CN107280756A - Medical cranium nail structure - Google Patents

Medical cranium nail structure Download PDF

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Publication number
CN107280756A
CN107280756A CN201710598725.9A CN201710598725A CN107280756A CN 107280756 A CN107280756 A CN 107280756A CN 201710598725 A CN201710598725 A CN 201710598725A CN 107280756 A CN107280756 A CN 107280756A
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
thread
screw
skull
direction
cross
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CN201710598725.9A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
屈延
王樑
李元
王志斌
金朝亮
胡立人
张�成
王立新
王彦
王大智
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西安康拓医疗技术有限公司
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Priority to CN201710598725.9A priority Critical patent/CN107280756A/en
Publication of CN107280756A publication Critical patent/CN107280756A/en

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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/56Surgical instruments or methods for treatment of bones or joints; Devices specially adapted therefor
    • A61B17/58Surgical instruments or methods for treatment of bones or joints; Devices specially adapted therefor for osteosynthesis, e.g. bone plates, screws, setting implements or the like
    • A61B17/68Internal fixation devices, including fasteners and spinal fixators, even if a part thereof projects from the skin
    • A61B17/84Fasteners therefor or fasteners being internal fixation devices
    • A61B17/86Threaded wires, pins or screws; Nuts therefor
    • A61B17/8625Shanks, i.e. parts contacting bone tissue
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/56Surgical instruments or methods for treatment of bones or joints; Devices specially adapted therefor
    • A61B17/58Surgical instruments or methods for treatment of bones or joints; Devices specially adapted therefor for osteosynthesis, e.g. bone plates, screws, setting implements or the like
    • A61B17/68Internal fixation devices, including fasteners and spinal fixators, even if a part thereof projects from the skin
    • A61B17/84Fasteners therefor or fasteners being internal fixation devices
    • A61B17/86Threaded wires, pins or screws; Nuts therefor
    • A61B17/864Threaded wires, pins or screws; Nuts therefor hollow, e.g. with socket or cannulated
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/56Surgical instruments or methods for treatment of bones or joints; Devices specially adapted therefor
    • A61B2017/564Methods for bone or joint treatment

Abstract

The invention discloses a medical cranium nail structure. The cranium nail structure includes first threads with first front surfaces, first rear surfaces and crests, second threads which include second front surfaces and second rear surfaces are formed on at least part of the crests of the first threads, the shapes of sections, in the cross section of the axis of a bolt, of at least part of the second threads are changeable, the mode of change includes gradual change, sudden change and the combination of the gradual change and the sudden change, the first threads include conical thread root diameters, and the thread pitches of the second threads are changeable; a penetrating-through cavity is formed in the middle of a cranium nail, the upper end portion of the cavity is provided with a hexagonal groove segment, the bottom of the hexagonal groove segment and the bottom of the cavity are both provided with plugs, and the cranium nail is prepared by the adoption of a medical polyether-ether-ketone macromolecular material. The medical cranium nail structure is simple in structure and convenient to use; by the adoption of the medical cranium nail structure and a preparation method thereof, surgical effects are good, standardized convenient preparation can be achieved, and the effect on a cranium defect repair is good.

Description

一种医用颅骨钉结构 A medical staple skull structure

技术领域 FIELD

[0001] 本发明涉及人体颅骨缺损进行重新修复技术领域,具体涉及一种医用颅骨钉结构。 [0001] The present invention relates to a human skull defect BACKGROUND be restored, particularly to a configuration of the medical staple skull.

背景技术 Background technique

[0002] 颅骨手术,如颅骨的缺损、修复和整形,颅骨修补术是治疗颅骨缺损的有效方法, 手术中需要使用一种材料(人工材料或自体骨),用于缺损颅骨的修复。 [0002] skull surgery, cranial defect, and orthopedic repair, cranioplasty is an effective treatment of skull defects, surgery requires the use of one material (autogenous bone or artificial material), for repairing defects of the skull.

[0003] 目前常规采用的颅骨修复材料为钛网,或者由有机玻璃或硅橡胶等材料制成的片状物。 [0003] Currently cranial prosthesis sheet material conventionally used for titanium mesh, or made of a material such as silicon rubber or plexiglass. 手术时,根据颅骨缺损大小进行裁减后安置在缺损处,四周钻孔用丝线或金属材料固定。 Surgery, according to the size of the skull defect performs clipping disposed defect surrounded drilling fixing wires or metallic material. 这类颅骨网板存在的一个突出问题是,强度差,不利于颅骨缺损部位的保护。 A skull outstanding problems such screen, the difference in strength, protection against the skull defect site. 如专利申请号为201120482438.X提供的颅骨网板,再如中国专利申请号为201010297116.8提供的具有防粘涂层的颅骨缺损修复钛网,以及申请号2〇112〇482478.4和申请号201110173696.4提供的用于颅骨修补术的双层钛网。 Patent Application No. 201120482438.X skull stencil provided, as another example, Chinese Patent Application No. 201010297116.8 skull with a release coating provided defects titanium mesh, and Application No. Application No. 201110173696.4 2〇112〇482478.4 and provided for cranioplasty double titanium mesh.

[0004] 在骨科手术中,常常要用到颅颅骨螺钉来连接断骨或修正各种骨骼病变和畸形。 [0004] In orthopedic surgery, often use skull or skull screw to connect fractured bone deformities, and correct various bone lesions. 由于骨骼是人体承受各种力学载荷的主要受力结构,再加上连接好的断骨或修正好的骨骼很容易将所承受的力载荷传递给用于固定的颅颅骨螺钉,因此在实际使用中,颅颅骨螺钉往往需要承受各种各样周期不同的变力。 Since human bones are subjected to various mechanical loads of the main force structure, together with the connected makeover fractured bone or bone to pass easily load force applied to the screws for fixing the skull the skull, so in practical use , the skull cranial screw often required to withstand a variety of different periods variable force. 这不仅要求颅颅骨螺钉自身特别坚固,不会在外力作用下损坏,而且要求其能够与骨骼组织牢固地接合,从而不会在外力作用下从骨骼中脱出。 This requires not only the screw itself particularly strong cranial skull, not damaged by an external force, but also required to securely engage with the bone tissue, so as not to come out of the bone by an external force.

[0005] 对于第一点要求,主要表现为颅颅骨螺钉具有较高的弯曲强度,不会在垂直于轴线方向的外力作用下发生断裂;对于第二点要求,主要是表现为颅颅骨螺钉不仅不会在轴向拔出力的作用下脱出,而且很难在力矩作用下沿轴线旋转。 [0005] Regarding the first claim, mainly cranial skull screw has high bending strength, fracture does not occur at an external force perpendicular to the axial direction; the second point requirements, primarily manifested as cranial skull screws only It does not come out in an axial extraction force, along the rotation axis and it is difficult under the action of torque.

[0006] 为了加强颅颅骨螺钉抵抗轴向拔出力和轴向旋转力矩的能力,传统的做法是增加螺纹的牙型高度并加大螺纹的密度。 [0006] ability, conventional practice in order to strengthen the skull the skull screws resist axial pull and axial rotational moment is to increase the thread height of the thread and to increase the density of the thread. 这样做会显著增加螺钉和骨骼的接触表面积,从而显著增加轴向拔出力和轴向旋转力矩的受力面积,由此来提高颅颅骨螺钉所能承受的轴向拔出力和轴向旋转力矩。 This will significantly increase the bone screw and the contact surface area, thereby significantly increasing the area of ​​the axial force and the axial extraction force rotational torque, thereby improving the cranial skull screws can withstand axial rotation and axial pull-out force moment. 但是,这样的做法会对颅颅骨螺钉其它方面的力学性能造成不利影响。 However, such an approach would cranial skull screw mechanical properties adversely affect other aspects.

[0007] 例如就螺钉的抗弯强度而言,螺纹牙型高度增大会使得相对而言螺纹的内径减小,使得螺钉能承受弯曲应力的截面积减小,抗弯强度显著降低。 [0007] For example in terms of flexural strength of the screw, screw thread height will increase so that the inner diameter of the thread relatively reduced cross-sectional area such that the screw can withstand bending stress is reduced, the flexural strength is significantly decreased. 尤其是当螺纹的密度较高时,容易在牙底处形成尖锐的折角,从而导致应力集中,进一步降低了螺钉的弯曲强度。 Especially when a high thread density, easy to form sharp teeth at the bottom of the knuckle, leading to stress concentration further reduces the bending strength of the screw. 并且,牙型高度过高并且牙型的轴向尺寸过小,会造成螺纹牙的断裂。 Further, the high thread height and the axial dimension of the tooth type too small, will result in breakage of the thread.

[0008] 另一方面,为了保持较高的抗弯强度,又不得不增加螺纹的内径,从而减小螺纹牙型高度,其结果是在螺钉表面形成密集的低牙型高度的螺纹。 [0008] On the other hand, in order to maintain a high flexural strength, and an inner diameter of the thread to be increased, thereby reducing the height of the thread profile, which results in the formation of a dense low thread height of the screw-type tooth surface. 显然,这样一种螺钉结构的抵抗轴向拔出力和轴向旋转力矩的能力都不会太高,因为螺钉与骨骼的接触面积实在是太小了。 Clearly, such a structure is the ability to resist axial screw rotational torque and axial pull-out forces are not too high, because the contact area between the screw and the bone is too small.

