CN107270980B - The measurement method of gas-liquid two-phase annular flow thickness of liquid film and flow in a kind of vertical tube - Google Patents

The measurement method of gas-liquid two-phase annular flow thickness of liquid film and flow in a kind of vertical tube Download PDF

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CN107270980B
CN107270980B CN201710602157.5A CN201710602157A CN107270980B CN 107270980 B CN107270980 B CN 107270980B CN 201710602157 A CN201710602157 A CN 201710602157A CN 107270980 B CN107270980 B CN 107270980B
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annular flow
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CN107270980A (en
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白博峰
郑学波
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Xian Jiaotong University
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01FMEASURING VOLUME, VOLUME FLOW, MASS FLOW OR LIQUID LEVEL; METERING BY VOLUME
    • G01F1/00Measuring the volume flow or mass flow of fluid or fluent solid material wherein the fluid passes through the meter in a continuous flow
    • G01F1/05Measuring the volume flow or mass flow of fluid or fluent solid material wherein the fluid passes through the meter in a continuous flow by using mechanical effects
    • G01F1/34Measuring the volume flow or mass flow of fluid or fluent solid material wherein the fluid passes through the meter in a continuous flow by using mechanical effects by measuring pressure or differential pressure

Abstract

The invention discloses the measurement methods of gas-liquid two-phase annular flow thickness of liquid film and flow in a kind of vertical tube, comprising the following steps: 1) measures the pressure drop gradient of gas-liquid two-phase annular flow in vertical tubeMeasure the shear stress τ in vertical tube between gas-liquid two-phase annular flow liquid film and tube wallw;2) it chooses column control volume and force analysis is carried out to gaseous core, obtain the gaseous core equation of momentum, choose cyclic annular control volume and force analysis is carried out to liquid film, obtain the liquid film equation of momentum;3) shear stress τ in liquid film is obtained according to the gaseous core equation of momentum and the liquid film equation of momentum;4) according to the pressure drop gradient of gas-liquid two-phase annular flow in vertical tubeShear stress τ in vertical tube between gas-liquid two-phase annular flow liquid film and tube wallwAnd shear stress τ calculates the radius r of gas-liquid two-phase annular flow gaseous core in vertical tube in liquid filmi, then according to the radius r of gas-liquid two-phase annular flow gaseous core in vertical tubeiThe thickness and flow of gas-liquid two-phase annular flow liquid film in vertical tube are calculated, this method can be realized the thickness and flow detection of gas-liquid two-phase annular flow liquid film in vertical tube, detection accuracy, safety and reliability with higher, and testing cost is low.

Description

The measurement method of gas-liquid two-phase annular flow thickness of liquid film and flow in a kind of vertical tube
Technical field
The invention belongs to gas-liquid two-phase annular flow parameter measuring technical fields, and in particular to gas-liquid two-phase in a kind of vertical tube The measurement method of annular flow thickness of liquid film and flow.
Background technique
Gas-liquid two-phase annular flow is two-phase flow form common in the industrial circles such as petroleum, chemical industry, the circulation of pipe inner annular Often it is made of the gas core entrainment of droplet with the liquid film being attached on wall surface.The accurate non-intruding of thickness of liquid film and flow is surveyed Amount is of great significance to the flow behavior of deep understanding annular flow.According to measuring principle difference, existing liquid film detection technique Ultrasonic method, optical method, ray method and conductance method etc. can be divided into.Ultrasonic method can decline when passing through discontinuous media according to ultrasonic wave The principle for subtracting and reflecting measures, but the uncertainty of ultrasonic method is directly related with ultrasonic wavelength, limits ultrasonic method and exists Application in the very thin situation of liquid film.Optical method is at present using more method, but optical measuring apparatus prevailing price is expensive, and There is strict demand to the cleannes of measured medium and application environment.Ray method is a kind of mature and the preferable measurement method of application, But the safety problems such as the storage of radiation protection involved in practical application, radioactive source and plant maintenance.Conductance method is simple and reliable, cost compared with It is low, but for thin liquid film, conducting probe intrusion fluid, which will cause flow-disturbing, leads to measured deviation.
