the top that the part between rake face 15 and top land terminated line 19 is exactly cutter tooth Cutting edge surface 20.
Tooth top anchor ring 13 is located at top land terminated line 19, left side helicoid 7, right side helicoid 8 and flank 16 Between part turn over rear corner surface angle χ=5 ° to tooth root anchor ring 14 around top land terminated line 19, after obtaining the top of cutter tooth Edged surface 21.Top rear corner surface 21 is extended by " extending curved surface " order, with left side rear corner surface 11, right side rear corner surface 12 and flank 16 Intersection crops left side rear corner surface 11, right side rear corner surface 12 and flank 16 beyond top rear corner surface by " cutting sheet body " order 21 part, in this way, by rake face 15, flank 16, left side cutting edge surface 17, left side rear corner surface 11, top cutting edge surface 20, top Rear corner surface 21, right side cutting edge surface 18 and right side rear corner surface 12 just define the three-dimensional entity model of a cutter tooth, similarly, can obtain To other cutters tooth three-dimensional entity model to get arrive enveloping worm hob three-dimensional entity model 22.
Fig. 6 show position of the enveloping worm hob in CNC milling machine when based on CAM software programming numerical control milling program Schematic diagram.Obtained enveloping worm hob three-dimensional entity model 22 is inputted in UG software, 4 based on X-axis, Y-axis, Z axis and C axis The general CNC milling machine of axis linkage, enveloping worm hob axis 23 and C overlapping of axles, milling cutter 24 are three-dimensional real relative to enveloping worm hob The relative position variation of body Model 22 has X-axis, Y-axis, three linear movement axis of Z axis and enveloping worm hob 3D solid mould Type 22 with C axis rotation.The rake face 15 of given cutter tooth, 20 essence of left side cutting edge surface 17, right side cutting edge surface 18 and top cutting edge surface Machining allowance L, takes L=0.5mm, and numerical programming milling program is thick to enveloping worm hob on the general CNC milling machine of 4 axis linkage Processing, then enveloping worm hob is heat-treated, it is zero by machining allowance, numerical programming program, then in 4 axis linkage universal numerical control To the rake face 15 of each cutter tooth of enveloping worm hob, left side cutting edge surface 17, right side cutting edge surface 18 and top cutting edge surface on milling machine 20 finish to get worm gear hob finished product is arrived.

Claims (1)

1. the enveloping worm hob CAD/CAM approach based on universal numerical control milling machine, which is characterized in that including being rolled based on anchor ring worm gear Knife CAD calculates the left side spiral millet cake race (1) for being distributed in hobboing cutter and the right side using enveloping worm hob helicoid Forming Theory The three-dimensional coordinate data of side spiral millet cake race (2), according to given cutter tooth number of rows, rake face and margin width, calculating is distributed in each The left side land terminated line point race (3) of a cutter tooth and the three-dimensional coordinate data of right side land terminated line point race (4), according to hobboing cutter spiral shell Radial facing lead angle calculation method and the method and rear corner surface angle for using Lathe tool tip turning hobboing cutter rear corner surface calculate uniformly distributed each The left side relief angle millet cake race (5) of a cutter tooth and the three-dimensional coordinate data of right side relief angle millet cake race (6), will calculate the left side of hobboing cutter The left side land terminated line point race of the three-dimensional coordinate data of spiral millet cake race (1) and right side spiral millet cake race (2), each cutter tooth (3) and right side land terminated line selects the three-dimensional coordinate data of race (4), cutter tooth left side relief angle millet cake race (5) and side relief point race (6) three-dimensional coordinate data imports in 3 d modeling software, fits the left side helicoid (7) and right side helicoid of hobboing cutter respectively (8), behind the left side land terminated line (9) of cutter tooth and right side land terminated line (10), the left side rear corner surface (11) of cutter tooth and right side Edged surface (12) establishes the tooth top anchor ring (13) of hobboing cutter and the preceding knife of tooth root anchor ring (14), cutter tooth according to hobboing cutter relevant parameter Face (15) and flank (16), the shearing by rake face (15) and left side rear corner surface (11) to left side helicoid (7), obtain knife The left side cutting edge surface (17) of tooth, the shearing by rake face (15) and right side rear corner surface (12) to right side helicoid (8), obtains knife Rake face (15) is translated the distance and outside circle of a margin width by the right side cutting edge surface (18) of tooth to the direction of flank (16) Anchor ring (13) intersection obtains the top land terminated line (19) of cutter tooth, and tooth top anchor ring (13) is located at rake face (15) and top sword It is exactly the top cutting edge surface (20) of cutter tooth with the part between terminated line (19), it is whole that tooth top anchor ring (13) is located at top land Only partially around top land terminated line (19) between line (19), left side helicoid (7), right side helicoid (8) and flank (16) A rear corner surface angle is turned over to tooth root anchor ring (14) to get the top rear corner surface (21) of cutter tooth is arrived, in this way, by rake face (15), left side cutting edge surface (17), left side rear corner surface (11), top cutting edge surface (20), top rear corner surface (21), right side cutting edge surface (18), right side rear corner surface (12) and flank (16) define the three-dimensional entity model of a cutter tooth, similarly, it is available other The three-dimensional entity model of cutter tooth, to obtain the three-dimensional entity model (22) of hobboing cutter;Based on enveloping worm hob CAM, by anchor ring Worm gear hob three-dimensional entity model (22) inputs in CAM software, and based on the general CNC milling machine of K axis linkage, wherein K is positive integer, K Value range be 4,5 and 6, give cutter tooth rake face (15), left side cutting edge surface (17), right side cutting edge surface (18) and top sword Zone face (20) allowance for finish L, wherein L gives within the scope of 0.05mm-1.00mm, numerical programming milling program, links in K axis To enveloping worm hob roughing on universal numerical control milling machine, then enveloping worm hob is heat-treated, is zero by machining allowance, establishment Then numerical control program links on general CNC milling machine in K axis to rake face (15), the left side sword of each cutter tooth of enveloping worm hob Zone face (17), right side cutting edge surface (18) and top cutting edge surface (20) finish to arrive worm gear hob finished product.
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CN108109199A (en) * 2017-12-20 2018-06-01 厦门理工学院 A kind of planar-formed surface three dimension modeling method of end mill processing
CN108346412A (en) * 2017-12-22 2018-07-31 湖北大学 The piano saddle milling method of capotasto saddle point three-dimensional modeling
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CN100506478C (en) * 2007-08-08 2009-07-01 燕山大学 Four-shaft numerically controlled ellipsoidal and spherical hobbing cutter spade milling machine tool
DE102011115241A1 (en) * 2011-01-18 2012-07-19 Liebherr-Verzahntechnik Gmbh Method for milling a worm wheel and device for this purpose
CN102601457A (en) * 2012-03-22 2012-07-25 沈阳飞机工业(集团)有限公司 Method for machining worm gear hob tooth profile by means of relief grinding
CN105382313B (en) * 2015-12-25 2017-07-04 西安航天动力机械厂 A kind of thin-wall curved-surface profiled piece numerical control milling method
CN205254269U (en) * 2015-12-28 2016-05-25 中能(天津)智能传动设备有限公司 Hobbing cutter is rough milled to double enveloping wormwheel

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