[0009] 因此,人们迫切需要一种新的颅颅骨螺钉,其能够与骨骼接触咬合时同时具有改善的抵抗轴向拔出力、轴向旋转力矩和弯曲力矩三种外力的特性,从而全面提尚颅颅骨螺钉的性能。 [0009] Thus, there is an urgent need for a new skull the skull screw, which is capable of simultaneously having improved resistance to axial withdrawal of the contact nip with skeletal, the rotational torque characteristics of an axial force and bending moment of the three kinds, in order to fully extract yet cranial skull screw performance.

发明内容 SUMMARY

[0010] 本发明的目的在于,克服现有技术中存在的缺陷,提供一种结构简单、使用便捷、 手术效果好、可实现标准化的方便制作,且对于颅骨效果良好一种医用颅骨钉颅骨结构。 [0010] The object of the present invention is to overcome the disadvantages present in the prior art, to provide a simple, easy to use, good surgical results can be standardized to facilitate the production of, and for a good effect skull the skull structure, a medical staple skull .

[0011] 为实现上述目的,本发明的技术方案是设计一种医用颅骨钉结构,所述颅骨钉结构包括具有第一前表面、第一后表面和牙顶的第一螺纹,在所述第一螺纹的至少部分牙顶上形成有包括第二前表面和第二后表面的第二螺纹,至少部分所述第二螺纹在过螺钉轴线的横截面中的截面形状为变化的,变化的方式包括渐变和突变,以及渐变和突变的结合,所述第一螺纹包括圆锥形螺纹内径,所述第二螺纹的螺距为变化的;在所述颅骨钉的中部设有贯穿的空腔,空腔的上端部设有六角槽段,在六角槽段及空腔的底部分别设有封堵,所述颅骨钉采用医用聚醚醚酮高分子材料制备而成。 [0011] To achieve the above object, the technical solution of the present invention is to design a configuration of the medical staple skull, the skull structure comprises staple having a first front surface, a rear surface and a first thread of the first crest, the second a threaded tooth manner at least partially formed on top of a second front including a second threaded surface and a second rear surface, at least a portion of the second thread in the cross-sectional shape cross-section through the axis of the screw is change, change including mutations and gradient, and the combination of mutations and gradual, the inner diameter of the first thread comprises a conical thread, the pitch of the second thread is changed; provided with a cavity in the middle of the skull through staple cavity the upper portion is provided with a hexagonal groove section, the bottom section of the groove and the hexagonal cavity are provided with closure, of the skull using a medical staple prepared from polyether ether ketone polymer material.

[0012] 本发明提出了一种新的医用颅骨钉结构,其特点是在于在其原有的第一螺纹顶端的部分表面上,还形成有若干个第二螺纹。 [0012] The present invention provides a new medical staples skull structure, characterized in that part of the surface thereof a first screw on the tip of the original, it is also formed with a plurality of second thread. 由于第二螺纹仅存在于第一螺纹的顶端,并不会减小原有第一螺纹的内径,也不会形成削弱的螺纹牙底,相应地也就不会削弱颅骨钉的抗弯强度。 Since the second thread only present in the top of the first thread, and the original inner diameter of the first thread is not reduced, the thread does not form the end of weakened, accordingly, it will not weaken the nail bending strength of the skull. 但是,由于第二螺纹的存在,又能够显著地增加螺钉和颅骨的接触表面积,使得轴向拔出力和轴向旋转力矩的承载面积变大,由此确保螺钉力学性能的改善。 However, due to the presence of the second screw thread, but also can significantly increase the contact surface area of ​​the screw and the skull, so that the axial pull and axial rotational torque becomes large bearing area, thereby ensuring improved mechanical properties screw. 另外,由于在颅骨钉体的中部设置了管状的空腔,可以利用该空腔装入高强度、高硬质材料用于加强其强度。 Further, since the skull in the middle of the staple member arranged tubular cavity, the cavity can be charged using a high strength, high hardness materials for reinforcing strength thereof. 页可以利用该空腔注入用于治疗的药物,在这种情况下可取出空腔底部的封堵,使药物漫漫地渗入到病灶部位,也可以利用此空腔通道抽取脑积液,或抽取脑梗淤血,或用其通道注射药物等治疗。 The cavity may be utilized Page medicament for the treatment of injection, in which case a removable closure at the bottom of the cavity, the drug penetration into the lesion site long, can also use this cavity channel brain fluid extraction, or extraction cerebral infarction congestion, or treated with drugs which injection channel. 其中的六角槽段可用于螺钉的紧固端,可用六角扳手插入六角槽段内将螺钉拧紧或拆卸下来。 Wherein the fastening end of the hexagonal screw groove segments may be used, available Allen hex wrench into the slot section screw tightening or detached.

[0013]其中,所谓的“前”、“后”方向均是相对于颅骨螺钉的旋入旋出方向而言的,在本发明的描述中,将沿着轴线方向的螺钉旋入方向称作“前”,而将相反的螺钉旋出方向称作“ I-- /〇〇 [0013] Here, the term "front", "rear" are relative to the direction of the screw screwed into the skull the terms of the direction of rotation, in the description of the present invention, the screwing direction of the screw axis direction is referred to as "front" and the opposite direction is referred to unscrewing the screw "I-- / thousand and

[0014]优选地,所述第二前表面在过螺钉轴线的横截面中的方向线与螺钉旋入方向的夹角为55〜100°,所述第二前表面在过螺钉轴线的横截面中的方向线与螺钉旋入方向的夹角为75〜% °,所述第二前表面在过螺钉轴线的横截面中的方向线垂直于所述螺钉的轴线,在过螺钉轴线的横截面中,所述第二螺纹的截面形状大致呈现三角形、四边形、半圆形中的至少一个。 [0014] Preferably, the angle between the second line and the front surface direction in the cross section over the screw axis of the screw screwed into the direction of 55~100 °, said second front surface in a cross section through the axis of the screw the angle between the direction of the screw into the line direction is 75~% °, the front surface direction of the second line in a cross section through the axis of the screw perpendicular to the axis of the screw, in cross-section over the screw axis , the cross-sectional shape of the second thread exhibits a substantially triangular, quadrangular, semicircular at least one.

[0015]但是,第二前表面不一定是平面结构,任何可以有效承受轴向拔出力的第二前表面结构,例如各种不规则弧形表面均可以被采用。 [0015] However, the second front surface is not necessarily flat structure, can effectively withstand any axial withdrawal of a second front surface configuration, for example, various arcuate surfaces are irregular may be employed. 而为了便于清楚地描述这些结构,这里引入了“方向线”的概念作为第二前表面的参考量。 In order to facilitate a clear explanation of these structural concepts, where the concept of "direction line" as the second front surface of the reference amount. 具体来说,“方向线”为将相关曲线的有效部分,即发挥承载或导向等功能的部分首尾相连的直线段,可以用来大致表示该曲线的走势方向,但并不是严格的几何学的概念。 Specifically, "the direction of the line" for the effective portion of the correlation curve, i.e. play straightaway section or the like guiding function carried end to end, may be used to generally represent the direction of the trend of the curve, but not strictly geometrical concept. 而出于同样的考虑,在下文对第一前表面、第一后表面和第二后表面等的描述中也同样使用“方向线”作为参考。 For the same reasons, also use the "line direction" in the description of the first front surface, a rear surface of the first and second rear surfaces like reference hereinafter.

[0016]此外,“大致垂直于轴线”的意思是说,该方向线不一定是完全垂直的,也可以与轴线的垂线形成一个夹角。 [0016] Further, "substantially perpendicular to the axis" it means that the line is not necessarily exactly vertical direction, or may be oriented at an angle to the vertical axis. 合适夹角的存在不会对螺钉抗轴向拔出力的能力产生任何实质性的影响,其既可以是主动追求的角度修正,以实现螺钉其它方面性能的改善,也可以是对加工中角度误差的容忍,从而显著降低加工的难度,降低生产成本。 Presence of a suitable angle without any substantial effect on the ability of an anti-screw axial withdrawal, which may be either active pursuit of angle correction, in order to achieve an improvement in other aspects of the performance of a screw, may be processed for angular tolerance errors, thereby significantly reducing the difficulty of machining, reduce production costs.

[0017] —般认为,第二前表面在过螺钉轴线的横截面中的方向线与螺钉旋入方向的夹角为5f5〜100°,优选为7f5〜9f5°时,可以基本忽略其对螺钉抗轴向拔出力的能力产生的负面影响。 [0017] - as that angle between the second line and the front surface direction in the cross section over the screw in the screw axis direction is screwed into 5f5~100 °, preferably when 7f5~9f5 °, can be substantially ignored pair of screws the negative impact of the anti-axial withdrawal capacity generated. 其中,可以有意将第二前表面设置为略向后倾斜,从而形成“倒钩”的结构,反而可以在一定程度上进一步改善抗轴向拔出力的性能。 Wherein the second front surface may be intentionally set to be slightly rearwardly inclined, thereby forming a structure "barbs", but rather can be further improved resistance to axial extraction force to some extent.