Summary of the invention
It is an object of the invention to overcome the above-mentioned prior art, it is cyclic annular to provide gas-liquid two-phase in a kind of vertical tube The measurement method of flow liquid film thickness and flow, this method can be realized the thickness and stream of gas-liquid two-phase annular flow liquid film in vertical tube Amount detection, detection accuracy, safety and reliability with higher, and testing cost is low.
In order to achieve the above objectives, in vertical tube of the present invention gas-liquid two-phase annular flow thickness of liquid film and flow measurement Method the following steps are included:
1) pressure drop gradient of gas-liquid two-phase annular flow in vertical tube is measured by differential pressure transmitterPass through shear stress again Shear stress τ in sensor measurement vertical tube between gas-liquid two-phase annular flow liquid film and tube wallw
2) it chooses column control volume and force analysis is carried out to gaseous core, obtain the gaseous core equation of momentum, choose cyclic annular control volume to liquid Film carries out force analysis, obtains the liquid film equation of momentum;
3) shear stress τ in liquid film is obtained according to the gaseous core equation of momentum of step 2) building and the liquid film equation of momentum;
4) according to the pressure drop gradient of gas-liquid two-phase annular flow in vertical tubeGas-liquid two-phase annular flow liquid film in vertical tube Shear stress τ between tube wallwAnd shear stress τ calculates the radius r of gas-liquid two-phase annular flow gaseous core in vertical tube in liquid filmi, then According to the radius r of gas-liquid two-phase annular flow gaseous core in vertical tubeiCalculate vertical tube in gas-liquid two-phase annular flow liquid film thickness and Flow.
The gaseous core equation of momentum when gas-liquid two-phase annular flow flows downward in vertical tube, in step 2) are as follows:
Wherein, δ z is the height of column control volume, and r is that pipeline is radial, riFor gas-liquid two-phase annular flow gaseous core in vertical tube Radius, P be pipeline axial direction z at transversal surface pressure,For the pressure drop gradient of gas-liquid two-phase annular flow in vertical tube, τiFor The shear stress of gas-liquid two-phase Gas-liquid Interface Associate With Annular Flow, G in vertical tubegFor the quality stream of gas-liquid two-phase annular flow gas phase in vertical tube Speed, GleFor the mass velocity of gas-liquid two-phase annular flow gaseous core entrained drip in vertical tube, ugIt is cyclic annular for gas-liquid two-phase in vertical tube The flow velocity of gas phase, uleFor the flow velocity of gas-liquid two-phase annular flow gaseous core entrained drip in vertical tube, ρmFor gas-liquid two in vertical tube The averag density of phase annular flow gaseous core, g are acceleration of gravity;
The acceleration effect for ignoring drop entrainment and gaseous core, then obtained by formula (1):
Wherein, ρgFor the density of gas-liquid two-phase annular flow gaseous core gas phase in vertical tube;
When gas-liquid two-phase annular flow flows downward in vertical tube, the liquid film equation of momentum are as follows:
Wherein, τ is shear stress in the liquid film in vertical tube at gas-liquid two-phase annular flow radius r, GlfFor gas-liquid in vertical tube The mass velocity of two-phase annular flow liquid film, ulfFor the flow velocity of gas-liquid two-phase annular flow liquid film in vertical tube, ρlFor gas in vertical tube The density of liquid two-phase annular flow liquid phase;
Ignore the acceleration effect of liquid film, then obtained by formula (3):
Formula (2) are substituted into formula (4), then the liquid film when gas-liquid two-phase annular flow flows downward in vertical tube, at radius r Interior shear stress τ are as follows:
When gas-liquid two-phase annular flow flows downward in vertical tube, by r=r0When τ=τwAnd formula (5) obtains gas-liquid in vertical tube The radius r of two-phase annular flow gaseous coreiAre as follows:
When gas-liquid two-phase annular flow flows up in vertical tube, by r=r0When τ=τwAnd formula (5) obtains gas-liquid in vertical tube The radius r of two-phase annular flow gaseous coreiAre as follows:
The thickness δ of gas-liquid two-phase annular flow liquid film in vertical tube are as follows:
δ=r0-ri
Wherein, r0For internal diameter of the pipeline.