[0018]在过螺钉轴线的横截面中,第二螺纹可以呈现各种规则和不规则的截面形状。 [0018] In the cross-section through the axis of the screw, the second screw thread may present various cross-sectional shape of regular and irregular. 例如当第二前表面和第二后表面相交时,第二螺纹大致呈现三角形;当第二前表面和第二后表面底端通过直线段和/或曲线段相连时,第二螺纹大致呈现四边形,优选地为梯形;当第二前表面和第二后表面的斜率不断改变并最终相连时,第二螺纹大致呈现半圆形。 For example, when the second front surface and a rear surface of the second intersection, the second thread exhibits a substantially triangular; when the second front surface and a rear surface of a bottom end connected to the second straight line segments and / or curved segment by the second thread exhibits a substantially quadrangular , preferably trapezoidal; when the slope of the second front surface and a rear surface of the second changing and eventually connected to the second thread exhibits a substantially semicircular shape.

[0019]这里的“大致”的意思是说,三角形、四边形(梯形)和半圆形的表述并不完全符合几何学的定义,例如三角形、四边形(梯形)的各条边不一定都是直线段,也可以包括规则或不规则的曲线段或折线段;也例如半圆形边的曲率可以是逐渐改变的。 [0019] "substantially" is meant here is that, triangular, quadrangular (trapezoid) and a semi-circular expression not fully meet the definition of geometry, such as a triangle, each side of a quadrangle (trapezoid) is not necessarily a straight line segments, curved segments or may comprise regular or irregular line segment; also, for example, the curvature may be semi-circular edge gradually changed. 并且,即使各边都是直线段,它们的连接处也可以形成倒角或圆弧以消除应力集中。 Also, even if the sides are straight line segments, their connection may be arcuate or chamfered to eliminate stress concentration.

[0020]优选地,所述第二螺纹的顶端轴向尺寸和高度与第一螺纹的前后剩余部分的齿根强度存在函数关系,其中所述顶端轴向尺寸和高度的选取依据是,使得所述第一螺纹的前后剩余部分的齿根强度在安全范围内,并使得所述第二螺纹的骨接触面积最大,所述第二螺纹的顶端轴向尺寸最大为所述第一螺纹牙顶宽度的70%,所述第二螺纹的高度最小为所述第一螺纹齿形高度的10%,所述第二后表面在过螺钉轴线的横截面中的方向线与所述第一前表面对应部分的方向线形成不大于15°的夹角,所述第二后表面在过螺钉轴线的横截面中的方向线与所述第一前表面对应部分的方向线平行,或所述第二后表面在过螺钉轴线的横截面中的方向线与螺钉旋入方向的夹角为110〜135°。 [0020] Preferably, the axial dimension of the teeth and root strength before and after the remaining portion of the height of the first thread of the threaded end of the second functional relationship exists, wherein the axial dimension and the height of the top selection is based, such that dedendum strength before and after the remaining portion of said first thread within a safe range, and such that the contact area of ​​the second largest bone screw, the tip of the second threaded axial dimension of the maximum width of the first thread crest 70% of the height of the second thread of the first threaded minimum 10% of the height of the tooth, a second rear surface direction of the line cross-section through the axis of the screw corresponding to the first front surface the direction of the wire portion forms an angle no greater than 15 °, the direction of the second line of the rear surface in a cross section through the axis of the screw in a direction corresponding to the line of the first front surface portion parallel to a second or rear through an angle in the cross-sectional surface in the direction of the screw axis line direction is screwed into the screw 110~135 °.

[M21]如背景技术中所描述的,抗轴向旋转力矩的能力与螺钉和骨骼的总接触面积密切相关,接触面积越大,抵抗轴向旋转力矩的能力也就越大,螺钉也就越不容易从骨骼当中旋出。 [M21] As described in the background art, the torque capacity of resisting axial rotation of the screw and the total contact area is closely related to the bone, the larger the contact area, the ability to resist axial rotation torque greater, the more the screw not easy to unscrew them from the bones.

[0022]但是由于颅骨螺钉与骨骼之间的实际接触表面具有一定的空间几何形状,很难求出精确值,因而在对结果要求不是十分精确的情况下,也可以将第二螺纹在轴向横截面上的周长作为判断螺钉抗轴向旋转力矩能力的依据。 [0022] However, in the case since the actual contact surface between the screw and the skull bone geometry having a certain space, it is difficult to obtain accurate values, and thus the results are not very accurate requirements, may be a second thread in the axial direction Analyzing the circumference of the cross section of the screw as the basis for resisting axial rotational torque capacity.

[0023] —般来说,增大第二螺纹的顶端轴向尺寸和高度都能有效地改善其性能。 [0023] - In general, increasing the axial dimension of the second threaded tip and can highly effectively improve their performance. 而要获得明显的性能提高,第二螺纹的高度不能小于第一螺纹齿形高度的10%,但是为了确保安全,顶端轴向尺寸不能超过第一螺纹牙顶宽度的70%。 And to obtain a significant performance increase, the height of the second thread is not less than 10% of the tooth height of the first thread, but in order to ensure safety, the axial dimension of the top does not exceed 70% of the first thread crest width.

[0024]优选地,所述第二螺纹是连续的或者包括多个螺纹分段,当所述第二螺纹包括多个螺纹分段时,这些螺纹分段在过螺钉轴线的横截面中具有不完全相同的截面。 [0024] Preferably, the second thread is continuous or comprises a plurality of thread segments, when said second screw thread comprising a plurality of segments, these thread segments have not had a cross-sectional axis of the screw identical cross-section.

[0025]其中,第一前表面对应部分是指其与第二后表面高度相同的那一部分表面。 [0025] wherein the corresponding portion of the front surface of the first means with the second rear surface portion of the surface of that same height. 而“大致平行”的含义是指,两条方向线之间不一定是完全平行的,也可以相互形成一个小的夹角。 The "substantially parallel" is meant that, between the two directions is not necessarily completely parallel lines, may also form a small angle with each other. 这一小夹角的存在不会明显增加螺钉在旋入过程中的阻力,并且同样地,其既可以是主动的角度修正,也可以是对加工中角度误差的容忍。 The presence of small angle without significantly increasing the resistance in the screw screwed into the process, and as such, which may be active either angle correction, may be tolerated for the angle error processing. 优选地,两方向线之间的夹角不超过15°,并且可正可负。 Preferably, the angle between the direction of the line of no more than two 15 °, and may be positive or negative.

[0026]对于标准化的颅骨螺钉来说,第二后表面在过螺钉轴线的横截面中的方向线与螺钉旋入方向的夹角大致为105〜165°,优选地为110〜135°。 [0026] For standardized skull screws, the angle between the second line and the rear surface direction in the cross-section through a screw in the screw axis direction is screwed into approximately 105~165 °, preferably 110~135 °.

[0027]优选地,所述第二螺纹的各边包括直线段和/或曲线段,所述第二螺纹分布在螺纹部的前部和/或后部。 [0027] Preferably, each side of the second thread segment comprises a straight and / or curved segment, the second screw threaded portion located in the front portion and / or back.

[0028]并且,第二螺纹可以分布在螺纹部的前部或其它任何部分,也可以分布在螺纹部的整个长度上。 [0028] Further, the second thread can be distributed in the front portion or any other portion of the threaded portion, or may be distributed over the entire length of the threaded portion. 它还可以具有变化的螺距。 It may also have varying pitch.

[0029]上述这些方案都是可选的对第二螺纹结构的优化调整,可以针对特定的使用环境进一步地改善颅骨螺钉的性能。 [0029] These schemes are optional for optimal adjustment of the second thread structure, the screw can further improve the performance of the skull for a particular environment. 例如具体来说,人体不同部位的骨骼本身就具有不同的骨密度,再加上各个年龄层次的患者的骨骼发育和衰老程度也各不相同,甚至是对同一块骨头,其由外至内的骨密度分布也是不同的。 Specifically, for example, the bones in different parts of the human body itself has a different bone density, coupled with the extent of bone development and aging patients of all ages also vary even on the same piece of bone, which is from the outside in the bone density distribution is different. 因此,一成不变的颅骨螺钉螺纹不可能适用于所有的患者和部位。 Thus, the rigid skull screw threads can not be applied to all patients and sites. 因此在设计时,可以根据病患的具体情况,通过调整第二螺纹的分布和截面变化,使得螺钉更加有效地实现与骨骼的接合。 Thus in the design, according to the specific circumstances of the patient, by adjusting the cross-sectional distribution and the change of the second screw thread, such that the screw to achieve more effective engagement with the bone.

[0030] 优选地,所述第二螺纹包括圆柱形螺纹内径,或所述第二螺纹包括圆锥形螺纹内径,或所述第二螺纹具有与第一螺纹形状对应的螺纹内径。 [0030] Preferably, the second thread comprises a cylindrical threaded inner diameter, or the second thread comprises a conical threaded inside diameter, or inner diameter of said second thread having a thread corresponding to the shape of the first thread. 所述第二螺纹包括圆柱形螺纹内径,所述第二螺纹的横截面形状为分段的,从而使得所述第二螺纹始终位于所述第一螺纹的中部。 The inner diameter of the second screw thread comprises a cylindrical cross-sectional shape of the second thread segment, such that the second thread is always located in the middle of the first thread.

[0031] 优选地,所述第一螺纹大致为三角形螺纹、方形螺纹、梯形螺纹或半圆形螺纹。 [0031] Preferably, the first thread is substantially triangular thread, a square thread, trapezoidal screw thread or semi-circular.

[0032] 优选地,在所述第二螺纹的底部还包括具有第三前表面和第三后表面的第三螺纹,并且所述第三前表面和第三后表面的方向线分别与所述第二后表面和第二前表面的方向线大致平行。 [0032] Preferably, the bottom of the second thread further includes a third front surface and a rear surface of the third third thread, and the third front surface and a third rear direction of the wire surface, respectively a second rear surface and a front surface direction of the second line are substantially parallel.

[0033] 优选地,所述第二螺纹的顶端轴向尺寸为0〜1.5mm,所述第二螺纹的高度为0〜 1.5mm,所述第二螺纹的齿形高度为〇.1〜〇.5mm,位于所述螺钉前端的第二螺纹的高度大于或等于位于所述螺钉后端的第二螺纹的高度。 [0033] Preferably, the second threaded axial dimension of the top 0~1.5mm, the height of the second thread is 0~ 1.5mm, tooth height of the second thread is 〇.1~〇 .5mm, located at the front end of the screw thread of the second height is located at a height greater than or equal to the rear end of the second screw thread.

[0034] 本发明的优点和有益效果在于:所述医用颅骨钉颅骨结构具有简单、使用便捷、手术效果好、可实现标准化的方便制作,且对于颅骨效果良好等特点。 [0034] The advantages of the present invention and the advantageous effect in that: the medical staple skull the skull structure is simple, easy to use, good surgical results, can be standardized and made convenient, and the skull for a good effect and the like. 采用本发明领骨钉结构还具有强度高,不但起到固定稳固的效果,方便进行固定用操作,而且由于采用上述的多个子单元的连接结构,使得制作相对标准化,使得制作变得相对简单,且使操作容易实现。 According to the present invention further collar bone nail structure having a high strength, not only exerts an anchor effect stable, facilitate the fixing operation, and because the use of the above-described connection structure of a plurality of sub-units, so that production of relatively standardized, such that it relatively simple to produce, and make the operation easy to implement.

附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

[0035] 图1是本发明医用颅骨钉颅骨的结构示意图; [0035] FIG. 1 is a schematic view of the present invention, a medical staple skull the skull;

[0036] 图2是本发明医用颅骨钉颅骨中圆圈部分的放大视图,显示了颈椎内植入螺钉的牙型结构示意图; [0036] FIG. 2 is an enlarged view of a medical staple according to the present invention in the skull the skull circled portion showing the schematic structure of the dental implant screw type Cervical;

[0037] 图3是图2所示的颅颅骨螺钉的牙型结构的改进方案; [0037] FIG. 3 is a view of a modified embodiment of the tooth structure shown in cranial skull screw 2;

[0038] 图4是图2所示的螺钉的牙型结构的另一种改进方案; [0038] FIG. 4 is shown in FIG screw another refinement of the tooth structure;

[0039] 图5是依照本发明的另一优选实施方式的颈椎内植入螺钉的主视图; [0039] FIG. 5 is a front view of a cervical spine implant screw according to another preferred embodiment of the present invention;

[0040] 图6是图5所示的螺钉的过轴线的横截面示图; [0040] FIG. 6 is shown in Figure 5 of the screw axis through a cross-sectional view;

[0041] 图7是图6中圆圈部分的放大视图,显示了颅骨钉的牙型结构; [0041] FIG. 7 is an enlarged view of the encircled portion of Figure 6, shows the tooth structure skull nail;

[0042] 图8是依照本发明的颅骨钉的第二螺纹的可选修改方案的示意图; [0042] FIG. 8 is a schematic diagram of an optional modification of the second threaded skull nail according to the invention;

[0043] 图9a-9c是依照本发明的颅骨螺钉的第二螺纹的三种可选分布方式; [0043] In accordance with FIGS. 9a-9c are three kinds of the second screw thread of the skull of the present invention may be selected in a distributed fashion;

[0044] 图10a-l〇d是当第一螺纹为锥形底径结构时第二螺纹的四种布置位置; [0044] FIGS. 10a-four arrangements is l〇d position when the first screw is cone-shaped bottom structure of the second thread diameter;

[0045]图lla-llh是依照本发明的第二螺纹的几种可选形状。 [0045] Fig lla-llh are several alternative shapes in accordance with the present invention the second thread.

[0046]图中:1、颅骨板本体;2、颅骨网板;2.1、子单元;2.2〜2.6、颅骨螺钉孔;2.7、固定用长孔;2.8、侧边孔;2.9、异型固走用孔;3、烦骨钉。 [0046] FIG: 1, the body of the skull; 2, skull screen; 2.1, subunit; 2.2~2.6, skull screw hole; 2.7, fixing long hole; 2.8, the side aperture; 2.9, with the away-shaped solid aperture; 3, trouble bone screw.

具体实施方式 Detailed ways

[0047] 下面结合附图和实施例,对本发明的具体实施方式作进一步描述。 [0047] The following embodiments and the accompanying drawings, specific embodiments of the present invention will be further described. 以下实施例仅用于更加清楚地说明本发明的技术方案,而不能以此来限制本发明的保护范围。 The following examples serve only to more clearly illustrate the technical solutions of the present invention, and are not intended to limit the scope of the invention.

[0048] 图1、2,其显示的是依照本发明设计的颅骨内植入螺钉及其牙型结构的优选实施方式。 [0048] FIG. 1, which shows a preferred embodiment of a screw implant and dental structure in accordance with the present invention is designed within the skull. 所述螺钉用于颅骨前路修复板系统,该系统已经在颅骨手术中得到了广泛的运用,其包括固定修复板和颅骨螺钉,通过用颅骨螺钉将固定修复板和骨头紧固地连接在一起,从而利用修复板的刚性来实现断骨的连接或颅骨病变和畸形的矫正。 The screw is used to repair anterior skull plate system, which has been widely used in surgery, the skull, which comprises a fixed plate and fixes the skull screws, fastened with screws to the skull connected together by a fixed plate and bone repairing to repair using the rigid boards to connect or cranial lesions and broken bone deformity correction.

[0049]图1、2中可以看出,一种医用颅骨钉结构,所述颅骨钉结构包括具有第一前表面11、第一后表面12和牙顶的第一螺纹,在所述第一螺纹的至少部分牙顶上形成有包括第二前表面16和第二后表面17的第二螺纹,至少部分所述第二螺纹在过螺钉轴线的横截面中的截面形状为变化的,变化的方式包括渐变和突变,以及渐变和突变的结合,所述第一螺纹包括圆锥形螺纹内径,所述第二螺纹的螺距为变化的;在所述颅骨钉的中部设有贯穿的空腔5,空腔的上端部设有六角槽段35,在六角槽段35及空腔的底部分别设有封堵6。 [0049] As can be seen in FIG. 1 A configuration of the medical staple skull, the skull structure comprises staple having a first front surface 11, rear surface 12 and the first crest of a first thread, the first at least partially with a thread formed on top surface 16 comprises a second front and a second rear surface 17 of the second thread, at least a portion of the second screw thread cross-section through the sectional shape of the screw axis is change, change including mutations and gradual manner, and the combination of mutations and gradual, the inner diameter of the first thread comprises a conical thread, the second thread pitch change; 5 provided with a cavity in the middle of the skull through the nail, the upper end of the cavity is provided with a hexagonal groove segment 35, block 6 is provided at the bottom of each groove section 35 and the hexagonal cavity.

[0050]医用颅骨钉结构,其特点是在于在其原有的第一螺纹顶端的部分表面上,还形成有若干个第二螺纹。 [0050] The medical staples skull structure, characterized in that part of the surface thereof a first screw on the tip of the original, is also formed with a plurality of second thread. 由于第二螺纹仅存在于第一螺纹的顶端,并不会减小原有第一螺纹的内径,也不会形成削弱的螺纹牙底,相应地也就不会削弱颅骨钉的抗弯强度。 Since the second thread only present in the top of the first thread, and the original inner diameter of the first thread is not reduced, the thread does not form the end of weakened, accordingly, it will not weaken the nail bending strength of the skull. 但是,由于第二螺纹的存在,又能够显著地增加螺钉和颅骨的接触表面积,使得轴向拔出力和轴向旋转力矩的承载面积变大,由此确保螺钉力学性能的改善。 However, due to the presence of the second screw thread, but also can significantly increase the contact surface area of ​​the screw and the skull, so that the axial pull and axial rotational torque becomes large bearing area, thereby ensuring improved mechanical properties screw. 另外,由于在颅骨钉体的中部设置了管状的空腔,可以利用该空腔装入高强度、高硬质材料用于加强其强度。 Further, since the skull in the middle of the staple member arranged tubular cavity, the cavity can be charged using a high strength, high hardness materials for reinforcing strength thereof. 页可以利用该空腔注入用于治疗的药物,在这种情况下可取出空腔底部的封堵,使药物漫漫地渗入到病灶部位,也可以利用此空腔通道抽取脑积液,或抽取脑梗淤血,或用其通道注射药物等治疗。 The cavity may be utilized Page medicament for the treatment of injection, in which case a removable closure at the bottom of the cavity, the drug penetration into the lesion site long, can also use this cavity channel brain fluid extraction, or extraction cerebral infarction congestion, or treated with drugs which injection channel. 其中的六角槽段可用于螺钉的紧固端,可用六角扳手插入六角槽段内将螺钉拧紧或拆卸下来。 Wherein the fastening end of the hexagonal screw groove segments may be used, available Allen hex wrench into the slot section screw tightening or detached.