According to the radius r of gas-liquid two-phase annular flow gaseous core in vertical tubeiCalculate gas-liquid two-phase annular flow liquid film in vertical tube Flow concrete operations are as follows: set liquid film and be in laminar condition, then according to newton module calculate radius r at liquid film in Shear stress τ, shear stress τ calculates liquid film in the liquid film at radius r then obtained according to newton module and step 3) VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION u, then the VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION u of liquid film is integrated along pipe radius direction, obtain gas-liquid two-phase annular flow in vertical tube The flow m of liquid filmlf
Shear stress τ in the liquid film at radius r is calculated according to newton module are as follows:
Wherein, μlFor the dynamic viscosity of gas-liquid two-phase annular flow liquid phase in vertical tube, u is that gas-liquid two-phase is cyclic annular in vertical tube The VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION of flow liquid film;
It is obtained by formula (8) and formula (5):
Formula (9) is integrated along pipe radius direction, while considering liquid film wall surface non-slip condition (r=r0When u= 0) VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION of liquid film, is obtained are as follows:
When gas-liquid two-phase annular flow flows downward in vertical tube, the flow m of gas-liquid two-phase annular flow liquid film in vertical tubelf Are as follows:
When gas-liquid two-phase annular flow flows up in vertical tube, the flow m of gas-liquid two-phase annular flow liquid film in vertical tubelf Are as follows:
The invention has the following advantages:
The measurement method of gas-liquid two-phase annular flow thickness of liquid film and flow is in concrete operations in vertical tube of the present invention When, using differential pressure transmitter and shear stress sensor as detecting instrument, examined respectively by differential pressure transmitter and shear stress sensor Survey vertical tube in gas-liquid two-phase annular flow decompression gradient and vertical tube in cutting between gas-liquid two-phase annular flow liquid film and tube wall Stress, then the gaseous core equation of momentum and the liquid film equation of momentum are constructed, gas-liquid in vertical tube is then calculated according to the equation of momentum of building The thickness and flow of two-phase annular flow liquid film, it is easy to operate, it is easy to accomplish, and entire detection process need to only pass through non-intruding Mode measures in vertical tube in gas-liquid two-phase annular flow pressure drop gradient and vertical tube between gas-liquid two-phase annular flow liquid film and tube wall Shear stress, noiseless to the flowing of vertical liquid in pipe in entire detection process, detection accuracy is higher, and it is safe, Reliably, at low cost.
Detailed description of the invention
Fig. 1 is the schematic view of the mounting position of differential pressure transmitter 2 and shear stress sensor 1 in the present invention;
Fig. 2 is the gaseous core force analysis figure of the invention when gas-liquid two-phase annular flow flows downward in vertical tube;
Fig. 3 is the liquid film force analysis figure of the invention when gas-liquid two-phase annular flow flows downward in vertical tube.
Wherein, 1 it is shear stress sensor, 2 is differential pressure transmitter.
Specific embodiment
The invention will be described in further detail with reference to the accompanying drawing:
With reference to Fig. 2 and Fig. 3, the measurement side of gas-liquid two-phase annular flow thickness of liquid film and flow in vertical tube of the present invention Method the following steps are included:
1) pressure drop gradient of gas-liquid two-phase annular flow in vertical tube is measured by differential pressure transmitter 2Pass through shear stress again Sensor 1 measures the shear stress τ in vertical tube between gas-liquid two-phase annular flow liquid film and tube wallw
2) it chooses column control volume and force analysis is carried out to gaseous core, obtain the gaseous core equation of momentum, choose cyclic annular control volume to liquid Film carries out force analysis, obtains the liquid film equation of momentum;
3) shear stress τ in liquid film is obtained according to the gaseous core equation of momentum of step 2) building and the liquid film equation of momentum;
4) according to the pressure drop gradient of gas-liquid two-phase annular flow in vertical tubeGas-liquid two-phase annular flow liquid film in vertical tube Shear stress τ between tube wallwAnd shear stress τ calculates the radius r of gas-liquid two-phase annular flow gaseous core in vertical tube in liquid filmi, then According to the radius r of gas-liquid two-phase annular flow gaseous core in vertical tubeiCalculate vertical tube in gas-liquid two-phase annular flow liquid film thickness and Flow.
The gaseous core equation of momentum when gas-liquid two-phase annular flow flows downward in vertical tube, in step 2) are as follows:
Wherein, δ z is the height of column control volume, and r is that pipeline is radial, riFor gas-liquid two-phase annular flow gaseous core in vertical tube Radius, P be pipeline axial direction z at transversal surface pressure,For the pressure drop gradient of gas-liquid two-phase annular flow in vertical tube, τiFor The shear stress of gas-liquid two-phase Gas-liquid Interface Associate With Annular Flow, G in vertical tubegFor the quality stream of gas-liquid two-phase annular flow gas phase in vertical tube Speed, GleFor the mass velocity of gas-liquid two-phase annular flow gaseous core entrained drip in vertical tube, ugIt is cyclic annular for gas-liquid two-phase in vertical tube The flow velocity of gas core gas phase, uleFor the flow velocity of gas-liquid two-phase annular flow gaseous core entrained drip in vertical tube, ρmFor gas in vertical tube The averag density of liquid two-phase annular flow gaseous core, g is acceleration of gravity;;
The acceleration effect for ignoring drop entrainment and gaseous core, then obtained by formula (1):
Wherein, ρgFor the density of gas-liquid two-phase annular flow gaseous core gas phase in vertical tube.
When gas-liquid two-phase annular flow flows downward in vertical tube, the liquid film equation of momentum are as follows:
Wherein, τ is shear stress in the liquid film in vertical tube at gas-liquid two-phase annular flow radius r, GlfFor gas-liquid in vertical tube The mass velocity of two-phase annular flow liquid film, ulfFor the flow velocity of gas-liquid two-phase annular flow liquid film in vertical tube, ρlFor gas in vertical tube The density of liquid two-phase annular flow liquid phase;
Ignore the acceleration effect of liquid film, then obtained by formula (3):
Formula (2) are substituted into formula (4), then the liquid film when gas-liquid two-phase annular flow flows downward in vertical tube, at radius r Interior shear stress τ are as follows:
When gas-liquid two-phase annular flow flows downward in vertical tube, by r=r0When τ=τwAnd formula (5) obtains gas-liquid in vertical tube The radius r of two-phase annular flow gaseous coreiAre as follows:
When gas-liquid two-phase annular flow flows up in vertical tube, by r=r0When τ=τwAnd formula (5) obtains gas-liquid in vertical tube The radius r of two-phase annular flow gaseous coreiAre as follows:
The thickness δ of gas-liquid two-phase annular flow liquid film in vertical tube are as follows:
δ=r0-ri
Wherein, r0For internal diameter of the pipeline.