[0051] 第一螺纹的螺纹内径呈圆柱形,直径dl为2.2mm,外径D1为4. Omtn。 [0051] The diameter of the first screw thread is cylindrical, the diameter dl of 2.2mm, an outer diameter D1 is 4. Omtn. 相应地,第一螺纹牙型的最大高度H1为0.9mm。 Accordingly, the maximum height H1 of the first thread form is 0.9mm.

[0052]而如图2所示,本实施例所采用的第一螺纹的轴向横截面大致呈现斜边梯形,其前表面11与旋入方向的夹角al为115°,轴向横截面的后表面12与旋入方向的夹角为85°,螺纹牙顶轴向尺寸L1为0.4mm。 [0052] and FIG. 2, axial cross-section a first embodiment of the present threaded present embodiment employed a substantially oblique trapezoidal, front surface 11 and the angle al screwing direction is 115 °, axial cross-section angle 12 is screwed into the rear surface direction is 85 °, the thread crest axial dimension L1 of 0.4mm. 第二螺纹大致呈现斜边三角形。 The second thread exhibits a substantially triangular oblique.

[0053] 但是,本领域的一般技术人员可以很容易想到,第一螺纹也可以采用其它现有的螺纹形式,例如各种三角形螺纹、方形螺纹和其它形状的梯形螺纹。 [0053] However, those skilled in the art may readily occur to the first thread other existing thread forms may be used, for example, various trapezoidal thread thread triangle, square, and other shapes of the thread. 当然,第一螺纹可以采用本领域中的各种标准化螺纹,并且这样的选用不会对本发明第二螺纹的应用造成任何影响。 Of course, the first thread may employ various standardized thread in the art, and such selection will not cause any impact on the application of the present invention the second thread. 在实际使用中,制造商往往还会根据自己的内部标准对第一螺纹的尺寸进行微小的调整,这样的调整也属于己知的技术。 In actual use, the manufacturer will often make minor adjustments to the size of the first thread according to their own internal standards, such adjustment also belongs to known techniques.

[0054]继续参照图2,第二螺纹的环节大致位于第一螺纹对应环节的顶端中央,这是为了确保在形成第二螺纹后,第一螺纹的剩余部分13、14具有大致相等的机械强度。 [0054] With continued reference to FIG. 2, the second thread segment is substantially located at the top center of the first part corresponding to the thread, which is to ensure the formation of a second thread, the first thread of the remaining portion 13, 14 have substantially the same mechanical strength . 这样能更容易地确保第一螺纹原有功能不受影响,从而更大程度地增加第二螺纹的高度和轴向尺寸。 This can be more easily ensured that the first thread of the original function is not affected, thereby increasing the height and greater axial dimension of the second thread. [0055] 第二螺纹的前表面16和后表面17在过螺钉轴线的横截面上呈现分别位于前后两侧的两直线段,两直线段的底部通过圆弧倒角相连,以消除应力集中。 [0055] The front surface of the second thread 16 and the rear surface 17 in cross-section over the screw axis is presenting two straight line segments are located in the front and rear sides, the bottom two straight sections connected by chamfered to eliminate stress concentration. 第二螺纹的高hi为0.22mm,顶端轴向尺寸11为0.2mm,这样为第一螺纹的前后剩余部分13、14留下了足够的底部轴向尺寸,从而具有足够的齿根强度,不会在使用中发生断齿等事故。 Hi the second thread is a high of 0.22 mm, the axial dimension of the top 11 of 0.2mm, so that the front and rear sections 13, 14 of the first thread leaving enough remaining axial bottom dimension so as to have sufficient dedendum strength, broken teeth and other accidents occur during use.

[0056]第二螺纹的前表面16主要用来承载轴向拔出力,因而要求其具有较大的倾斜度, 以避免使用时从骨头中滑出。 [0056] The front surface 16 of the second thread is mainly used to carry axial extraction force, which requires having a large inclination, in order to avoid the use of bone from sliding out. 一般来说,与轴线垂直的前表面16即可实现此目的,但是也可以令其与垂面具有一定的夹角,例如在本实施方式中,前表面16与旋入方向的夹角Y1为80。 Generally, the front surface perpendicular to the axis 16 to achieve this purpose, but may also make the vertical plane having a certain angle, for example, in the present embodiment, the angle between the front surface 16 and the Y1 direction is screwed 80. .

[0057]轴向横截面的后表面17主要用来引导螺钉的旋入。 [0057] The rear surface 17 of main axial cross-section for guiding the screw is screwed. 因而一方面其倾斜度一般小于前表面16,以减小阻止旋入的摩擦力矩,另一方面,其倾斜度可大致与第一螺纹的前表面11 相等,从而避免旋入过程中与第一前表面11的受力发生冲突,增加旋入的阻力。 Thus on the one hand which is generally less than the inclination of the front surface 16 to reduce friction torque which prevents the screwed, on the other hand, may be substantially equal to the inclination which the front surface of the first thread 11, so as to avoid the process of screwing the first force the front surface 11 of the conflict, increasing resistance to screwing. 例如在本实施方式中,S1为115°,与第一前表面11和旋入方向的夹角al相等。 For example, in the present embodiment, S1 is the 115 °, equal to the first front surface 11 and the angle between the direction of screwing al.

[0058]当然,本领域的技术人员能够在上述实施例的基础上很容易做出各种改进。 [0058] Of course, those skilled in the art can easily make various modifications on the basis of the above-described embodiments. 例如, 第二螺纹横截面的各边并不一定由单条直线段形成,也可以包括曲线段或者直线段和曲线段的组合。 For example, each side of the second thread cross section is not necessarily formed from a single straight line segments, it may also comprise a combination of curved segments or straight segments and curved segments.

[0059]而各种数据值也是可以根据需要进行选取,例如在另一个实施例(结构参照图2) 中,第一螺纹的外径D1'变为4.5mm,内径dl'变为2.8mm,前表面11与旋入方向的夹角al'变为125°,而第二螺纹的高度hi'和顶端轴向尺寸11'均变为0.3mm,前表面16与旋入方向的夹角丫1'变为75°,后表面17与旋入方向的夹角S1'变为120°。 [0059] but also various data values ​​can be selected as needed, for example in another embodiment (see FIG. 2 structure), the outer diameter of the first thread D1 'becomes 4.5mm, the inner diameter dl' becomes 2.8mm, a front surface 11 and the angle between the direction of screwing al 'to 125 °, the height of the second thread hi' and the axial dimension of the top 11 'are changed to 0.3mm, the front surface 16 and the direction of screwing angle Ah 1 'becomes 75 °, the rear surface 17 and the angle between the direction of screwing S1' becomes 120 °.

[0060]另外,虽然在本实施方式中每个第一螺纹的顶端仅设置了单个第二螺纹,但是本领域技术人员很容易想到,第二螺纹的数量可以依照需要设置为若干个(例如图3中的两个)以适应所需的受力状况,只要这样的结构能够确保第一螺纹的各个剩余部分13〜15具有足够的强度而不会发生断裂等事故。 [0060] Further, in the present embodiment, the top of each of the first set only a single thread of the second screw thread, those skilled in the art will readily occur to the number of threads may be provided to a second plurality (e.g. as desired in FIG. two 3) to accommodate the desired stress condition, as long as such a configuration can ensure the respective remainder of the first threaded 13~15 having sufficient strength such as rupture does not occur. 不过在一般情况下,采用单个第二螺纹就可以足够提高螺钉承受轴向拔出力和轴向旋转力矩的能力。 In general, however, using a single second screw threads can be sufficient to improve the capacity of the axial pull and axial rotational torque.

[0061]下面参照图4,其显示的是图2所示螺钉牙型结构的又一种替代方案,其与第一实施方式的区别在于,图4中的第二螺纹呈现斜边梯形结构。 [0061] Referring now to Figure 4, which shows a further alternative screw tooth structure shown in Figure 2, which differs from the first embodiment in that the second thread of FIG. 4 presents oblique trapezoid. 其中,第一螺纹的参数没有做修改,而第二螺纹的参数变化在于,顶端轴向尺寸12增加为0.25mm,相应地,第一螺纹在其前后的剩余部分23、24的径向尺寸均有所减小,同时h2保持0.22mm不变。 Wherein the parameters of the first thread do not modify the parameters of the second thread in that the axial dimension of the top 12 is increased to 0.25mm, respectively, the first radial dimension of the remainder of thread 23, 24 at its both front and rear It has been reduced, while h2 0.22mm remain unchanged. 这样,梯形横截面的底端轴向尺寸d2变为0.1mm (包括了两侧的圆角尺寸)。 Thus, the bottom end of an axial trapezoidal cross-section dimension d2 becomes 0.1mm (including the sides of the fillet size).