According to the radius r of gas-liquid two-phase annular flow gaseous core in vertical tubeiCalculate gas-liquid two-phase annular flow liquid film in vertical tube Flow concrete operations are as follows: set liquid film and be in laminar condition, then according to newton module calculate radius r at liquid film in Shear stress τ, shear stress τ calculates liquid film in the liquid film at radius r then obtained according to newton module and step 3) VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION u, then the VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION u of liquid film is integrated along pipe radius direction, obtain gas-liquid two-phase annular flow in vertical tube The flow m of liquid filmlf
Shear stress τ in the liquid film at radius r is calculated according to newton module are as follows:
Wherein, μlFor the dynamic viscosity of gas-liquid two-phase annular flow liquid phase in vertical tube, u is that gas-liquid two-phase is cyclic annular in vertical tube The VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION of flow liquid film;
It is obtained by formula (8) and formula (5):
Formula (9) is integrated along pipe radius direction, while considering liquid film wall surface non-slip condition (r=r0When u= 0) the VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION u of liquid film, is obtained are as follows:
When gas-liquid two-phase annular flow flows downward in vertical tube, the flow m of gas-liquid two-phase annular flow liquid film in vertical tubelf Are as follows:
When gas-liquid two-phase annular flow flows up in vertical tube, the flow m of gas-liquid two-phase annular flow liquid film in vertical tubelf Are as follows:
The present invention carries out force analysis to annular flow using fluid dynamic theory, and building is based on pressure drop gradient and shear stress Thickness of liquid film and flow rate calculation equation, only annular flow pressure drop gradient need to be measured using differential pressure transmitter 2 when specific implementation, used Shear stress sensor 1 measures the shear stress of liquid film and tube wall, the non-intrusive measurement to thickness of liquid film and flow can be realized, to work Annular flow detection in industry practice has important directive significance.

Claims (5)

1. the measurement method of gas-liquid two-phase annular flow thickness of liquid film and flow in a kind of vertical tube, which is characterized in that including following Step:
1) pressure drop gradient of gas-liquid two-phase annular flow in vertical tube is measured by differential pressure transmitter (2)It is passed again by shear stress Sensor (1) measures the shear stress τ in vertical tube between gas-liquid two-phase annular flow liquid film and tube wallw
2) choose column control volume and force analysis carried out to gaseous core, obtain the gaseous core equation of momentum, choose cyclic annular control volume to liquid film into Row force analysis obtains the liquid film equation of momentum;
3) shear stress τ in liquid film is obtained according to the gaseous core equation of momentum of step 2) building and the liquid film equation of momentum;
4) according to the pressure drop gradient of gas-liquid two-phase annular flow in vertical tubeGas-liquid two-phase annular flow liquid film and pipe in vertical tube Shear stress τ between wallwAnd shear stress τ calculates the radius r of gas-liquid two-phase annular flow gaseous core in vertical tube in liquid filmi, then basis The radius r of gas-liquid two-phase annular flow gaseous core in vertical tubeiCalculate the thickness and flow of gas-liquid two-phase annular flow liquid film in vertical tube;
The gaseous core equation of momentum when gas-liquid two-phase annular flow flows downward in vertical tube, in step 2) are as follows:
Wherein, δ z is the height of column control volume, and r is that pipeline is radial, riIt is half of gas-liquid two-phase annular flow gaseous core in vertical tube Diameter, P are the transversal surface pressure at pipeline axial direction z,For the pressure drop gradient of gas-liquid two-phase annular flow in vertical tube, τiIt is vertical The shear stress of gas-liquid two-phase Gas-liquid Interface Associate With Annular Flow, G in managinggFor the mass velocity of gas-liquid two-phase annular flow gas phase in vertical tube, GleFor the mass velocity of gas-liquid two-phase annular flow gaseous core entrained drip in vertical tube, ugFor gas-liquid two-phase ring-type gas in vertical tube The flow velocity of core gas phase, uleFor the flow velocity of gas-liquid two-phase annular flow gaseous core entrained drip in vertical tube, ρmFor gas-liquid two in vertical tube The averag density of phase annular flow gaseous core, g are acceleration of gravity;