[0062] 通过将两实施例进行对比,可以很清楚地发现,在本实施例中,由于第二螺纹横截面的周长进一步增大了,因此螺钉与骨头的接触面积相应增加,使得螺钉抗旋转力矩的能力进一步得到提升。 [0062] By comparing the two embodiments, it may be clear that, in the present embodiment, since the perimeter of the second thread cross section is further increased, the contact area with the bone screw increases accordingly, so that the screw anti the ability to rotate torque further promoted. 同时,由于第二螺纹的前后表面的尺寸和角度均未发生改变,因此螺钉抗轴向拔出力的能力并未受什么影响。 Meanwhile, since the size and angle of the front and rear surface of the second thread were not changed, so the resistance to axial withdrawal of the screw is not affected by anything.

[0063] 唯一可能的缺陷在于,由于第一螺纹的剩余部分23、24的径向尺寸有所减小,使得剩余部分23、24的强度降低,在使用中剩余部分23、24可能会在根部处断裂。 [0063] The only potential drawback is that, due to the radial dimension of the first thread of the remaining portion 23 has been reduced, so that the decrease in the strength of the remaining portions 23, 24, 23, 24 may be in the remaining portion of the root, in use, at the break. 但是事实上,通过合理地设置剩余部分23、24的径向尺寸,完全可以确保此结构的安全可靠。 But in fact, by properly setting the radial dimension of the remaining portion 23, 24, this can ensure safe and reliable structure.

[0064]图5〜7显示了根据本发明设计的又一种颈椎内植入螺钉。 [0064] FIG. 5 ~ 7 shows the implant screw according to the present invention is a further cervical spine design. 该颅骨螺钉的结构和尺寸与前两个实施方式相比做了进一步的改进。 Structure and size of the skull screw with the first two embodiments made further improvements compared. 其中,图5显示了该螺钉的主视图,图6为了清楚显示了该螺钉的螺纹轮廓,而将螺钉沿过轴线的横截面剖开,图7是图6的局部放大视图, 可以更加清楚地显示螺纹形状。 Wherein, Figure 5 shows a front view of the screw, FIG. 6 for clarity of the thread profile of the screw, and the screw along the axis of the cross section taken through FIG. 7 is a partially enlarged view of FIG. 6 can be more clearly display thread shape.

[0065] 其中,为了进一步优化螺钉的受力状况,在本实施例中第一螺纹不再像前一实施例一样采用圆柱体内径的普通螺纹结构,而是采用在本领域已经普遍使用的圆锥角e为3〜 12°的圆锥底径结构,如图6所示。 [0065] wherein, in order to further optimize the stress condition of the screw, the screw configuration in the present embodiment a first common thread is no longer the same as employed in the previous embodiment the inner diameter of the cylindrical embodiment, instead of using the cone in the art have been commonly used 3~ 12 ° angle e is the bottom diameter of the conical configuration, as shown in Fig.

[0066] 颅骨螺钉30由本领域的常用材料,例如医用钛合金或医用不锈钢制成,具有较高的刚性和硬度。 [0066] skull screw 30 by a conventional material in the art, such as medical medical stainless steel or titanium alloy, has high rigidity and stiffness. 其主要包括头部31、螺纹部32和尾部33,其中头部31具有尖端34,适于钉入到骨头中;而尾部33—般具有适于与操作部件相连并传递力矩的连接部35,如图6所示;而螺纹部32则用于在螺钉30被钉入骨头中以后,承载螺钉所受的各种变力载荷,其形状设计直接影响到螺钉的力学性能。 Which includes a head 31, a threaded portion 32 and a tail 33, wherein the head portion 31 having a tip 34, adapted to be driven into the bone; and having a tail portion 33 as the operating member and adapted to be connected to the torque transmitting portion 35 is connected, As shown in FIG. 6; and a threaded portion 32 after the screw 30 is driven into the bone, the screw force load carrying various modifications suffered a shape designed to directly affect the mechanical properties of the screw.

[0067] 在本实施方式中,头部31、螺纹部32和尾部33的结构和尺寸采用各种公知的骨螺钉的结构和尺寸,尤其是采用各种标准化螺钉的尺寸。 [0067] In the present embodiment, the head portion 31, a threaded portion 32 and the structure and size of the tail 33 adopts a configuration and dimensions of various known bone screw, in particular various standardized size of the screws. 只是各生产商会根据其内部规范而做一些微调,但是这种微调不会对螺钉的结构和性能产生影响。 Each manufacturer will only do some fine tuning and the interior thereof according to specifications, but this fine adjustment will not affect the structure and properties of the screw.

[0068]由于第一螺纹采用的是锥形底径结构,因此如图6所示,其第一螺纹的参数在整个螺纹长度上不断改变。 [0068] Since the first thread uses a conical bottom diameter structure, shown in FIG. 6, the parameters of the first thread changing over the entire thread length. 例如,第一螺纹在螺纹部32靠近头部31的附近具有最大高度H3为0.9mm,之后随着第一螺纹向后延伸,其高度不断减小,并最终在靠近尾部33的附近消失。 For example, the first thread having a maximum height in the vicinity of the threaded portion near the head 31 after 32 H3 extending rearwardly as the first thread of 0.9mm,, its height decreasing, and eventually disappear in the vicinity of the tail 33 close. [0069] 如图7所示,在第一螺纹的该环节中,螺纹牙顶的径向尺寸L3为0.42mm,并且该螺纹齿的前表面和后表面分别与旋入方向形成大致115°和85°的夹角,从而分别形成第一螺纹承载轴向拔出力的承载表面和引导螺钉旋入到骨头中的引导表面。 [0069] 7, the first part of the thread, the thread crest radial dimension L3 of 0.42mm, and the front and rear surfaces of the thread teeth are formed substantially 115 ° with the direction of screwing and an angle of 85 °, thereby forming a first bearing surface of the thread-guide and axial extraction force to the guide surface of the screw into the bone.

[0070]继续如图7所示,本实施例中的第二螺纹同前两个实施例中一样,也是大致位于第一螺纹对应环节的顶端中央,从而限定出第一螺纹的剩余部分303、304。 [0070] As shown in FIG 7 continues, the second embodiment of the present embodiment is threaded, as in previous two embodiments, is located substantially corresponding to the top center of the first threaded part so as to define the remaining portion of the first thread 303, 304. 第二螺纹也大致呈现倒置的三角形,由前表面、后表面以及将两表面底部连接在一起的圆弧构成。 The second thread also presents a substantially inverted triangle, by the front surface and a rear surface connecting together the bottom surfaces of two circular arcs. 其中,第二前表面与旋入方向的夹角Y 3为90°,后表面与旋入方向的夹角S3为125°,从而实现了“易于旋入、难以脱出”的设计目的。 Wherein the angle between the front surface of the second screwing direction Y 3 is 90 °, the angle between the rear surface S3 screwing direction of 125 °, thereby achieving the "easy screwing difficult prolapse" is designed.

[0071]与第一螺纹不同,本例中的第二螺纹采用的仍然是圆柱形内径的结构,具有均匀的尺寸结构。 [0071] different from the first thread, the second thread used in the present embodiment the inner diameter remains cylindrical structure, the structure having a uniform size. 其高h3始终为0.22mm,顶端轴向尺寸13始终为0.2mm。 Which is always high h3 0.22mm, the axial dimension of the top 13 is always 0.2mm. 这样的尺寸选择同样可以有效地增加轴向拔出力的承载面积和螺钉与骨头的接触面积,从而有效地提高抗轴线拔出力和旋转力矩的能力,同时不会降低第一螺纹剩余部分303、304的强度和整个螺钉的弯曲强度。 Such dimensioning may also be effective in increasing the contact area of ​​the axial withdrawal bearing area and bone screws, thereby effectively improving the resistance to axial pull out force and the rotational moment, without compromising the remaining portion of the first thread 303 , bending strength of 304 and the entire strength of the screw. 当然,通过选取合适的参数,也可以将第二螺纹设置为与第一螺纹相同或不同的圆锥底径结构。 Of course, by choosing suitable parameters, it may be provided to the second thread bottom diameter of the conical configuration of the same or different from the first thread.

[0072]需要注意的是,选取适当的参数以及将第一螺纹与第二螺纹的类型进行搭配,不仅可以实现本发明的基本功能,还可以产生额外的效果。 [0072] Note that, the parameters are chosen and the type of the first thread and the second thread to match, not only the basic functions of the present invention, can also produce an additional effect.