The acceleration effect for ignoring drop entrainment and gaseous core, then obtained by formula (1):
Wherein, ρgFor the density of gas-liquid two-phase annular flow gaseous core gas phase in vertical tube;
When gas-liquid two-phase annular flow flows downward in vertical tube, the liquid film equation of momentum are as follows:
Wherein, τ is shear stress in the liquid film in vertical tube at gas-liquid two-phase annular flow radius r, GlfFor gas-liquid two-phase in vertical tube The mass velocity of annular flow liquid film, ulfFor the flow velocity of gas-liquid two-phase annular flow liquid film in vertical tube, ρlFor gas-liquid two in vertical tube The density of phase annular flow liquid phase;
Ignore the acceleration effect of liquid film, then obtained by formula (3):
Formula (2) are substituted into formula (4), then when gas-liquid two-phase annular flow flows downward in vertical tube, are cut in the liquid film at radius r Stress τ are as follows:
When gas-liquid two-phase annular flow flows downward in vertical tube, by r=r0When τ=τwAnd formula (5) obtains gas-liquid two-phase in vertical tube The radius r of annular flow gaseous coreiAre as follows:
When gas-liquid two-phase annular flow flows up in vertical tube, by r=r0When τ=τwAnd formula (5) obtains gas-liquid two-phase in vertical tube The radius r of annular flow gaseous coreiAre as follows:
2. the measurement method of gas-liquid two-phase annular flow thickness of liquid film and flow in vertical tube according to claim 1, special Sign is, the thickness δ of gas-liquid two-phase annular flow liquid film in vertical tube are as follows:
δ=r0-ri
Wherein, r0For internal diameter of the pipeline.
3. the measurement method of gas-liquid two-phase annular flow thickness of liquid film and flow in vertical tube according to claim 1, special Sign is, according to the radius r of gas-liquid two-phase annular flow gaseous core in vertical tubeiCalculate gas-liquid two-phase annular flow liquid film in vertical tube The concrete operations of flow are as follows: set liquid film and be in laminar condition, then calculated in the liquid film at radius r and cut according to newton module Stress τ, shear stress τ calculates the speed of liquid film in the liquid film at radius r then obtained according to newton module and step 3) Degree distribution u, then the VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION u of liquid film is integrated along pipe radius direction, obtain gas-liquid two-phase ring-type flow liquid in vertical tube The flow m of filmlf
4. the measurement method of gas-liquid two-phase annular flow thickness of liquid film and flow in vertical tube according to claim 3, special Sign is, calculates shear stress τ in the liquid film at radius r according to newton module are as follows:
Wherein, μlFor the dynamic viscosity of gas-liquid two-phase annular flow liquid phase in vertical tube, u is gas-liquid two-phase ring-type flow liquid in vertical tube The VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION of film;
It is obtained by formula (8) and formula (5):
Formula (9) is integrated along pipe radius direction, while considering liquid film wall surface non-slip condition, obtains the VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION of liquid film Are as follows:
5. the measurement method of gas-liquid two-phase annular flow thickness of liquid film and flow in vertical tube according to claim 4, special Sign is, when gas-liquid two-phase annular flow flows downward in vertical tube, the flow m of gas-liquid two-phase annular flow liquid film in vertical tubelf Are as follows:
When gas-liquid two-phase annular flow flows up in vertical tube, the flow m of gas-liquid two-phase annular flow liquid film in vertical tubelfAre as follows:
CN201710602157.5A 2017-07-21 2017-07-21 The measurement method of gas-liquid two-phase annular flow thickness of liquid film and flow in a kind of vertical tube Active CN107270980B (en)

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CN108534857B (en) * 2018-03-19 2019-11-01 天津大学 A kind of annular flow liquid film is collected and metering device
CN108844959B (en) * 2018-04-12 2020-05-22 西安交通大学 Method for measuring and correcting gas-liquid two-phase annular flow section phase content in circular tube
CN108871211B (en) * 2018-04-12 2020-05-22 西安交通大学 Method for measuring and correcting thickness of gas-liquid two-phase annular flow liquid film in circular tube
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