[0073]例如在本例中,由于第一螺纹采用的是圆锥底径结构,因此从前到后其高度由最大的0.9_不断减小并最终几乎为零。 [0073] For example, in the present embodiment, since the first use of the thread bottom diameter of the conical structure, the front to back height decreasing from the maximum 0.9_ and eventually almost zero. 结果是,第一螺纹与骨骼的接触力几乎全部分布于螺纹部32靠前的部分上,尤其是靠近头部31的附近,变力载荷沿着螺钉长度方向的分布很不均匀。 As a result, the contact force of the first bone screw and the distributed almost entirely over the front portion of the threaded portion 32, especially near the variable force near the head 31 of the screw along the longitudinal direction of the load distribution is very uniform. 而第二螺纹的高度h3始终保持为0.22mm不变,除了能够增强总的抗轴向拔出力的能力和抗旋转力矩的能力以外,还尤其提高了螺纹部32后半部分的性能,从而使得轴向拔出力和旋转力矩沿着螺钉长度的分布变得比较均匀,额外优化了螺钉的总体受力状况。 And the height h3 of the second thread is 0.22mm remains unchanged, except for the anti-rotation torque capacity and capacity capable of enhancing the overall resistance to axial withdrawal, in particular also improve the performance of the latter half of the threaded portion 32, so that so that the rotational torque and axial pull-out force becomes relatively uniform, as additionally to optimize the overall condition of the screw force distribution along the length of the screw.

[0074]但是应当明白的是,并不是在所有的情况下都希望螺钉的受力分布变得更加均匀,对于某些特定骨骼来说,需要将其承载的外力集中在某些特定区域。 [0074] it will be appreciated that, in all cases not want to screw force distribution becomes more uniform, for certain bones, it is necessary to force it carries concentrated in certain specific areas. 而通过对第一螺纹和第二螺纹的类型及参数进行选择,可以部分实现外力载荷的选择性分配。 By selecting the first and second threads of type and parameters, may be partially allocated for selective external loads.

[0075]例如对于脊柱椎体来说,由于其骨密度由外到内特殊的变化状况,因此螺钉与骨f接合时,绝大部分的载荷只能由螺钉头部承受。 [0075] For example, spinal vertebrae, because of its special BMD from outside to inside the bone screw and thus changing conditions f engagement, when most of the load can only be borne by the screw head. 相应地,要提高螺钉的总体性能,就要提高这一部分的局部性能。 Accordingly, to improve the overall performance of the screw, necessary to improve the performance of this local portion. 由此,同样呈现圆锥底径结构的第二螺纹,或者前部圆柱、后部分圆锥的第二螺纹,或者前部圆锥、中部圆柱、后部圆锥的第二螺纹就更加适合。 Thus, presenting the same taper thread bottom diameter of the second structure, the front portion or a cylinder, the second threaded portion of the conical or tapered front portion, the central cylinder, a second threaded on the rear cone is more suitable.

[0076]图8显示了依照本发明的又一类颅骨螺钉的牙型结构示意图。 [0076] FIG. 8 shows a schematic structural view of the dental screw type according to yet another class of the present invention skull. 为了描述简单,将不再对己经介绍过的部分做详细解释。 For simplicity of description, we will not be introduced to the portion already explained in detail.

[0077]从图8中可以清楚看出,这里的第二螺纹不再是像前几个实施方式一样,始终保持相同的横截面,而是采用了变横截面的设置。 [0077] It is clear from FIG 8, where the second thread is no longer the same as in previous embodiments, always maintain the same cross section, but with a variable cross-section is provided. 可选的变截面方式包括渐变和突变,以及渐变和突变的结合。 Optional embodiment comprising a variable cross-section and gradual mutations and combinations of mutations and gradual.

[0078]第二螺纹采用变截面的优点在于,可以根据沿螺钉长度方向的载荷分布来对第二螺纹的结构和参数进行相应调整,从而实现螺钉整体性能的进一步优化。 [0078] The advantage of the second thread with variable cross-section lies to the structure and parameters of the second thread can be adjusted according to the load distribution along the longitudinal direction of the screw, so as to achieve further optimization of the overall performance of the screw.

[0079]另外需要注意的是,图8中还显示了另一种改进的螺纹结构。 [0079] Also note that in FIG. 8 also shows another modified structure of the thread. 如图8中最右端的螺纹齿所示,在第二螺纹的底部还可以具有额外的第三螺纹40,同第二螺纹一样,第三螺纹也可以改善螺钉在承受各种载荷时的受力状况,使得螺钉的机械性能进一步提高。 8 rightmost thread tooth As shown, at the bottom of the second thread may also have an additional third thread 40, like the second thread, the third thread may be improved by the force of the screw when subjected to various loads condition, so that the mechanical properties of the screw is further improved.

[0080]图9a-9c则显示了本发明的另外三个可选方案。 [0080] FIGS. 9a-9c show the three additional alternative embodiment of the present invention. 其中在图9a中,第二螺纹沿着螺钉的整个轴向长度分布在第一螺纹的顶端。 Figure 9a where the second thread along the entire axial length of the screw thread is distributed over the top of the first. 这一方案中第二螺纹的长度最长,因而对机械性能的提升也最大。 This embodiment longest length of the second thread, and thus to enhance the mechanical properties of the greatest. 但是正如前文中所描述的,由于不同部位的骨骼密度分布不尽相同,分布在整个轴向长度上的第二螺纹有时是没有必要的,不仅对性能的提升非常有限,还会反过来增加加工成本。 However, as hereinbefore described, since the different distribution of the different parts of bone density, the second distribution over the entire axial length of the thread is sometimes not necessary, not only to enhance the performance is very limited, in turn, will increase machining cost.

[0081]因而有时候,人们更需要如图9b和9c中所示的第二螺纹,这些第二螺纹只连续或分段地分布在第一螺纹的部分顶端。 [0081] Accordingly Sometimes people need a second thread shown in FIG. 9b and 9c, the second of these threads only distributed continuously or in stages at the tip portion of the first thread. 这样的好处是,可以根据需要有针对性地优化螺钉的性能。 The advantage is, you can optimize the performance of the screw in a targeted manner as required. 例如对主要的承载部分进行加强,或者改善载荷分布的不均。 For example, the main load-bearing part to reinforce or improve uneven load distribution.

[0082]下面将参照图10a-10d,其显示了第一螺纹采用圆锥底径结构时,颅骨螺钉的四种可选方案。 [0082] Next, with reference to FIGS. 10a-10d, which show a first diameter threaded conical bottom structure using the four alternative skull screw.

[0083]图10a显示的是其中结构最简单的一种方案,即将第二螺纹设置为始终具有不变的螺距t。 [0083] Figure 10a shows a structure of the most simplest embodiment, the second thread is about to always have a constant pitch t. 这样的结构加工起来比较简便,但是可能会带来结构上的缺陷。 Such a structure is relatively simple processing together, but may lead to structural defects.

[0084]其原因在于,由于第二螺纹采取等螺距t的布置方式,因而第二螺纹在第一螺纹顶端的相对位置不断后移,如图l〇a中所示。 [0084] The reason is that, since the second thread pitch t take the arrangement and the like, and thus the relative position of the second thread after the first thread continues to move to the top, as shown in FIG l〇a. 这样,如果螺钉的长度足够长,就会造成第二螺纹的后表面过于靠近第一螺纹的后表面,使得第一螺纹靠后的剩余部分的机械强度太低,很容易折断。 Thus, if the screw length is long enough, it will cause the rear surface of the second thread is too close to the rear surface of the first thread, the first thread such that the mechanical strength of the remainder of the rearward portion is too low, it is easily broken. 甚至当螺钉长度达到一定值时,第二螺纹会直接割破第一螺纹的后表面。 Even when the length of the screw reaches a certain value, the second thread directly cut rear surface of the first thread.

[0085]虽然如此,图10a中的方案仍然具有很广泛的应用,因为在螺纹长度不太大的情况下,这一缺陷并不明显,并且在技术上加工起来很方便。 [0085] Nevertheless, in the embodiment of FIG. 10a still it has a very wide range of applications, because in the case where the thread length is not too large, this defect is not obvious, and it is technically easy processing. 而在螺纹长度较大时,就需要对第二螺纹的结构和参数进行调整,以优化螺钉的性能。 While at larger thread length, it is necessary for the structure and parameters of the second thread is adjusted to optimize the performance of the screw. 图l〇b-10d就分别显示了这样的技术方案。 FIG l〇b-10d to show such a technical solution.

[0086] 在图10b所示的方案中,第二螺纹被设置为螺距不断改变(如图中11、t2、t3、t4所示),从而抵消第一螺纹为圆锥底径结构而引起的变化。 [0086] In the embodiment shown in Figure 10b, is set to a second thread pitch changing (in FIG. 11, t2, t3, T4 shown), thereby canceling variation of the first thread bottom diameter of the cone structure caused by .

[0087] 在图10c所示的方案中,第二螺纹采用变截面的结构。 [0087] In the embodiment shown in Figure 10c, the second thread configuration using the variable cross-section. 这样虽然不能避免上述缺陷的发生,但是在安全范围内,反而可以进一步增加螺钉与骨骼的接触面积从而提高性能。 Although this does not avoid the above drawbacks, but in a safe range, but can further increase the contact area with the bone screw to improve performance. [0088]在图l〇d所示的方案中,图10b和图10c所示的两个方案被结合在一起,从而既提高了性能,又消除了风险。 [0088] In the embodiment shown in FIG l〇d, Figure 10b and 10c shown in FIG two programs are combined together, thereby not only improves performance, but also to eliminate the risk. 不过,其加工工艺也是最复杂的。 However, that process is the most complex.

[0089]此外,除了上面已经详细描述的具体结构以外,图lla_llh&示出了几种可选的第二螺纹横截面形状。 [0089] Further, in addition to the specific configuration has been described above in detail, FIG lla_llh & amp; show several alternative cross-sectional shape of the second thread. 这些结构的第二螺纹都对螺钉的性能有不同程度的提高。 These structures have a second thread with a different degree of performance of the screw.

[0090]以上所述仅是本发明的优选实施方式,应当指出,对于本技术领域的普通技术人员来说,在不脱离本发明技术麵的前提下,还可以做出若干改进糊亂这些改进和润饰也应视为本发明的保护范围。 [0090] The above are only preferred embodiments of the present invention, it should be noted that those of ordinary skill in the art, in the art without departing from the aspect of the invention, can make various improvements such modifications paste chaos and modifications should also be regarded as the protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (9)

1. 一种医用颅骨钉结构,所述颅骨钉结构包括具有第一前表面、第一后表面和牙顶的第一螺纹,在所述第一螺纹的至少部分牙顶上形成有包括第二前表面和第二后表面的第二螺纹,至少部分所述第二螺纹在过螺钉轴线的横截面中的截面形状为变化的,变化的方式包括渐变和突变,以及渐变和突变的结合,所述第一螺纹包括圆锥形螺纹内径,所述第二螺纹的螺距为变化的;其特征在于,在所述颅骨钉的中部设有贯穿的空腔,空腔的上端部设有六角槽段,在六角槽段及空腔的底部分别设有封堵,所述颅骨钉采用医用聚醚醚酮高分子材料制备而成。 1. A medical staple skull structure, said structure comprising a nail having a skull a first front surface, a rear surface and a first first thread crest, at least a portion of the first tooth including a screw thread formed on top of a second second threaded front surface and a second rear surface, the cross-sectional shape of at least part of the second cross-section over the screw thread of the screw axis is changed, and a gradual change in ways including mutations and combinations of mutations and gradual, the said first screw includes a conical thread diameter, thread pitch of said second change; characterized in that a through cavity of the skull in the middle of the staple, the upper end portion of the cavity is provided with a hexagonal groove segments, at the bottom of the groove section and the hexagonal cavity are provided with closure, of the skull using a medical staple prepared from polyether ether ketone polymer material.
2.如权利要求1所述的医用颅骨钉结构,其特征在于,所述第二前表面在过螺钉轴线的横截面中的方向线与螺钉旋入方向的夹角为55〜100°,所述第二前表面在过螺钉轴线的横截面中的方向线与螺钉旋入方向的夹角为75〜95°,所述第二前表面在过螺钉轴线的横截面中的方向线垂直于所述螺钉的轴线,在过螺钉轴线的横截面中,所述第二螺纹的截面形状大致呈现三角形、四边形、半圆形中的至少一个。 2. The medical staple skull structure according to claim 1, wherein said second front surface in the direction of the line cross-section through the screw axis of the screw into the angle between the direction of 55~100 °, the angle between the direction line in cross-section over the screw axis of the screw in said second direction is screwed into the front surface of 75~95 °, the front surface direction of the second line in a cross section through the screw axis is perpendicular to the the axis of said screw, in cross-section over the screw axis, said second cross-sectional shape of the thread exhibits a substantially triangular, rectangular, semicircular at least one.
3. 如权利要求1所述的医用颅骨钉结构,其特征在于,所述第二螺纹的顶端轴向尺寸和高度与第一螺纹的前后剩余部分的齿根强度存在函数关系,其中所述顶端轴向尺寸和高度的选取依据是,使得所述第一螺纹的前后剩余部分的齿根强度在安全范围内,并使得所述第二螺纹的骨接触面积最大,所述第二螺纹的顶端轴向尺寸最大为所述第一螺纹牙顶宽度的70%,所述第二螺纹的高度最小为所述第一螺纹齿形高度的10%,所述第二后表面在过螺钉轴线的横截面中的方向线与所述第一前表面对应部分的方向线形成不大于15 °的夹角,所述第二后表面在过螺钉轴线的横截面中的方向线与所述第一前表面对应部分的方向线平行,或所述第二后表面在过螺钉轴线的横截面中的方向线与螺钉旋入方向的夹角为110〜135。 The medical staple as claimed skull structure according to claim 1 wherein said top, wherein the top end of the second threaded axial strength of the tooth root function of the presence of the remaining portion of the size and height of the first longitudinal threads, selecting the axial dimension and the height is based, such that the first thread of the remaining part of the dedendum strength before and within a safe range, and such that the bone thread of the second largest area of ​​contact, to the top of the second threaded shaft 70% of the maximum dimension of the first thread crest width, a minimum height of the second thread of the first threaded toothing 10% of the height of the rear surface of the second cross-section over the screw axis in the direction of the line direction of the line corresponding to the first front surface portion forms an angle no greater than 15 °, the rear surface direction of the second line in a cross section through the axis of the screw corresponding to the first front surface direction of the line portion parallel to the angle or rear surface direction of the second line in cross-section through the screw axis of the screw in the direction of screwing 110~135. .
4. 如权利要求1所述的医用颅骨钉结构,其特征在于,所述第二螺纹是连续的或者包括多个螺纹分段,当所述第二螺纹包括多个螺纹分段时,这些螺纹分段在过螺钉轴线的横截面中具有不完全相同的截面。 4. The medical staple skull structure according to claim 1, wherein the second thread is continuous or comprises a plurality of thread segments, when the second thread segment comprises a plurality of threads, these threads segment has not identical cross-section in a cross section through the axis of the screw.
5. 如权利要求1所述的医用颅骨钉结构,其特征在于,所述第二螺纹的各边包括直线段和/或曲线段,所述第二螺纹分布在螺纹部的前部和/或后部。 A medical staple skull structure according to claim 1, characterized in that each side of the second thread segment comprises a straight and / or curved segment, the second screw threaded portion located in the front portion and / or rear.
6. 如权利要求1所述的医用颅骨钉结构,其特征在于,所述第二螺纹包括圆柱形螺纹内径,或所述第二螺纹包括圆锥形螺纹内径,或所述第二螺纹具有与第一螺纹形状对应的螺纹内径。 6. The medical staple skull structure according to claim 1, wherein the second thread includes second thread comprises a threaded inner diameter of the cylindrical threaded conical diameter, or the, or the first and second threads having a thread form corresponding to the inner diameter of the thread. 所述第二螺纹包括圆柱形螺纹内径,所述第二螺纹的横截面形状为分段的,从而使得所述第二螺纹始终位于所述第一螺纹的中部。 The inner diameter of the second screw thread comprises a cylindrical cross-sectional shape of the second thread segment, such that the second thread is always located in the middle of the first thread.
7. 如权利要求1所述的医用颅骨钉结构,其特征在于,所述第一螺纹大致为三角形螺纹、方形螺纹、梯形螺纹或半圆形螺纹。 7. The medical staple skull structure according to claim 1, wherein said first thread is substantially triangular thread, a square thread, trapezoidal screw thread or semi-circular.
8. 如权利要求1所述的医用颅骨钉结构,其特征在于,在所述第二螺纹的底部还包括具有第三前表面和第三后表面的第三螺纹,并且所述第三前表面和第三后表面的方向线分别与所述第二后表面和第二前表面的方向线大致平行。 The medical staple as claimed skull structure of claim 1 and the third front surface, characterized in that, having a third front surface and a rear surface of the third third thread at the bottom of the second thread further comprises, and the third rear direction line respectively to said second surface and a rear surface of the front line of the second direction substantially parallel to the surface.
9. 如权利要求1所述的医用颅骨钉结构,其特征在于,所述第二螺纹的顶端轴向尺寸为0〜1.5mm,所述第二螺纹的高度为〇〜1.5麵,所述第二螺纹的齿形高度为〇.1〜〇. 5mm,位于所述螺钉前端的第二螺纹的高度大于或等于位于所述螺钉后端的第二螺纹的高度。 9. The medical staple skull structure according to claim 1, wherein said second threaded axial dimension of the top 0~1.5mm, the height of the second thread is 〇~1.5 surface, said first two thread tooth height is 〇.1~〇. 5mm, located at the front end of the screw thread of the second height greater than or equal to the screw thread in the second rear end height.
CN201710598725.9A 2017-07-21 2017-07-21 Medical cranium nail structure CN107280756A (en)

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CN200970263Y (en) * 2006-10-27 2007-11-07 翁习生 Reducing diameter pediculusarcus vertebrae screw
CN201542734U (en) * 2009-11-10 2010-08-11 重庆医科大学 bioactive bone screw
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